Version 2.

4

Bowden Systems Inc.
Norcross, GA 30092 http://www.bsi2.com

Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

BOWDEN SYSTEMS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Bowden Systems shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Warranty
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your BSI product can be obtained from the BSI Corporate Office.

Printing History
The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between additions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive these updates or new editions, contact the BSI Corporate Office. October 2001 . . . Edition 1 February 2002 . . . Edition 2 June 2003....Editon 3 July 2004...Edition4 Feb 2008...Edition 5 March 2008...Edition 5a Bowden Systems, Inc. 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 370 Norcross, GA 30092, USA email:sales@bsi2.com web:www.bsi2.com © 2001- 2008 Bowden Systems, Inc.
NSK-SSH, sftp-server-guardian, scmd is a trademark of Bowden Systems Inc. Nonstop, TEDIT, TACL, Guardian 90, 6530, PATHWAY are trademarks of HP. Mr-win6530 is a trademark of Conforte. Cail6530 is a trademark of Cail.

Preface
This manual explains how to install, configure, and use NSK-SSH software for the HP NonStop server. This includes setting up the components of the software which are the ipssh, sshd, and prngd.

Audience and Prerequisites
This manual is intended for system managers and assumes that the user has experience with OSS, GUARDIAN, TCPIP, PTCPIP and SCF.

Prerequisite Equipment
This manual also assumes that the user’s host is S-Series running GUARDIAN G06.22 or higher, GUARDIAN H-Series running H06.05 or higher, or GUARDIAN J-Series J06.02 or higher. This software works with TCPIP V4 and TCPIP V6 tcpip stacks.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 APPENDIX D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 start_ipssh_ztc0a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 APPENDIX C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT. . . OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD using two IP stacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ssh_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KNOWN PROBLEMS. . . . .REQUIRED FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ssh-agent. . .ZZKRN FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 sshd_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 scp. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . 77 APPENDIX B . . . .MAN PAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ssh-keygen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . 13 5. . 29 ssh-keyscan. . . . 11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . 61 scmd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ssh-add. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 b. . . . . . . . . . . . 37 sftp-server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 sftp-server-guardian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KERNEL SUBSYSEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 sftp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ipssh. . . . 33 sshd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION. . . 103 ipztc00a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 prngd. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 0 . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . 104 start_ipssh_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . 106 start_random_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ipztc00b . . . . . .sh . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 0. . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 01. . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . 108 start_sshd_ztc00b. 105 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . 104 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 start_sshd_ztc00a. . . . . . . . 108 . . . . 105 start_random_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

x security enhancements and PRNGD 0.OVERVIEW This is a release of the NSK-SSH V2. and TCP/IP installed and configured on your system.com). 2008 . This installation document assumes that you have OSS.05/J06. You should install this software using the SUPER. This release will allow you to access the NonStop system in a secure manor for session and ftp access. This software works with alias and standard GUARDIAN users.02 operating system. we also added a new command to address problem with executing remote commands from the system.4 Page 1 March 31.SUPER or root user id.4. This allows you to access the guardian file system just like the unix file system.oreilly. The random number generator does not require any external programs or files for generating its random numbers. Barrett & Richard E.4 that is based on OpenSSH 2.15 for the G06. In this release. This release has also been verified to work with Mr-Win6530. you should consult “SSH The Secure Shell” by Daniel J. We also have added an sftp-server for the guardian file system. The NSK-SSH has been updated to fix various problem the the random number generator and has move to using TCPIP for the communications between the random number generator and the SSH process. This was created do to the need of users that have PCI requirments of not having TELNET running on the system or FTP. This document will tell you how to install and configure NSK-SSH software for access to the system and provide a reference for the MAN pages included with the NSK-SSH software. If you require more detailed information on SSH. NSK-SSH V2. Now you can have up to 4 random number generators per TCPIP V4 OR V6 stack or up to 64 with PTCPIP using the round-robin method of access .9. This also include the ability to access an isolated TCPIP stack which has telnet running on it for the telnet requirment of SSH. You no longer need to have the OSS local socket program running.9p2 with 3.9. This can be purchased from the Oreilly web site (www.22/H06. This provides compatibility with programs such as FileZilla. This new command is called scmd and allows you to execute remote commands from the NonStop system. We now also have the ability to set up all the components of this release in the KERNEL (ZZKRN) subsystem for full fault resilance. Silverman.

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Z | pax -rvf - Note that zcat is in the /bin/unsupported directory.INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE You must be the root user or super. do the following: For the S-Series: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_GO622_V24. 2008 .tar. SSH and PRNGD software.tar.super to install this software. IPSSH. To install the software that was downloaded from the web site.Z | pax -rvf - For the H-Series and J-Series operating system: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_H0605_V24.4 Page 3 March 31. Note that the above tar file may have a version indicator on it. This will install the software into the following directories: /etc/ /etc/ssh /usr/local/ssh /usr/local/random Now you are ready to set up the. NSK-SSH V2.

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c.bsi protocols Note that the service that the sshd program is looking for is the telent service. f.bsi to services and protocols. 2008 . TELNET servr running on the TCPIP stack LOCAL LOOP BACK STARTED for TCPIP stack REMOVE ANY OPENSSH ssh software on your system as this will cause problems with installing and startup up the Bowden Systems version of SSH. Putty. Verify that you have the services and protocols file in the /etc directory. then you can copy the files services. e. OSS Installed and Configured. Unix SSH) 2. b.bsi to protocols. IMPORTANT FOR TELNET ACCESS cd /etc cp services. You will need the following information: a. Know how to use the text editor “vi”. then you need to make sure that has the following line: telnet 23/tcp NSK-SSH V2. TCPIP configure for OSS. If you alreay have a services file.BASIC SETUP OF SSH To set up your system so that you use the SSH software.bsi services cp protocols. you should do the following: 1. The ip address and stack process name you will use for SSH access. g. c. Cail6530. You should have the following products installed on your system: a. SSH Client Software ( Mr-Win6530. d. b.4 Page 5 March 31. If you do not have these files. TCPIP V4 or V6 Installed and Configured OSS Sockets Started on each processor.

sh 5. a. THE TELNET ACCESS TO SSH WILL NOT WORK.4 Page 6 March 31. You should use what ever tcpip process name is defined on your system. or that you want to random number generator to use. NSK-SSH V2. But if you are using some other tcpip process name. 3. Set your PATH and MANPATH variables. NOTE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A /etc/services FILE.If the services program does not have this line. export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/install export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/ssh/man export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/random/man Note that these can be place in /etc/profile or in your private home directory file “. do the following: add_define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME file=\$ZTC1 Note that this is an example. then you need to add it using vi./ssh_install_chmod. 2008 . then it is not necessary to do this step. Set the correct file settings on the installed files. 4.profile”. Verify that the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME is already set. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. Execute a script to change the file setting sh -v . If you are using the default tcpip process name $ZTC0. do the following: info_define all To add the define.

0. Execute a script to generate the system wide keys. sh -v . sh -v . Generate the system keys.0 to the ipaddress of your system and save the file.DSA Public Key 8. This is only needed if you ssh to listen again a specific address.DSA Private Key ssh_host_dsa_key.0.6.RSA Private Key ssh_host_rsa_key. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. This step is optional. NSK-SSH V2.sh This will start the random number generator on local sockets connection 127.pub . This must be started before any SSH software can be used. Modify the system wide configuration to the specify the IP address that the SSHD program will use.0 and change the 0.Host Private Key ssh_host_key. Execute a script to startup the random number generator.RSA Public Key ssh_host_dsa_key .0.pub . !!!! IMPORTANT STEP NOT TO FORGET !!!! a.0. Note that this may take a while.sh This will generate the following files in the /etc/ssh/ directory: ssh_host_key . 2008 ./ssh_install_makekeys.1 port 790.0.0.4 Page 7 March 31.0. The script executes the following: run cpu=0 -gpri= 144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 7.0. Start up the Random number generator (PRNG)./start_random. To make this change. do the following: vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the line: ListenAddress 0.1 for the two cpu or greater configuraiton.pub . Note if you are using TCPIP V4 then you should set this to 127.Host Public Key ssh_host_rsa_key .

2008 . The sshd program will process all request (session. you should leave it set to 0.0. If this is running. If you want to start ssh on one cpu. then continue reading. 10. then you need to stop it.0.9. do the following: /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -d -d -d This will allow one session to be processed and then the program will exit when the request is finished.4 Page 8 March 31. If there is more than one address associated with the stack then.0 If you want to start the program in the debug mode to see what it is doing. If you want to start SSHD on two cpu’s scipt to step 10. scp. ssh and sftp). scf> assume process $zzkrn scf>names You should look for #ssh-ztc0. NSK-SSH V2. then you should not change the ListenAddress to 127. then you need to stop this software.1 and change it to the real address of the stack. before you can startup the NSK-SSH software. scf> abort #ssh-ztc0 This will abort the process and then you can start up the NSK-SSH software.0.0. To start the sshd program do the following: run -cpu=0 -gpri=125 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd This will start the sshd server and it will listen on port 22 for any connection. If you only run one SSHD server. If you are starting the Bowden NSK-SSH software on a system that has the Comforte SSH software on it and configured to use the port 22 on $ztc0.

