Version 2.

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Bowden Systems Inc.
Norcross, GA 30092 http://www.bsi2.com

Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

BOWDEN SYSTEMS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Bowden Systems shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Warranty
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your BSI product can be obtained from the BSI Corporate Office.

Printing History
The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between additions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive these updates or new editions, contact the BSI Corporate Office. October 2001 . . . Edition 1 February 2002 . . . Edition 2 June 2003....Editon 3 July 2004...Edition4 Feb 2008...Edition 5 March 2008...Edition 5a Bowden Systems, Inc. 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 370 Norcross, GA 30092, USA email:sales@bsi2.com web:www.bsi2.com © 2001- 2008 Bowden Systems, Inc.
NSK-SSH, sftp-server-guardian, scmd is a trademark of Bowden Systems Inc. Nonstop, TEDIT, TACL, Guardian 90, 6530, PATHWAY are trademarks of HP. Mr-win6530 is a trademark of Conforte. Cail6530 is a trademark of Cail.

Preface
This manual explains how to install, configure, and use NSK-SSH software for the HP NonStop server. This includes setting up the components of the software which are the ipssh, sshd, and prngd.

Audience and Prerequisites
This manual is intended for system managers and assumes that the user has experience with OSS, GUARDIAN, TCPIP, PTCPIP and SCF.

Prerequisite Equipment
This manual also assumes that the user’s host is S-Series running GUARDIAN G06.22 or higher, GUARDIAN H-Series running H06.05 or higher, or GUARDIAN J-Series J06.02 or higher. This software works with TCPIP V4 and TCPIP V6 tcpip stacks.

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. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 scp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN PAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ssh-keyscan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 sshd. 97 sshd_config FILE. . . . . TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . 11 b. . . . . . . . 17 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ssh-agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 scmd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 sftp-server. . . . . . . . 21 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KERNEL SUBSYSEM. . . . . ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ssh-add. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . 59 sftp-server-guardian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ipztc00a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD using two IP stacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ssh-keygen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 APPENDIX A . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ssh_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . BASIC SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 prngd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ZZKRN FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . KNOWN PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .REQUIRED FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . 23 ipssh. . . . . 5 4. . . . . . 103 start_ipssh_ztc0a. . 101 APPENDIX D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 APPENDIX C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 sftp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 107 start_sshd_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 1. . . 106 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 start_random_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 start_ipssh_ztc0b. . . 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 1. . . .PRNGD ON CPU 01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ipztc00b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 1. . . . . .sh .PRNGD ON CPU 0 . 108 start_sshd_ztc00b. . . . . . . 105 start_random_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . .

x security enhancements and PRNGD 0. This provides compatibility with programs such as FileZilla. This release has also been verified to work with Mr-Win6530. You no longer need to have the OSS local socket program running. This installation document assumes that you have OSS. The NSK-SSH has been updated to fix various problem the the random number generator and has move to using TCPIP for the communications between the random number generator and the SSH process. This release will allow you to access the NonStop system in a secure manor for session and ftp access. In this release. we also added a new command to address problem with executing remote commands from the system. You should install this software using the SUPER. This was created do to the need of users that have PCI requirments of not having TELNET running on the system or FTP. you should consult “SSH The Secure Shell” by Daniel J.22/H06. and TCP/IP installed and configured on your system.SUPER or root user id.4.oreilly.15 for the G06.9. Barrett & Richard E.9p2 with 3.com). If you require more detailed information on SSH. This new command is called scmd and allows you to execute remote commands from the NonStop system. We also have added an sftp-server for the guardian file system. This software works with alias and standard GUARDIAN users. We now also have the ability to set up all the components of this release in the KERNEL (ZZKRN) subsystem for full fault resilance. Now you can have up to 4 random number generators per TCPIP V4 OR V6 stack or up to 64 with PTCPIP using the round-robin method of access .02 operating system.9. 2008 .OVERVIEW This is a release of the NSK-SSH V2.05/J06. This also include the ability to access an isolated TCPIP stack which has telnet running on it for the telnet requirment of SSH. Silverman.4 that is based on OpenSSH 2. This allows you to access the guardian file system just like the unix file system. This document will tell you how to install and configure NSK-SSH software for access to the system and provide a reference for the MAN pages included with the NSK-SSH software. This can be purchased from the Oreilly web site (www. NSK-SSH V2. The random number generator does not require any external programs or files for generating its random numbers.4 Page 1 March 31.

2008 .4 Page 2 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

2008 . This will install the software into the following directories: /etc/ /etc/ssh /usr/local/ssh /usr/local/random Now you are ready to set up the.INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE You must be the root user or super. do the following: For the S-Series: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_GO622_V24. NSK-SSH V2. IPSSH. Note that the above tar file may have a version indicator on it.Z | pax -rvf - Note that zcat is in the /bin/unsupported directory.tar.Z | pax -rvf - For the H-Series and J-Series operating system: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_H0605_V24.tar. To install the software that was downloaded from the web site.super to install this software. SSH and PRNGD software.4 Page 3 March 31.

4 Page 4 March 31. 2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2.

c. IMPORTANT FOR TELNET ACCESS cd /etc cp services. then you can copy the files services. b. Verify that you have the services and protocols file in the /etc directory.bsi to protocols. Cail6530.4 Page 5 March 31. c. g. d. f. The ip address and stack process name you will use for SSH access. 2008 .BASIC SETUP OF SSH To set up your system so that you use the SSH software. Know how to use the text editor “vi”. e. If you do not have these files. You will need the following information: a. you should do the following: 1.bsi services cp protocols.bsi to services and protocols. TCPIP configure for OSS. If you alreay have a services file. then you need to make sure that has the following line: telnet 23/tcp NSK-SSH V2. SSH Client Software ( Mr-Win6530. OSS Installed and Configured. Unix SSH) 2. You should have the following products installed on your system: a. TCPIP V4 or V6 Installed and Configured OSS Sockets Started on each processor.bsi protocols Note that the service that the sshd program is looking for is the telent service. Putty. TELNET servr running on the TCPIP stack LOCAL LOOP BACK STARTED for TCPIP stack REMOVE ANY OPENSSH ssh software on your system as this will cause problems with installing and startup up the Bowden Systems version of SSH. b.

3. 4. NSK-SSH V2. Execute a script to change the file setting sh -v . do the following: info_define all To add the define. You should use what ever tcpip process name is defined on your system./ssh_install_chmod.profile”. do the following: add_define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME file=\$ZTC1 Note that this is an example. THE TELNET ACCESS TO SSH WILL NOT WORK. Set your PATH and MANPATH variables. then you need to add it using vi. then it is not necessary to do this step. But if you are using some other tcpip process name.If the services program does not have this line. Verify that the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME is already set.4 Page 6 March 31. Set the correct file settings on the installed files. 2008 . Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/install export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/ssh/man export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/random/man Note that these can be place in /etc/profile or in your private home directory file “.sh 5. NOTE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A /etc/services FILE. or that you want to random number generator to use. If you are using the default tcpip process name $ZTC0. a.

pub . This must be started before any SSH software can be used.sh This will start the random number generator on local sockets connection 127.Host Public Key ssh_host_rsa_key .pub .0. This step is optional./start_random.RSA Public Key ssh_host_dsa_key .0.0 and change the 0.DSA Private Key ssh_host_dsa_key. NSK-SSH V2. !!!! IMPORTANT STEP NOT TO FORGET !!!! a.DSA Public Key 8.4 Page 7 March 31.0. Execute a script to startup the random number generator. Generate the system keys.0.RSA Private Key ssh_host_rsa_key. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. The script executes the following: run cpu=0 -gpri= 144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 7.6.0. 2008 . This is only needed if you ssh to listen again a specific address. Modify the system wide configuration to the specify the IP address that the SSHD program will use.pub ./ssh_install_makekeys.sh This will generate the following files in the /etc/ssh/ directory: ssh_host_key . Note that this may take a while. sh -v . Execute a script to generate the system wide keys.0. Note if you are using TCPIP V4 then you should set this to 127. do the following: vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the line: ListenAddress 0. sh -v .1 port 790.0 to the ipaddress of your system and save the file. To make this change.1 for the two cpu or greater configuraiton.0. Start up the Random number generator (PRNG).0.Host Private Key ssh_host_key.

0. If you want to start ssh on one cpu. do the following: /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -d -d -d This will allow one session to be processed and then the program will exit when the request is finished.4 Page 8 March 31. 2008 . scf> abort #ssh-ztc0 This will abort the process and then you can start up the NSK-SSH software. then you should not change the ListenAddress to 127.9. scf> assume process $zzkrn scf>names You should look for #ssh-ztc0. If there is more than one address associated with the stack then. 10. ssh and sftp).0. If you are starting the Bowden NSK-SSH software on a system that has the Comforte SSH software on it and configured to use the port 22 on $ztc0. If this is running. then continue reading. you should leave it set to 0. then you need to stop it. The sshd program will process all request (session.1 and change it to the real address of the stack. If you only run one SSHD server. before you can startup the NSK-SSH software. If you want to start SSHD on two cpu’s scipt to step 10.0.0. then you need to stop this software. To start the sshd program do the following: run -cpu=0 -gpri=125 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd This will start the sshd server and it will listen on port 22 for any connection. scp.0 If you want to start the program in the debug mode to see what it is doing. NSK-SSH V2.

Start the SSHD process on port 700 and 701.sh or do the following: 1. Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process. a. Starting it manually. a. run -cpu=0 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 701 b.10./start_ssh_2_cpu. If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s.sh or do the following: 1. 2008 . Starting SSH on two cpu’s using regular TCPIP or P/TCPIP in Failover mode If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . we put this startup file in as example of how to run the SSHD server on a system that is uses that configuration. the TCPIP V6 software is configured in fail-over mode and not configurated for round-robin. run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh -wait 0 11.4 Page 9 March 31. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu.sh 2. Starting it manually.sh 2./start_ssh_ptcpip_2cpu. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using P/TCPIP with round-robin configuration. Note that on most systems. Start the SSHD processes on port 22. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh sleep 5 c. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd NSK-SSH V2. Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu.

Note that you can use this configuraiton on TCPIP V4 if there is more than one IP addres define to the TCPIP stack and it is not in the FAIL-OVER configuraiton. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 10 March 31.

TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access.sh. 2008 . Start the #LOOP0 port on the stack. Start up the TCPIP V4 stack at tacl: TCPIP/name $ZTC99.CPU 0.4 Page 11 March 31. To use this feature. scf> assume process $ztc99 scf> aler subnet #loop0.PRI 190. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. ipaddress 127.ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH In this section.1 scf> start subnet * scf> exit NSK-SSH V2. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 To do this do the following (Note this works on all release of the Guardian OS including H-series and J-series: 1. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated.TERM $ZHOME/0 2. With this configuration. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. we will talk about advanced set up of the SSH software including the KERNEL subsystem and TELNET isolation. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port.

