Version 2.

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Bowden Systems Inc.
Norcross, GA 30092 http://www.bsi2.com

Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

BOWDEN SYSTEMS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Bowden Systems shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Warranty
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your BSI product can be obtained from the BSI Corporate Office.

Printing History
The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between additions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive these updates or new editions, contact the BSI Corporate Office. October 2001 . . . Edition 1 February 2002 . . . Edition 2 June 2003....Editon 3 July 2004...Edition4 Feb 2008...Edition 5 March 2008...Edition 5a Bowden Systems, Inc. 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 370 Norcross, GA 30092, USA email:sales@bsi2.com web:www.bsi2.com © 2001- 2008 Bowden Systems, Inc.
NSK-SSH, sftp-server-guardian, scmd is a trademark of Bowden Systems Inc. Nonstop, TEDIT, TACL, Guardian 90, 6530, PATHWAY are trademarks of HP. Mr-win6530 is a trademark of Conforte. Cail6530 is a trademark of Cail.

Preface
This manual explains how to install, configure, and use NSK-SSH software for the HP NonStop server. This includes setting up the components of the software which are the ipssh, sshd, and prngd.

Audience and Prerequisites
This manual is intended for system managers and assumes that the user has experience with OSS, GUARDIAN, TCPIP, PTCPIP and SCF.

Prerequisite Equipment
This manual also assumes that the user’s host is S-Series running GUARDIAN G06.22 or higher, GUARDIAN H-Series running H06.05 or higher, or GUARDIAN J-Series J06.02 or higher. This software works with TCPIP V4 and TCPIP V6 tcpip stacks.

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. . . . . . 22 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ZZKRN FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 sftp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . 1 2. . . . . . . . 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD using two IP stacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . .REQUIRED FILES. . . . 59 sftp-server-guardian. . 11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KNOWN PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 sftp-server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ssh-agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ssh-keygen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 APPENDIX D . . . 99 APPENDIX C . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ipssh. . . . . . . . . . . . ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 start_ipssh_ztc0a. . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 sshd_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 sshd. . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ssh_config FILE. 69 ssh-add. . . . . . . . . . 19 7. . . . . . . . . 29 ssh-keyscan. . . . . . 101 start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8. . . . . . . . 11 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 scmd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . 23 prngd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KERNEL SUBSYSEM. . . . . 103 ipztc00a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN PAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. . . . . 65 scp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . 104 start_ipssh_ztc0b. . . . 106 start_random_ztc0b. . . . .ipztc00b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 start_sshd_ztc00b. . . . . . . . . . . .sh . 107 start_sshd_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . 104 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 0. . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 start_random_ztc00a. . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . .PRNGD ON CPU 0 . 107 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 1. . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . .

This release has also been verified to work with Mr-Win6530.15 for the G06.22/H06.9.05/J06. This installation document assumes that you have OSS. You should install this software using the SUPER. you should consult “SSH The Secure Shell” by Daniel J. This was created do to the need of users that have PCI requirments of not having TELNET running on the system or FTP. This release will allow you to access the NonStop system in a secure manor for session and ftp access. This also include the ability to access an isolated TCPIP stack which has telnet running on it for the telnet requirment of SSH. Silverman. and TCP/IP installed and configured on your system.OVERVIEW This is a release of the NSK-SSH V2. NSK-SSH V2. This software works with alias and standard GUARDIAN users. We now also have the ability to set up all the components of this release in the KERNEL (ZZKRN) subsystem for full fault resilance.4.com).x security enhancements and PRNGD 0. You no longer need to have the OSS local socket program running.4 Page 1 March 31.9p2 with 3.9. The random number generator does not require any external programs or files for generating its random numbers. We also have added an sftp-server for the guardian file system.4 that is based on OpenSSH 2. This allows you to access the guardian file system just like the unix file system.SUPER or root user id. 2008 . In this release. Barrett & Richard E. If you require more detailed information on SSH. The NSK-SSH has been updated to fix various problem the the random number generator and has move to using TCPIP for the communications between the random number generator and the SSH process. This document will tell you how to install and configure NSK-SSH software for access to the system and provide a reference for the MAN pages included with the NSK-SSH software. This provides compatibility with programs such as FileZilla.02 operating system. This can be purchased from the Oreilly web site (www. This new command is called scmd and allows you to execute remote commands from the NonStop system. Now you can have up to 4 random number generators per TCPIP V4 OR V6 stack or up to 64 with PTCPIP using the round-robin method of access . we also added a new command to address problem with executing remote commands from the system.oreilly.

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INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE You must be the root user or super.tar.Z | pax -rvf - Note that zcat is in the /bin/unsupported directory.Z | pax -rvf - For the H-Series and J-Series operating system: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_H0605_V24. Note that the above tar file may have a version indicator on it.super to install this software. To install the software that was downloaded from the web site.4 Page 3 March 31. 2008 .tar. SSH and PRNGD software. do the following: For the S-Series: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_GO622_V24. This will install the software into the following directories: /etc/ /etc/ssh /usr/local/ssh /usr/local/random Now you are ready to set up the. NSK-SSH V2. IPSSH.

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bsi services cp protocols. Cail6530. IMPORTANT FOR TELNET ACCESS cd /etc cp services. If you do not have these files. Know how to use the text editor “vi”. SSH Client Software ( Mr-Win6530. you should do the following: 1. The ip address and stack process name you will use for SSH access. then you can copy the files services. e. TELNET servr running on the TCPIP stack LOCAL LOOP BACK STARTED for TCPIP stack REMOVE ANY OPENSSH ssh software on your system as this will cause problems with installing and startup up the Bowden Systems version of SSH. 2008 . c. d. Unix SSH) 2.bsi to protocols. You will need the following information: a. TCPIP configure for OSS. g. TCPIP V4 or V6 Installed and Configured OSS Sockets Started on each processor. If you alreay have a services file. c. Verify that you have the services and protocols file in the /etc directory. then you need to make sure that has the following line: telnet 23/tcp NSK-SSH V2.bsi to services and protocols. OSS Installed and Configured. b. You should have the following products installed on your system: a. b. Putty.4 Page 5 March 31.bsi protocols Note that the service that the sshd program is looking for is the telent service.BASIC SETUP OF SSH To set up your system so that you use the SSH software. f.

export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/install export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/ssh/man export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/random/man Note that these can be place in /etc/profile or in your private home directory file “. or that you want to random number generator to use. NSK-SSH V2. do the following: add_define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME file=\$ZTC1 Note that this is an example. Execute a script to change the file setting sh -v . then it is not necessary to do this step.sh 5.profile”. NOTE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A /etc/services FILE. a. 4. Set your PATH and MANPATH variables. Verify that the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME is already set. Set the correct file settings on the installed files. 2008 . then you need to add it using vi. do the following: info_define all To add the define. THE TELNET ACCESS TO SSH WILL NOT WORK. You should use what ever tcpip process name is defined on your system. 3. If you are using the default tcpip process name $ZTC0.4 Page 6 March 31. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. But if you are using some other tcpip process name./ssh_install_chmod.If the services program does not have this line.

Execute a script to startup the random number generator.0 to the ipaddress of your system and save the file. 2008 . Execute a script to generate the system wide keys.0.0.DSA Public Key 8.Host Private Key ssh_host_key.sh This will generate the following files in the /etc/ssh/ directory: ssh_host_key . This step is optional.Host Public Key ssh_host_rsa_key . NSK-SSH V2. sh -v . Modify the system wide configuration to the specify the IP address that the SSHD program will use. This is only needed if you ssh to listen again a specific address./ssh_install_makekeys.sh This will start the random number generator on local sockets connection 127.DSA Private Key ssh_host_dsa_key. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. Generate the system keys.1 for the two cpu or greater configuraiton. The script executes the following: run cpu=0 -gpri= 144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 7.4 Page 7 March 31.pub .0. Note if you are using TCPIP V4 then you should set this to 127. !!!! IMPORTANT STEP NOT TO FORGET !!!! a. do the following: vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the line: ListenAddress 0.0. To make this change.pub .pub .0.0 and change the 0.0. Start up the Random number generator (PRNG). sh -v .RSA Private Key ssh_host_rsa_key.RSA Public Key ssh_host_dsa_key .0./start_random.0. Note that this may take a while. This must be started before any SSH software can be used.6.1 port 790.

If you only run one SSHD server. If there is more than one address associated with the stack then. scf> abort #ssh-ztc0 This will abort the process and then you can start up the NSK-SSH software. If you want to start SSHD on two cpu’s scipt to step 10.0. scp. The sshd program will process all request (session. then you need to stop this software. If you are starting the Bowden NSK-SSH software on a system that has the Comforte SSH software on it and configured to use the port 22 on $ztc0.9. ssh and sftp). 10.0.4 Page 8 March 31.0 If you want to start the program in the debug mode to see what it is doing. To start the sshd program do the following: run -cpu=0 -gpri=125 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd This will start the sshd server and it will listen on port 22 for any connection.1 and change it to the real address of the stack. NSK-SSH V2. then you need to stop it. scf> assume process $zzkrn scf>names You should look for #ssh-ztc0. then you should not change the ListenAddress to 127. then continue reading. 2008 . do the following: /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -d -d -d This will allow one session to be processed and then the program will exit when the request is finished.0. If this is running.0. If you want to start ssh on one cpu. you should leave it set to 0. before you can startup the NSK-SSH software.

/start_ssh_ptcpip_2cpu. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu./start_ssh_2_cpu. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh sleep 5 c.sh 2.4 Page 9 March 31. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. we put this startup file in as example of how to run the SSHD server on a system that is uses that configuration. If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. 2008 . Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process. Start the SSHD processes on port 22. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using P/TCPIP with round-robin configuration. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v .sh 2. Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process. the TCPIP V6 software is configured in fail-over mode and not configurated for round-robin. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using regular TCPIP or P/TCPIP in Failover mode If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd NSK-SSH V2.sh or do the following: 1. a. Start the SSHD process on port 700 and 701. run -cpu=0 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 701 b. Starting it manually. Note that on most systems. a.sh or do the following: 1. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . Starting it manually.10. run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh -wait 0 11.

4 Page 10 March 31. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.Note that you can use this configuraiton on TCPIP V4 if there is more than one IP addres define to the TCPIP stack and it is not in the FAIL-OVER configuraiton.

CPU 0. Start up the TCPIP V4 stack at tacl: TCPIP/name $ZTC99. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. Start the #LOOP0 port on the stack. To use this feature. 2008 . TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system.PRI 190.TERM $ZHOME/0 2.sh. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port.ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH In this section. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. we will talk about advanced set up of the SSH software including the KERNEL subsystem and TELNET isolation.1 scf> start subnet * scf> exit NSK-SSH V2. ipaddress 127. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. With this configuration. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99.4 Page 11 March 31. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 To do this do the following (Note this works on all release of the Guardian OS including H-series and J-series: 1. scf> assume process $ztc99 scf> aler subnet #loop0.