2008 . You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh sleep 5 c./start_ssh_ptcpip_2cpu.sh or do the following: 1. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . a. Starting it manually. run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh -wait 0 11. we put this startup file in as example of how to run the SSHD server on a system that is uses that configuration. run -cpu=0 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 701 b. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using regular TCPIP or P/TCPIP in Failover mode If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. Start the SSHD process on port 700 and 701. Starting it manually. Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . the TCPIP V6 software is configured in fail-over mode and not configurated for round-robin.10. Note that on most systems./start_ssh_2_cpu.sh or do the following: 1. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using P/TCPIP with round-robin configuration. Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. a.sh 2. Start the SSHD processes on port 22.4 Page 9 March 31. If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s.sh 2. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd NSK-SSH V2.

Note that you can use this configuraiton on TCPIP V4 if there is more than one IP addres define to the TCPIP stack and it is not in the FAIL-OVER configuraiton.4 Page 10 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .

ipaddress 127. Start the #LOOP0 port on the stack.TERM $ZHOME/0 2. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack.4 Page 11 March 31.CPU 0. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 To do this do the following (Note this works on all release of the Guardian OS including H-series and J-series: 1.ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH In this section. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. scf> assume process $ztc99 scf> aler subnet #loop0. With this configuration. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. Start up the TCPIP V4 stack at tacl: TCPIP/name $ZTC99. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system.PRI 190. To use this feature.1 scf> start subnet * scf> exit NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . we will talk about advanced set up of the SSH software including the KERNEL subsystem and TELNET isolation. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99.sh.

Now at this point.3.PRI 170/23 Note that the 23 on the TELSERV command is the port to listen to.1 23 WELCOME TO test.CPU 0.0.FILE $ZTC99 param TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME $ZTC99 param ZTNT^TRANSPORT^NAME $ZTC99 TELSERV/NAME $ZTN99.#PTYAAAA] TELSERV . to your SSHD start file and restart the SSHD servers NSK-SSH V2. now you are ready to add the TCPIP_TELNET_STACK.bsi1.4 Page 12 March 31.NOWAIT. Start up the TELSRV process add define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.(IPMADG) Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice> If this works.(15SEP2000) .T9553D40 .com [PORT $ZTC99 #23 WINDOW $ZTN99. 2008 .0. you should be able to access the TELNET server locally: TELNET 127.

you only need Note that you need you need to change 127. In the zzkrn subsystem. prngd. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN.0. Now. to be root or super.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN. What you need to do this.config file to listen on port the ListenAddress configuration line.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl>logon super.0.zzkrnsd on your system.super volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.4 Page 13 March 31. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. This is to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem.#RANDOM-ZTC00B NSK-SSH V2.super to do this and your /etc/sshd.*.code 100 run zzkrnsd.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.*.KERNEL SUBSYSTEM We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh. $*.1. 2008 .

script name $ob020 .process name $sd000 #SSHD-ZTC00B . these names are the following: #RANDOM-ZTC00 . Note that when you abort the software.process name $ip001 NSK-SSH V2.process name $sd001 #IPSSH-ZTC00A . the process running in the script does not stop.$ZZKRN. This script is the following: assume process $zzkrn start #RANDOM-ZTC00A start #RANDOM-ZTC00B start #SSHD-ZTC00A start #SSHD-ZTC00B start #IPSSH-ZTC00A start #IPSSH-ZTC00B For each startup script. there are two process names used.script name $ob021 .script name $ob000 .#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. that process will be restarted. When your system is started up.process name $RD000 #RANDOM-ZTC01 .script name $ob001 .script name $ob11 . 2008 . all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.script name $ob10 . It is only when you restart the software. you must have a script to start up the SSH software in the correct order or it will not start at system startup.process name $ip000 #IPSSH-ZTC00B .process name $RD001 #SSHD-ZTC00A .4 Page 14 March 31.

Porting Differences This section will talk very briefly about the differences between this port of NSKSSH and what you get would from Open Source.1 port 23. This port of SSH understands about ALIAS users and does it password authentication against the safeguard database. We added a new command to handle remote command execution. This port of SSH uses the tcpip access to random number generator to increase performance. We also have the ability to make this request to another TCPIP stack that is not attached to any Ethernet hardware and is only running TELSRV. we request access on the 127. and support for the guardian file system via sftp. Since the OSS environment does not support pty’s. This also reduces connect time when performning any action that requires a random number.0. 2008 . If you request that a pty is not allocated. all sessions are accessed using the master/slave pty configurations. The standard SSH software does not know any thing about this. and scalability. reliablity.0. We also increase the capacity of the random number generator to handle large request loads. When NSK-SSH request a pty. Under the standard model of SSH. The major difference of this port from the standard SSH and Prngd port is how sessions are accessed and how we access the random number generator. This was not a problem in standard SSH. This is not a part of the standard. This allows all TELSRV services to be stop. NSK-SSH V2. the sshd program will access the user’s default shell script as the standard SSH port does. because of problem with the select function not support the tty device. This port of SSH and PRNGD has been fault tested to make sure that it works when a CPU fails.4 Page 15 March 31. We added a distributor to the release so that it is possible to support round-robin access using the standard TCPIP software and scale the ssh software and random number generator software across multiple cpus. Which in the case for all commands on SSH. we use the telnet subsystem as the pty generator.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT
At this point, you have done the basic setup for the SSH software. In this section, we will be discussing how to access your system to establish session. You will need an SSH client for your PC, Mac, or Unix system to start a session. In this example we are using, MacSSH, but this will apply to Windows software too. 1. Select your host and select Secure Shell

2. Enter your user name and password:

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3. Get the system access prompt. Note that depending on what type of system, you are executing the sshd software on, it may take a while for the session to connect. This has to do with the encryption of the session.

At this point, you can access the NonStop as you always have. Just login in an start working.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT
If you have other unix system’s, that have SSH installed, you can access the HP NonStop using ssh. To start a session remotely on the HP NonSTop do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com joshua’s password:
WELCOME TO test.bsi1.com [PORT $ZTC0 #23 WINDOW $ZTN0.#PTYW1DX] TELSERV - T9553D40 - (15SEP2000) - (IPMADG)

Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice>

If you want to execute a remote commad, do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com /bin/ls joshua’s password: test.pl test1.pl test2.pl test3.pl test5.pl test_message $ If you want to copy a file from the unix system to the NSK, do the following: $scp test.pl joshua@test.bsi1.com:test.pl joshua’s password:

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If you want to logon directly to TACL.4 Page 20 March 31. 2008 . do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1. NSK-SSH V2.com /bin/gtacl joshua’s password: TACL 1> Note that you wil not beable to execute any oss commands with this tacl session because you are not using the standard telnet tty session attributes.

KNOWN PROBLEMS We added the scmd program to allow remote command access to a system. This will be fixed in next release. 2008 .4 Page 21 March 31. you should send an email message to support@bsi2. This currently only supports commands that do not require any interaction with the user.com. Should you find any problems with this software. NSK-SSH V2.

GA 30092 USA +1 866-901-9450 toll free +1 770-441-9450 direct +1 770-441-9449 fax web: www.4 Page 22 March 31. Suite 370 Norcross. please send an email message to support@bsi2. 3500 Parkway Lane.com Copyright (c) 2001-2008 Bowden Systems. Inc. Inc.com. Any correspondence regarding this software can be sent to the following address: Bowden Systems.bsi2.INFORMATION If you need any help with this.com email:sales@bsi2. 2008 . All Rights Reserved NSK-SSH V2.

.0. The default port that SSH uses for port access is 790 to 793 and the default local socket is /dev/egd-pool. keep pool in memory only -m or --mode mode use mode for sockets [0777] -k or --kill kill daemon on other side -v or --version print version and exit DESCRIPTION prngd is a daemon that provides the random number functionality on the NonStop system using either using local sockets or a tcpip port connection.1) and will use the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME to get the currently defined TCPIP process stack name. OPTIONS -f or -fg do not fork -d or --debug debugging on -c or --cmdfile cmdpath use cmdpath for entropy commands [/etc/prngd.MAN PAGES prngd PRNGD(8) NAME prngd ..APPENDIX A . System Reference Manual PRNGD(8) NSK-SSH V2.0.4 Page 23 March 31. 2008 . The option tcp/ip:addr:port allows the random number generator to liston on specified address instead of the loopback address.conf] -s or --seedfile seedpath use seedpath as seedfile [/etc/prngd-seed] -n or --no-seedfile no seedfile.random number generator daemon SYNOPSIS prngd [options] (/path/to/socket1 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port) [(/path/to/socket2 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port)] . The ports 790 to 793 are against the localhost (127.