NOWAIT. to your SSHD start file and restart the SSHD servers NSK-SSH V2. Start up the TELSRV process add define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.1 23 WELCOME TO test. now you are ready to add the TCPIP_TELNET_STACK.0.#PTYAAAA] TELSERV . 2008 .(15SEP2000) .FILE $ZTC99 param TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME $ZTC99 param ZTNT^TRANSPORT^NAME $ZTC99 TELSERV/NAME $ZTN99.3.4 Page 12 March 31.CPU 0.T9553D40 . Now at this point.com [PORT $ZTC99 #23 WINDOW $ZTN99.0.PRI 170/23 Note that the 23 on the TELSERV command is the port to listen to.(IPMADG) Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice> If this works. you should be able to access the TELNET server locally: TELNET 127.bsi1.

zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. $*.config file to listen on port the ListenAddress configuration line. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.zzkrnsd on your system. Now.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl>logon super.4 Page 13 March 31. In the zzkrn subsystem. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running.code 100 run zzkrnsd.super to do this and your /etc/sshd.*.0.KERNEL SUBSYSTEM We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system.1. 2008 .#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. to be root or super. This is to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem.0. prngd.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.#RANDOM-ZTC00B NSK-SSH V2. What you need to do this. you only need Note that you need you need to change 127.super volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.*.

process name $ip000 #IPSSH-ZTC00B .script name $ob020 .#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.$ZZKRN.script name $ob11 . This script is the following: assume process $zzkrn start #RANDOM-ZTC00A start #RANDOM-ZTC00B start #SSHD-ZTC00A start #SSHD-ZTC00B start #IPSSH-ZTC00A start #IPSSH-ZTC00B For each startup script.4 Page 14 March 31. 2008 .process name $RD000 #RANDOM-ZTC01 . all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.script name $ob000 . When your system is started up. you must have a script to start up the SSH software in the correct order or it will not start at system startup. It is only when you restart the software.script name $ob10 . that process will be restarted. these names are the following: #RANDOM-ZTC00 .process name $ip001 NSK-SSH V2.process name $RD001 #SSHD-ZTC00A .script name $ob001 .script name $ob021 . Note that when you abort the software. there are two process names used. the process running in the script does not stop.process name $sd000 #SSHD-ZTC00B .process name $sd001 #IPSSH-ZTC00A .

This port of SSH and PRNGD has been fault tested to make sure that it works when a CPU fails. We added a new command to handle remote command execution.0. NSK-SSH V2. reliablity. This port of SSH uses the tcpip access to random number generator to increase performance. The standard SSH software does not know any thing about this. We also increase the capacity of the random number generator to handle large request loads.1 port 23.4 Page 15 March 31. Since the OSS environment does not support pty’s. If you request that a pty is not allocated. We also have the ability to make this request to another TCPIP stack that is not attached to any Ethernet hardware and is only running TELSRV. and support for the guardian file system via sftp.Porting Differences This section will talk very briefly about the differences between this port of NSKSSH and what you get would from Open Source. the sshd program will access the user’s default shell script as the standard SSH port does. This port of SSH understands about ALIAS users and does it password authentication against the safeguard database. This also reduces connect time when performning any action that requires a random number. we use the telnet subsystem as the pty generator. we request access on the 127. all sessions are accessed using the master/slave pty configurations. This is not a part of the standard. Under the standard model of SSH. The major difference of this port from the standard SSH and Prngd port is how sessions are accessed and how we access the random number generator. 2008 . because of problem with the select function not support the tty device. and scalability. This was not a problem in standard SSH. Which in the case for all commands on SSH. We added a distributor to the release so that it is possible to support round-robin access using the standard TCPIP software and scale the ssh software and random number generator software across multiple cpus. This allows all TELSRV services to be stop. When NSK-SSH request a pty.0.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT
At this point, you have done the basic setup for the SSH software. In this section, we will be discussing how to access your system to establish session. You will need an SSH client for your PC, Mac, or Unix system to start a session. In this example we are using, MacSSH, but this will apply to Windows software too. 1. Select your host and select Secure Shell

2. Enter your user name and password:

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3. Get the system access prompt. Note that depending on what type of system, you are executing the sshd software on, it may take a while for the session to connect. This has to do with the encryption of the session.

At this point, you can access the NonStop as you always have. Just login in an start working.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT
If you have other unix system’s, that have SSH installed, you can access the HP NonStop using ssh. To start a session remotely on the HP NonSTop do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com joshua’s password:
WELCOME TO test.bsi1.com [PORT $ZTC0 #23 WINDOW $ZTN0.#PTYW1DX] TELSERV - T9553D40 - (15SEP2000) - (IPMADG)

Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice>

If you want to execute a remote commad, do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com /bin/ls joshua’s password: test.pl test1.pl test2.pl test3.pl test5.pl test_message $ If you want to copy a file from the unix system to the NSK, do the following: $scp test.pl joshua@test.bsi1.com:test.pl joshua’s password:

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com /bin/gtacl joshua’s password: TACL 1> Note that you wil not beable to execute any oss commands with this tacl session because you are not using the standard telnet tty session attributes.bsi1. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 20 March 31.If you want to logon directly to TACL. do the following: $ssh joshua@test. 2008 .

com.4 Page 21 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. This currently only supports commands that do not require any interaction with the user. This will be fixed in next release. you should send an email message to support@bsi2. 2008 .KNOWN PROBLEMS We added the scmd program to allow remote command access to a system. Should you find any problems with this software.

Any correspondence regarding this software can be sent to the following address: Bowden Systems. 3500 Parkway Lane.com Copyright (c) 2001-2008 Bowden Systems.bsi2. please send an email message to support@bsi2. Inc. Suite 370 Norcross.com. All Rights Reserved NSK-SSH V2. GA 30092 USA +1 866-901-9450 toll free +1 770-441-9450 direct +1 770-441-9449 fax web: www. 2008 .com email:sales@bsi2.4 Page 22 March 31.INFORMATION If you need any help with this. Inc.

The default port that SSH uses for port access is 790 to 793 and the default local socket is /dev/egd-pool. The ports 790 to 793 are against the localhost (127.random number generator daemon SYNOPSIS prngd [options] (/path/to/socket1 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port) [(/path/to/socket2 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port)] . System Reference Manual PRNGD(8) NSK-SSH V2..0.. The option tcp/ip:addr:port allows the random number generator to liston on specified address instead of the loopback address.4 Page 23 March 31. keep pool in memory only -m or --mode mode use mode for sockets [0777] -k or --kill kill daemon on other side -v or --version print version and exit DESCRIPTION prngd is a daemon that provides the random number functionality on the NonStop system using either using local sockets or a tcpip port connection. 2008 .conf] -s or --seedfile seedpath use seedpath as seedfile [/etc/prngd-seed] -n or --no-seedfile no seedfile. OPTIONS -f or -fg do not fork -d or --debug debugging on -c or --cmdfile cmdpath use cmdpath for entropy commands [/etc/prngd.MAN PAGES prngd PRNGD(8) NAME prngd .APPENDIX A .1) and will use the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME to get the currently defined TCPIP process stack name.0.

run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 This will CPU 1 and CPU 0 the load of the random number generator. prngd tcp/localhost:790 prngd tcp/localhost:791 NSK-SSH V2. if there is not a random number generator available. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 or run -cpu=1 -gpri=170 prngd /dev/egd-pool You could run the TCPIP random number generator port 790 on cpu 0 and port 791 or the Local Socket random number generator on cpu 1. If any one of the CPU's fail. you will still have a random number generator available on the system. You can configure one prngd program to service both tcp and local socket if you like: prngd /dev/egd-pool tcp/localhost:790 tcp/localhost:791 But you may want to configure the localhost port 790 as the primary and 791 or /dev/egd-pool as the backup.4 Page 24 March 31.210:790 To start the prngd program using the local socket /dev/egd-pool prngd -gpri=170 /dev/egd-pool The SSH program will attempt to use the localhost ports first and then try the local socket next.1.STARTING DAEMON To start the prngd program using localhost port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/localhost:790 To start the prngd program using tcp/ip option port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/ip:192. If you are running P/TCPIP then you can have more than one random number generator using only port 790. then you can start up multiple random number generators using the same port number to spead the laod to multiple CPU's. If you are using using regular TCPIP. most of SSH functions will not work. If you are using Parallel TCPIP with round robin. 2008 . then a primary and back is good choice. As a note.168.

In the directory /usr/local/random/etc there is a file call prngd-seed. The program also produces an EMS message when closing a connection. PERFORMANCE We have notice that the random number generator using TCPIP requires less cpu overhead than one using the local sockets interface. but has been written over by the prngd program. NSK-SSH V2. To use this seed file: cp /usr/local/random/etc/prngd-seed /etc/prngd-seed and restart the program. SEEDING DAEMON The random number generator software is locate in the /usr/local/random directory. This will result in processes waiting on this information. The current seed in the /etc directory is base on this file. NOTES prngd runs as a named process.4 Page 25 March 31. If this fails the program executing will abend. it will stop generating random numbers. SSH has been program to try 5 times and then will go to the next generator viable and try 5 times also. 2008 . This file is 1 megabyte random number that can be used a the first seed when starting prngd for the first time. This can result in system performance problems and cause the random number generator to take excessive cpu time. Do not use /G/ directories for entropy generation.STOPPING DAEMON You can stop the prngd daemon with the following command: If TCPIP: prngd --kill tcp/localhost:790 If Local Socket prngd --kill /dev/egd-pool Or just use the kill command. prngd will not return any random information if it runs out of entropy. It has been found that if prngd is not properly seed.

4 Page 26 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .

If you enter 0. The default is zero. (e. displays debuging information.TCPIP Multiplexer for SSH IPSSH IPSSH(1) [-remote port] [-ports no] [-burst rate] [-interval rate] [-debug] [-wait no] [-D] DESCRIPTION The ipssh programs allows you to distribute ip traffic to multiple ports on a system. The default is 30 seconds. If you have more than two cpu’s. -instance no the instance of ipssh processes.701. Ipssh listens on port 22 and distributes its ip load to port 700 and 701.01 seconds) The default is 100 or 1 sec. This is the number of connections that can be accepted during the interval. The default is 25. (1 = .g. this is maximumu number of ipssh processes that will be allowed exist at one time. you need to set this to number.0. The default is 5. Each port is of set by one. the main ipssh process wait until a child completes before continuing. The default is 2. If you have more one ipssh process on the system.702. -burst rate -interval rate interval in milliseconds.etc).. port 700.ipssh IPSSH(1) NAME IPSSH SYNOPSIS ipssh .. it is possible to distribute load to those also.0.4 Page 27 March 31.. When this maximum reach all. 2008 .1 interface. The options are as follows: -remote port is the remote port to forward the connection. the time is set to 1 second -maxload no -debug -wait no NSK-SSH V2. -ports number is the number of ports to connect to. connection rate for burst conditions. This defaults to 700. time to wait before checking if you can bind to the port. Ipssh only forwards to the local 127. This much like the parrallel tcpip product execpt that it will exeucte on any Nonstop system.

-qlen no number of connection to listen for on the port. The default is 5.4 Page 28 March 31. 2008 . you must change the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME. NSK-SSH V2. indicates that ipssh is to be run waited.The primary process name is /G/ISX ($ISX) and the backup process name is /G/ISY ($ISY). so it will not fork and create a process name -D To change the default TCPIP process from $ZTC0.