3.CPU 0.FILE $ZTC99 param TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME $ZTC99 param ZTNT^TRANSPORT^NAME $ZTC99 TELSERV/NAME $ZTN99.com [PORT $ZTC99 #23 WINDOW $ZTN99. Now at this point.bsi1.(15SEP2000) .T9553D40 . 2008 .NOWAIT.4 Page 12 March 31.0.PRI 170/23 Note that the 23 on the TELSERV command is the port to listen to. now you are ready to add the TCPIP_TELNET_STACK. you should be able to access the TELNET server locally: TELNET 127. to your SSHD start file and restart the SSHD servers NSK-SSH V2.(IPMADG) Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice> If this works.1 23 WELCOME TO test. Start up the TELSRV process add define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.#PTYAAAA] TELSERV .0.

super to do this and your /etc/sshd. you only need Note that you need you need to change 127. This is to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. Now.4 Page 13 March 31.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.0. What you need to do this.*.code 100 run zzkrnsd.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.super volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl>logon super. 2008 .#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. to be root or super. $*.1. In the zzkrn subsystem.#RANDOM-ZTC00B NSK-SSH V2. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. prngd.0.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system.config file to listen on port the ListenAddress configuration line.zzkrnsd on your system. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.*.KERNEL SUBSYSTEM We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.

#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.script name $ob001 .process name $RD000 #RANDOM-ZTC01 . that process will be restarted.4 Page 14 March 31.script name $ob021 .process name $sd000 #SSHD-ZTC00B .process name $ip000 #IPSSH-ZTC00B . This script is the following: assume process $zzkrn start #RANDOM-ZTC00A start #RANDOM-ZTC00B start #SSHD-ZTC00A start #SSHD-ZTC00B start #IPSSH-ZTC00A start #IPSSH-ZTC00B For each startup script. there are two process names used.script name $ob10 .script name $ob000 . Note that when you abort the software. When your system is started up. It is only when you restart the software.process name $sd001 #IPSSH-ZTC00A . these names are the following: #RANDOM-ZTC00 . 2008 .process name $RD001 #SSHD-ZTC00A .process name $ip001 NSK-SSH V2. the process running in the script does not stop. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.script name $ob020 .script name $ob11 .$ZZKRN. you must have a script to start up the SSH software in the correct order or it will not start at system startup.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.

The major difference of this port from the standard SSH and Prngd port is how sessions are accessed and how we access the random number generator. We added a new command to handle remote command execution. reliablity.0. We added a distributor to the release so that it is possible to support round-robin access using the standard TCPIP software and scale the ssh software and random number generator software across multiple cpus. If you request that a pty is not allocated. Under the standard model of SSH. We also have the ability to make this request to another TCPIP stack that is not attached to any Ethernet hardware and is only running TELSRV. We also increase the capacity of the random number generator to handle large request loads. Which in the case for all commands on SSH. because of problem with the select function not support the tty device. When NSK-SSH request a pty. This port of SSH and PRNGD has been fault tested to make sure that it works when a CPU fails. NSK-SSH V2. This allows all TELSRV services to be stop. and scalability. we use the telnet subsystem as the pty generator. This port of SSH uses the tcpip access to random number generator to increase performance. Since the OSS environment does not support pty’s.1 port 23. 2008 . all sessions are accessed using the master/slave pty configurations.Porting Differences This section will talk very briefly about the differences between this port of NSKSSH and what you get would from Open Source. and support for the guardian file system via sftp.4 Page 15 March 31. This is not a part of the standard.0. This also reduces connect time when performning any action that requires a random number. This port of SSH understands about ALIAS users and does it password authentication against the safeguard database. The standard SSH software does not know any thing about this. This was not a problem in standard SSH. we request access on the 127. the sshd program will access the user’s default shell script as the standard SSH port does.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT
At this point, you have done the basic setup for the SSH software. In this section, we will be discussing how to access your system to establish session. You will need an SSH client for your PC, Mac, or Unix system to start a session. In this example we are using, MacSSH, but this will apply to Windows software too. 1. Select your host and select Secure Shell

2. Enter your user name and password:

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3. Get the system access prompt. Note that depending on what type of system, you are executing the sshd software on, it may take a while for the session to connect. This has to do with the encryption of the session.

At this point, you can access the NonStop as you always have. Just login in an start working.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT
If you have other unix system’s, that have SSH installed, you can access the HP NonStop using ssh. To start a session remotely on the HP NonSTop do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com joshua’s password:
WELCOME TO test.bsi1.com [PORT $ZTC0 #23 WINDOW $ZTN0.#PTYW1DX] TELSERV - T9553D40 - (15SEP2000) - (IPMADG)

Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice>

If you want to execute a remote commad, do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com /bin/ls joshua’s password: test.pl test1.pl test2.pl test3.pl test5.pl test_message $ If you want to copy a file from the unix system to the NSK, do the following: $scp test.pl joshua@test.bsi1.com:test.pl joshua’s password:

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com /bin/gtacl joshua’s password: TACL 1> Note that you wil not beable to execute any oss commands with this tacl session because you are not using the standard telnet tty session attributes. 2008 .4 Page 20 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.bsi1.If you want to logon directly to TACL. do the following: $ssh joshua@test.

NSK-SSH V2. Should you find any problems with this software.com.KNOWN PROBLEMS We added the scmd program to allow remote command access to a system. This will be fixed in next release. you should send an email message to support@bsi2. 2008 .4 Page 21 March 31. This currently only supports commands that do not require any interaction with the user.

All Rights Reserved NSK-SSH V2. Inc.bsi2.com email:sales@bsi2.INFORMATION If you need any help with this. 3500 Parkway Lane. GA 30092 USA +1 866-901-9450 toll free +1 770-441-9450 direct +1 770-441-9449 fax web: www. Suite 370 Norcross. Any correspondence regarding this software can be sent to the following address: Bowden Systems.com. please send an email message to support@bsi2. 2008 .com Copyright (c) 2001-2008 Bowden Systems. Inc.4 Page 22 March 31.

.conf] -s or --seedfile seedpath use seedpath as seedfile [/etc/prngd-seed] -n or --no-seedfile no seedfile.random number generator daemon SYNOPSIS prngd [options] (/path/to/socket1 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port) [(/path/to/socket2 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port)] . The option tcp/ip:addr:port allows the random number generator to liston on specified address instead of the loopback address. keep pool in memory only -m or --mode mode use mode for sockets [0777] -k or --kill kill daemon on other side -v or --version print version and exit DESCRIPTION prngd is a daemon that provides the random number functionality on the NonStop system using either using local sockets or a tcpip port connection.0.. OPTIONS -f or -fg do not fork -d or --debug debugging on -c or --cmdfile cmdpath use cmdpath for entropy commands [/etc/prngd. The ports 790 to 793 are against the localhost (127.0. 2008 . The default port that SSH uses for port access is 790 to 793 and the default local socket is /dev/egd-pool. System Reference Manual PRNGD(8) NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 23 March 31.1) and will use the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME to get the currently defined TCPIP process stack name.APPENDIX A .MAN PAGES prngd PRNGD(8) NAME prngd .

most of SSH functions will not work. You can configure one prngd program to service both tcp and local socket if you like: prngd /dev/egd-pool tcp/localhost:790 tcp/localhost:791 But you may want to configure the localhost port 790 as the primary and 791 or /dev/egd-pool as the backup. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 This will CPU 1 and CPU 0 the load of the random number generator. prngd tcp/localhost:790 prngd tcp/localhost:791 NSK-SSH V2. If any one of the CPU's fail. If you are using Parallel TCPIP with round robin. then a primary and back is good choice.1. If you are using using regular TCPIP. As a note.4 Page 24 March 31.STARTING DAEMON To start the prngd program using localhost port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/localhost:790 To start the prngd program using tcp/ip option port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/ip:192. 2008 . run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 or run -cpu=1 -gpri=170 prngd /dev/egd-pool You could run the TCPIP random number generator port 790 on cpu 0 and port 791 or the Local Socket random number generator on cpu 1. you will still have a random number generator available on the system. then you can start up multiple random number generators using the same port number to spead the laod to multiple CPU's. If you are running P/TCPIP then you can have more than one random number generator using only port 790. if there is not a random number generator available.210:790 To start the prngd program using the local socket /dev/egd-pool prngd -gpri=170 /dev/egd-pool The SSH program will attempt to use the localhost ports first and then try the local socket next.168.

4 Page 25 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. prngd will not return any random information if it runs out of entropy. 2008 . SSH has been program to try 5 times and then will go to the next generator viable and try 5 times also. it will stop generating random numbers. This can result in system performance problems and cause the random number generator to take excessive cpu time. In the directory /usr/local/random/etc there is a file call prngd-seed. but has been written over by the prngd program. NOTES prngd runs as a named process.STOPPING DAEMON You can stop the prngd daemon with the following command: If TCPIP: prngd --kill tcp/localhost:790 If Local Socket prngd --kill /dev/egd-pool Or just use the kill command. If this fails the program executing will abend. PERFORMANCE We have notice that the random number generator using TCPIP requires less cpu overhead than one using the local sockets interface. The program also produces an EMS message when closing a connection. It has been found that if prngd is not properly seed. Do not use /G/ directories for entropy generation. This will result in processes waiting on this information. To use this seed file: cp /usr/local/random/etc/prngd-seed /etc/prngd-seed and restart the program. SEEDING DAEMON The random number generator software is locate in the /usr/local/random directory. This file is 1 megabyte random number that can be used a the first seed when starting prngd for the first time. The current seed in the /etc directory is base on this file.

2008 . NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 26 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

This defaults to 700.4 Page 27 March 31.ipssh IPSSH(1) NAME IPSSH SYNOPSIS ipssh . -ports number is the number of ports to connect to.0. This much like the parrallel tcpip product execpt that it will exeucte on any Nonstop system.701.01 seconds) The default is 100 or 1 sec. the main ipssh process wait until a child completes before continuing. you need to set this to number. The default is zero. -instance no the instance of ipssh processes.etc). this is maximumu number of ipssh processes that will be allowed exist at one time.702.1 interface. connection rate for burst conditions. This is the number of connections that can be accepted during the interval.. time to wait before checking if you can bind to the port. The default is 2. it is possible to distribute load to those also. (e. (1 = . If you enter 0. port 700. Each port is of set by one. Ipssh only forwards to the local 127.g. 2008 .. -burst rate -interval rate interval in milliseconds. The default is 5.TCPIP Multiplexer for SSH IPSSH IPSSH(1) [-remote port] [-ports no] [-burst rate] [-interval rate] [-debug] [-wait no] [-D] DESCRIPTION The ipssh programs allows you to distribute ip traffic to multiple ports on a system. Ipssh listens on port 22 and distributes its ip load to port 700 and 701. displays debuging information. The default is 25. If you have more than two cpu’s.0. The options are as follows: -remote port is the remote port to forward the connection. If you have more one ipssh process on the system. The default is 30 seconds.. the time is set to 1 second -maxload no -debug -wait no NSK-SSH V2. When this maximum reach all.

The primary process name is /G/ISX ($ISX) and the backup process name is /G/ISY ($ISY). 2008 .-qlen no number of connection to listen for on the port. you must change the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME. so it will not fork and create a process name -D To change the default TCPIP process from $ZTC0.4 Page 28 March 31. The default is 5. indicates that ipssh is to be run waited. NSK-SSH V2.