1. If you are using using regular TCPIP. then you can start up multiple random number generators using the same port number to spead the laod to multiple CPU's. prngd tcp/localhost:790 prngd tcp/localhost:791 NSK-SSH V2. then a primary and back is good choice.168. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 or run -cpu=1 -gpri=170 prngd /dev/egd-pool You could run the TCPIP random number generator port 790 on cpu 0 and port 791 or the Local Socket random number generator on cpu 1. you will still have a random number generator available on the system. 2008 . most of SSH functions will not work.210:790 To start the prngd program using the local socket /dev/egd-pool prngd -gpri=170 /dev/egd-pool The SSH program will attempt to use the localhost ports first and then try the local socket next. If you are using Parallel TCPIP with round robin. You can configure one prngd program to service both tcp and local socket if you like: prngd /dev/egd-pool tcp/localhost:790 tcp/localhost:791 But you may want to configure the localhost port 790 as the primary and 791 or /dev/egd-pool as the backup. If any one of the CPU's fail. As a note. If you are running P/TCPIP then you can have more than one random number generator using only port 790.STARTING DAEMON To start the prngd program using localhost port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/localhost:790 To start the prngd program using tcp/ip option port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/ip:192.4 Page 24 March 31. if there is not a random number generator available. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 This will CPU 1 and CPU 0 the load of the random number generator.

it will stop generating random numbers. 2008 . It has been found that if prngd is not properly seed. If this fails the program executing will abend. In the directory /usr/local/random/etc there is a file call prngd-seed. The current seed in the /etc directory is base on this file. Do not use /G/ directories for entropy generation.4 Page 25 March 31. SSH has been program to try 5 times and then will go to the next generator viable and try 5 times also. The program also produces an EMS message when closing a connection. This will result in processes waiting on this information. This file is 1 megabyte random number that can be used a the first seed when starting prngd for the first time. prngd will not return any random information if it runs out of entropy.STOPPING DAEMON You can stop the prngd daemon with the following command: If TCPIP: prngd --kill tcp/localhost:790 If Local Socket prngd --kill /dev/egd-pool Or just use the kill command. SEEDING DAEMON The random number generator software is locate in the /usr/local/random directory. PERFORMANCE We have notice that the random number generator using TCPIP requires less cpu overhead than one using the local sockets interface. but has been written over by the prngd program. This can result in system performance problems and cause the random number generator to take excessive cpu time. NSK-SSH V2. NOTES prngd runs as a named process. To use this seed file: cp /usr/local/random/etc/prngd-seed /etc/prngd-seed and restart the program.

2008 . NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 26 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

this is maximumu number of ipssh processes that will be allowed exist at one time. (1 = . the main ipssh process wait until a child completes before continuing. Ipssh listens on port 22 and distributes its ip load to port 700 and 701.etc). it is possible to distribute load to those also. When this maximum reach all. connection rate for burst conditions.TCPIP Multiplexer for SSH IPSSH IPSSH(1) [-remote port] [-ports no] [-burst rate] [-interval rate] [-debug] [-wait no] [-D] DESCRIPTION The ipssh programs allows you to distribute ip traffic to multiple ports on a system. displays debuging information. The options are as follows: -remote port is the remote port to forward the connection.01 seconds) The default is 100 or 1 sec.0. The default is 5.g.0. the time is set to 1 second -maxload no -debug -wait no NSK-SSH V2. -instance no the instance of ipssh processes. If you have more than two cpu’s. 2008 . -ports number is the number of ports to connect to. Each port is of set by one.1 interface. This much like the parrallel tcpip product execpt that it will exeucte on any Nonstop system. If you enter 0.ipssh IPSSH(1) NAME IPSSH SYNOPSIS ipssh . The default is 25. you need to set this to number.. This defaults to 700.702.4 Page 27 March 31. This is the number of connections that can be accepted during the interval. The default is 30 seconds.. -burst rate -interval rate interval in milliseconds. If you have more one ipssh process on the system. The default is zero. (e.. Ipssh only forwards to the local 127.701. The default is 2. time to wait before checking if you can bind to the port. port 700.

The default is 5. indicates that ipssh is to be run waited. NSK-SSH V2. you must change the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME. so it will not fork and create a process name -D To change the default TCPIP process from $ZTC0.4 Page 28 March 31.-qlen no number of connection to listen for on the port. 2008 .The primary process name is /G/ISX ($ISX) and the backup process name is /G/ISY ($ISY).

as seen in /etc/rc.ssh/id_rsa. The public key is stored in a file with the same name but ``. manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1). ssh-keygen defaults to generating a RSA1 key for use by SSH prottocol version 1. The program also asks for a passphrase. 2008 . management and conversion SYNOPSIS ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t type] [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile] ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -D reader ssh-keygen -U reader [-f input_keyfile] DESCRIPTION ssh-keygen generates. Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to store the private key. The passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an empty passphrase). The passphrase can be changed later by using the -p option. Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long and are not simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only 1-2 bits of entropy per character.ssh/identity. Additionally. Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in $HOME/. or it may be a string of arbitrary length. For RSA1 keys.authentication key generation. a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding public key to other machines. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. there is also a comment field in the key file that is only System Reference Manual SSH-KEYGEN(1) NSK-SSH V2. and provides very bad passphrases). Specifying the -t option instead creates a key for use by SSH protocol version 2.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/.ssh-keygen SSH-KEYGEN(1) NAME ssh-keygen . $HOME/. If the passphrase is lost or forgotten.pub'' appended.4 Page 29 March 31. the system administrator may use this to generate host keys.

-l -p -q -y -t type NSK-SSH V2. The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create. and key sizes above that no longer improve security but make things slower. After a key is generated. The program will prompt for the file containing the private key. -c Requests changing the comment in the private and public key files. 2008 . for the old passphrase. -e This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and print the key in a `SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout. -f filename Specifies the filename of the key file. The default is 1024 bits. -i This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private (or public) key to stdout. ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH Public Key File Format'. The comment can tell what the key is for. for the passphrase if the key has one.for convenience to the user to help identify the key. and for the new comment. The comment is initialized to ``user@host'' when the key is created. instructions below detail where the keys should be placed to be activated. or whatever is useful. Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of creating a new private key.4 Page 30 March 31. but can be changed using the -c option. This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial SSH implementations. Silence ssh-keygen. Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key. Minimum is 512 bits. This option allows importing keys from several commercial SSH implementations. This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout. Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient. and twice for the new passphrase. The program will prompt for the file containing the private keys. Show fingerprint of specified private or public key file.

Specifies the type of the key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. The default is ``rsa1''. -B Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key file.

-C comment Provides the new comment. -D reader Download the RSA public key stored in the smartcard in reader. -N new_passphrase Provides the new passphrase. -P passphrase Provides the (old) passphrase. -U reader Upload an existing RSA private key into the smartcard in reader. FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public tion. The contents of this file should be $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines to log in using RSA authentication. There contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

key for authenticaadded to where the user wishes is no need to keep the

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$HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

SEE ALSO ssh(1),

ssh-add(1),

ssh-agent(1),

sshd(8)

J. Galbraith, and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietfsecsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

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ssh-keyscan
SSH-KEYSCAN(1) NAME ssh-keyscan - gather ssh public keys SYNOPSIS ssh-keyscan [-v46] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [-f file] [host | addrlist namelist] [...] DESCRIPTION ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public ssh host keys of a number of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files. ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as possible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run ssh. For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scanning process involve any encryption. The options are as follows: -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, then the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. Default is 5 seconds. -t type Specifies the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is ``rsa1''. -f filename Read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from this file, one per line. If - is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from the standard input. System Reference Manual SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

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ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created.n.ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts FILES Input format: 1.dsa -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u .domain.4.2.-v Verbose mode. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only.1. EXAMPLES Print the rsa1 host key for machine hostname: ssh-keyscan hostname Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: ssh-keyscan -t rsa.my.2. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only. SECURITY If a ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without verifying the keys. -4 -6 DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.4 Output format for rsa1 keys: host-or-namelist bits exponent modulus Output format for rsa and dsa keys: host-or-namelist keytype base64-encoded-key Where keytype is either ``ssh-rsa'' or ``ssh-dsa''.4.4.4 name.1. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). On the other hand.4 Page 34 March 31.3.3.my.2. Causes ssh-keyscan to print debugging messages about its progress.2.n. 2008 . users will be vulnerable to attacks. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts NSK-SSH V2.domain.4.name.1. if the security model allows such a risk.

edu> wrote the initial version. NSK-SSH V2. sshd(8) AUTHORS David Mazieres <dm@lcs.mit. reads the public key.9. This is because it opens a connection to the ssh port.4 Page 35 March 31.sourceforge. 2008 .net> added support for protocol version 2. and Wayne Davison <wayned@users.BUGS It generates "Connection closed by remote host" messages on the consoles of all the machines it scans if the server is older than version 2. SEE ALSO ssh(1). and drops the connection as soon as it gets the key.

2008 . NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.4 Page 36 March 31.