The program also asks for a passphrase. there is also a comment field in the key file that is only System Reference Manual SSH-KEYGEN(1) NSK-SSH V2.ssh/identity.pub'' appended.4 Page 29 March 31. management and conversion SYNOPSIS ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t type] [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile] ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -D reader ssh-keygen -U reader [-f input_keyfile] DESCRIPTION ssh-keygen generates. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1). 2008 . If the passphrase is lost or forgotten.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. or it may be a string of arbitrary length. and provides very bad passphrases). The passphrase can be changed later by using the -p option. The passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an empty passphrase). Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long and are not simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only 1-2 bits of entropy per character.ssh-keygen SSH-KEYGEN(1) NAME ssh-keygen . The public key is stored in a file with the same name but ``. ssh-keygen defaults to generating a RSA1 key for use by SSH prottocol version 1. Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in $HOME/. For RSA1 keys. as seen in /etc/rc. $HOME/. Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to store the private key. the system administrator may use this to generate host keys.authentication key generation. Specifying the -t option instead creates a key for use by SSH protocol version 2.ssh/id_rsa. a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding public key to other machines. Additionally.

or whatever is useful. -l -p -q -y -t type NSK-SSH V2. -i This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private (or public) key to stdout. Silence ssh-keygen. and for the new comment. The comment can tell what the key is for. The program will prompt for the file containing the private keys. and key sizes above that no longer improve security but make things slower.4 Page 30 March 31. -e This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and print the key in a `SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout. for the passphrase if the key has one. for the old passphrase. Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient. instructions below detail where the keys should be placed to be activated. The program will prompt for the file containing the private key. but can be changed using the -c option. This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial SSH implementations. Minimum is 512 bits. The default is 1024 bits. The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create. 2008 .for convenience to the user to help identify the key. Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key. ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH Public Key File Format'. The comment is initialized to ``user@host'' when the key is created. After a key is generated. -f filename Specifies the filename of the key file. and twice for the new passphrase. Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of creating a new private key. This option allows importing keys from several commercial SSH implementations. Show fingerprint of specified private or public key file. This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout. -c Requests changing the comment in the private and public key files.

Specifies the type of the key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. The default is ``rsa1''. -B Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key file.

-C comment Provides the new comment. -D reader Download the RSA public key stored in the smartcard in reader. -N new_passphrase Provides the new passphrase. -P passphrase Provides the (old) passphrase. -U reader Upload an existing RSA private key into the smartcard in reader. FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public tion. The contents of this file should be $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines to log in using RSA authentication. There contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

key for authenticaadded to where the user wishes is no need to keep the

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$HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

SEE ALSO ssh(1),

ssh-add(1),

ssh-agent(1),

sshd(8)

J. Galbraith, and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietfsecsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

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ssh-keyscan
SSH-KEYSCAN(1) NAME ssh-keyscan - gather ssh public keys SYNOPSIS ssh-keyscan [-v46] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [-f file] [host | addrlist namelist] [...] DESCRIPTION ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public ssh host keys of a number of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files. ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as possible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run ssh. For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scanning process involve any encryption. The options are as follows: -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, then the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. Default is 5 seconds. -t type Specifies the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is ``rsa1''. -f filename Read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from this file, one per line. If - is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from the standard input. System Reference Manual SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

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On the other hand.4. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts NSK-SSH V2.2.1.my.ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts FILES Input format: 1.4. EXAMPLES Print the rsa1 host key for machine hostname: ssh-keyscan hostname Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: ssh-keyscan -t rsa. SECURITY If a ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without verifying the keys.name. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). users will be vulnerable to attacks.my.domain.2. Causes ssh-keyscan to print debugging messages about its progress.4 Page 34 March 31.1.-v Verbose mode.4.2. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only. if the security model allows such a risk.1.domain.4.n.3.4 name.dsa -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u .3. ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created. 2008 . -4 -6 DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.4 Output format for rsa1 keys: host-or-namelist bits exponent modulus Output format for rsa and dsa keys: host-or-namelist keytype base64-encoded-key Where keytype is either ``ssh-rsa'' or ``ssh-dsa''.2.n.

BUGS It generates "Connection closed by remote host" messages on the consoles of all the machines it scans if the server is older than version 2. and Wayne Davison <wayned@users.net> added support for protocol version 2. and drops the connection as soon as it gets the key. reads the public key. NSK-SSH V2. SEE ALSO ssh(1). 2008 .sourceforge. This is because it opens a connection to the ssh port.4 Page 35 March 31. sshd(8) AUTHORS David Mazieres <dm@lcs.mit.9.edu> wrote the initial version.

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currently Blowfish or 3DES. SSH protocol version 1 Each host has a host-specific RSA key (normally 1024 bits) used to identify the host. The client tries to authenticate itself using . It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection. the server and the client enter an authentication dialog. with 3DES being used by default. The rest of the session is encrypted using a conventional cipher. or password based authentication. encryption. command execution. when the daemon starts. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. It encrypts this random number using both the host key and the server key. This key is normally regenerated every hour if it has been used. It is normally started at load time from /usr/local/ssh/.sshd SSHD(8) NAME sshd . This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously. Whenever a client connects the daemon responds with its public host and server keys.rhosts authentication. The client compares the RSA host key against its own database to verify that it has not changed. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. sshd works as follows. Additionally. The client then generates a 256 bit random number. Both sides then use this random number as a session key which is used to encrypt all further communications in the session. it generates a server RSA key (normally 768 bits). 2008 . authentication. The forked daemons handle key exchange. sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients. Next. and sends the encrypted number to the server. Together these programs replace rlogin and rsh. and is never stored on disk. RSA challenge-response authentication. System Manager's Manual SSHD(8) NSK-SSH V2.NSK-SSH SSH daemon SYNOPSIS sshd [-deiqtD46] [-b bits] [-f config_file] [-g login_grace_time] [-h host_key_file] [-k key_gen_time] [-p port] [-u len] DESCRIPTION sshd (SSH Daemon) is the daemon program for ssh(1). The programs are intended to be as easy to install and use as possible.4 Page 37 March 31. . and data exchange.rhosts authentication combined with RSA host authentication.

Finally. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. a dialog for preparing the session is entered. Blowfish. either side may send data at any time. System security is not improved unless rshd(8). or forwarding the authentication agent connection over the secure channel. In this mode. the client either requests a shell or execution of a command. and rexecd(8) are disabled (thus completely disabling rlogin(1) and rsh(1) into the machine). CAST128. SIGHUP. 192 bit AES.. i. forwarding TCP/IP connections. or 256 bit AES. This key agreement results in a shared session key. Additionally. However. Arcfour. but can be enabled in the server configuration file if desired. Command-line options override values specified in the configuration file.Rhosts authentication is normally disabled because it is fundamentally insecure. it does not generate a server key. by executing itself with the name it was started as. SSH protocol version 2 Version 2 works similarly: Each host has a host-specific key (RSA or DSA) used to identify the host. and such data is forwarded to/from the shell or command on the server side. Forward security is provided through a DiffieHellman key agreement. conventional password authentication and challenge response based methods. and the user terminal in the client side. session integrity is provided through a cryptographic message authentication code (hmac-sha1 or hmac-md5). rlogind(8).4 Page 38 March 31. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal. Command execution and data forwarding If the client successfully authenticates itself. the server sends command exit status to the client. forwarding X11 connections. The sides then enter session mode. NSK-SSH V2. At this time the client may request things like allocating a pseudo-tty. and both sides exit. When the user program terminates and all forwarded X11 and other connections have been closed. Protocol version 2 provides a public key based user (PubkeyAuthentication) or client host (HostbasedAuthentication) authentication method. 3DES.e. currently 128 bit AES. when the daemon starts. 2008 . sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file. The rest of the session is encrypted using a symmetric cipher. /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd.

However.4 Page 39 March 31.The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key (default 768). -i Specifies that sshd is being run from inetd. sshd will send the output to the standard error instead of the system log. with small key sizes (e. This option is only intended for debugging for the server. The server sends verbose debug output to the system log. A value of NSK-SSH V2. sshd is normally not run from inetd because it needs to generate the server key before it can respond to the client. The motivation for regenerating the key fairly often is that the key is not stored anywhere. If the client fails to authenticate the user within this many seconds. Clients would have to wait too long if the key was regenerated every time. sshd refuses to start if there is no configuration file. Multiple -d options increase the debugging level. -d Debug mode. -h host_key_file Specifies the file from which the host key is read (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key). and after about an hour.. it becomes impossible to recover the key for decrypting intercepted communications even if the machine is cracked into or physically seized. the server disconnects and exits. -e -f configuration_file Specifies the name of the configuration file. -k key_gen_time Specifies how often the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key is regenerated (default 3600 seconds. and does not put itself in the background.g. This option must be given if sshd is not run as root (as the normal host file is normally not readable by any one but root). 512) using sshd from inetd may be feasible. and this may take tens of seconds. or one hour). The server also will not fork and will only process one connection. Maximum is 3. -g login_grace_time Gives the grace time for clients to authenticate themselves (default 600 seconds). A value of zero indicates no limit. When this option is specified. 2008 . The default is /etc/ssh/sshd_config. It is possible to have multiple host key files for the different protocol versions and host key algorithms.

0. RhostsRSAAuthentication. It currently looks on the ports of 790 to 793 of address 127. If it does not find that. -p port Specifies the port on which the server listens for connections (default 22). TCP_RND_ADDR TCP_RND_PORT0 TCP_RND_PORT1 These environment variables allow you to change the starting and ending port and the default IP address to access for the random number generator request. the dotted decimal value will be used instead. Normally the beginning. Forces sshd to use IPv6 addresses only. When this option is specified sshd will not detach and does not become a daemon. 2008 . you need at least one NSK-SSH V2.0. Nothing is sent to the system log. it then looks for the name pipe /dev/egd-pool. authentication. -q Quiet mode. -t -u len -D -4 -6 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR SSHD requires the use of a random number generator for its operation.zero indicates that the key will never be regenerated. and termination of each connection is logged. Specifying -u0 indicates that only dotted decimal addresses should be put into the utmp file. HostbasedAuthentication and using a from="pattern-list" option in a key file. Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys. Forces sshd to use IPv4 addresses only. Test mode. If it does not find this.4 Page 40 March 31. This option is used to specify the size of the field in the utmp structure that holds the remote host name. -u0 is also be used to prevent sshd from making DNS requests unless the authentication mechanism or configuration requires it. If the resolved host name is longer than len. This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change. In general. it fails the random number request. This allows hosts with very long host names that overflow this field to still be uniquely identified. This allows easy monitoring of sshd. Authentication mechanisms that may require DNS include RhostsAuthentication.1 for a random number generator.