The program also asks for a passphrase.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. and provides very bad passphrases). If the passphrase is lost or forgotten. a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding public key to other machines. ssh-keygen defaults to generating a RSA1 key for use by SSH prottocol version 1.ssh/identity. Specifying the -t option instead creates a key for use by SSH protocol version 2. 2008 . There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long and are not simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only 1-2 bits of entropy per character. or it may be a string of arbitrary length. Additionally. the system administrator may use this to generate host keys.authentication key generation. The passphrase can be changed later by using the -p option.ssh-keygen SSH-KEYGEN(1) NAME ssh-keygen .ssh/id_rsa.4 Page 29 March 31. Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to store the private key. as seen in /etc/rc. there is also a comment field in the key file that is only System Reference Manual SSH-KEYGEN(1) NSK-SSH V2. For RSA1 keys.pub'' appended. manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1). Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in $HOME/. The passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an empty passphrase). management and conversion SYNOPSIS ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t type] [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile] ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -D reader ssh-keygen -U reader [-f input_keyfile] DESCRIPTION ssh-keygen generates. The public key is stored in a file with the same name but ``. $HOME/.

-i This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private (or public) key to stdout. Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of creating a new private key. and twice for the new passphrase. Silence ssh-keygen. Minimum is 512 bits. This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout. and key sizes above that no longer improve security but make things slower. or whatever is useful. ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH Public Key File Format'. for the passphrase if the key has one. instructions below detail where the keys should be placed to be activated. Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key. Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient. Show fingerprint of specified private or public key file.4 Page 30 March 31. and for the new comment. The comment is initialized to ``user@host'' when the key is created. The comment can tell what the key is for. for the old passphrase. The default is 1024 bits. The program will prompt for the file containing the private keys. The program will prompt for the file containing the private key. 2008 . -c Requests changing the comment in the private and public key files. but can be changed using the -c option. -e This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and print the key in a `SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout.for convenience to the user to help identify the key. The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create. After a key is generated. -l -p -q -y -t type NSK-SSH V2. This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial SSH implementations. -f filename Specifies the filename of the key file. This option allows importing keys from several commercial SSH implementations.

Specifies the type of the key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. The default is ``rsa1''. -B Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key file.

-C comment Provides the new comment. -D reader Download the RSA public key stored in the smartcard in reader. -N new_passphrase Provides the new passphrase. -P passphrase Provides the (old) passphrase. -U reader Upload an existing RSA private key into the smartcard in reader. FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public tion. The contents of this file should be $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines to log in using RSA authentication. There contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

key for authenticaadded to where the user wishes is no need to keep the

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$HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

SEE ALSO ssh(1),

ssh-add(1),

ssh-agent(1),

sshd(8)

J. Galbraith, and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietfsecsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

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ssh-keyscan
SSH-KEYSCAN(1) NAME ssh-keyscan - gather ssh public keys SYNOPSIS ssh-keyscan [-v46] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [-f file] [host | addrlist namelist] [...] DESCRIPTION ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public ssh host keys of a number of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files. ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as possible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run ssh. For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scanning process involve any encryption. The options are as follows: -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, then the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. Default is 5 seconds. -t type Specifies the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is ``rsa1''. -f filename Read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from this file, one per line. If - is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from the standard input. System Reference Manual SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

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2.n. ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created.3.1. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts NSK-SSH V2.dsa -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u . This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).4.2.4 Output format for rsa1 keys: host-or-namelist bits exponent modulus Output format for rsa and dsa keys: host-or-namelist keytype base64-encoded-key Where keytype is either ``ssh-rsa'' or ``ssh-dsa''.my.3.4 name.domain.4.ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts FILES Input format: 1.2. -4 -6 DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.4.-v Verbose mode.n. if the security model allows such a risk.1. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only. 2008 .domain.name. SECURITY If a ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without verifying the keys.2. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only. Causes ssh-keyscan to print debugging messages about its progress.my. EXAMPLES Print the rsa1 host key for machine hostname: ssh-keyscan hostname Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: ssh-keyscan -t rsa. On the other hand. users will be vulnerable to attacks.4.4 Page 34 March 31.1.

sourceforge.net> added support for protocol version 2. SEE ALSO ssh(1).mit.9. NSK-SSH V2. and Wayne Davison <wayned@users.edu> wrote the initial version. This is because it opens a connection to the ssh port. sshd(8) AUTHORS David Mazieres <dm@lcs. reads the public key. 2008 . and drops the connection as soon as it gets the key.BUGS It generates "Connection closed by remote host" messages on the consoles of all the machines it scans if the server is older than version 2.4 Page 35 March 31.

Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.4 Page 36 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .

NSK-SSH SSH daemon SYNOPSIS sshd [-deiqtD46] [-b bits] [-f config_file] [-g login_grace_time] [-h host_key_file] [-k key_gen_time] [-p port] [-u len] DESCRIPTION sshd (SSH Daemon) is the daemon program for ssh(1). The client compares the RSA host key against its own database to verify that it has not changed.4 Page 37 March 31. Next. Additionally. the server and the client enter an authentication dialog. 2008 . Both sides then use this random number as a session key which is used to encrypt all further communications in the session. . The forked daemons handle key exchange.rhosts authentication. The client tries to authenticate itself using . currently Blowfish or 3DES. or password based authentication. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. authentication. it generates a server RSA key (normally 768 bits). This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously. with 3DES being used by default. Whenever a client connects the daemon responds with its public host and server keys. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server.sshd SSHD(8) NAME sshd . SSH protocol version 1 Each host has a host-specific RSA key (normally 1024 bits) used to identify the host. The programs are intended to be as easy to install and use as possible. This key is normally regenerated every hour if it has been used. sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients. System Manager's Manual SSHD(8) NSK-SSH V2. It encrypts this random number using both the host key and the server key. RSA challenge-response authentication. command execution. The client then generates a 256 bit random number. The rest of the session is encrypted using a conventional cipher. and data exchange. It is normally started at load time from /usr/local/ssh/. and is never stored on disk. sshd works as follows. when the daemon starts.rhosts authentication combined with RSA host authentication. encryption. It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection. and sends the encrypted number to the server. Together these programs replace rlogin and rsh.

sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal. and the user terminal in the client side. conventional password authentication and challenge response based methods. forwarding TCP/IP connections. Command execution and data forwarding If the client successfully authenticates itself. The rest of the session is encrypted using a symmetric cipher. currently 128 bit AES. or forwarding the authentication agent connection over the secure channel. When the user program terminates and all forwarded X11 and other connections have been closed. Blowfish. The sides then enter session mode. and rexecd(8) are disabled (thus completely disabling rlogin(1) and rsh(1) into the machine). but can be enabled in the server configuration file if desired. Protocol version 2 provides a public key based user (PubkeyAuthentication) or client host (HostbasedAuthentication) authentication method. either side may send data at any time. the server sends command exit status to the client. At this time the client may request things like allocating a pseudo-tty. a dialog for preparing the session is entered. CAST128. This key agreement results in a shared session key. 3DES. by executing itself with the name it was started as. it does not generate a server key. SSH protocol version 2 Version 2 works similarly: Each host has a host-specific key (RSA or DSA) used to identify the host.e. System security is not improved unless rshd(8). or 256 bit AES. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. and such data is forwarded to/from the shell or command on the server side. Finally. when the daemon starts.. Additionally. sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file. forwarding X11 connections. /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd. session integrity is provided through a cryptographic message authentication code (hmac-sha1 or hmac-md5).Rhosts authentication is normally disabled because it is fundamentally insecure. 192 bit AES. NSK-SSH V2. the client either requests a shell or execution of a command. However. and both sides exit.4 Page 38 March 31. i. In this mode. Command-line options override values specified in the configuration file. Forward security is provided through a DiffieHellman key agreement. rlogind(8). 2008 . Arcfour. SIGHUP.

Clients would have to wait too long if the key was regenerated every time. -h host_key_file Specifies the file from which the host key is read (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key). or one hour). it becomes impossible to recover the key for decrypting intercepted communications even if the machine is cracked into or physically seized. the server disconnects and exits. This option is only intended for debugging for the server. -d Debug mode. sshd is normally not run from inetd because it needs to generate the server key before it can respond to the client. A value of NSK-SSH V2. Maximum is 3. -g login_grace_time Gives the grace time for clients to authenticate themselves (default 600 seconds). and this may take tens of seconds. This option must be given if sshd is not run as root (as the normal host file is normally not readable by any one but root). sshd will send the output to the standard error instead of the system log. sshd refuses to start if there is no configuration file. The motivation for regenerating the key fairly often is that the key is not stored anywhere. If the client fails to authenticate the user within this many seconds. with small key sizes (e. A value of zero indicates no limit. The default is /etc/ssh/sshd_config. 2008 .4 Page 39 March 31. It is possible to have multiple host key files for the different protocol versions and host key algorithms. Multiple -d options increase the debugging level. 512) using sshd from inetd may be feasible. -e -f configuration_file Specifies the name of the configuration file. When this option is specified. and does not put itself in the background. -i Specifies that sshd is being run from inetd. However.g.. The server also will not fork and will only process one connection. -k key_gen_time Specifies how often the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key is regenerated (default 3600 seconds. and after about an hour. The server sends verbose debug output to the system log.The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key (default 768).

Forces sshd to use IPv4 addresses only. Normally the beginning.1 for a random number generator. it fails the random number request. authentication. -u0 is also be used to prevent sshd from making DNS requests unless the authentication mechanism or configuration requires it. Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys. This allows hosts with very long host names that overflow this field to still be uniquely identified. If the resolved host name is longer than len. RhostsRSAAuthentication.4 Page 40 March 31. -p port Specifies the port on which the server listens for connections (default 22). and termination of each connection is logged. Test mode. you need at least one NSK-SSH V2. Specifying -u0 indicates that only dotted decimal addresses should be put into the utmp file. HostbasedAuthentication and using a from="pattern-list" option in a key file. This option is used to specify the size of the field in the utmp structure that holds the remote host name.0. In general. TCP_RND_ADDR TCP_RND_PORT0 TCP_RND_PORT1 These environment variables allow you to change the starting and ending port and the default IP address to access for the random number generator request. It currently looks on the ports of 790 to 793 of address 127. This allows easy monitoring of sshd. Authentication mechanisms that may require DNS include RhostsAuthentication.zero indicates that the key will never be regenerated. -t -u len -D -4 -6 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR SSHD requires the use of a random number generator for its operation. When this option is specified sshd will not detach and does not become a daemon. Nothing is sent to the system log. -q Quiet mode. Forces sshd to use IPv6 addresses only. it then looks for the name pipe /dev/egd-pool. the dotted decimal value will be used instead. This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change. If it does not find this.0. 2008 . If it does not find that.

To use this feature. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. you only need to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. $*. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99.*.zzkrnsd on your system.4 Page 41 March 31.super to do this and NSK-SSH V2. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. Now. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 ZZKRN PERSISTANT PROCESS SETUP We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.sh. 2008 . If your system is heavly used for SSH request.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl> <logon tacl> volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. Note that you need to be root or super. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. With this configuration. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. then you might need more than one and you can assign the extra ones to port 791 to 793. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated.code 100 run zzkrnsd. What you need to do this. prngd.generator for each TCPIP stack that SSHD is running on.*.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system.

#RANDOM-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.config file to listen on port 127. 2008 .#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. CONFIGURATION FILE sshd reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line).#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service. The file contains keywordargument pairs.4 Page 42 March 31.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.0. In the zzkrn subsystem.you need to change your /etc/sshd. This is the ListenAddress configuration line. NSK-SSH V2.1. one per line. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system.0. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running.