4 Page 37 March 31. The programs are intended to be as easy to install and use as possible. it generates a server RSA key (normally 768 bits). This key is normally regenerated every hour if it has been used. The client then generates a 256 bit random number. Together these programs replace rlogin and rsh. RSA challenge-response authentication. with 3DES being used by default.NSK-SSH SSH daemon SYNOPSIS sshd [-deiqtD46] [-b bits] [-f config_file] [-g login_grace_time] [-h host_key_file] [-k key_gen_time] [-p port] [-u len] DESCRIPTION sshd (SSH Daemon) is the daemon program for ssh(1). It is normally started at load time from /usr/local/ssh/. It encrypts this random number using both the host key and the server key. currently Blowfish or 3DES. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. The client tries to authenticate itself using . The forked daemons handle key exchange. It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection. The client compares the RSA host key against its own database to verify that it has not changed. Next. command execution. and is never stored on disk. or password based authentication. and sends the encrypted number to the server. The rest of the session is encrypted using a conventional cipher. Whenever a client connects the daemon responds with its public host and server keys. the server and the client enter an authentication dialog. when the daemon starts. Both sides then use this random number as a session key which is used to encrypt all further communications in the session. encryption. authentication. sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients.sshd SSHD(8) NAME sshd . . and data exchange. Additionally. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. System Manager's Manual SSHD(8) NSK-SSH V2.rhosts authentication. sshd works as follows. 2008 . This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously.rhosts authentication combined with RSA host authentication. SSH protocol version 1 Each host has a host-specific RSA key (normally 1024 bits) used to identify the host.

session integrity is provided through a cryptographic message authentication code (hmac-sha1 or hmac-md5). 2008 . either side may send data at any time. However.e. the client either requests a shell or execution of a command. In this mode. by executing itself with the name it was started as.Rhosts authentication is normally disabled because it is fundamentally insecure. when the daemon starts. Protocol version 2 provides a public key based user (PubkeyAuthentication) or client host (HostbasedAuthentication) authentication method. NSK-SSH V2.. the server sends command exit status to the client. or forwarding the authentication agent connection over the secure channel. Command-line options override values specified in the configuration file. When the user program terminates and all forwarded X11 and other connections have been closed. The sides then enter session mode. Arcfour. rlogind(8). The rest of the session is encrypted using a symmetric cipher. and the user terminal in the client side. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. i. SSH protocol version 2 Version 2 works similarly: Each host has a host-specific key (RSA or DSA) used to identify the host. and both sides exit. This key agreement results in a shared session key. /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd.4 Page 38 March 31. or 256 bit AES. Additionally. Forward security is provided through a DiffieHellman key agreement. currently 128 bit AES. forwarding TCP/IP connections. conventional password authentication and challenge response based methods. System security is not improved unless rshd(8). CAST128. a dialog for preparing the session is entered. and such data is forwarded to/from the shell or command on the server side. 3DES. Blowfish. and rexecd(8) are disabled (thus completely disabling rlogin(1) and rsh(1) into the machine). forwarding X11 connections. 192 bit AES. but can be enabled in the server configuration file if desired. SIGHUP. it does not generate a server key. sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal. Finally. At this time the client may request things like allocating a pseudo-tty. Command execution and data forwarding If the client successfully authenticates itself.

g. When this option is specified. sshd is normally not run from inetd because it needs to generate the server key before it can respond to the client. The default is /etc/ssh/sshd_config. -g login_grace_time Gives the grace time for clients to authenticate themselves (default 600 seconds). -e -f configuration_file Specifies the name of the configuration file. Maximum is 3. the server disconnects and exits. The server also will not fork and will only process one connection. 2008 . This option must be given if sshd is not run as root (as the normal host file is normally not readable by any one but root). Multiple -d options increase the debugging level. sshd will send the output to the standard error instead of the system log. A value of zero indicates no limit. sshd refuses to start if there is no configuration file. It is possible to have multiple host key files for the different protocol versions and host key algorithms. and after about an hour. A value of NSK-SSH V2. -i Specifies that sshd is being run from inetd.The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key (default 768). This option is only intended for debugging for the server. -k key_gen_time Specifies how often the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key is regenerated (default 3600 seconds. it becomes impossible to recover the key for decrypting intercepted communications even if the machine is cracked into or physically seized. with small key sizes (e. The motivation for regenerating the key fairly often is that the key is not stored anywhere. If the client fails to authenticate the user within this many seconds. and does not put itself in the background. The server sends verbose debug output to the system log. and this may take tens of seconds. However. -d Debug mode. Clients would have to wait too long if the key was regenerated every time. or one hour). -h host_key_file Specifies the file from which the host key is read (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key). 512) using sshd from inetd may be feasible..4 Page 39 March 31.

Test mode. This allows easy monitoring of sshd. and termination of each connection is logged. This allows hosts with very long host names that overflow this field to still be uniquely identified. -q Quiet mode. This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change. Forces sshd to use IPv6 addresses only. TCP_RND_ADDR TCP_RND_PORT0 TCP_RND_PORT1 These environment variables allow you to change the starting and ending port and the default IP address to access for the random number generator request. Nothing is sent to the system log. 2008 . Specifying -u0 indicates that only dotted decimal addresses should be put into the utmp file. It currently looks on the ports of 790 to 793 of address 127. RhostsRSAAuthentication. Forces sshd to use IPv4 addresses only.4 Page 40 March 31. -p port Specifies the port on which the server listens for connections (default 22). it fails the random number request. authentication. HostbasedAuthentication and using a from="pattern-list" option in a key file. the dotted decimal value will be used instead.zero indicates that the key will never be regenerated. it then looks for the name pipe /dev/egd-pool. This option is used to specify the size of the field in the utmp structure that holds the remote host name.0. If it does not find that. -t -u len -D -4 -6 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR SSHD requires the use of a random number generator for its operation. In general. When this option is specified sshd will not detach and does not become a daemon. If the resolved host name is longer than len. Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys. Normally the beginning.0. Authentication mechanisms that may require DNS include RhostsAuthentication. -u0 is also be used to prevent sshd from making DNS requests unless the authentication mechanism or configuration requires it. you need at least one NSK-SSH V2.1 for a random number generator. If it does not find this.

Note that you need to be root or super. To use this feature.4 Page 41 March 31. If your system is heavly used for SSH request. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file.*.generator for each TCPIP stack that SSHD is running on. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD. With this configuration. What you need to do this. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 ZZKRN PERSISTANT PROCESS SETUP We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl> <logon tacl> volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. $*. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system.*. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process.code 100 run zzkrnsd. 2008 . you only need to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. Now. prngd.super to do this and NSK-SSH V2. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. then you might need more than one and you can assign the extra ones to port 791 to 793.zzkrnsd on your system. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port.sh.

#RANDOM-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.1. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system. This is the ListenAddress configuration line. one per line.4 Page 42 March 31. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running. The file contains keywordargument pairs. CONFIGURATION FILE sshd reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line). In the zzkrn subsystem.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.you need to change your /etc/sshd.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.config file to listen on port 127. 2008 .0. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service. NSK-SSH V2.0.

Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access. %h is replaced by the home directory of the user being authenticated and %u is replaced by the username of that user. Default is ``yes''. Only user names are valid. The default is ``yes''. Only group names are valid. login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. login is allowed only for users names that match one of the patterns. This option is only available for protocol version 2. 2008 . as they can always install their own forwarders. separated by spaces. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked. AllowGroups This keyword can be followed by a list of group names. AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. sending a warning message before authentication may be relevant for getting legal protection. By default login is allowed regardless of the user name. restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. AuthorizedKeysFile Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication.ssh/authorized_keys'' Banner In some jurisdictions. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The default is ``. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. a numerical user ID is not recognized. The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%'. AllowTcpForwarding Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted. If specified. separated by spaces. AllowUsers This keyword can be followed by a list of user names.4 Page 43 March 31.The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether an AFS token may be forwarded to the server. If specified. The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. NSK-SSH V2. After expansion. a numerical group ID is not recognized. AuthorizedKeysFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection set-up. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns.

The default is 0.conf(5) are supported. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. unresponsive ssh clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds. If ClientAliveInterval (above) is set to 15. The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive. DenyGroups This keyword can be followed by a number of group names. All authentication styles from login.4 Page 44 March 31. DenyUsers This keyword can be followed by a number of user names. ClientAliveCountMax Sets the number of client alive messages (see above) which may be sent without sshd receiving any messages back from the client.'' ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client. Only user names are valid. a numerical user ID is not recognized. sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. separated by spaces. By default login is allowed regardless of the user NSK-SSH V2. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns. separated by spaces.arcfour. sshd will disconnect the client. terminating the session. The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. Users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns aren't allowed to log in. Only group names are valid.cast128-cbc.3des-cbc. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2. The default value is 3. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from Keepalive (below). indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. a numerical group ID is not recognized. and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The default is ``yes''. If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent.ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether challenge response authentication is allowed. The TCP keepalive option enabled by Keepalive is spoofable. The default is ``aes128-cbc. 2008 .blowfish-cbc.