This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 ZZKRN PERSISTANT PROCESS SETUP We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh.zzkrnsd on your system. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. prngd. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. Now.*. Note that you need to be root or super. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. 2008 .vol $system This will install the subvolume $system.*. If your system is heavly used for SSH request.code 100 run zzkrnsd.generator for each TCPIP stack that SSHD is running on. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD. then you might need more than one and you can assign the extra ones to port 791 to 793. With this configuration. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port.sh. What you need to do this. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. $*.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl> <logon tacl> volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd. you only need to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem.super to do this and NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 41 March 31. To use this feature.

one per line.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.4 Page 42 March 31.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.config file to listen on port 127.you need to change your /etc/sshd. CONFIGURATION FILE sshd reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line). you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running. The file contains keywordargument pairs. NSK-SSH V2.0. This is the ListenAddress configuration line. 2008 .0.#RANDOM-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system.1. In the zzkrn subsystem.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.

sending a warning message before authentication may be relevant for getting legal protection. The default is ``. AllowUsers This keyword can be followed by a list of user names.4 Page 43 March 31. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. separated by spaces. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. %h is replaced by the home directory of the user being authenticated and %u is replaced by the username of that user. as they can always install their own forwarders. login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. separated by spaces. a numerical group ID is not recognized. 2008 . Only group names are valid. AuthorizedKeysFile Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The default is ``yes''. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked. Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access. AllowTcpForwarding Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted.The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether an AFS token may be forwarded to the server. AllowGroups This keyword can be followed by a list of group names.ssh/authorized_keys'' Banner In some jurisdictions. Only user names are valid. NSK-SSH V2. Default is ``yes''. This option is only available for protocol version 2. By default login is allowed regardless of the user name. a numerical user ID is not recognized. The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%'. If specified. AuthorizedKeysFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection set-up. After expansion. restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. If specified. login is allowed only for users names that match one of the patterns.

Users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns aren't allowed to log in. a numerical group ID is not recognized. DenyGroups This keyword can be followed by a number of group names. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. separated by spaces.ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether challenge response authentication is allowed. The default is 0. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from Keepalive (below). If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns.'' ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client. unresponsive ssh clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds. Only user names are valid. DenyUsers This keyword can be followed by a number of user names. Only group names are valid. The default is ``aes128-cbc. separated by spaces. The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. The TCP keepalive option enabled by Keepalive is spoofable. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns.conf(5) are supported.4 Page 44 March 31. a numerical user ID is not recognized. sshd will disconnect the client.arcfour. The default is ``yes''.blowfish-cbc. terminating the session. The default value is 3. ClientAliveCountMax Sets the number of client alive messages (see above) which may be sent without sshd receiving any messages back from the client. By default login is allowed regardless of the user NSK-SSH V2. All authentication styles from login. 2008 . The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated.cast128-cbc. sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. If ClientAliveInterval (above) is set to 15.3des-cbc. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default.

if keepalives are not sent.rhosts and . This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. and some people find it annoying.equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts. leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources. The default is ``no''. IgnoreRhosts Specifies that . However. NSK-SSH V2. ``rsa1''keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'' or ``rsa'' are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol. IgnoreUserKnownHosts Specifies whether sshd should ignore the user's $HOME/. /etc/hosts. Note that sshd will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible.name.equiv are still used. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should bind remote port forwardings to the wildcard address. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. The default is ``no''. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. 2008 . HostKey Specifies the file containing the private host keys (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key) used by SSH protocol versions 1 and 2. The default is ``no''. This option is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only.shosts files will not be used in RhostsAuthentication. The default is ``yes''. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. By default.ssh/known_hosts during RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. It is possible to have multiple host key files.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (hostbased authentication). If they are sent. sshd binds remote port forwardings to the loopback addresss. On the other hand. sessions may hang indefinitely on the server.4 Page 45 March 31. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client.

The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). Default is ``yes''. If the value is 0. and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host reboots. Default is ``no''. ListenAddress Specifies the local addresses sshd should listen on. To disable keepalives. Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted. the password provided by the user will be validated through the Kerberos KDC. To use this option. the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many seconds (if it has been used). The default is to listen on all local addresses. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication is allowed. the key is never regenerated. Ad- The follow- NSK-SSH V2. The default is 3600 (seconds). sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified. The key is never stored anywhere. the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity.4 Page 46 March 31. 2008 . KerberosOrLocalPasswd If set then if password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd. KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT may be forwarded to the server. KeyRegenerationInterval In protocol version 1. This can be in the form of a Kerberos ticket. KerberosTicketCleanup Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout. Default is ``yes''. the value should be set to ``no'' in both the server and the client configuration files. ing forms may be used: ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port If port is not specified. as this only works when the Kerberos KDC is actually an AFS kaserver. or if PasswordAuthentication is yes. The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys. This avoids infinitely hanging sessions. Default is ``yes''.

The default is ``no''. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd. If the value is 0. LoginGraceTime The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether password authentication is allowed. sshd will refuse connection attempts with a probability of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections. PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt Specifies whether PAM challenge response authentication is allowed. fault is ``yes''. MaxStartups Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the sshd daemon.ditionally. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. NSK-SSH V2. VERBOSE and DEBUG. Alternatively. Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection.hmac-ripemd160. FATAL. it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings. The possible values are: QUIET. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60).4 Page 47 March 31. MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms. random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values ``start:rate:full'' (e. ERROR. INFO. The de- PermitEmptyPasswords When password authentication is allowed..hmacsha1-96.g. The default is 10. The default is ``hmac-md5. 2008 . but it will allow password authentication regardless of whether PasswordAuthentication is disabled. The default is ``no''.hmac-md5-96''. The default is 600 (seconds). This allows the use of most PAM challenge response authentication modules. Logging with level DEBUG violates the privacy of users and is not recommended. The default is INFO. any Port options must precede this option for non port qualified addresses. there is no time limit. "10:30:60").hmac-sha1.

(On some systems it is also printed by the shell. If this option is set to ``without-password'' password authentication is disabled for root. If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'' root login with public key authentication will be allowed. The default is ``yes''.pid. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. If this option is set to ``no'' root is not allowed to login. Multiple versions must be commaseparated. ``forced-commands-only'' or ``no''. PidFile Specifies the file that contains the process identifier of the sshd daemon. ``without-password''. The default is ``yes''. PrintLastLog Specifies whether sshd should print the date and time when the user last logged in. 2008 . Port Specifies the port number that sshd listens on. The default is 22. Multiple options of this type are permitted. The default is ``2. Specifies the protocol versions sshd should support. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed.PermitRootLogin Specifies whether root can login using ssh(1).1''.4 Page 48 March 31. /etc/profile. The argument must be ``yes''. All other authentication methods are disabled for root.) Protocol The default is ``yes''. The default is ``yes''. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. PrintMotd Specifies whether sshd should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively. or equivalent. See also ListenAddress. The default is /var/run/sshd. but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed). ReverseMappingCheck Specifies whether sshd should try to verify the remote host name and check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address NSK-SSH V2.

ServerKeyBits Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key. UseLogin Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions. The default is ``no''. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether authentication using rhosts or /etc/hosts. The default is ``yes''. The possible values are: DAEMON. LOCAL4. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed. The default is ``no''. Subsystem Configures an external subsystem (e. Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command to execute upon subsystem request. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. StrictModes Specifies whether sshd should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. The default is ``no''. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. LOCAL1. The default is AUTH. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only.equiv files is sufficient. The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem. and the default is 768. LOCAL5. Note that login(1) is never used NSK-SSH V2. LOCAL7. This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. this method should not be permitted because it is insecure. LOCAL6.maps back to the very same IP address. 2008 . USER. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. AUTH. Normally. The default is ``no''. LOCAL0.. LOCAL2. file transfer daemon).g.4 Page 49 March 31. By default no subsystems are defined. RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. The minimum value is 512. because it performs RSA-based host authentication in addition to normal rhosts or /etc/hosts.equiv authentication. The default is ``yes''.equiv authentication together with successful RSA host authentication is allowed. SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd. RhostsRSAAuthentication should be used instead. LOCAL3.

Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not improve security in any way. as users can always install their own forwarders. where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following: <none> s | S m | M h | H d | D w | W seconds seconds minutes hours days weeks The default is Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value. Note also. Time format examples: 600 10m 1h30m 600 seconds (10 minutes) 10 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes) NSK-SSH V2. X11DisplayOffset Specifies the first display number available for sshd's X11 forwarding.for remote command execution. X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1) cookies. The default is 10. The default is ``no''. X11Forwarding Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. 2008 . that if this is enabled. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers. Time Formats sshd command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time[qualifier].4 Page 50 March 31. X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin is enabled.

6. prints contents and quits (unless root). exponent. 7. Checks /etc/nologin. see the FILES section). The options fields are optional. AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT $HOME/. Sets up basic environment. You don't want to type them in. The ``rc'' files are given the X11 authentication protocol and cookie in standard input. keytype. bits.LOGIN PROCESS When a user successfully logs in.pub. 2. separated by spaces: options. 4. The bits. Runs user's shell or command. AuthorizedKeysFile may be used to specify an alternative file. modulus and comment fields give the RSA key for protocol version 1. 3. comment.ssh/rc exists. sshd does the following: 1. Note that lines in this file are usually several hundred bytes long (because of the size of the RSA key modulus). Each RSA public key consists of the following fields. Each protocol version 2 public key consists of: options. 5. its presence is determined by whether the line starts with a number or not (the option field never starts with a number). the comment field is not used for anything (but may be convenient for the user to identify the key).hushlogin. prints last login time and /etc/motd (unless prevented in the configuration file or by $HOME/. Each line of the file contains one key (empty lines and lines starting with a `#' are ignored as comments). if it exists. instead. For protocol version 2 the keytype is ``ssh-dss'' or ``ssh-rsa''.ssh/authorized_keys is the default file that lists the public keys that are permitted for RSA authentication in protocol version 1 and for public key authentication (PubkeyAuthentication) in protocol version 2. records login time.pub or the id_rsa. If the login is on a tty. 9. copy the identity. Changes to run with normal user privileges. Reads $HOME/. runs it. 2008 . else if /etc/ssh/sshrc exists. runs it. 8.4 Page 51 March 31. Changes to user's home directory. id_dsa. If $HOME/. modulus. otherwise runs xauth. If the login is on a tty.ssh/environment if it exists. comment. and no command has been specified. base64 encoded key.pub file and NSK-SSH V2. exponent.

if the canonical host name matches a negated pattern. This might be used.edit it. The following option specifications are supported (note that option keywords are case-insensitive): from="pattern-list" Specifies that in addition to RSA authentication. environment="NAME=value" Specifies that the string is to be added to the environment when logging in using this key. no-port-forwarding Forbids TCP/IP forwarding when this key is used for authentication. except within double quotes. Any port forward requests by the client will return an error. If a 8-bit clean channel is required. Environment variables set this way override other default environment values. if somebody somehow steals the key. No spaces are permitted.g. NSK-SSH V2. otherwise it is run without a tty. command or subsystem execution. Note that this option applies to shell. however. the canonical name of the remote host must be present in the comma-separated list of patterns (`*' and `?' serve as wildcards). A quote may be included in the command by quoting it with a backslash. command="command" Specifies that the command is executed whenever this key is used for authentication.4 Page 52 March 31. The list may also contain patterns negated by prefixing them with `!'. The purpose of this option is to optionally increase security: RSA authentication by itself does not trust the network or name servers or anything (but the key). in connection with the command option. This additional option makes using a stolen key more difficult (name servers and/or routers would have to be compromised in addition to just the key). the key permits an intruder to log in from anywhere in the world. An example might be a key that permits remote backups but nothing else. one must not request a pty or should specify no-pty. The command is run on a pty if the client requests a pty. e. 2008 . Multiple options of this type are permitted. Note that the client may specify TCP/IP and/or X11 forwarding unless they are explicitly prohibited. This option might be useful to restrict certain RSA keys to perform just a specific operation. The options (if present) consist of comma-separated option specifications.. The command supplied by the user (if any) is ignored. the key is not accepted.