The default is ``. If specified. restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. Only user names are valid. This option is only available for protocol version 2. AllowTcpForwarding Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. %h is replaced by the home directory of the user being authenticated and %u is replaced by the username of that user. separated by spaces. The default is ``yes''. AllowGroups This keyword can be followed by a list of group names. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. login is allowed only for users names that match one of the patterns.The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether an AFS token may be forwarded to the server. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. separated by spaces. Default is ``yes''. AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. a numerical user ID is not recognized. Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access. NSK-SSH V2. sending a warning message before authentication may be relevant for getting legal protection. a numerical group ID is not recognized. After expansion. AuthorizedKeysFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection set-up. AllowUsers This keyword can be followed by a list of user names. If specified. as they can always install their own forwarders.4 Page 43 March 31. By default login is allowed regardless of the user name. The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%'. Only group names are valid. The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. 2008 . AuthorizedKeysFile Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked.ssh/authorized_keys'' Banner In some jurisdictions.

unresponsive ssh clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds. sshd will disconnect the client. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. ClientAliveCountMax Sets the number of client alive messages (see above) which may be sent without sshd receiving any messages back from the client. The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive.conf(5) are supported. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. The default value is 3.4 Page 44 March 31. a numerical group ID is not recognized. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from Keepalive (below). DenyUsers This keyword can be followed by a number of user names.'' ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client. The TCP keepalive option enabled by Keepalive is spoofable. By default login is allowed regardless of the user NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent. DenyGroups This keyword can be followed by a number of group names. The default is ``aes128-cbc. All authentication styles from login.3des-cbc. The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. The default is ``yes''. indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default. a numerical user ID is not recognized. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. Users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns aren't allowed to log in.ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether challenge response authentication is allowed. sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client.arcfour. separated by spaces. separated by spaces. Only group names are valid. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2. Only user names are valid. This option applies to protocol version 2 only.blowfish-cbc. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns. terminating the session.cast128-cbc. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The default is 0. If ClientAliveInterval (above) is set to 15.

sessions may hang indefinitely on the server.equiv are still used. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. ``rsa1''keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'' or ``rsa'' are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol.shosts files will not be used in RhostsAuthentication. The default is ``no''. By default. HostKey Specifies the file containing the private host keys (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key) used by SSH protocol versions 1 and 2. /etc/hosts. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client. Note that sshd will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible.rhosts and . death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed.4 Page 45 March 31. RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. and some people find it annoying.equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts. It is possible to have multiple host key files. 2008 . leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (hostbased authentication).name. if keepalives are not sent. The default is ``yes''. The default is ``no''. However. IgnoreUserKnownHosts Specifies whether sshd should ignore the user's $HOME/. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should bind remote port forwardings to the wildcard address. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. NSK-SSH V2.ssh/known_hosts during RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. This option is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only. On the other hand. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. The default is ``no''. If they are sent. sshd binds remote port forwardings to the loopback addresss. IgnoreRhosts Specifies that .

ing forms may be used: ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port If port is not specified. The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys. as this only works when the Kerberos KDC is actually an AFS kaserver. This avoids infinitely hanging sessions. If the value is 0. The key is never stored anywhere. The default is 3600 (seconds). KerberosOrLocalPasswd If set then if password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd. the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity. ListenAddress Specifies the local addresses sshd should listen on. The default is to listen on all local addresses. KerberosTicketCleanup Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout. the password provided by the user will be validated through the Kerberos KDC. Default is ``yes''. 2008 . This can be in the form of a Kerberos ticket. KeyRegenerationInterval In protocol version 1. sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified. To disable keepalives.The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). Default is ``yes''. Default is ``yes''. the key is never regenerated. Default is ``no''.4 Page 46 March 31. or if PasswordAuthentication is yes. the value should be set to ``no'' in both the server and the client configuration files. the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many seconds (if it has been used). KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT may be forwarded to the server. and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host reboots. To use this option. Ad- The follow- NSK-SSH V2. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication is allowed. Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted.

If the value is 0. but it will allow password authentication regardless of whether PasswordAuthentication is disabled.hmac-ripemd160. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd. Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection. random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values ``start:rate:full'' (e. LoginGraceTime The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. The default is ``no''. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether password authentication is allowed. "10:30:60"). The default is 600 (seconds).4 Page 47 March 31. fault is ``yes''.hmac-md5-96''. The default is INFO. Logging with level DEBUG violates the privacy of users and is not recommended. VERBOSE and DEBUG. PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt Specifies whether PAM challenge response authentication is allowed. The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60).g. NSK-SSH V2. it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings.hmac-sha1. Alternatively. any Port options must precede this option for non port qualified addresses. The possible values are: QUIET. MaxStartups Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the sshd daemon. This allows the use of most PAM challenge response authentication modules. The de- PermitEmptyPasswords When password authentication is allowed.hmacsha1-96. there is no time limit..ditionally. INFO. sshd will refuse connection attempts with a probability of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections. 2008 . MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. The default is ``no''. FATAL. ERROR. The default is ``hmac-md5. The default is 10.

PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed.) Protocol The default is ``yes''. or equivalent. The default is ``yes''. The default is /var/run/sshd. All other authentication methods are disabled for root. The default is ``yes''. (On some systems it is also printed by the shell. PrintMotd Specifies whether sshd should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. ``without-password''. ReverseMappingCheck Specifies whether sshd should try to verify the remote host name and check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address NSK-SSH V2. The default is ``yes''. If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'' root login with public key authentication will be allowed.PermitRootLogin Specifies whether root can login using ssh(1). The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. The default is ``2. If this option is set to ``no'' root is not allowed to login.1''.pid. Multiple versions must be commaseparated. Multiple options of this type are permitted. 2008 . but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed). PrintLastLog Specifies whether sshd should print the date and time when the user last logged in. PidFile Specifies the file that contains the process identifier of the sshd daemon. See also ListenAddress. The argument must be ``yes''. Port Specifies the port number that sshd listens on. The default is 22. If this option is set to ``without-password'' password authentication is disabled for root. ``forced-commands-only'' or ``no''.4 Page 48 March 31. /etc/profile. Specifies the protocol versions sshd should support.

StrictModes Specifies whether sshd should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. The minimum value is 512. This option applies to protocol version 1 only.equiv authentication. UseLogin Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions. LOCAL0. LOCAL3. Note that login(1) is never used NSK-SSH V2. LOCAL7. USER. The default is AUTH.equiv files is sufficient. LOCAL2. 2008 . This option applies to protocol version 1 only.g. Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command to execute upon subsystem request. The default is ``no''. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether authentication using rhosts or /etc/hosts. Subsystem Configures an external subsystem (e.equiv authentication together with successful RSA host authentication is allowed.4 Page 49 March 31. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. The default is ``no''. This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. By default no subsystems are defined. The default is ``no''. SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd. because it performs RSA-based host authentication in addition to normal rhosts or /etc/hosts. LOCAL1. AUTH. LOCAL5. The default is ``yes''. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed. LOCAL6. The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem. and the default is 768. The possible values are: DAEMON. The default is ``no''. this method should not be permitted because it is insecure. This option applies to protocol version 1 only.maps back to the very same IP address. RhostsRSAAuthentication should be used instead. ServerKeyBits Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key.. LOCAL4. The default is ``yes''. RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. Normally. file transfer daemon).

X11Forwarding Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. 2008 . XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. Note also. Time format examples: 600 10m 1h30m 600 seconds (10 minutes) 10 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes) NSK-SSH V2. The default is ``no''. as users can always install their own forwarders. Time Formats sshd command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time[qualifier]. X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1) cookies. that if this is enabled.4 Page 50 March 31. X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin is enabled.for remote command execution. X11DisplayOffset Specifies the first display number available for sshd's X11 forwarding. Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not improve security in any way. The default is 10. where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following: <none> s | S m | M h | H d | D w | W seconds seconds minutes hours days weeks The default is Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value.

runs it. prints last login time and /etc/motd (unless prevented in the configuration file or by $HOME/. AuthorizedKeysFile may be used to specify an alternative file. exponent. If the login is on a tty. modulus. separated by spaces: options. Each RSA public key consists of the following fields. records login time. base64 encoded key. Sets up basic environment. 4. the comment field is not used for anything (but may be convenient for the user to identify the key). see the FILES section). 9. 8. if it exists. Reads $HOME/. If the login is on a tty.ssh/authorized_keys is the default file that lists the public keys that are permitted for RSA authentication in protocol version 1 and for public key authentication (PubkeyAuthentication) in protocol version 2.ssh/environment if it exists.pub file and NSK-SSH V2. Runs user's shell or command. Note that lines in this file are usually several hundred bytes long (because of the size of the RSA key modulus).LOGIN PROCESS When a user successfully logs in. prints contents and quits (unless root). exponent. Changes to user's home directory.pub or the id_rsa. id_dsa. The options fields are optional. else if /etc/ssh/sshrc exists.4 Page 51 March 31. comment. If $HOME/.hushlogin. 5. 6. modulus and comment fields give the RSA key for protocol version 1. For protocol version 2 the keytype is ``ssh-dss'' or ``ssh-rsa''. instead.ssh/rc exists. 3. Each protocol version 2 public key consists of: options. Checks /etc/nologin. comment. keytype. its presence is determined by whether the line starts with a number or not (the option field never starts with a number). The ``rc'' files are given the X11 authentication protocol and cookie in standard input. and no command has been specified. bits. 2008 . copy the identity. 2. You don't want to type them in. sshd does the following: 1.pub. Changes to run with normal user privileges. AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT $HOME/. runs it. Each line of the file contains one key (empty lines and lines starting with a `#' are ignored as comments). 7. otherwise runs xauth. The bits.