It is possible to have multiple host key files. leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources. sshd binds remote port forwardings to the loopback addresss. The default is ``no''. if keepalives are not sent. HostKey Specifies the file containing the private host keys (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key) used by SSH protocol versions 1 and 2.name.equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. /etc/hosts. Note that sshd will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible.4 Page 45 March 31. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (hostbased authentication). this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. The default is ``no''. By default. and some people find it annoying.shosts files will not be used in RhostsAuthentication.ssh/known_hosts during RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should bind remote port forwardings to the wildcard address. sessions may hang indefinitely on the server.equiv are still used. NSK-SSH V2.rhosts and . The default is ``no''. IgnoreRhosts Specifies that . 2008 . IgnoreUserKnownHosts Specifies whether sshd should ignore the user's $HOME/. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. ``rsa1''keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'' or ``rsa'' are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol. The default is ``yes''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. However. This option is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only. On the other hand. If they are sent. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed.

The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys. as this only works when the Kerberos KDC is actually an AFS kaserver. ing forms may be used: ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port If port is not specified. ListenAddress Specifies the local addresses sshd should listen on. the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity. The default is to listen on all local addresses. The default is 3600 (seconds). the password provided by the user will be validated through the Kerberos KDC.The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). Default is ``yes''. KerberosOrLocalPasswd If set then if password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd. KerberosTicketCleanup Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout. the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many seconds (if it has been used). Default is ``yes''. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication is allowed. Default is ``yes''. Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted. the value should be set to ``no'' in both the server and the client configuration files. This avoids infinitely hanging sessions. Default is ``no''. 2008 . or if PasswordAuthentication is yes. sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified. If the value is 0. KeyRegenerationInterval In protocol version 1. To disable keepalives. The key is never stored anywhere. Ad- The follow- NSK-SSH V2. To use this option. the key is never regenerated.4 Page 46 March 31. KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT may be forwarded to the server. and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host reboots. This can be in the form of a Kerberos ticket.

4 Page 47 March 31. The default is 10. The default is ``hmac-md5. The possible values are: QUIET. Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection. VERBOSE and DEBUG. MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms. The de- PermitEmptyPasswords When password authentication is allowed. any Port options must precede this option for non port qualified addresses. The default is ``no''. INFO. 2008 . PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether password authentication is allowed. ERROR. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd. random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values ``start:rate:full'' (e. but it will allow password authentication regardless of whether PasswordAuthentication is disabled.hmac-md5-96''. it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings. PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt Specifies whether PAM challenge response authentication is allowed. there is no time limit. "10:30:60"). Logging with level DEBUG violates the privacy of users and is not recommended.ditionally. fault is ``yes''. The default is ``no''.hmac-sha1. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection.hmacsha1-96. MaxStartups Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the sshd daemon. This allows the use of most PAM challenge response authentication modules.hmac-ripemd160. NSK-SSH V2. The default is INFO. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. sshd will refuse connection attempts with a probability of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections. The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60).. The default is 600 (seconds). If the value is 0. FATAL.g. LoginGraceTime The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. Alternatively.

pid.) Protocol The default is ``yes''.PermitRootLogin Specifies whether root can login using ssh(1). If this option is set to ``no'' root is not allowed to login. Specifies the protocol versions sshd should support. All other authentication methods are disabled for root. or equivalent. The default is ``yes''. (On some systems it is also printed by the shell. Multiple versions must be commaseparated. PidFile Specifies the file that contains the process identifier of the sshd daemon. PrintLastLog Specifies whether sshd should print the date and time when the user last logged in. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only.1''. ReverseMappingCheck Specifies whether sshd should try to verify the remote host name and check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address NSK-SSH V2. The argument must be ``yes''. See also ListenAddress. The default is 22.4 Page 48 March 31. Port Specifies the port number that sshd listens on. ``forced-commands-only'' or ``no''. If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'' root login with public key authentication will be allowed. /etc/profile. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed. The default is /var/run/sshd. The default is ``yes''. The default is ``2. but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed). The default is ``yes''. 2008 . ``without-password''. Multiple options of this type are permitted. PrintMotd Specifies whether sshd should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively. If this option is set to ``without-password'' password authentication is disabled for root. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''.

LOCAL5. LOCAL6. LOCAL1. AUTH. and the default is 768. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether authentication using rhosts or /etc/hosts. The default is AUTH. The possible values are: DAEMON. StrictModes Specifies whether sshd should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``yes''.4 Page 49 March 31.equiv files is sufficient. USER. The minimum value is 512. Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command to execute upon subsystem request. UseLogin Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions. LOCAL2. file transfer daemon). The default is ``no''.maps back to the very same IP address. LOCAL7. By default no subsystems are defined. SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd. ServerKeyBits Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key. Note that login(1) is never used NSK-SSH V2. LOCAL4. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``no''. The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem.g. RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. because it performs RSA-based host authentication in addition to normal rhosts or /etc/hosts. LOCAL3. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``yes''. RhostsRSAAuthentication should be used instead. this method should not be permitted because it is insecure. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed. Normally. This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. Subsystem Configures an external subsystem (e.equiv authentication. LOCAL0..equiv authentication together with successful RSA host authentication is allowed. 2008 . Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. The default is ``no''. The default is ``no''.

as users can always install their own forwarders. 2008 . XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not improve security in any way. where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following: <none> s | S m | M h | H d | D w | W seconds seconds minutes hours days weeks The default is Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value. Note also. Time format examples: 600 10m 1h30m 600 seconds (10 minutes) 10 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes) NSK-SSH V2. X11DisplayOffset Specifies the first display number available for sshd's X11 forwarding. The default is ``no''.for remote command execution. The default is 10. Time Formats sshd command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time[qualifier]. X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin is enabled. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers. X11Forwarding Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. that if this is enabled.4 Page 50 March 31. X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1) cookies.

If the login is on a tty. keytype.4 Page 51 March 31. comment.LOGIN PROCESS When a user successfully logs in. base64 encoded key. modulus and comment fields give the RSA key for protocol version 1. 6. prints last login time and /etc/motd (unless prevented in the configuration file or by $HOME/. bits. You don't want to type them in. records login time. The bits. see the FILES section). 7.ssh/authorized_keys is the default file that lists the public keys that are permitted for RSA authentication in protocol version 1 and for public key authentication (PubkeyAuthentication) in protocol version 2. Checks /etc/nologin. comment. copy the identity. If $HOME/. AuthorizedKeysFile may be used to specify an alternative file. modulus.hushlogin. runs it. Changes to user's home directory. exponent. Each line of the file contains one key (empty lines and lines starting with a `#' are ignored as comments).pub.pub file and NSK-SSH V2. Changes to run with normal user privileges.ssh/rc exists. Runs user's shell or command. 8. instead. its presence is determined by whether the line starts with a number or not (the option field never starts with a number). 5.ssh/environment if it exists. sshd does the following: 1. id_dsa. AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT $HOME/. 9. Each RSA public key consists of the following fields. Sets up basic environment. Reads $HOME/. 2008 . separated by spaces: options. The options fields are optional. Each protocol version 2 public key consists of: options. The ``rc'' files are given the X11 authentication protocol and cookie in standard input.pub or the id_rsa. and no command has been specified. Note that lines in this file are usually several hundred bytes long (because of the size of the RSA key modulus). otherwise runs xauth. the comment field is not used for anything (but may be convenient for the user to identify the key). 4. prints contents and quits (unless root). if it exists. runs it. If the login is on a tty. else if /etc/ssh/sshrc exists. For protocol version 2 the keytype is ``ssh-dss'' or ``ssh-rsa''. exponent. 2. 3.

Environment variables set this way override other default environment values. in connection with the command option. except within double quotes. The options (if present) consist of comma-separated option specifications. An example might be a key that permits remote backups but nothing else. however. command or subsystem execution. The purpose of this option is to optionally increase security: RSA authentication by itself does not trust the network or name servers or anything (but the key). no-port-forwarding Forbids TCP/IP forwarding when this key is used for authentication. if somebody somehow steals the key. e. Note that this option applies to shell. 2008 .g. otherwise it is run without a tty. This option might be useful to restrict certain RSA keys to perform just a specific operation. NSK-SSH V2. The command supplied by the user (if any) is ignored. A quote may be included in the command by quoting it with a backslash. The list may also contain patterns negated by prefixing them with `!'. No spaces are permitted.4 Page 52 March 31. Any port forward requests by the client will return an error.. if the canonical host name matches a negated pattern. the key permits an intruder to log in from anywhere in the world.edit it. Note that the client may specify TCP/IP and/or X11 forwarding unless they are explicitly prohibited. This additional option makes using a stolen key more difficult (name servers and/or routers would have to be compromised in addition to just the key). the key is not accepted. This might be used. If a 8-bit clean channel is required. Multiple options of this type are permitted. environment="NAME=value" Specifies that the string is to be added to the environment when logging in using this key. command="command" Specifies that the command is executed whenever this key is used for authentication. the canonical name of the remote host must be present in the comma-separated list of patterns (`*' and `?' serve as wildcards). The command is run on a pty if the client requests a pty. The following option specifications are supported (note that option keywords are case-insensitive): from="pattern-list" Specifies that in addition to RSA authentication. one must not request a pty or should specify no-pty.