.fi.1. A pattern may also be preceded by `!' to indicate negation: if the host name matches a negated pattern... no-pty Prevents tty allocation (a request to allocate a pty will fail).2.no-pty. from /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. and the per-user file is maintained automatically: whenever the user connects from an unknown host its key is added to the per-user file. Any X11 forward requests by the client will return an error.hut. e. and is not used.!pc. NSK-SSH V2.. no-agent-forwarding Forbids authentication agent forwarding when this key is used for authentication..312314325 ylo@foo. comment. Examples 1024 33 12121.56:25" 1024 33 23.4 Page 53 March 31.. and $HOME/.hut. and modulus are taken directly from the RSA host key. they must be literal domains or addresses.2323 backup. Hostnames is a comma-separated list of patterns ('*' and '?' act as wildcards).pub. The fields are separated by spaces. Multiple permitopen options may be applied separated by commas..fi permitopen="10. modulus.g. 2008 .niksula.2.hut. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. Bits. The global file should be prepared by the administrator (optional). bits. it is not accepted (by that line) even if it matched another pattern on the line.2334 ylo@niksula command="dump /home".no-X11-forwarding Forbids X11 forwarding when this key is used for authentication.. exponent.ssh/known_hosts files contain host public keys for all known hosts.permitopen="10. exponent.niksula. Each line in these files contains the following fields: hostnames.1. they can be obtained.bar from="*. permitopen="host:port" Limit local ``ssh -L'' port forwarding such that it may only connect to the specified host and port. each pattern in turn is matched against the canonical host name (when authenticating a client) or against the user-supplied name (when authenticating a server). No pattern matching is performed on the specified hostnames.55:80".no-port-forwarding 1024 33 23.fi" 1024 35 23.2323 SSH_KNOWN_HOSTS FILE FORMAT The /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.. The optional comment field continues to the end of the line.

These files are not really used for anything.199. /etc/ssh/moduli Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the "Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange".233.41 1024 37 159. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.. but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable.208.org. /var/run/sshd.pid Contains the process ID of the sshd listening for connections (if NSK-SSH V2.185. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. Rather.fi cvs. 2008 . and you definitely don't want to type in the host keys by hand.3 ssh-rsa AAAA1234.. they are provided for the convenience of the user so their contents can be copied to known hosts files. and not accessible to others.130. These files are created using ssh-keygen(1).... /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.openbsd..93 closenet. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key These three files contain the private parts of the host keys. This will inevitably happen when short forms of host names from different domains are put in the file.. generate them by a script or by taking /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. This file should be writable by root only. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.137. These files should be world-readable but writable only by root.. These files should only be owned by root.4 Page 54 March 31. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub These three files contain the public parts of the host keys.. Examples closenet.. It is thus permissible (but not recommended) to have several lines or different host keys for the same names.Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are ignored as comments.= FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd. Their contents should match the respective private parts. authentication is accepted if any matching line has the proper key. Note that the lines in these files are typically hundreds of characters long.hut. It is possible that the files contain conflicting information. Note that sshd does not start if this file is group/world-accessible.pub. authentication is accepted if valid information can be found from either file. When performing host authentication.pub. readable only by root.pub and adding the host names at the front.

it can be world-readable. /etc/hosts. These files should be writable only by root/the owner. The content of this file is not sensitive. $HOME/. one corresponding host is permitted same file is used by rlogind and only by the user. this file is exactly the same as for . $HOME/. Either host or user name may be of the form +@groupname to specify all hosts or all users in the group. and $HOME/. The file must be writable mended that it not be accessible pairs. it is recomby others. The client uses the same files to verify that it is connecting to the correct remote host. sshd refuses to let anyone except root log in.pub. However.rhosts. /etc/hosts. tcp-wrappers access controls may be defined here as described in hosts_access(5). The format of this file is described above.pub files into this file.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA or DSA) that can be used to log into the user's account.pub and/or id_rsa. This file must be readable by root (which may on some machines imply it being world-readable if the user's home directory resides on an NFS volume). Users will place the contents of their identity.ssh/known_hosts can but need not be world-readable. The rshd. $HOME/. If is also possible to use netgroups in the file. id_dsa. The given user on the to log in without password. separated by a space. so using this permits NSK-SSH V2. as described in ssh-keygen(1). /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.allow.shosts For ssh. It is recommended that it not be accessible by others. The key must be listed in one of these files to be accepted. and non-root connections are refused. The file should be world-readable.rhosts This file contains host-username per line. 2008 .deny If compiled with LIBWRAP support.ssh/known_hosts These files are consulted when using rhosts with RSA host authentication or protocol version 2 hostbased authentication to check the public key of the host.4 Page 55 March 31. this file is not used by rlogin and rshd. this contains the pid of the one started last). /etc/nologin If this file exists. The contents of the file are displayed to anyone trying to log in. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts should be world-readable.there are several daemons running concurrently for different ports.

Negated entries start with `-'. If X11 spoofing is in use. Users on those hosts are permitted to log in without a password.equiv This file is used during . successful RSA host authentication is normally required. The only valid use for user names that I can think of is in negative entries. and assignment lines of the form name=value. and other accounts that own critical binaries and directories. this file may be useful in environments that want to run both rsh/rlogin and ssh. adm. which includes bin. it is recommended that it be world-readable. $HOME/. $HOME/. this file contains host names. The host name may also be followed by a user name.ssh/environment This file is read into the environment at login (if it exists). It can only contain empty lines.equiv. The primary purpose of this file is to run any initialization routines which may be needed before the user's home directory becomes accessible. /etc/hosts.equiv. such users are permitted to log in as any user on this machine (except root). The file should be writable only by the user. the syntax ``+@group'' can be used to specify netgroups.equiv This is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. However. Additionally. If the client host/user is successfully matched in this file. it is run with /bin/sh after reading the environment files but before starting the user's shell or command. Beware that it really means that the named user(s) can log in as anybody. 2008 . comment lines (that start with `#').rhosts authentication. one per line.4 Page 56 March 31. /etc/ssh/shosts. this will receive the "proto cookie" pair in standard input (and DISPLAY in environment).ssh/rc If this file exists. AFS is a particular example of such an environ- NSK-SSH V2. This file must be writable only by root.access using SSH only. Warning: It is almost never a good idea to use user names in hosts. This must call xauth(1) in that case. login is automatically permitted provided the client and server user names are the same. it need not be readable by anyone else. Note that this warning also applies to rsh/rlogin. provided they have the same user name on both machines. In the simplest form. Additionally. daemon. Using a user name practically grants the user root access.

2008 . ssh-add(1). sftp(1). This can be used to specify machine-specific login-time initializations globally. This file should be writable only by root. SEE ALSO scp(1). login. ssh-agent(1). moduli(5). sftp-server(8) ssh-keygen(1). and need not be readable by anyone else.4 Page 57 March 31.ssh/rc.ment. This file will probably contain some initialization code followed by something similar to: if read proto cookie. /etc/ssh/sshrc is run. then echo add $DISPLAY $proto $cookie | xauth -q fi If this file does not exist. and if that does not exist either. and should be world-readable. NSK-SSH V2. xauth is used to store the cookie. ssh(1). This file should be writable only by the user. /etc/ssh/sshrc Like $HOME/.conf(5).

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4 Page 59 March 31. work in progress material. Ylonen. SSH File Transfer Protocol.8 . sshd(8) T. AUTHORS Markus Friedl <markus@openbsd. sftp-server is not intended to be called directly. NSK-SSH V2. SEE ALSO sftp(1). This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). and S. January 2001. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1).org> HISTORY sftp-server first appeared in OpenBSD 2. See sshd(8) for more information. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00.txt. 2008 .sftp-server SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server .SFTP server subsystem SYNOPSIS sftp-server DESCRIPTION sftp-server is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. Lehtinen. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.

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SEE ALSO sftp(1).sftp-server-guardian SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server-guardian . and S.txt file on it.txt. If the filename is too long you will get an error. there was no way to allow this via a graphical interface and unix filesystem syntax. The sftp-server-guardian support reading and writing files directly to the guardian filesystem using the standard unix syntax. This subsystem does not have access to files residing on another node. SSH File Transfer Protocol. if you wish to access the $system. If the filename has a . 2008 . As with all guardian filenames.SFTP server subsystem for guardian access SYNOPSIS sftp-server-guardian DESCRIPTION sftp-server-guardian is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. See sshd(8) for more information. Lehtinen. Ylonen. For example.system file system.com> HISTORY sftp-server-guardian first appeared in 2005. This make the sftp-server-guardian subsystem compatible with graphical user interfaces such as FileZilla. sshd(8) T. sftp-server-guardian is not intended to be called directly. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). AUTHORS Bowden Systems Inc <sales@bsi2. using the sftp-server-guardian you would use the /system/system option. work in progress material. you must limit your filenames to 8 characters. Eventhough this feature was designed into the subsystem. January 2001. NSK-SSH V2. it will be stored as an edit file. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option.4 Page 61 March 31.

2008 .4 Page 62 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2.

2008 .Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password .secure command (remote command execution) SYNOPSIS scmd [-v] user@host cmd DESCRIPTION scmd is a command front-end for ssh.Set this to the password for the public key or user id HISTORY This program was written to solve the select problem for ssh in OSS. GNOTTY 1 . If cmd is more than one command. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCMD program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. SEE ALSO ssh(1) NSK-SSH V2. it should be enclosed in double or single quotes.scmd SCMD(1) System Reference Manual SCMD(1) NAME scmd .4 Page 63 March 31. -v used for displaying detail ssh information on stderr. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen.

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-o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. This option is directly passed to ssh(1).Secure file transfer program SYNOPSIS sftp [-1Cv] [-b batchfile] [-F ssh_config] [-o ssh_option] [-s subsystem | sftp_server] [-S program] host sftp [[user@]host[:file [file]]] sftp [[user@]host[:dir[/]]] DESCRIPTION sftp is an interactive file transfer program. It may also use many features of ssh.4 Page 65 March 31. System Reference Manual SFTP(1) -b batchfile Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used. sftp connects and logs into the specified host. similar to ftp(1). For exam- NSK-SSH V2. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag. such as public key authentication and compression. otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication. -C Enables compression (via ssh's -C flag). The last usage format allows the sftp client to start in a remote directory. put. ln.sftp SFTP(1) NAME sftp . then enters an interactive command mode. -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh(1) transport. 2008 . sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get. rm and lmkdir. rename. The options are as follows: -1 Specify the use of protocol version 1. Since it lacks user interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication.

A path is useful for using sftp over protocol version 1. chmod mode path Change permissions of file path to mode.Set this to the password for the public key or user id INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Once in interactive mode. -v Raise logging level. The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SFTP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. to specify an alternate port use: sftp -oPort=24. chown own path Change owner of file path to own. exit Quit sftp. bye cd path Change remote directory to path. 2008 . Commands are case insensitive and pathnames may be enclosed in quotes if they contain spaces. Quit sftp. -s subsystem | sftp_server Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host. NSK-SSH V2. sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1). This option is also passed to ssh. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen.4 Page 66 March 31.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . chgrp grp path Change group of file path to grp.ple. grp must be a numeric GID. or when the remote sshd does not have an sftp subsystem configured. -S program Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection. program must understand ssh(1) options. GNOTTY 1 . lcd path Change local directory to path. own must be a numeric UID.