If a 8-bit clean channel is required. otherwise it is run without a tty. if the canonical host name matches a negated pattern. however. The following option specifications are supported (note that option keywords are case-insensitive): from="pattern-list" Specifies that in addition to RSA authentication. The list may also contain patterns negated by prefixing them with `!'. the canonical name of the remote host must be present in the comma-separated list of patterns (`*' and `?' serve as wildcards). This additional option makes using a stolen key more difficult (name servers and/or routers would have to be compromised in addition to just the key). except within double quotes. the key permits an intruder to log in from anywhere in the world.edit it. the key is not accepted. No spaces are permitted. command or subsystem execution. The command supplied by the user (if any) is ignored. An example might be a key that permits remote backups but nothing else. Any port forward requests by the client will return an error. This might be used. if somebody somehow steals the key. environment="NAME=value" Specifies that the string is to be added to the environment when logging in using this key. command="command" Specifies that the command is executed whenever this key is used for authentication. Note that this option applies to shell.. The command is run on a pty if the client requests a pty.4 Page 52 March 31. This option might be useful to restrict certain RSA keys to perform just a specific operation. in connection with the command option. The purpose of this option is to optionally increase security: RSA authentication by itself does not trust the network or name servers or anything (but the key). NSK-SSH V2. The options (if present) consist of comma-separated option specifications. Environment variables set this way override other default environment values. no-port-forwarding Forbids TCP/IP forwarding when this key is used for authentication. Note that the client may specify TCP/IP and/or X11 forwarding unless they are explicitly prohibited. A quote may be included in the command by quoting it with a backslash. Multiple options of this type are permitted.g. e. one must not request a pty or should specify no-pty. 2008 .

and is not used. no-agent-forwarding Forbids authentication agent forwarding when this key is used for authentication. Hostnames is a comma-separated list of patterns ('*' and '?' act as wildcards).56:25" 1024 33 23. Each line in these files contains the following fields: hostnames.hut. they must be literal domains or addresses.niksula.2. from /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.. 2008 ..niksula.pub.1.fi permitopen="10. permitopen="host:port" Limit local ``ssh -L'' port forwarding such that it may only connect to the specified host and port. each pattern in turn is matched against the canonical host name (when authenticating a client) or against the user-supplied name (when authenticating a server). exponent.2334 ylo@niksula command="dump /home". Examples 1024 33 12121.hut. no-pty Prevents tty allocation (a request to allocate a pty will fail).2323 backup. Bits. comment..no-pty.g. NSK-SSH V2. they can be obtained.ssh/known_hosts files contain host public keys for all known hosts.no-X11-forwarding Forbids X11 forwarding when this key is used for authentication. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. Multiple permitopen options may be applied separated by commas. exponent. and the per-user file is maintained automatically: whenever the user connects from an unknown host its key is added to the per-user file..!pc. and $HOME/. The optional comment field continues to the end of the line. modulus.permitopen="10. bits.4 Page 53 March 31. e. it is not accepted (by that line) even if it matched another pattern on the line.2323 SSH_KNOWN_HOSTS FILE FORMAT The /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.hut. The global file should be prepared by the administrator (optional).no-port-forwarding 1024 33 23. Any X11 forward requests by the client will return an error. A pattern may also be preceded by `!' to indicate negation: if the host name matches a negated pattern.. and modulus are taken directly from the RSA host key..1.. No pattern matching is performed on the specified hostnames.fi" 1024 35 23.55:80".312314325 ylo@foo..fi. The fields are separated by spaces..2.bar from="*.

Note that the lines in these files are typically hundreds of characters long.org. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key These three files contain the private parts of the host keys. and not accessible to others. It is possible that the files contain conflicting information. but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable. These files should only be owned by root. This file should be writable by root only. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. This will inevitably happen when short forms of host names from different domains are put in the file.208..3 ssh-rsa AAAA1234.pub and adding the host names at the front. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.233.185.pub.. generate them by a script or by taking /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub. /var/run/sshd.. readable only by root.Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are ignored as comments.. authentication is accepted if valid information can be found from either file. they are provided for the convenience of the user so their contents can be copied to known hosts files.pid Contains the process ID of the sshd listening for connections (if NSK-SSH V2. These files are not really used for anything. Rather..pub These three files contain the public parts of the host keys. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key. 2008 .130.= FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd.93 closenet.openbsd.41 1024 37 159.. authentication is accepted if any matching line has the proper key.fi cvs. These files are created using ssh-keygen(1).hut..137. Examples closenet. and you definitely don't want to type in the host keys by hand. It is thus permissible (but not recommended) to have several lines or different host keys for the same names.4 Page 54 March 31. When performing host authentication... /etc/ssh/moduli Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the "Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange". Note that sshd does not start if this file is group/world-accessible. Their contents should match the respective private parts. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. These files should be world-readable but writable only by root.199..

The given user on the to log in without password. /etc/nologin If this file exists.rhosts This file contains host-username per line.deny If compiled with LIBWRAP support. The client uses the same files to verify that it is connecting to the correct remote host.pub. The content of this file is not sensitive. Users will place the contents of their identity. The contents of the file are displayed to anyone trying to log in. If is also possible to use netgroups in the file. The file must be writable mended that it not be accessible pairs.pub files into this file. The rshd. However.ssh/known_hosts These files are consulted when using rhosts with RSA host authentication or protocol version 2 hostbased authentication to check the public key of the host. sshd refuses to let anyone except root log in. and non-root connections are refused. separated by a space. one corresponding host is permitted same file is used by rlogind and only by the user. The file should be world-readable.4 Page 55 March 31. $HOME/. The key must be listed in one of these files to be accepted. this file is not used by rlogin and rshd. this file is exactly the same as for .allow. $HOME/. this contains the pid of the one started last). and $HOME/. The format of this file is described above. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.shosts For ssh. id_dsa. /etc/hosts.there are several daemons running concurrently for different ports. Either host or user name may be of the form +@groupname to specify all hosts or all users in the group.ssh/known_hosts can but need not be world-readable. it can be world-readable. These files should be writable only by root/the owner. tcp-wrappers access controls may be defined here as described in hosts_access(5). /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts should be world-readable. $HOME/. it is recomby others. as described in ssh-keygen(1). /etc/hosts.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA or DSA) that can be used to log into the user's account. This file must be readable by root (which may on some machines imply it being world-readable if the user's home directory resides on an NFS volume).rhosts. 2008 . It is recommended that it not be accessible by others. so using this permits NSK-SSH V2.pub and/or id_rsa.

/etc/hosts. Negated entries start with `-'. this will receive the "proto cookie" pair in standard input (and DISPLAY in environment). /etc/ssh/shosts.ssh/environment This file is read into the environment at login (if it exists). In the simplest form. The host name may also be followed by a user name. $HOME/. If the client host/user is successfully matched in this file. such users are permitted to log in as any user on this machine (except root). and other accounts that own critical binaries and directories. daemon. This must call xauth(1) in that case. comment lines (that start with `#').rhosts authentication. this file may be useful in environments that want to run both rsh/rlogin and ssh. which includes bin. it is run with /bin/sh after reading the environment files but before starting the user's shell or command. Beware that it really means that the named user(s) can log in as anybody. provided they have the same user name on both machines. If X11 spoofing is in use. It can only contain empty lines. The file should be writable only by the user. AFS is a particular example of such an environ- NSK-SSH V2. and assignment lines of the form name=value. Additionally. it need not be readable by anyone else. this file contains host names. Warning: It is almost never a good idea to use user names in hosts. The only valid use for user names that I can think of is in negative entries. Note that this warning also applies to rsh/rlogin. successful RSA host authentication is normally required.equiv This is processed exactly as /etc/hosts.ssh/rc If this file exists. Additionally. This file must be writable only by root.equiv. The primary purpose of this file is to run any initialization routines which may be needed before the user's home directory becomes accessible.4 Page 56 March 31. one per line.equiv. 2008 . adm. However. $HOME/. Users on those hosts are permitted to log in without a password. login is automatically permitted provided the client and server user names are the same. the syntax ``+@group'' can be used to specify netgroups. it is recommended that it be world-readable.access using SSH only.equiv This file is used during . Using a user name practically grants the user root access.

and need not be readable by anyone else.ment. /etc/ssh/sshrc Like $HOME/. ssh(1). xauth is used to store the cookie. SEE ALSO scp(1). moduli(5). ssh-agent(1).4 Page 57 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. login.conf(5). ssh-add(1). sftp(1). and should be world-readable. and if that does not exist either.ssh/rc. 2008 . sftp-server(8) ssh-keygen(1). This file should be writable only by the user. then echo add $DISPLAY $proto $cookie | xauth -q fi If this file does not exist. This file should be writable only by root. This can be used to specify machine-specific login-time initializations globally. /etc/ssh/sshrc is run. This file will probably contain some initialization code followed by something similar to: if read proto cookie.

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sftp-server is not intended to be called directly. Ylonen.4 Page 59 March 31. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).8 .SFTP server subsystem SYNOPSIS sftp-server DESCRIPTION sftp-server is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. SSH File Transfer Protocol. SEE ALSO sftp(1).txt. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00.sftp-server SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server . and S. NSK-SSH V2.org> HISTORY sftp-server first appeared in OpenBSD 2. work in progress material. Lehtinen. sshd(8) T. See sshd(8) for more information. January 2001. 2008 . DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. AUTHORS Markus Friedl <markus@openbsd.

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system file system.SFTP server subsystem for guardian access SYNOPSIS sftp-server-guardian DESCRIPTION sftp-server-guardian is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. Ylonen. If the filename has a .4 Page 61 March 31. The sftp-server-guardian support reading and writing files directly to the guardian filesystem using the standard unix syntax. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00.sftp-server-guardian SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server-guardian . See sshd(8) for more information.txt. This subsystem does not have access to files residing on another node. 2008 . sftp-server-guardian is not intended to be called directly.txt file on it. If the filename is too long you will get an error. sshd(8) T. Eventhough this feature was designed into the subsystem. For example. it will be stored as an edit file. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). if you wish to access the $system. January 2001. NSK-SSH V2. This make the sftp-server-guardian subsystem compatible with graphical user interfaces such as FileZilla. As with all guardian filenames. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. there was no way to allow this via a graphical interface and unix filesystem syntax. you must limit your filenames to 8 characters. AUTHORS Bowden Systems Inc <sales@bsi2. SSH File Transfer Protocol. and S. using the sftp-server-guardian you would use the /system/system option.com> HISTORY sftp-server-guardian first appeared in 2005. work in progress material. Lehtinen. SEE ALSO sftp(1).

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2008 . SEE ALSO ssh(1) NSK-SSH V2.Set this to the password for the public key or user id HISTORY This program was written to solve the select problem for ssh in OSS. it should be enclosed in double or single quotes.4 Page 63 March 31. GNOTTY 1 . If cmd is more than one command. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. -v used for displaying detail ssh information on stderr.scmd SCMD(1) System Reference Manual SCMD(1) NAME scmd . ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCMD program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password.secure command (remote command execution) SYNOPSIS scmd [-v] user@host cmd DESCRIPTION scmd is a command front-end for ssh.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password .

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rename. Since it lacks user interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication.4 Page 65 March 31. -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication. similar to ftp(1). System Reference Manual SFTP(1) -b batchfile Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). The last usage format allows the sftp client to start in a remote directory. sftp connects and logs into the specified host. It may also use many features of ssh. then enters an interactive command mode. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag. put. such as public key authentication and compression. The options are as follows: -1 Specify the use of protocol version 1. 2008 . rm and lmkdir. which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh(1) transport. For exam- NSK-SSH V2. sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get.Secure file transfer program SYNOPSIS sftp [-1Cv] [-b batchfile] [-F ssh_config] [-o ssh_option] [-s subsystem | sftp_server] [-S program] host sftp [[user@]host[:file [file]]] sftp [[user@]host[:dir[/]]] DESCRIPTION sftp is an interactive file transfer program. -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used. ln. -C Enables compression (via ssh's -C flag).sftp SFTP(1) NAME sftp .

-s subsystem | sftp_server Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host. GNOTTY 1 . Quit sftp. or when the remote sshd does not have an sftp subsystem configured. Commands are case insensitive and pathnames may be enclosed in quotes if they contain spaces. chmod mode path Change permissions of file path to mode.4 Page 66 March 31. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . chown own path Change owner of file path to own. to specify an alternate port use: sftp -oPort=24. A path is useful for using sftp over protocol version 1. This option is also passed to ssh. bye cd path Change remote directory to path.Set this to the password for the public key or user id INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Once in interactive mode. exit Quit sftp. lcd path Change local directory to path. -v Raise logging level.ple. grp must be a numeric GID. program must understand ssh(1) options. own must be a numeric UID. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. -S program Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection. sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1). The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SFTP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. chgrp grp path Change group of file path to grp.