modulus..2334 ylo@niksula command="dump /home". and $HOME/..pub. NSK-SSH V2. Hostnames is a comma-separated list of patterns ('*' and '?' act as wildcards).4 Page 53 March 31.!pc. no-agent-forwarding Forbids authentication agent forwarding when this key is used for authentication.hut.312314325 ylo@foo.2. exponent.ssh/known_hosts files contain host public keys for all known hosts. Examples 1024 33 12121.permitopen="10.fi permitopen="10.fi" 1024 35 23. e. exponent..2323 SSH_KNOWN_HOSTS FILE FORMAT The /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.no-pty. Each line in these files contains the following fields: hostnames. each pattern in turn is matched against the canonical host name (when authenticating a client) or against the user-supplied name (when authenticating a server). Multiple permitopen options may be applied separated by commas.no-X11-forwarding Forbids X11 forwarding when this key is used for authentication. and is not used.. comment. The global file should be prepared by the administrator (optional). The fields are separated by spaces. they must be literal domains or addresses.bar from="*. they can be obtained. no-pty Prevents tty allocation (a request to allocate a pty will fail). No pattern matching is performed on the specified hostnames.1..hut. and the per-user file is maintained automatically: whenever the user connects from an unknown host its key is added to the per-user file. permitopen="host:port" Limit local ``ssh -L'' port forwarding such that it may only connect to the specified host and port.. it is not accepted (by that line) even if it matched another pattern on the line. Bits.55:80".. bits..2323 backup.2.niksula.no-port-forwarding 1024 33 23.1.hut. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. The optional comment field continues to the end of the line. from /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. 2008 . A pattern may also be preceded by `!' to indicate negation: if the host name matches a negated pattern. and modulus are taken directly from the RSA host key.niksula.. Any X11 forward requests by the client will return an error.fi.g.56:25" 1024 33 23.

. Note that sshd does not start if this file is group/world-accessible.233. Note that the lines in these files are typically hundreds of characters long.199. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. and not accessible to others..pub.pub and adding the host names at the front. It is possible that the files contain conflicting information. /var/run/sshd.4 Page 54 March 31.pid Contains the process ID of the sshd listening for connections (if NSK-SSH V2.. but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable.pub These three files contain the public parts of the host keys.3 ssh-rsa AAAA1234.41 1024 37 159. authentication is accepted if valid information can be found from either file. This will inevitably happen when short forms of host names from different domains are put in the file..fi cvs.185.. 2008 . Rather.137.. Examples closenet. authentication is accepted if any matching line has the proper key.pub. readable only by root. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.= FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd. This file should be writable by root only. they are provided for the convenience of the user so their contents can be copied to known hosts files.openbsd. These files should be world-readable but writable only by root. Their contents should match the respective private parts.208.. and you definitely don't want to type in the host keys by hand.org... /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are ignored as comments. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. These files should only be owned by root. generate them by a script or by taking /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. These files are not really used for anything.130..hut.93 closenet. These files are created using ssh-keygen(1). /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key These three files contain the private parts of the host keys. /etc/ssh/moduli Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the "Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange". It is thus permissible (but not recommended) to have several lines or different host keys for the same names. When performing host authentication.

shosts For ssh. $HOME/. /etc/nologin If this file exists. The key must be listed in one of these files to be accepted. $HOME/. The format of this file is described above. 2008 . separated by a space.deny If compiled with LIBWRAP support. These files should be writable only by root/the owner. The content of this file is not sensitive.rhosts This file contains host-username per line. The given user on the to log in without password. /etc/hosts. The contents of the file are displayed to anyone trying to log in. The file must be writable mended that it not be accessible pairs. tcp-wrappers access controls may be defined here as described in hosts_access(5). one corresponding host is permitted same file is used by rlogind and only by the user.pub files into this file. Users will place the contents of their identity. The rshd. it is recomby others. this file is exactly the same as for .rhosts. Either host or user name may be of the form +@groupname to specify all hosts or all users in the group.pub. and $HOME/. If is also possible to use netgroups in the file.pub and/or id_rsa. this contains the pid of the one started last). and non-root connections are refused. /etc/hosts. $HOME/. The client uses the same files to verify that it is connecting to the correct remote host.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA or DSA) that can be used to log into the user's account. so using this permits NSK-SSH V2.ssh/known_hosts can but need not be world-readable.allow. It is recommended that it not be accessible by others. it can be world-readable. id_dsa. This file must be readable by root (which may on some machines imply it being world-readable if the user's home directory resides on an NFS volume).ssh/known_hosts These files are consulted when using rhosts with RSA host authentication or protocol version 2 hostbased authentication to check the public key of the host. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts should be world-readable. sshd refuses to let anyone except root log in. The file should be world-readable.4 Page 55 March 31. as described in ssh-keygen(1). this file is not used by rlogin and rshd. However. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.there are several daemons running concurrently for different ports.

such users are permitted to log in as any user on this machine (except root). If X11 spoofing is in use. comment lines (that start with `#'). However. Negated entries start with `-'.equiv This is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. it is run with /bin/sh after reading the environment files but before starting the user's shell or command. AFS is a particular example of such an environ- NSK-SSH V2. Users on those hosts are permitted to log in without a password. The only valid use for user names that I can think of is in negative entries. If the client host/user is successfully matched in this file. The host name may also be followed by a user name. it need not be readable by anyone else. which includes bin. It can only contain empty lines.equiv. 2008 . Note that this warning also applies to rsh/rlogin. $HOME/. this file contains host names. one per line.equiv. The primary purpose of this file is to run any initialization routines which may be needed before the user's home directory becomes accessible. Beware that it really means that the named user(s) can log in as anybody.access using SSH only. provided they have the same user name on both machines.ssh/environment This file is read into the environment at login (if it exists).equiv This file is used during .ssh/rc If this file exists. This must call xauth(1) in that case. and assignment lines of the form name=value. Warning: It is almost never a good idea to use user names in hosts. /etc/ssh/shosts. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. login is automatically permitted provided the client and server user names are the same. $HOME/.4 Page 56 March 31. /etc/hosts. Additionally. this file may be useful in environments that want to run both rsh/rlogin and ssh. it is recommended that it be world-readable. Additionally. and other accounts that own critical binaries and directories. this will receive the "proto cookie" pair in standard input (and DISPLAY in environment). This file must be writable only by root. adm.rhosts authentication. the syntax ``+@group'' can be used to specify netgroups. In the simplest form. The file should be writable only by the user. Using a user name practically grants the user root access. daemon.

This file should be writable only by the user.conf(5). 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.ment. sftp(1). ssh(1). and if that does not exist either. login. /etc/ssh/sshrc is run. SEE ALSO scp(1). /etc/ssh/sshrc Like $HOME/.ssh/rc. and should be world-readable. This can be used to specify machine-specific login-time initializations globally. moduli(5). ssh-agent(1). then echo add $DISPLAY $proto $cookie | xauth -q fi If this file does not exist.4 Page 57 March 31. xauth is used to store the cookie. This file should be writable only by root. sftp-server(8) ssh-keygen(1). and need not be readable by anyone else. ssh-add(1). This file will probably contain some initialization code followed by something similar to: if read proto cookie.

2008 .4 Page 58 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

Ylonen. January 2001. See sshd(8) for more information. SEE ALSO sftp(1). but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. 2008 .sftp-server SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server . draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). SSH File Transfer Protocol.SFTP server subsystem SYNOPSIS sftp-server DESCRIPTION sftp-server is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin.txt.8 . and S. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). Lehtinen. AUTHORS Markus Friedl <markus@openbsd.org> HISTORY sftp-server first appeared in OpenBSD 2. NSK-SSH V2. sshd(8) T. sftp-server is not intended to be called directly.4 Page 59 March 31. work in progress material.

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Ylonen.SFTP server subsystem for guardian access SYNOPSIS sftp-server-guardian DESCRIPTION sftp-server-guardian is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. If the filename has a . but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. If the filename is too long you will get an error.4 Page 61 March 31. See sshd(8) for more information. Eventhough this feature was designed into the subsystem. AUTHORS Bowden Systems Inc <sales@bsi2.system file system. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . Lehtinen. you must limit your filenames to 8 characters. using the sftp-server-guardian you would use the /system/system option. it will be stored as an edit file. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. For example. work in progress material.com> HISTORY sftp-server-guardian first appeared in 2005. This subsystem does not have access to files residing on another node. As with all guardian filenames.txt. there was no way to allow this via a graphical interface and unix filesystem syntax.txt file on it. if you wish to access the $system. This make the sftp-server-guardian subsystem compatible with graphical user interfaces such as FileZilla. SEE ALSO sftp(1). sftp-server-guardian is not intended to be called directly.sftp-server-guardian SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server-guardian . The sftp-server-guardian support reading and writing files directly to the guardian filesystem using the standard unix syntax. sshd(8) T. January 2001. and S. SSH File Transfer Protocol.