If the -P flag is specified. ls [path] Display remote directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. it is given the same name it has on the local machine. mkdir path Create remote directory specified by path. lumask umask Set local umask to umask. lmkdir path Create local directory specified by path. If the remote path name is not specified. lpwd Print local working directory. If the local path name is not specified. put [flags] local-path [local-path] Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine. lls [ls-options [path]] Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified.get [flags] remote-path [local-path] Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. Quit sftp. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. rm path NSK-SSH V2. If the -P flag is specified. help Display help text.4 Page 67 March 31. rmdir path Remove remote directory specified by path. 2008 . ln oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. it is given the same name it has on the remote machine. pwd quit Display remote working directory. rename oldpath newpath Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath.

Synonym for help. symlink oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. ! command Execute command in local shell. ssh(1). sftp-server(8). sshd(8) T. and S. Ylonen. SSH File Transfer Protocol. January 2001.txt. AUTHORS Damien Miller <djm@mindrot.org> SEE ALSO scp(1). ! ? Escape to local shell. ssh-keygen(1). draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. Lehtinen. ssh-add(1). work in progress material. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 68 March 31.Delete remote file specified by path.

This is helpful in debugging connection. access times.4 Page 69 March 31. option is directly passed to ssh(1). Verbose mode.. Recursively copy entire directories. 2008 .] [[user@]host2:]file2 DESCRIPTION scp copies files between hosts on a network. and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh(1). scp will ask for passwords or passphrases if they are needed for authentication. authentication.scp SCP(1) NAME scp . -p Preserves modification times.secure copy (remote file copy program) SYNOPSIS scp [-pqrvBC46] [-F ssh_config] [-S program] [-P port] [-c cipher] [-i identity_file] [-o ssh_option] [[user@]host1:]file1 [. Copies between two remote hosts are permitted. The options are as follows: -c cipher Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer. System Reference Manual SCP(1) This -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read. and modes from the original file. It uses ssh(1) for data transfer. -r -v -B -q NSK-SSH V2. Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases). and configuration problems. Any file name may contain a host and user specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from that host. Unlike rcp(1). This option is directly passed to ssh(1).. Disables the progress meter. Causes scp and ssh(1) to print debugging messages about their progress.

-P port Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host. 2008 . must understand ssh(1) options.fi> HISTORY scp is based on the rcp(1) program in BSD source code from the Regents of the University of California.fi> and Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs. Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only.4 Page 70 March 31. ssh-agent(1). NSK-SSH V2. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). The program -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. because -p is already reserved for preserving the times and modes of the file in rcp(1). sshd(8) sftp(1). ssh-keygen(1). pression. SEE ALSO rcp(1). This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen.Set this to the password for the public key or user id AUTHORS Timo Rinne <tri@iki.-C Compression enable. -4 -6 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only. Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable com- -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. ssh(1).hut. Note that this option is written with a capital `P'. ssh-add(1).Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . GNOTTY 1 . For example. -S program Name of program to use for the encrypted connection. forcing the use of protocol version 1 is specified using scp -oProtocol=1.

4 Page 71 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. it adds the file $HOME/. Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented by the agent.ssh/identity. Instead of adding the identity.ssh-add SSH-ADD(1) NAME ssh-add . 2008 . ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user. Deletes all identities from the agent. System Reference Manual SSH-ADD(1) -L -d -D -s reader Add key in smartcard reader.adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-add [-lLdD] [file . When run without arguments..] ssh-add -s reader ssh-add -e reader DESCRIPTION ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent. sshagent(1). The passphrase is read from the user's tty. The options are as follows: -l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent.. -e reader Remove key in smartcard reader. ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given. The authentication agent must be running and must be an ancestor of the current process for ssh-add to work. If any file requires a passphrase. removes the identity from the agent. Alternative file names can be given on the command line.

sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.) SEE ALSO ssh(1). it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a . $HOME/. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file.FILES $HOME/. Note that ssh-add ignores this file if it is accessible by others. If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. ssh-agent(1). $HOME/.Xsession or related script.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. ssh-keygen(1).ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This is the default file added by ssh-add when no other files have been specified. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. ENVIRONMENT DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS If ssh-add needs a passphrase. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key.4 Page 72 March 31. 2008 . it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work.

so does the agent. DSA). Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable). ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by the agent.ssh-agent SSH-AGENT(1) NAME ssh-agent .ssh/identity file.4 Page 73 March 31. and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program. Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout. The options are as follows: -c Generate C-shell commands on stdout. this is executed as a subprocess of the agent. Several identities can be stored in the agent. If the identity has a passphrase. It then sends the identity to the agent. ssh-add(1) adds the $HOME/. Debug mode. Through use of environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for authentication when logging in to other machines using ssh(1). ssh-add(1) asks for the passphrase (using a small X11 application if running under X11. When this option is specified ssh-agent will not System Reference Manual SSH-AGENT(1) -s -k -d If a commandline is given. Keys are added using ssh-add(1). the agent can automatically use any of these identities.authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-agent [-c | -s] [-d] [command [args . When the command dies. 2008 . The agent initially does not have any private keys. When executed without arguments. This is the default if SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell.]] ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k DESCRIPTION ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA. The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session. or from the terminal if running without X).. fork. This is the default if SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell. NSK-SSH V2..

or terminal. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). This file is not used by ssh-agent but is normally added to the agent using ssh-add(1) at login time. The agent exits automatically when the command given on the command line terminates.<pid>). This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. the connection to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins. This method is easily abused by root or another instance of the same user. The socket is made accessible only to the current user.The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC. $HOME/. and the user can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere in the network in a secure way. There are two main ways to get an agent setup: Either the agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment variables are exported. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. NSK-SSH V2. A unix-domain socket is created (/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. Authentication data need not be stored on any other machine.4 Page 74 March 31. laptop.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. and authentication passphrases never go over the network. However. or the agent prints the needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be generated) which can be evalled in the calling shell. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. $HOME/. 2008 . The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's PID. Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection to the agent. and the name of this socket is stored in the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. FILES $HOME/.

ssh-add(1).<pid> Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection to the authentication agent. ssh-keygen(1). These sockets should only be readable by the owner./tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 75 March 31. 2008 . SEE ALSO ssh(1). The sockets should get automatically removed when the agent exits.

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equiv.NSK SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine.equiv on the remote machine. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network.rhosts or . This authentication method closes security holes due to IP spoofing. are inherently insecure and should be System Reference Manual SSH(1) NSK-SSH V2.ssh/known_hosts in the FILES section). and the user names are the same on both sides. 2008 . $HOME/. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods deM-pending on the protocol version used: SSH protocol version 1 First.equiv.rhosts. The second authentication method is the rhosts or hosts. DNS spoofing and routing spoofing. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh.shosts. the user is immediately permitted to log in. or /etc/ssh/shosts. if the machine the user logs in from is listed in /etc/hosts. and the rlogin/rsh protocol in general. if . the user is permitted to log in. $HOME/. This form of authentication alone is normally not allowed by the server because it is not secure. [Note to the administrator: /etc/hosts.4 Page 77 March 31.ssh SSH(1) NAME ssh . It means that if the login would be permitted by $HOME/.equiv. /etc/hosts.equiv or /etc/ssh/shosts. and if additionally the server can verify the client's host key (see /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.rhosts. ssh connects and logs into the specified hostname. Second. only then login is permitted.equiv method combined with RSA-based host authentication. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel.shosts exists in the user's home directory on the remote machine and contains a line containing the name of the client machine and the name of the user on that machine.

ssh/identity. 2008 . The scheme is based on public-key cryptography: there are cryptosystems where encryption and decryption are done using separate keys. RSA is one such system. The password is sent to the remote host for checking. The server checks if this key is permitted. The user's client then decrypts the challenge using the private key. The idea is that each user creates a public/private key pair for authentication purposes. ssh implements the RSA authentication protocol automatically. the client will try to authenticate first using the hostbased method. though the lines can be very long). a random number. if this method fails public key authentication is attempted. since all communications are encrypted. The file $HOME/. See ssh-agent(1) for more information. If other authentication methods fail.pub in the user's home directory.disabled if security is desired. and it is not possible to derive the decryption key from the encryption key.pub to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys lists the public keys that are permitted for logging in. proving that he/she knows the private key but without disclosing it to the server. and only the user knows the private key. The user creates his/her RSA key pair by running ssh-keygen(1). The public key method is similar to RSA authentication described in the NSK-SSH V2. RSA authentication is much more secure than rhosts authentication. the password cannot be seen by someone listening on the network. the ssh program tells the server which key pair it would like to use for authentication.4 Page 78 March 31. Using the default values for PreferredAuthentications. The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may be with an authentication agent. This stores the private key in $HOME/.rhosts file. ssh supports RSA based authentication. The server knows the public key.ssh/authorized_keys in his/her home directory on the remote machine (the authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional $HOME/.ssh/identity and the public key in $HOME/. sends the user (actually the ssh program running on behalf of the user) a challenge. When the user logs in. and finally if this method fails keyboard-interactive and password authentication are tried. and has one key per line. The challenge can only be decrypted using the proper private key. however. encrypted by the user's public key. SSH protocol version 2 When a user connects using the protocol version 2 different authentication methods are available. the user can log in without giving the password. After this. The user should then copy the identity. ssh prompts the user for a password. and if so.] As a third authentication method.

setting the escape character to ``none'' will also make the session transparent even if a tty is used. $HOME/. The escape character must always follow a newline to be interpreted as special. the session is transparent and can be used to reliably transfer binary data. If no pseudo tty has been allocated. hmac-sha1). The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted. Escape Characters When a pseudo terminal has been requested.4 Page 79 March 31. ssh supports a number of functions through the use of an escape character. CAST128 or Arcfour) and integrity (hmac-md5. Protocol 2 provides additional mechanisms for confidentiality (the traffic is encrypted using 3DES. The escape character can be changed in configuration files using the EscapeChar configuration directive or on the command line by the -e option. A single tilde character can be sent as ~~ or by following the tilde by a character other than those described below. the user may use the escape characters noted below. On most systems.ssh/authorized_keys and grants access if both the key is found and the signature is correct. The session identifier is derived from a shared Diffie-Hellman value and is only known to the client and the server. The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP connections have been closed. NSK-SSH V2.ssh/id_rsa. If a pseudo-terminal has been allocated (normal login session). ssh supports hostbased or challenge response authentication. to sign the session identifier and sends the result to the server. or logs into the machine and gives the user a normal shell on the remote machine. Blowfish. the server either executes the given command. Login session and remote execution When the user's identity has been accepted by the server.previous section and allows the RSA or DSA algorithm to be used: The client uses his private key. If public key authentication fails or is not available a password can be sent encrypted to the remote host for proving the user's identity. Additionally. Note that protocol 1 lacks a strong mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the connection. The server checks whether the matching public key is listed in $HOME/. 2008 .