If the -P flag is specified. lpwd Print local working directory. pwd quit Display remote working directory.4 Page 67 March 31. help Display help text. If the -P flag is specified. If the local path name is not specified. lumask umask Set local umask to umask. lmkdir path Create local directory specified by path. it is given the same name it has on the remote machine. Quit sftp. ln oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath.get [flags] remote-path [local-path] Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. ls [path] Display remote directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. rename oldpath newpath Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. lls [ls-options [path]] Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. rm path NSK-SSH V2. rmdir path Remove remote directory specified by path. mkdir path Create remote directory specified by path. it is given the same name it has on the local machine. 2008 . If the remote path name is not specified. put [flags] local-path [local-path] Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine.

ssh-add(1). and S. sshd(8) T. NSK-SSH V2. SSH File Transfer Protocol. AUTHORS Damien Miller <djm@mindrot.txt. Synonym for help. Ylonen.Delete remote file specified by path. ssh(1). ! command Execute command in local shell. ! ? Escape to local shell. 2008 . Lehtinen.4 Page 68 March 31. sftp-server(8).org> SEE ALSO scp(1). ssh-keygen(1). work in progress material. January 2001. symlink oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00.

Unlike rcp(1). and modes from the original file.secure copy (remote file copy program) SYNOPSIS scp [-pqrvBC46] [-F ssh_config] [-S program] [-P port] [-c cipher] [-i identity_file] [-o ssh_option] [[user@]host1:]file1 [. and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh(1). -r -v -B -q NSK-SSH V2. Verbose mode. It uses ssh(1) for data transfer. Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases). This option is directly passed to ssh(1). option is directly passed to ssh(1).. and configuration problems. authentication. scp will ask for passwords or passphrases if they are needed for authentication. access times. Copies between two remote hosts are permitted. Disables the progress meter. System Reference Manual SCP(1) This -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read. Recursively copy entire directories. This is helpful in debugging connection. 2008 . -p Preserves modification times.4 Page 69 March 31. Any file name may contain a host and user specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from that host.. The options are as follows: -c cipher Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer.scp SCP(1) NAME scp .] [[user@]host2:]file2 DESCRIPTION scp copies files between hosts on a network. Causes scp and ssh(1) to print debugging messages about their progress.

GNOTTY 1 . 2008 . -4 -6 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). ssh-add(1). -S program Name of program to use for the encrypted connection. NSK-SSH V2. SEE ALSO rcp(1). Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable com- -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. The program -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen.4 Page 70 March 31. -P port Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host. Note that this option is written with a capital `P'.fi> and Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs.hut. pression. ssh(1). sshd(8) sftp(1).Set this to the password for the public key or user id AUTHORS Timo Rinne <tri@iki. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password.-C Compression enable. forcing the use of protocol version 1 is specified using scp -oProtocol=1. For example. ssh-agent(1). must understand ssh(1) options. ssh-keygen(1).fi> HISTORY scp is based on the rcp(1) program in BSD source code from the Regents of the University of California. because -p is already reserved for preserving the times and modes of the file in rcp(1). This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag.

adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-add [-lLdD] [file . NSK-SSH V2. The authentication agent must be running and must be an ancestor of the current process for ssh-add to work.4 Page 71 March 31.ssh/identity. ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given.. ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user. The passphrase is read from the user's tty. sshagent(1). Instead of adding the identity. -e reader Remove key in smartcard reader. When run without arguments. removes the identity from the agent. Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented by the agent. The options are as follows: -l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent. System Reference Manual SSH-ADD(1) -L -d -D -s reader Add key in smartcard reader.ssh-add SSH-ADD(1) NAME ssh-add . Deletes all identities from the agent. it adds the file $HOME/. If any file requires a passphrase. Alternative file names can be given on the command line.. 2008 .] ssh-add -s reader ssh-add -e reader DESCRIPTION ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent.

$HOME/. Note that ssh-add ignores this file if it is accessible by others.Xsession or related script.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. 2008 . $HOME/. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. This is the default file added by ssh-add when no other files have been specified. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user.4 Page 72 March 31. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).) SEE ALSO ssh(1).ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. ssh-agent(1). ssh-keygen(1). DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.FILES $HOME/. ENVIRONMENT DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS If ssh-add needs a passphrase. This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a . It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work.

Debug mode. The options are as follows: -c Generate C-shell commands on stdout. this is executed as a subprocess of the agent. This is the default if SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell.4 Page 73 March 31. Through use of environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for authentication when logging in to other machines using ssh(1). When the command dies.ssh-agent SSH-AGENT(1) NAME ssh-agent .. ssh-add(1) adds the $HOME/. ssh-add(1) asks for the passphrase (using a small X11 application if running under X11. It then sends the identity to the agent. fork. ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by the agent. DSA). This is the default if SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell. or from the terminal if running without X). When executed without arguments. Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout. so does the agent. Keys are added using ssh-add(1). 2008 ..authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-agent [-c | -s] [-d] [command [args . the agent can automatically use any of these identities. and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program. The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session.]] ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k DESCRIPTION ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA. Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable). The agent initially does not have any private keys. If the identity has a passphrase. Several identities can be stored in the agent.ssh/identity file. When this option is specified ssh-agent will not System Reference Manual SSH-AGENT(1) -s -k -d If a commandline is given. NSK-SSH V2.

However. the connection to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. Authentication data need not be stored on any other machine.<pid>). FILES $HOME/. The agent exits automatically when the command given on the command line terminates. A unix-domain socket is created (/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. and the user can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere in the network in a secure way. NSK-SSH V2. There are two main ways to get an agent setup: Either the agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment variables are exported. Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection to the agent. or the agent prints the needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be generated) which can be evalled in the calling shell. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. and the name of this socket is stored in the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. laptop. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. or terminal. and authentication passphrases never go over the network. 2008 . $HOME/. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). The socket is made accessible only to the current user. This file is not used by ssh-agent but is normally added to the agent using ssh-add(1) at login time. This method is easily abused by root or another instance of the same user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. $HOME/. The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's PID.The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key.4 Page 74 March 31.

The sockets should get automatically removed when the agent exits. ssh-add(1).4 Page 75 March 31./tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. ssh-keygen(1).<pid> Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection to the authentication agent. These sockets should only be readable by the owner. 2008 . SEE ALSO ssh(1).

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rhosts or .equiv or /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv.equiv on the remote machine. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. [Note to the administrator: /etc/hosts. The second authentication method is the rhosts or hosts. or /etc/ssh/shosts. only then login is permitted. ssh connects and logs into the specified hostname. It means that if the login would be permitted by $HOME/.NSK SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine. if the machine the user logs in from is listed in /etc/hosts. and the user names are the same on both sides.equiv.equiv. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods deM-pending on the protocol version used: SSH protocol version 1 First. DNS spoofing and routing spoofing. and if additionally the server can verify the client's host key (see /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/. $HOME/. This authentication method closes security holes due to IP spoofing. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. the user is permitted to log in. Second. This form of authentication alone is normally not allowed by the server because it is not secure. and the rlogin/rsh protocol in general. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh.shosts. are inherently insecure and should be System Reference Manual SSH(1) NSK-SSH V2.equiv method combined with RSA-based host authentication.rhosts. if . /etc/hosts.ssh SSH(1) NAME ssh .shosts exists in the user's home directory on the remote machine and contains a line containing the name of the client machine and the name of the user on that machine.4 Page 77 March 31. $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts in the FILES section). the user is immediately permitted to log in. 2008 .rhosts.

and has one key per line. The user creates his/her RSA key pair by running ssh-keygen(1). ssh implements the RSA authentication protocol automatically. and finally if this method fails keyboard-interactive and password authentication are tried.] As a third authentication method. the ssh program tells the server which key pair it would like to use for authentication. encrypted by the user's public key.disabled if security is desired.ssh/identity and the public key in $HOME/. a random number. The file $HOME/.4 Page 78 March 31. The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may be with an authentication agent. and it is not possible to derive the decryption key from the encryption key. proving that he/she knows the private key but without disclosing it to the server. The scheme is based on public-key cryptography: there are cryptosystems where encryption and decryption are done using separate keys. See ssh-agent(1) for more information. The server knows the public key. The password is sent to the remote host for checking.ssh/authorized_keys in his/her home directory on the remote machine (the authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional $HOME/. The server checks if this key is permitted. SSH protocol version 2 When a user connects using the protocol version 2 different authentication methods are available. sends the user (actually the ssh program running on behalf of the user) a challenge.ssh/authorized_keys lists the public keys that are permitted for logging in. and only the user knows the private key. The user should then copy the identity. RSA authentication is much more secure than rhosts authentication. Using the default values for PreferredAuthentications. 2008 . The user's client then decrypts the challenge using the private key. This stores the private key in $HOME/. ssh prompts the user for a password.pub in the user's home directory.rhosts file. though the lines can be very long). The idea is that each user creates a public/private key pair for authentication purposes. After this. however. the password cannot be seen by someone listening on the network. the user can log in without giving the password. since all communications are encrypted. When the user logs in. RSA is one such system.pub to $HOME/. if this method fails public key authentication is attempted. and if so. The challenge can only be decrypted using the proper private key. If other authentication methods fail. the client will try to authenticate first using the hostbased method. ssh supports RSA based authentication. The public key method is similar to RSA authentication described in the NSK-SSH V2.ssh/identity.

Blowfish. If public key authentication fails or is not available a password can be sent encrypted to the remote host for proving the user's identity. On most systems. Note that protocol 1 lacks a strong mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the connection. setting the escape character to ``none'' will also make the session transparent even if a tty is used. hmac-sha1). The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP connections have been closed. The session identifier is derived from a shared Diffie-Hellman value and is only known to the client and the server.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa. If a pseudo-terminal has been allocated (normal login session).previous section and allows the RSA or DSA algorithm to be used: The client uses his private key. ssh supports a number of functions through the use of an escape character. or logs into the machine and gives the user a normal shell on the remote machine. to sign the session identifier and sends the result to the server. Login session and remote execution When the user's identity has been accepted by the server. The escape character can be changed in configuration files using the EscapeChar configuration directive or on the command line by the -e option. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted. ssh supports hostbased or challenge response authentication. Protocol 2 provides additional mechanisms for confidentiality (the traffic is encrypted using 3DES. A single tilde character can be sent as ~~ or by following the tilde by a character other than those described below. If no pseudo tty has been allocated. the server either executes the given command. Escape Characters When a pseudo terminal has been requested. the session is transparent and can be used to reliably transfer binary data. 2008 . the user may use the escape characters noted below. Additionally. The escape character must always follow a newline to be interpreted as special.4 Page 79 March 31. CAST128 or Arcfour) and integrity (hmac-md5. The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh. NSK-SSH V2.ssh/authorized_keys and grants access if both the key is found and the signature is correct. $HOME/. The server checks whether the matching public key is listed in $HOME/.

ssh will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. One possible application of TCP/IP forwarding is a secure connection to an electronic purse.The supported escapes (assuming the default `~') are: ~. This is normal. and verify that any forwarded connections carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened. store it in Xauthority on the server. the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted channel. see the description of the -X and -x options described later) and the user is using X11 (the DISPLAY environment variable is set).4 Page 80 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. The real authentication cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain). another is going through firewalls. and happens because ssh creates a ``proxy'' X server on the server machine for forwarding the connections over the encrypted channel. 2008 . For this purpose. it will generate a random authorization cookie. Forwarding of X11 connections can be configured on the command line or in configuration files. and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine. The user should not manually set DISPLAY. but with a display number greater than zero. the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the remote side unless disabled on the command line or in a configuration file. ~^Z ~# ~& Disconnect Background ssh List forwarded connections Background ssh at logout when waiting for forwarded connection / X11 sessions to terminate (protocol version 1 only) Display a list of escape characters Request rekeying of the connection (only useful for SSH protocol version 2 and if the peer supports it) ~? ~R X11 and TCP forwarding If the ForwardX11 variable is set to ``yes'' (or. The DISPLAY value set by ssh will point to the server machine. Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file. If the user is using an authentication agent.