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-v used for displaying detail ssh information on stderr. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCMD program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. GNOTTY 1 . there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. SEE ALSO ssh(1) NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .secure command (remote command execution) SYNOPSIS scmd [-v] user@host cmd DESCRIPTION scmd is a command front-end for ssh.scmd SCMD(1) System Reference Manual SCMD(1) NAME scmd .Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . it should be enclosed in double or single quotes.4 Page 63 March 31.Set this to the password for the public key or user id HISTORY This program was written to solve the select problem for ssh in OSS. If cmd is more than one command.

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This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag. such as public key authentication and compression. The options are as follows: -1 Specify the use of protocol version 1. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used. -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. rm and lmkdir. ln. rename. It may also use many features of ssh. then enters an interactive command mode. Since it lacks user interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication. 2008 . sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get. put. similar to ftp(1). sftp connects and logs into the specified host. For exam- NSK-SSH V2. The last usage format allows the sftp client to start in a remote directory. System Reference Manual SFTP(1) -b batchfile Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh(1) transport.4 Page 65 March 31.Secure file transfer program SYNOPSIS sftp [-1Cv] [-b batchfile] [-F ssh_config] [-o ssh_option] [-s subsystem | sftp_server] [-S program] host sftp [[user@]host[:file [file]]] sftp [[user@]host[:dir[/]]] DESCRIPTION sftp is an interactive file transfer program. -C Enables compression (via ssh's -C flag).sftp SFTP(1) NAME sftp . otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication.

A path is useful for using sftp over protocol version 1. chmod mode path Change permissions of file path to mode. or when the remote sshd does not have an sftp subsystem configured. -S program Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . own must be a numeric UID. chown own path Change owner of file path to own. chgrp grp path Change group of file path to grp. -s subsystem | sftp_server Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host. bye cd path Change remote directory to path. to specify an alternate port use: sftp -oPort=24. Commands are case insensitive and pathnames may be enclosed in quotes if they contain spaces.ple. grp must be a numeric GID. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 66 March 31. Quit sftp. 2008 . -v Raise logging level. program must understand ssh(1) options.Set this to the password for the public key or user id INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Once in interactive mode. GNOTTY 1 . exit Quit sftp. sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1). This option is also passed to ssh. lcd path Change local directory to path. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SFTP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password.

then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. Quit sftp. If the remote path name is not specified. ln oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. If the local path name is not specified.get [flags] remote-path [local-path] Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. If the -P flag is specified. it is given the same name it has on the local machine. lls [ls-options [path]] Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. it is given the same name it has on the remote machine. help Display help text. lmkdir path Create local directory specified by path. mkdir path Create remote directory specified by path. ls [path] Display remote directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. rename oldpath newpath Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath. lumask umask Set local umask to umask. lpwd Print local working directory. 2008 . rm path NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 67 March 31. rmdir path Remove remote directory specified by path. If the -P flag is specified. put [flags] local-path [local-path] Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine. pwd quit Display remote working directory.

! ? Escape to local shell. NSK-SSH V2. SSH File Transfer Protocol. symlink oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. sftp-server(8). 2008 . draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. ! command Execute command in local shell. Ylonen. ssh-add(1). and S. January 2001. Synonym for help.4 Page 68 March 31.Delete remote file specified by path. AUTHORS Damien Miller <djm@mindrot.txt. work in progress material.org> SEE ALSO scp(1). ssh-keygen(1). Lehtinen. sshd(8) T. ssh(1).

4 Page 69 March 31.secure copy (remote file copy program) SYNOPSIS scp [-pqrvBC46] [-F ssh_config] [-S program] [-P port] [-c cipher] [-i identity_file] [-o ssh_option] [[user@]host1:]file1 [. Unlike rcp(1).. Verbose mode. Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases). and configuration problems. Causes scp and ssh(1) to print debugging messages about their progress.scp SCP(1) NAME scp . 2008 . scp will ask for passwords or passphrases if they are needed for authentication. -r -v -B -q NSK-SSH V2.] [[user@]host2:]file2 DESCRIPTION scp copies files between hosts on a network. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). Copies between two remote hosts are permitted.. Any file name may contain a host and user specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from that host. The options are as follows: -c cipher Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer. -p Preserves modification times. access times. authentication. This is helpful in debugging connection. Recursively copy entire directories. option is directly passed to ssh(1). and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh(1). It uses ssh(1) for data transfer. and modes from the original file. Disables the progress meter. System Reference Manual SCP(1) This -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read.

ssh-agent(1). -4 -6 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only. ssh-keygen(1).Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable com- -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. ssh-add(1).-C Compression enable. sshd(8) sftp(1).hut.4 Page 70 March 31. For example. Note that this option is written with a capital `P'. The program -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. ssh(1). SEE ALSO rcp(1). -S program Name of program to use for the encrypted connection.fi> HISTORY scp is based on the rcp(1) program in BSD source code from the Regents of the University of California. Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only.fi> and Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs. -P port Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host. must understand ssh(1) options. forcing the use of protocol version 1 is specified using scp -oProtocol=1. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2. GNOTTY 1 . because -p is already reserved for preserving the times and modes of the file in rcp(1).Set this to the password for the public key or user id AUTHORS Timo Rinne <tri@iki. pression.

ssh/identity.] ssh-add -s reader ssh-add -e reader DESCRIPTION ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent. ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given. 2008 .adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-add [-lLdD] [file . Alternative file names can be given on the command line. The passphrase is read from the user's tty. System Reference Manual SSH-ADD(1) -L -d -D -s reader Add key in smartcard reader.. Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented by the agent.4 Page 71 March 31. removes the identity from the agent.ssh-add SSH-ADD(1) NAME ssh-add . Deletes all identities from the agent. The authentication agent must be running and must be an ancestor of the current process for ssh-add to work. NSK-SSH V2. When run without arguments. ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user.. it adds the file $HOME/. The options are as follows: -l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent. sshagent(1). Instead of adding the identity. -e reader Remove key in smartcard reader. If any file requires a passphrase.

ENVIRONMENT DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS If ssh-add needs a passphrase. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.FILES $HOME/. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase.Xsession or related script. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. ssh-agent(1). This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a .ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. $HOME/. 2008 . This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set.) SEE ALSO ssh(1). Note that ssh-add ignores this file if it is accessible by others. This is the default file added by ssh-add when no other files have been specified. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work.4 Page 72 March 31. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. $HOME/. ssh-keygen(1).ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-agent [-c | -s] [-d] [command [args . NSK-SSH V2. ssh-add(1) adds the $HOME/. Keys are added using ssh-add(1).]] ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k DESCRIPTION ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA. This is the default if SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell. ssh-add(1) asks for the passphrase (using a small X11 application if running under X11.ssh-agent SSH-AGENT(1) NAME ssh-agent . When this option is specified ssh-agent will not System Reference Manual SSH-AGENT(1) -s -k -d If a commandline is given..ssh/identity file. Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout. Several identities can be stored in the agent. 2008 . so does the agent. The agent initially does not have any private keys. When the command dies. When executed without arguments. and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program.4 Page 73 March 31. the agent can automatically use any of these identities. It then sends the identity to the agent. Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable).. or from the terminal if running without X). fork. The options are as follows: -c Generate C-shell commands on stdout. Through use of environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for authentication when logging in to other machines using ssh(1). Debug mode. The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session. ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by the agent. DSA). This is the default if SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell. this is executed as a subprocess of the agent. If the identity has a passphrase.

Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection to the agent. A unix-domain socket is created (/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. 2008 . This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. $HOME/. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. NSK-SSH V2. or the agent prints the needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be generated) which can be evalled in the calling shell. and authentication passphrases never go over the network. the connection to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. The socket is made accessible only to the current user. This file is not used by ssh-agent but is normally added to the agent using ssh-add(1) at login time. or terminal.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. $HOME/. Authentication data need not be stored on any other machine. and the user can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere in the network in a secure way. However. laptop. and the name of this socket is stored in the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable.<pid>).ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This method is easily abused by root or another instance of the same user.The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC. The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's PID. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. FILES $HOME/. There are two main ways to get an agent setup: Either the agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment variables are exported. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). The agent exits automatically when the command given on the command line terminates.4 Page 74 March 31.

SEE ALSO ssh(1). These sockets should only be readable by the owner./tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. ssh-add(1). sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 75 March 31. ssh-keygen(1). The sockets should get automatically removed when the agent exits.<pid> Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection to the authentication agent.