The supported escapes (assuming the default `~') are: ~. 2008 . and happens because ssh creates a ``proxy'' X server on the server machine for forwarding the connections over the encrypted channel. This is normal. ~^Z ~# ~& Disconnect Background ssh List forwarded connections Background ssh at logout when waiting for forwarded connection / X11 sessions to terminate (protocol version 1 only) Display a list of escape characters Request rekeying of the connection (only useful for SSH protocol version 2 and if the peer supports it) ~? ~R X11 and TCP forwarding If the ForwardX11 variable is set to ``yes'' (or. it will generate a random authorization cookie. Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file. but with a display number greater than zero. The real authentication cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain). The user should not manually set DISPLAY. and verify that any forwarded connections carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened.4 Page 80 March 31. see the description of the -X and -x options described later) and the user is using X11 (the DISPLAY environment variable is set). NSK-SSH V2. If the user is using an authentication agent. and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine. ssh will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted channel. One possible application of TCP/IP forwarding is a secure connection to an electronic purse. For this purpose. the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the remote side unless disabled on the command line or in a configuration file. store it in Xauthority on the server. The DISPLAY value set by ssh will point to the server machine. Forwarding of X11 connections can be configured on the command line or in configuration files. another is going through firewalls.

Server authentication ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing identifications for all hosts it has ever been used with. See Ciphers for more information. 3des (triple-des) is an encrypt-decrypt-encrypt triple with three different keys. If a host's identification ever changes.') closes the connection. The escape character followed by a dot (`.ssh/known_hosts in the user's home directory.4 Page 81 March 31. -e ch|^ch|none Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: `~'). Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. Host keys are stored in $HOME/. The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line. it appears very secure and is much faster than 3des. ssh warns about this and disables password authentication to prevent a trojan horse from getting the user's password. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. des is only supported in the ssh client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. Setting the NSK-SSH V2. blowfish is a fast block cipher. followed by control-Z suspends the connection. 2008 . -c cipher_spec Additionally. The options are as follows: -a -A Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. Any new hosts are automatically added to the user's file. Another purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption. The StrictHostKeyChecking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines whose host key is not known or has changed. 3des is used by default. and followed by itself sends the escape character once. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of ciphers can be specified in order of preference. It is believed to be secure. Additionally. -c blowfish|3des|des Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the session. -b bind_address Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. the file /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts. Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection.

but the user wants it in the background.4 Page 82 March 31.hut. Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports.fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows. It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). The ssh program will be put in the background. and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms can be specified in order of preference. prevents reading from stdin). -n Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. 2008 . This must be used when ssh is run in the background.fi. For example. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm. -k Disables forwarding of Kerberos tickets and AFS tokens. -N NSK-SSH V2. -I smartcard_device Specifies which smartcard device to use. This may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.) Do not execute a remote command.cs. Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. -l login_name Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine.hut. See the MACs keyword for more information.cs. The argument is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key.ssh/identity in the user's home directory. see also the -f option. Default is $HOME/. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase. ssh -n shadows. -m mac_spec Additionally. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine. This is useful for just forwarding ports (protocol version 2 only). -g -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA or DSA authentication is read.character to ``none'' disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases. This implies -n.

This can also be specified on a per-host -t -T -v -x -X basis in a configuration file. stdout. suppressed. Multiple -t options force tty allocation.4 Page 83 March 31. 2008 . and data for forwarded X11 and TCP/IP connections). The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1). Force pseudo-tty allocation. -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. Maximum is 3. Multiple -v options increases the verbosity. sftp).g. The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the con- NSK-SSH V2. Disable pseudo-tty allocation. Verbose mode. and the ``level'' can be controlled by the CompressionLevel option (see below). when implementing menu services. This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. Disables X11 forwarding. e. which can be very useful.-o option Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections. This can be used to execute arbiM-trary screen-based programs on a remote machine. Note that this option turns off RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication for older servers. The subsystem is specified as the remote command. stderr. even if ssh has no local tty. Quiet mode. but will only slow down things on fast networks.. Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be Only fatal errors are displayed. -P Use a non-privileged port for outgoing connections. Enables X11 forwarding. and configuration problems. authentication. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress. This can be used if a firewall does not permit connections from privileged ports. Subsystems are a feature of the SSH2 protocol which facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (eg. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. -q -s May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system. -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin. This is helpful in debugging connection.

and whenever a connection is made to this port. -L port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the local (client) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the remote side. the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored.ssh/config. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the local machine. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the remote side. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. The default for the per-user configuration file is $HOME/. If a configuration file is given on the command line. -F configfile Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file. Forces ssh to try protocol version 2 only. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. Only root can forward priviM-leged ports. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. NSK-SSH V2. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. -1 -2 -4 Forces ssh to try protocol version 1 only. 2008 . and whenever a connection is made to this port. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -R port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the remote (server) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the local side. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine.4 Page 84 March 31. and whenever a connection is made to this port. Only root can forward privileged ports. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the remote machine.figuration files. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -D port Specifies a local ``dynamic'' application-level port forwarding. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. see the Compression option below.

ssh/config). CONFIGURATION FILES ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: command line options.. scp and sftp -o option. the first obtained value will be used.e. and system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config).4 Page 85 March 31. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file. Otherwise a line is of the format ``keyword arguments''. The configuration files contain sections bracketed by ``Host'' specifications. the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh.-6 Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only. The host is the hostname argument given on the command line (i. and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification. The default is ``no''. A single `*' as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts. AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether to pass AFS tokens to remote host. Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used. and general defaults at the end. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. BatchMode If set to ``yes''. The matched host name is the one given on the command line. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password. 2008 . the name is not converted to a canonicalized host name before matching). user's configuration file ($HOME/. The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword. Configuration options may be separated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one `='. passphrase/password querying will be disabled. For each parameter. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. NSK-SSH V2. The configuration file has the following format: Empty lines and lines starting with `#' are comments.

Currently. The default is ``no''. The deM-fault is ``aes128-cbc. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order of preference. des is only supported in the ssh client for inM-teroperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. Cipher Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in protocol version 1. remote and dynamic port forwardings specified in the configuration files or on the command line be cleared. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated.BindAddress Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. Compression Specifies whether to use compression.aes256-cbc'' ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local. and ``des'' are supported. The default level is 6. the check will not be executed. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.4 Page 86 March 31. and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). 2008 . Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. which is good for most applications. This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh command line to clear port forwardings set in configuration files. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9 (slow. ``3des''.3des-cbc. ssh will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file. CheckHostIP If this flag is set to ``yes''. The default is ``3des''. aes192-cbc. The meaning of the values is the same as in gzip(1). ``blowfish''.arcfour. ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before NSK-SSH V2. If the option is set to ``no''. Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to ``yes''.cast128-cbc. This allows ssh to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing.blowfish-cbc. best). CompressionLevel Specifies the compression level to use if compression is enabled. The default is ``yes''. The default is ``no''.

The argument must be a port number. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. Multiple forwardings may be specified. FallBackToRsh Specifies that if connecting via ssh fails due to a connection refused error (there is no sshd(8) listening on the remote host). Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. The default is ``no''. ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. `^' followed by a letter. 2008 . The default is ``no''. By default. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: `~'). The default is ``no''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The argument must be an integer. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.4 Page 87 March 31. or ``none'' to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data). and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. The escape character can also be set on the command line. The argument should be a single character. rsh(1) should automatically be used instead (after a suitable warning about the session being unencrypted). and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel. ssh binds local port forwardings to the loopback addresss. The default is ``no''. The default is 1. ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine.falling back to rsh or exiting. GlobalKnownHostsFile NSK-SSH V2. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address.

This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication. and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This option is useful for tunneling ssh connections or for multiple servers running on a single host. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. and some people find it annoying. HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the protocol version 2 host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of preference. HostName Specifies the real host name to log into.Specifies a file to use for the global host key database instead of /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. The default is ``no''. The default for this option is: ``ssh-rsa. If they are sent.4 Page 88 March 31. all these identities will be tried in sequence. IdentityFile Specifies the file from which the user's RSA or DSA authentication identity is read (default $HOME/. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily.ssh/identity in the user's home directory). This is important in scripts. and many users want it too.ssh-dss'' HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files. The file name may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory. The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files. 2008 . Default is the name given on the command line. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. To disable keepalives. However. Additionally. any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). the value should be set to ``no'' in both NSK-SSH V2. This option applies to protocol version 2 only and is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication.

NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Multiple forwardings may be specified. 2008 . The default is ``yes''. INFO. ERROR. Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication will be used. The ar- KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT will be forwarded to the server. This allows a client to prefer one method NSK-SSH V2. The default is INFO. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. The argument to this keyword must be an integer. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. The default is ``hmac-md5. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. is 22.hmacripemd160.the server and the client configuration files. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated.hmac-sha1-96.hmac-sha1. gument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The first argument must be a port number. FATAL. VERBOSE and DEBUG.4 Page 89 March 31.hmac-md5-96''. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. This will only work if the Kerberos server is actually an AFS kaserver. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh. Default PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try protocol 2 authentication methods. The possible values are: QUIET. and the second must be host:port. Default is 3.

ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server.(e. The deM-fault is ``yes''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Note that this declaration only affects the client side and has no effect whatsoever on security.g.publickey. and the second must be host:port. Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication). The command string extends to the end of the line. It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine. 2008 . The default is ``2. This option applies to protocol version 2 only.4 Page 90 March 31.g. Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce authentication time on slow connections when rhosts authentication is not used. The first argument must be a port number. or execute sshd -i somewhere.1''. This means that ssh tries version 2 and falls back to version 1 if version 2 is not available. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. The command can be basically anything. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication. NSK-SSH V2.password'' Protocol Specifies the protocol versions ssh should support in order of preference. password) The default for this option is: ``hostbased. The default is ``yes''.keyboardinteractive. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user). In the command string. and is executed with /bin/sh. Multiple forwardings may be specified. Multiple versions must be comma-separated. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the local machine. `%h' will be substituted by the host name to connect and `%p' by the port.

Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. ``no'' or ``ask''. The default is ``yes''. Note that this option must be set to ``yes'' if RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication authentications are needed with older servers. and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. no device is specified and smartcard support is not activated. SmartcardDevice Specifies which smartcard device to use. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. ssh will never automatically add host keys to the $HOME/. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. The default is ``ask''. The host keys of known hosts will be verified automatically in all cases. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge response authentication. If this flag is set to ``ask''.ssh/known_hosts file. ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files. or an authentication agent is running. NSK-SSH V2.RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA host authentication. The argument to this keyword is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. RSA authentication will only be attempted if the identity file exists. StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to ``yes''. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections.4 Page 91 March 31. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts. The argument must be ``yes''. By default. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do. The default is ``yes''. or connections to new hosts are frequently made. If this flag is set to ``no''. The default is ``yes''. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try RSA authentication. however. 2008 . This option applies to protocol version 1 only. can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''.

as that will render the X11 connection insecure (and will require the user to manually copy any required authorization cookies). UseRsh Specifies that rlogin/rsh should be used for this host. This causes ssh to immediately execute rsh(1). All other options (except HostName) are ignored if this has been specified.ssh/known_hosts. Set to the default PATH. This is particularly useful when calling ssh from a . NSK-SSH V2. This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line. It is possible that the host does not at all support the ssh protocol.4 Page 92 March 31. The default is ENVIRONMENT ssh will normally set the following environment variables: DISPLAY The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server.Xsession or related script. as specified when compiling ssh. This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines. 2008 . MAIL PATH Set to the path of the user's mailbox. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. The user should normally not set DISPLAY explicitly. SSH_ASKPASS If ssh needs a passphrase. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. UserKnownHostsFile Specifies a file to use for the user host key database instead of $HOME/. set for compatibility with systems that use this variable. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections over the secure channel. If ssh does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set.User Specifies the user to log in as. and n is an integer >= 1. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. It is automatically set by ssh to point to a value of the form ``hostname:n'' where hostname indicates the host where the shell runs. HOME LOGNAME Synonym for USER. Set to the path of the user's home directory. /usr/bin/X11/xauth.