') closes the connection. it appears very secure and is much faster than 3des. 3des (triple-des) is an encrypt-decrypt-encrypt triple with three different keys. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. Host keys are stored in $HOME/. -e ch|^ch|none Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: `~'). See Ciphers for more information. Additionally. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. 2008 . -c blowfish|3des|des Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the session. blowfish is a fast block cipher. Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. -c cipher_spec Additionally. ssh warns about this and disables password authentication to prevent a trojan horse from getting the user's password. des is only supported in the ssh client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. 3des is used by default. Another purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of ciphers can be specified in order of preference. and followed by itself sends the escape character once. Setting the NSK-SSH V2. followed by control-Z suspends the connection.Server authentication ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing identifications for all hosts it has ever been used with.ssh/known_hosts in the user's home directory. the file /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts. -b bind_address Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. The StrictHostKeyChecking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines whose host key is not known or has changed. It is believed to be secure.4 Page 81 March 31. Any new hosts are automatically added to the user's file. If a host's identification ever changes. The escape character followed by a dot (`. The options are as follows: -a -A Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line.

-N NSK-SSH V2. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine.hut.) Do not execute a remote command.hut. See the MACs keyword for more information. ssh -n shadows. -g -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA or DSA authentication is read. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase. -k Disables forwarding of Kerberos tickets and AFS tokens. -l login_name Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine. Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports.fi.character to ``none'' disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent. This is useful for just forwarding ports (protocol version 2 only).ssh/identity in the user's home directory. The ssh program will be put in the background. and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel.fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows. 2008 . see also the -f option. This may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. This implies -n.cs. -m mac_spec Additionally. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases. Default is $HOME/. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms can be specified in order of preference. but the user wants it in the background. -I smartcard_device Specifies which smartcard device to use. For example. The argument is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. -n Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually. Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. prevents reading from stdin).cs.4 Page 82 March 31. This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). This must be used when ssh is run in the background.

This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. when implementing menu services. Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections. Note that this option turns off RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication for older servers. and data for forwarded X11 and TCP/IP connections). -q -s May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system. This is helpful in debugging connection. Verbose mode. and the ``level'' can be controlled by the CompressionLevel option (see below). and configuration problems. The subsystem is specified as the remote command.4 Page 83 March 31. Quiet mode. stderr. Enables X11 forwarding. Maximum is 3. e. Disables X11 forwarding. Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be Only fatal errors are displayed. Multiple -v options increases the verbosity. suppressed.g. even if ssh has no local tty. -P Use a non-privileged port for outgoing connections. stdout. 2008 . Disable pseudo-tty allocation. Force pseudo-tty allocation. which can be very useful.. Multiple -t options force tty allocation. Subsystems are a feature of the SSH2 protocol which facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (eg. This can be used to execute arbiM-trary screen-based programs on a remote machine. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress.-o option Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin. The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1). authentication. but will only slow down things on fast networks. sftp). This can be used if a firewall does not permit connections from privileged ports. This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. This can also be specified on a per-host -t -T -v -x -X basis in a configuration file. The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the con- NSK-SSH V2.

and whenever a connection is made to this port. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. and whenever a connection is made to this port. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -D port Specifies a local ``dynamic'' application-level port forwarding. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the remote machine. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side.ssh/config. Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. The default for the per-user configuration file is $HOME/. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. see the Compression option below. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. -L port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the local (client) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the remote side. 2008 . and whenever a connection is made to this port. -F configfile Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file.4 Page 84 March 31. Only root can forward priviM-leged ports. -1 -2 -4 Forces ssh to try protocol version 1 only. NSK-SSH V2. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -R port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the remote (server) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the local side. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported.figuration files. If a configuration file is given on the command line. Only root can forward privileged ports. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the local machine. the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the remote side. Forces ssh to try protocol version 2 only.

This option applies to protocol version 1 only. For each parameter. CONFIGURATION FILES ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: command line options. A single `*' as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts. The host is the hostname argument given on the command line (i. user's configuration file ($HOME/. scp and sftp -o option. BatchMode If set to ``yes''. the first obtained value will be used. 2008 . Configuration options may be separated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one `='. Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used. This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password. passphrase/password querying will be disabled. The matched host name is the one given on the command line. more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file. The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword. and system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config). The default is ``no''. the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh.ssh/config). and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification.e.-6 Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. the name is not converted to a canonicalized host name before matching)..4 Page 85 March 31. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. NSK-SSH V2. The configuration file has the following format: Empty lines and lines starting with `#' are comments. and general defaults at the end. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The configuration files contain sections bracketed by ``Host'' specifications. Otherwise a line is of the format ``keyword arguments''. AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether to pass AFS tokens to remote host.

aes256-cbc'' ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local. The default level is 6. aes192-cbc. Currently. The default is ``yes''. ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before NSK-SSH V2. The default is ``no''.blowfish-cbc. ``3des''. This allows ssh to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing. remote and dynamic port forwardings specified in the configuration files or on the command line be cleared. CheckHostIP If this flag is set to ``yes''. des is only supported in the ssh client for inM-teroperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. The deM-fault is ``aes128-cbc. and ``des'' are supported. Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to ``yes''. The default is ``no''. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. If the option is set to ``no''. The meaning of the values is the same as in gzip(1). ssh will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order of preference. The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9 (slow. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. 2008 . best). The default is ``3des''.3des-cbc.cast128-cbc.BindAddress Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses.4 Page 86 March 31. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. Cipher Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in protocol version 1. the check will not be executed. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. which is good for most applications. and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. CompressionLevel Specifies the compression level to use if compression is enabled. Compression Specifies whether to use compression. This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh command line to clear port forwardings set in configuration files. ``blowfish''.arcfour.

and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. The argument must be a port number. By default. The default is ``no''. Multiple forwardings may be specified. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. rsh(1) should automatically be used instead (after a suitable warning about the session being unencrypted). 2008 . DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel. The default is 1. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports.falling back to rsh or exiting. The argument should be a single character. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. `^' followed by a letter. GlobalKnownHostsFile NSK-SSH V2. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: `~'). The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. FallBackToRsh Specifies that if connecting via ssh fails due to a connection refused error (there is no sshd(8) listening on the remote host). or ``none'' to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data). ssh binds local port forwardings to the loopback addresss.4 Page 87 March 31. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The default is ``no''. The escape character can also be set on the command line. The default is ``no''. ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. The argument must be an integer. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.

This is important in scripts. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication. 2008 . However. The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the protocol version 2 host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of preference.ssh-dss'' HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files. and many users want it too. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication. HostName Specifies the real host name to log into. It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts.4 Page 88 March 31.ssh/identity in the user's home directory). The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. The default for this option is: ``ssh-rsa. all these identities will be tried in sequence. To disable keepalives. Default is the name given on the command line.Specifies a file to use for the global host key database instead of /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. The default is ``no''. Additionally. IdentityFile Specifies the file from which the user's RSA or DSA authentication identity is read (default $HOME/. The file name may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory. If they are sent. the value should be set to ``no'' in both NSK-SSH V2. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. This option applies to protocol version 2 only and is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication. and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies. and some people find it annoying. This option is useful for tunneling ssh connections or for multiple servers running on a single host.

Default PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try protocol 2 authentication methods. is 22.4 Page 89 March 31. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. The default is ``yes''.hmac-md5-96''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The first argument must be a port number. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. The default is INFO. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. INFO.the server and the client configuration files. gument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This will only work if the Kerberos server is actually an AFS kaserver. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. This allows a client to prefer one method NSK-SSH V2. Multiple forwardings may be specified. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The ar- KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT will be forwarded to the server.hmac-sha1. The argument to this keyword must be an integer. 2008 . The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication will be used. FATAL.hmac-sha1-96. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh. Default is 3. NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine. Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host.hmacripemd160. The possible values are: QUIET. The default is ``hmac-md5. VERBOSE and DEBUG. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication. ERROR. and the second must be host:port.

and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The default is ``yes''. The first argument must be a port number. Note that this declaration only affects the client side and has no effect whatsoever on security.password'' Protocol Specifies the protocol versions ssh should support in order of preference.(e. Multiple forwardings may be specified. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e. The command can be basically anything. or execute sshd -i somewhere.keyboardinteractive.publickey. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user). It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the local machine. ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server. The default is ``2. and is executed with /bin/sh. Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication).g.4 Page 90 March 31. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. NSK-SSH V2. The command string extends to the end of the line. `%h' will be substituted by the host name to connect and `%p' by the port. In the command string. 2008 . RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication. and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. Multiple versions must be comma-separated. The deM-fault is ``yes''. password) The default for this option is: ``hostbased. Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command.g.1''. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. and the second must be host:port. Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce authentication time on slow connections when rhosts authentication is not used. This means that ssh tries version 2 and falls back to version 1 if version 2 is not available. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''.

StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to ``yes''. The default is ``yes''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``yes''. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try RSA authentication. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections. SmartcardDevice Specifies which smartcard device to use.ssh/known_hosts file. The default is ``yes''. RSA authentication will only be attempted if the identity file exists. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. however. ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files. ``no'' or ``ask''. NSK-SSH V2. ssh will never automatically add host keys to the $HOME/. new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do. The default is ``ask''. can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained. If this flag is set to ``no''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. If this flag is set to ``ask''.4 Page 91 March 31. and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks. The argument to this keyword is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. or an authentication agent is running. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts. or connections to new hosts are frequently made. By default. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The host keys of known hosts will be verified automatically in all cases. and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts whose host key has changed.RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA host authentication. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. no device is specified and smartcard support is not activated. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge response authentication. 2008 . The argument must be ``yes''. Note that this option must be set to ``yes'' if RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication authentications are needed with older servers.

ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections over the secure channel.User Specifies the user to log in as. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 92 March 31. SSH_ASKPASS If ssh needs a passphrase. UserKnownHostsFile Specifies a file to use for the user host key database instead of $HOME/. All other options (except HostName) are ignored if this has been specified. as specified when compiling ssh. This is particularly useful when calling ssh from a . it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. 2008 . Set to the default PATH. The default is ENVIRONMENT ssh will normally set the following environment variables: DISPLAY The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server. It is automatically set by ssh to point to a value of the form ``hostname:n'' where hostname indicates the host where the shell runs. It is possible that the host does not at all support the ssh protocol. UseRsh Specifies that rlogin/rsh should be used for this host. This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines. This causes ssh to immediately execute rsh(1). This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line. The user should normally not set DISPLAY explicitly. /usr/bin/X11/xauth.ssh/known_hosts. set for compatibility with systems that use this variable.Xsession or related script. Set to the path of the user's home directory. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. If ssh does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. as that will render the X11 connection insecure (and will require the user to manually copy any required authorization cookies). HOME LOGNAME Synonym for USER. and n is an integer >= 1. MAIL PATH Set to the path of the user's mailbox.

ssh/known_hosts Records host keys for all hosts the user has logged into that are not in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts..ssh/identity.Set this to the password for the public key or user id FILES $HOME/. NONSTOP ADDITIONAL OPTIONS If you need to use the SSH program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. $HOME/.ssh/environment. It can be used to extract the original arguments. GNOTTY 1 . $HOME/. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen.e. They are for protocol 1 RSA. and adds lines of the format ``VARNAME=value'' to the environment. $HOME/. this variable is not set. the daemon passes the value on to new connections). TZ The timezone variable is set to indicate the present timezone if it was set when the daemon was started (i. and server port number. respectively. If the current session has no tty. NSK-SSH V2. SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND The variable contains the original command line if a forced command is executed. SSH_TTY This is set to the name of the tty (path to the device) associated with the current shell or command. protocol 2 DSA. client port number.) SSH_AUTH_SOCK Identifies the path of a unix-domain socket used to communicate with the agent. USER Additionally. The variable contains three space-separated values: client ip-address.4 Page 93 March 31.(Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. ssh reads $HOME/. 2008 . See sshd(8). Set to the name of the user logging in.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . SSH_CLIENT Identifies the client end of the connection.ssh/id_rsa Contains the authentication identity of the user. and protocol 2 RSA.ssh/id_dsa.

ssh/identity. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user.pub file should be added to $HOME/. and not accessible by others.ssh/identity. they are only provided for the convenience of the user. in the following format (fields separated by spaces): system name. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.ssh/id_dsa. These files are not sensitive and can (but need not) be readable by anyone. The format is described on the sshd(8) manual page.pub identity files. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user.These files contain sensitive data and should be readable by the user but not accessible by others (read/write/execute). $HOME/. 2008 . This file does not usually contain any sensitive information. These files are never used automatically and are not necessary. When different names are used for the same machine.pub file should be added to $HOME/.pub Contains the public key for authentication (public part of the identity file in human-readable form). the passphrase will be used to encrypt the sensitive part of this file using 3DES. one per line. This file contains public keys.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA/DSA) that can be used for logging in as this user. public key and optional comment field.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 2 DSA/RSA authentication. The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by sshd(8) to verify the client host when logging in. and not accessible by others. This file is used by the ssh client. $HOME/. The contents of the $HOME/.pub and $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts Systemwide list of known host keys.pub. other names NSK-SSH V2.pub.4 Page 94 March 31. The format of this file is described in the sshd(8) manual page. separated by commas.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 1 RSA authentication.ssh/id_rsa.ssh/id_rsa. In the simplest form the format is the same as the . The format of this file is described above. This file is not highly sensitive. $HOME/. $HOME/.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. This file should be prepared by the system administrator to contain the public host keys of all machines in the organization. all such names should be listed. This file should be worldreadable. The contents of the $HOME/. Note that ssh ignores a private key file if it is accessible by othM-ers.

because someone with access to the name servers would then be able to fool host authentication.) Each line of the file contains a host name (in the canonical form returned by name servers). which makes using this file insecure. Additionally. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. If the client host is found in this file.rhosts authentication.ssh/known_hosts. Additionally.are needed because ssh does not convert the user-supplied name to a canonical name before checking the key. separated by a space. Note that by default sshd(8) will be installed so that it requires successful RSA host authentication before permitting . successful RSA host authentication is normally required.rhosts This file is used in . and then a user name on that host. The easiest way to do this is to connect back to the client from the server machine using ssh. The recommended permission for most machines is read/write for the user. This file must be world-readable. /etc/hosts. (Note that this file is also used by rlogin and rsh. NSK-SSH V2. and for those users who do not have a configuration file. If the server machine does not have the client's host key in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. This file should only be writable by root. this file must be owned by the user. because sshd(8) reads it as root. and not accessible by others.ssh/known_hosts. $HOME/. This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file. it can be stored in $HOME/. $HOME/. /etc/ssh/shosts. this will automatically add the host key to $HOME/.equiv.equiv This file is used during . The purpose for having this file is to be able to use rhosts authentication with ssh without permitting login with rlogin(1) or rsh(1). one per line (the full format is described on the sshd(8) manual page). 2008 .4 Page 95 March 31. and must not have write permissions for anyone else.rhosts authentication. On some machines this file may need to be world-readable if the user's home directory is on a NFS partition. This file may be useful to permit logins using ssh but not using rsh/rlogin.shosts This file is used exactly the same way as . login is automatically permitted provided client and server user names are the same.rhosts. It contains canonical hosts names.equiv This file is processed exactly as /etc/hosts.rhosts authentication to list the host/user pairs that are permitted to log in.

See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. $HOME/. rsh(1). Lehtinen. July 2001. sftp(1). Saarinen.ssh/environment Contains additional definitions for environment variables. telnet(1)./etc/ssh/sshrc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. NSK-SSH V2. see section ENVIRONMENT above. work in progress material.4 Page 96 March 31. SEE ALSO rlogin(1). M. 2008 . $HOME/. and S. ssh- T. keygen(1).txt. Kivinen. Ylonen. Rinne. T. T. sshd(8) ssh-add(1). scp(1). See the sshd(8) manual page for more information.ssh/rc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. SSH Protocol Architecture. ssh-agent(1). draft-ietf-secsh-architecture-09.

0 #ListenAddress :: # HostKey for protocol version 1 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key # HostKeys for protocol version 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key # Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key KeyRegenerationInterval 3600 ServerKeyBits 768 # Logging SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging # Authentication: LoginGraceTime 600 PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes RSAAuthentication yes PubkeyAuthentication yes #AuthorizedKeysFile %h/.rhosts and ~/.shosts files IgnoreRhosts yes # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts RhostsRSAAuthentication no # similar for protocol version 2 See sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 97 March 31. Port 22 #Protocol 2. # for more information.ssh/authorized_keys # rhosts authentication should not be used RhostsAuthentication no # Don't read the user's ~/.0.1 ListenAddress 0.FILES sshd_config FILE # This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/ssh/bin # This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file.0.APPENDIX B .

change to no here! PasswordAuthentication yes PermitEmptyPasswords no # Uncomment to disable s/key passwords #ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # Uncomment to enable PAM keyboard-interactive authentication # Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication' #PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes # To change Kerberos options #KerberosAuthentication no #KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes #AFSTokenPassing no #KerberosTicketCleanup no # Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver #KerberosTgtPassing yes X11Forwarding no X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintMotd yes #PrintLastLog no KeepAlive yes #UseLogin no #MaxStartups 10:30:60 #Banner /etc/issue.4 Page 98 March 31.HostbasedAuthentication no # Uncomment if you don't trust ~/. 2008 .net #ReverseMappingCheck yes Subsystem Subsystem sftp sftp-g /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server-guardian NSK-SSH V2.ssh/known_hosts for RhostsRSAAuthentication #IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes # To disable tunneled clear text passwords.

# # # # # # # Configuration data is parsed as follows: 1.ssh_config FILE # This is ssh client systemwide configuration file. # Site-wide defaults for various options # Host * # ForwardAgent no # ForwardX11 no # RhostsAuthentication no # RhostsRSAAuthentication yes # RSAAuthentication yes # PasswordAuthentication yes # FallBackToRsh no # UseRsh no # BatchMode no # CheckHostIP yes # StrictHostKeyChecking yes # IdentityFile ~/. system-wide file Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set. Thus. command line options 2.4 Page 99 March 31.ssh/identity # IdentityFile ~/. host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the configuration file. 2008 . See ssh(1) for more # information. user-specific file 3. and defaults at the end.1 # Cipher blowfish # EscapeChar ~ NSK-SSH V2. and the values can # be changed in per-user configuration files or on the command line.ssh/id_rsa # Port 22 # Protocol 2.ssh/id_dsa # IdentityFile ~/. This file provides defaults for users.

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2008 .APPENDIX C .sh FILE ############################################ # Start SSH with IPSSH across two cpus ## ## Start the SSH process on port 700 and 701 export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 run -cpu=0 sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 sshd -p 701 ## Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process run -cpu=0 ipssh sleep 5 ## Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process run -cpu=1 ipssh -wait 0 # Startup complete NSK-SSH V2.TELNET ISOLATION FILES start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack.4 Page 101 March 31.

4 Page 102 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 .

& userid 255.& HOMETERM $zhome.4 Page 103 March 31.APPENDIX D .ZZKRN FILES ipztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00a add process IPSSH-ztc00a. & startmode manual.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00a start_ipssh_ztc0a.255.osh. & AUTORESTART 10. & outfile $zhome.system.& program $system.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0a.sh <. 2008 .& primarycpu 0. & name $ob010.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip000 run -name=/G/ip000 -cpu=0 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.

4 Page 104 March 31.& primarycpu 1.osh. & AUTORESTART 10.sh <. & name $ob011.255. If the other ipssh process # dies.& program $system.& HOMETERM $zhome.ipztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00b add process IPSSH-ztc00b.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00b start_ipssh_ztc0b.system.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0b. 2008 .sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # # Note that the wait 0 is used just incase the other ipssh process # has been started and is on port 22.& userid 255. # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip001 run -name=/G/ip001 -cpu=1 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D -wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2. this process will take over. & outfile $zhome. & startmode manual.

255. & name $ob000.& HOMETERM $zhome.4 Page 105 March 31.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 790" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb000 run -name=/G/rb000 -cpu=0 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:790 # NSK-SSH V2. & outfile $zhome. & startmode manual.& program $system. & AUTORESTART 10.& userid 255.sh <.system. 2008 .>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00a start_random_ztc00a.ranztc0a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00a add process RANDOM-ztc00a.& primarycpu 0.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00a.osh.

& outfile $zhome. & AUTORESTART 10.255.& primarycpu 1.system.ranztc0b FILE llow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00b add process RANDOM-ztc00b.osh.& userid 255. & startmode manual.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00b.& HOMETERM $zhome. & name $ob001.sh <. 2008 .>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00b start_random_ztc0b.4 Page 106 March 31.& program $system.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 791" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb001 run -name=/G/rb001 -cpu=1 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:791 # NSK-SSH V2.

& userid 255.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 700" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd000 run -name=/G/sd000 -cpu=0 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 700 # NSK-SSH V2.osh.sh <.& primarycpu 0.& program $system.4 Page 107 March 31.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00a start_sshd_ztc00a. & name $ob020.sdztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00a add process SSHD-ztc00a. 2008 .& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00a. & AUTORESTART 10.255.& HOMETERM $zhome.system. & startmode manual. & outfile $zhome.

>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00b start_sshd_ztc00b. & startmode manual.4 Page 108 March 31.255.system.& userid 255.sdztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00b add process SSHD-ztc00b. & AUTORESTART 10.& program $system.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00b.osh. & name $ob021. & outfile $zhome.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 701" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd001 run -name=/G/sd001 -cpu=1 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 701 # NSK-SSH V2.& HOMETERM $zhome. 2008 .sh <.& primarycpu 1.

4 Page 109 March 31. 2008 .INSTALL NOTES: NSK-SSH V2.

Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 .4 Page 110 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.

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