If the current session has no tty. They are for protocol 1 RSA. $HOME/. ssh reads $HOME/.ssh/environment.Set this to the password for the public key or user id FILES $HOME/. TZ The timezone variable is set to indicate the present timezone if it was set when the daemon was started (i. NSK-SSH V2.) SSH_AUTH_SOCK Identifies the path of a unix-domain socket used to communicate with the agent. and protocol 2 RSA. $HOME/.(Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. and adds lines of the format ``VARNAME=value'' to the environment.ssh/known_hosts Records host keys for all hosts the user has logged into that are not in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. the daemon passes the value on to new connections). It can be used to extract the original arguments. SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND The variable contains the original command line if a forced command is executed.ssh/identity. protocol 2 DSA.ssh/id_rsa Contains the authentication identity of the user. The variable contains three space-separated values: client ip-address. SSH_CLIENT Identifies the client end of the connection.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . Set to the name of the user logging in. GNOTTY 1 . SSH_TTY This is set to the name of the tty (path to the device) associated with the current shell or command.4 Page 93 March 31.e. NONSTOP ADDITIONAL OPTIONS If you need to use the SSH program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. 2008 . client port number. respectively.. and server port number. this variable is not set. USER Additionally. See sshd(8). $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.

in the following format (fields separated by spaces): system name. the passphrase will be used to encrypt the sensitive part of this file using 3DES. other names NSK-SSH V2.ssh/id_dsa. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. $HOME/. This file should be prepared by the system administrator to contain the public host keys of all machines in the organization.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. $HOME/. This file is used by the ssh client. This file contains public keys. The contents of the $HOME/. These files are not sensitive and can (but need not) be readable by anyone. This file should be worldreadable.4 Page 94 March 31.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 2 DSA/RSA authentication. $HOME/. and not accessible by others. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user. In the simplest form the format is the same as the . but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA/DSA) that can be used for logging in as this user. When different names are used for the same machine. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts Systemwide list of known host keys.ssh/identity.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 1 RSA authentication. The format is described on the sshd(8) manual page. $HOME/. they are only provided for the convenience of the user. The format of this file is described in the sshd(8) manual page.pub. $HOME/.pub. 2008 .pub and $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa. Note that ssh ignores a private key file if it is accessible by othM-ers. These files are never used automatically and are not necessary.pub identity files.ssh/identity.ssh/id_rsa. This file is not highly sensitive.pub file should be added to $HOME/. This file does not usually contain any sensitive information. one per line.ssh/id_dsa. public key and optional comment field. The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by sshd(8) to verify the client host when logging in.These files contain sensitive data and should be readable by the user but not accessible by others (read/write/execute).pub file should be added to $HOME/. all such names should be listed. separated by commas.pub Contains the public key for authentication (public part of the identity file in human-readable form). The format of this file is described above. and not accessible by others. The contents of the $HOME/.

/etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file.equiv This file is processed exactly as /etc/hosts.rhosts authentication.rhosts This file is used in . login is automatically permitted provided client and server user names are the same.) Each line of the file contains a host name (in the canonical form returned by name servers). /etc/hosts. it can be stored in $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts. successful RSA host authentication is normally required.4 Page 95 March 31.equiv This file is used during . and not accessible by others. $HOME/. (Note that this file is also used by rlogin and rsh. /etc/ssh/shosts. because someone with access to the name servers would then be able to fool host authentication.rhosts authentication to list the host/user pairs that are permitted to log in. Note that by default sshd(8) will be installed so that it requires successful RSA host authentication before permitting . The purpose for having this file is to be able to use rhosts authentication with ssh without permitting login with rlogin(1) or rsh(1). This file should only be writable by root. one per line (the full format is described on the sshd(8) manual page).equiv. this will automatically add the host key to $HOME/. and for those users who do not have a configuration file. and then a user name on that host. which makes using this file insecure. If the client host is found in this file. $HOME/. This file must be world-readable.shosts This file is used exactly the same way as . because sshd(8) reads it as root. The easiest way to do this is to connect back to the client from the server machine using ssh.rhosts authentication. It contains canonical hosts names. If the server machine does not have the client's host key in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. and must not have write permissions for anyone else. NSK-SSH V2.are needed because ssh does not convert the user-supplied name to a canonical name before checking the key. This file may be useful to permit logins using ssh but not using rsh/rlogin. this file must be owned by the user. 2008 .ssh/known_hosts.rhosts. Additionally. separated by a space. Additionally. The recommended permission for most machines is read/write for the user. On some machines this file may need to be world-readable if the user's home directory is on a NFS partition. This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file.

See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. $HOME/.ssh/environment Contains additional definitions for environment variables. rsh(1). work in progress material. T. scp(1). ssh-agent(1). M. Ylonen. Lehtinen. $HOME/. see section ENVIRONMENT above. Rinne./etc/ssh/sshrc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started.4 Page 96 March 31. sftp(1).txt. Saarinen. keygen(1). sshd(8) ssh-add(1). draft-ietf-secsh-architecture-09. See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. ssh- T. 2008 .ssh/rc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. and S. T. SSH Protocol Architecture. Kivinen. July 2001. SEE ALSO rlogin(1). telnet(1). NSK-SSH V2.

0 #ListenAddress :: # HostKey for protocol version 1 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key # HostKeys for protocol version 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key # Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key KeyRegenerationInterval 3600 ServerKeyBits 768 # Logging SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging # Authentication: LoginGraceTime 600 PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes RSAAuthentication yes PubkeyAuthentication yes #AuthorizedKeysFile %h/. 2008 .rhosts and ~/. # for more information.1 ListenAddress 0.FILES sshd_config FILE # This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/ssh/bin # This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file.APPENDIX B .ssh/authorized_keys # rhosts authentication should not be used RhostsAuthentication no # Don't read the user's ~/.shosts files IgnoreRhosts yes # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts RhostsRSAAuthentication no # similar for protocol version 2 See sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. Port 22 #Protocol 2.4 Page 97 March 31.0.0.

net #ReverseMappingCheck yes Subsystem Subsystem sftp sftp-g /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server-guardian NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 98 March 31. change to no here! PasswordAuthentication yes PermitEmptyPasswords no # Uncomment to disable s/key passwords #ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # Uncomment to enable PAM keyboard-interactive authentication # Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication' #PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes # To change Kerberos options #KerberosAuthentication no #KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes #AFSTokenPassing no #KerberosTicketCleanup no # Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver #KerberosTgtPassing yes X11Forwarding no X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintMotd yes #PrintLastLog no KeepAlive yes #UseLogin no #MaxStartups 10:30:60 #Banner /etc/issue.ssh/known_hosts for RhostsRSAAuthentication #IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes # To disable tunneled clear text passwords. 2008 .HostbasedAuthentication no # Uncomment if you don't trust ~/.

This file provides defaults for users. # # # # # # # Configuration data is parsed as follows: 1. and the values can # be changed in per-user configuration files or on the command line. command line options 2.4 Page 99 March 31.ssh/identity # IdentityFile ~/.ssh_config FILE # This is ssh client systemwide configuration file.ssh/id_rsa # Port 22 # Protocol 2. system-wide file Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set. # Site-wide defaults for various options # Host * # ForwardAgent no # ForwardX11 no # RhostsAuthentication no # RhostsRSAAuthentication yes # RSAAuthentication yes # PasswordAuthentication yes # FallBackToRsh no # UseRsh no # BatchMode no # CheckHostIP yes # StrictHostKeyChecking yes # IdentityFile ~/. and defaults at the end.1 # Cipher blowfish # EscapeChar ~ NSK-SSH V2. Thus. user-specific file 3. host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the configuration file.ssh/id_dsa # IdentityFile ~/. 2008 . See ssh(1) for more # information.

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TELNET ISOLATION FILES start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack.APPENDIX C . 2008 .4 Page 101 March 31.sh FILE ############################################ # Start SSH with IPSSH across two cpus ## ## Start the SSH process on port 700 and 701 export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 run -cpu=0 sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 sshd -p 701 ## Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process run -cpu=0 ipssh sleep 5 ## Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process run -cpu=1 ipssh -wait 0 # Startup complete NSK-SSH V2.

NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 102 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

osh. & outfile $zhome. & startmode manual.255.& program $system.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00a start_ipssh_ztc0a.4 Page 103 March 31.& primarycpu 0.& userid 255.ZZKRN FILES ipztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00a add process IPSSH-ztc00a.system. & AUTORESTART 10. & name $ob010.& HOMETERM $zhome. 2008 .sh <.APPENDIX D .sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip000 run -name=/G/ip000 -cpu=0 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0a.

& outfile $zhome.sh <.ipztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00b add process IPSSH-ztc00b.& primarycpu 1. & AUTORESTART 10.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0b. & name $ob011.system. & startmode manual.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # # Note that the wait 0 is used just incase the other ipssh process # has been started and is on port 22.& userid 255. # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip001 run -name=/G/ip001 -cpu=1 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D -wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.& program $system.4 Page 104 March 31.& HOMETERM $zhome. 2008 . this process will take over.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00b start_ipssh_ztc0b.255.osh. If the other ipssh process # dies.

& AUTORESTART 10.system.& program $system.& HOMETERM $zhome.255.osh.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00a start_random_ztc00a.ranztc0a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00a add process RANDOM-ztc00a.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00a.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 790" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb000 run -name=/G/rb000 -cpu=0 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:790 # NSK-SSH V2. & name $ob000.& primarycpu 0.4 Page 105 March 31.& userid 255. & outfile $zhome.sh <. & startmode manual. 2008 .

& name $ob001. & outfile $zhome.& primarycpu 1.sh <.4 Page 106 March 31.osh.& program $system.& userid 255.ranztc0b FILE llow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00b add process RANDOM-ztc00b.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 791" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb001 run -name=/G/rb001 -cpu=1 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:791 # NSK-SSH V2.system. & AUTORESTART 10.255.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00b.& HOMETERM $zhome. 2008 .>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00b start_random_ztc0b. & startmode manual.

& name $ob020.& primarycpu 0. 2008 .& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00a.system.& HOMETERM $zhome.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 700" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd000 run -name=/G/sd000 -cpu=0 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 700 # NSK-SSH V2.sdztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00a add process SSHD-ztc00a. & startmode manual.sh <.& program $system. & AUTORESTART 10.4 Page 107 March 31.osh.255. & outfile $zhome.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00a start_sshd_ztc00a.& userid 255.

& AUTORESTART 10.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 701" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd001 run -name=/G/sd001 -cpu=1 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 701 # NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 108 March 31.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00b start_sshd_ztc00b.& userid 255.& HOMETERM $zhome. & startmode manual.sdztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00b add process SSHD-ztc00b.osh.sh <. & outfile $zhome.& primarycpu 1.& program $system. & name $ob021.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00b.system.255.

4 Page 109 March 31.INSTALL NOTES: NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .

NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 110 March 31. 2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

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