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2008 . if .4 Page 77 March 31.equiv. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh. and the rlogin/rsh protocol in general. This form of authentication alone is normally not allowed by the server because it is not secure. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. /etc/hosts.rhosts. are inherently insecure and should be System Reference Manual SSH(1) NSK-SSH V2.equiv or /etc/ssh/shosts. only then login is permitted. DNS spoofing and routing spoofing.equiv on the remote machine. This authentication method closes security holes due to IP spoofing.NSK SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine.shosts exists in the user's home directory on the remote machine and contains a line containing the name of the client machine and the name of the user on that machine. or /etc/ssh/shosts.rhosts or . [Note to the administrator: /etc/hosts.equiv.ssh SSH(1) NAME ssh . ssh connects and logs into the specified hostname. the user is permitted to log in.shosts.ssh/known_hosts in the FILES section). the user is immediately permitted to log in. The second authentication method is the rhosts or hosts. $HOME/. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods deM-pending on the protocol version used: SSH protocol version 1 First. and the user names are the same on both sides. $HOME/. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel.equiv method combined with RSA-based host authentication. if the machine the user logs in from is listed in /etc/hosts.equiv. Second.rhosts. It means that if the login would be permitted by $HOME/. and if additionally the server can verify the client's host key (see /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.

though the lines can be very long). 2008 . The scheme is based on public-key cryptography: there are cryptosystems where encryption and decryption are done using separate keys. and finally if this method fails keyboard-interactive and password authentication are tried. a random number. ssh prompts the user for a password. the password cannot be seen by someone listening on the network. SSH protocol version 2 When a user connects using the protocol version 2 different authentication methods are available.ssh/identity. and if so. See ssh-agent(1) for more information. After this.ssh/identity and the public key in $HOME/. The challenge can only be decrypted using the proper private key. If other authentication methods fail. and it is not possible to derive the decryption key from the encryption key. since all communications are encrypted.ssh/authorized_keys in his/her home directory on the remote machine (the authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional $HOME/. The public key method is similar to RSA authentication described in the NSK-SSH V2. the ssh program tells the server which key pair it would like to use for authentication. The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may be with an authentication agent.disabled if security is desired. The server knows the public key. The user creates his/her RSA key pair by running ssh-keygen(1). RSA authentication is much more secure than rhosts authentication. the client will try to authenticate first using the hostbased method. ssh implements the RSA authentication protocol automatically. When the user logs in. This stores the private key in $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys lists the public keys that are permitted for logging in. The user should then copy the identity. The password is sent to the remote host for checking. ssh supports RSA based authentication. RSA is one such system.pub to $HOME/. and only the user knows the private key. The idea is that each user creates a public/private key pair for authentication purposes. the user can log in without giving the password. The user's client then decrypts the challenge using the private key. encrypted by the user's public key.4 Page 78 March 31. and has one key per line. proving that he/she knows the private key but without disclosing it to the server. Using the default values for PreferredAuthentications. if this method fails public key authentication is attempted.rhosts file. The file $HOME/. however. The server checks if this key is permitted.] As a third authentication method.pub in the user's home directory. sends the user (actually the ssh program running on behalf of the user) a challenge.

ssh/authorized_keys and grants access if both the key is found and the signature is correct. Login session and remote execution When the user's identity has been accepted by the server. If public key authentication fails or is not available a password can be sent encrypted to the remote host for proving the user's identity. The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh. setting the escape character to ``none'' will also make the session transparent even if a tty is used. or logs into the machine and gives the user a normal shell on the remote machine.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/.previous section and allows the RSA or DSA algorithm to be used: The client uses his private key. the server either executes the given command.ssh/id_rsa. the user may use the escape characters noted below. the session is transparent and can be used to reliably transfer binary data. $HOME/. Note that protocol 1 lacks a strong mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the connection. The server checks whether the matching public key is listed in $HOME/. The session identifier is derived from a shared Diffie-Hellman value and is only known to the client and the server. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 79 March 31. ssh supports a number of functions through the use of an escape character. Escape Characters When a pseudo terminal has been requested. The escape character can be changed in configuration files using the EscapeChar configuration directive or on the command line by the -e option. The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP connections have been closed. to sign the session identifier and sends the result to the server. hmac-sha1). The escape character must always follow a newline to be interpreted as special. If no pseudo tty has been allocated. Blowfish. On most systems. A single tilde character can be sent as ~~ or by following the tilde by a character other than those described below. If a pseudo-terminal has been allocated (normal login session). ssh supports hostbased or challenge response authentication. Protocol 2 provides additional mechanisms for confidentiality (the traffic is encrypted using 3DES. 2008 . CAST128 or Arcfour) and integrity (hmac-md5. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted. Additionally.

The user should not manually set DISPLAY. 2008 . store it in Xauthority on the server. the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the remote side unless disabled on the command line or in a configuration file. The real authentication cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain). see the description of the -X and -x options described later) and the user is using X11 (the DISPLAY environment variable is set). One possible application of TCP/IP forwarding is a secure connection to an electronic purse.The supported escapes (assuming the default `~') are: ~. ssh will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine. the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted channel. NSK-SSH V2. For this purpose. The DISPLAY value set by ssh will point to the server machine. but with a display number greater than zero. This is normal. and happens because ssh creates a ``proxy'' X server on the server machine for forwarding the connections over the encrypted channel. Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file. it will generate a random authorization cookie. another is going through firewalls. Forwarding of X11 connections can be configured on the command line or in configuration files. ~^Z ~# ~& Disconnect Background ssh List forwarded connections Background ssh at logout when waiting for forwarded connection / X11 sessions to terminate (protocol version 1 only) Display a list of escape characters Request rekeying of the connection (only useful for SSH protocol version 2 and if the peer supports it) ~? ~R X11 and TCP forwarding If the ForwardX11 variable is set to ``yes'' (or.4 Page 80 March 31. and verify that any forwarded connections carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened. If the user is using an authentication agent.

2008 . 3des is used by default. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. -b bind_address Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. -c blowfish|3des|des Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the session. Setting the NSK-SSH V2. It is believed to be secure. blowfish is a fast block cipher. -c cipher_spec Additionally. it appears very secure and is much faster than 3des. des is only supported in the ssh client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher.Server authentication ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing identifications for all hosts it has ever been used with. The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line. The options are as follows: -a -A Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. -e ch|^ch|none Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: `~'). The StrictHostKeyChecking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines whose host key is not known or has changed. Another purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption. ssh warns about this and disables password authentication to prevent a trojan horse from getting the user's password.') closes the connection.4 Page 81 March 31. 3des (triple-des) is an encrypt-decrypt-encrypt triple with three different keys. and followed by itself sends the escape character once. followed by control-Z suspends the connection. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of ciphers can be specified in order of preference.ssh/known_hosts in the user's home directory. Any new hosts are automatically added to the user's file. Host keys are stored in $HOME/. the file /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts. See Ciphers for more information. Additionally. Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. The escape character followed by a dot (`. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. If a host's identification ever changes.

2008 .fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm. This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel. The argument is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. ssh -n shadows. prevents reading from stdin). for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms can be specified in order of preference. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine.fi.hut.) Do not execute a remote command. This is useful for just forwarding ports (protocol version 2 only). Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.cs. The ssh program will be put in the background.cs.4 Page 82 March 31. Default is $HOME/. -N NSK-SSH V2. -n Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually. See the MACs keyword for more information. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase. -m mac_spec Additionally.character to ``none'' disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent.hut. -g -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA or DSA authentication is read. This must be used when ssh is run in the background. -l login_name Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine. This implies -n. -I smartcard_device Specifies which smartcard device to use. see also the -f option. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases. Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports. This may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. For example. but the user wants it in the background.ssh/identity in the user's home directory. -k Disables forwarding of Kerberos tickets and AFS tokens.

stdout.4 Page 83 March 31. stderr. sftp).. This can also be specified on a per-host -t -T -v -x -X basis in a configuration file. and data for forwarded X11 and TCP/IP connections).-o option Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. The subsystem is specified as the remote command. Disables X11 forwarding. -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin. This can be used to execute arbiM-trary screen-based programs on a remote machine. 2008 . Subsystems are a feature of the SSH2 protocol which facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (eg. Verbose mode. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. and the ``level'' can be controlled by the CompressionLevel option (see below). when implementing menu services. and configuration problems. but will only slow down things on fast networks. e. The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1). -P Use a non-privileged port for outgoing connections. Multiple -v options increases the verbosity. -q -s May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system.g. which can be very useful. The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the con- NSK-SSH V2. This is helpful in debugging connection. This can be used if a firewall does not permit connections from privileged ports. Disable pseudo-tty allocation. suppressed. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress. Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be Only fatal errors are displayed. Force pseudo-tty allocation. Maximum is 3. Multiple -t options force tty allocation. Note that this option turns off RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication for older servers. authentication. Quiet mode. even if ssh has no local tty. Enables X11 forwarding. Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections.

Only root can forward priviM-leged ports. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -R port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the remote (server) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the local side. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. -1 -2 -4 Forces ssh to try protocol version 1 only. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. see the Compression option below. the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the remote side. 2008 . Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the local machine.4 Page 84 March 31. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel.ssh/config. -L port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the local (client) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the remote side. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -D port Specifies a local ``dynamic'' application-level port forwarding. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. Forces ssh to try protocol version 2 only. Only root can forward privileged ports. and whenever a connection is made to this port. -F configfile Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file. NSK-SSH V2. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the remote machine. and whenever a connection is made to this port.figuration files. If a configuration file is given on the command line. and whenever a connection is made to this port. The default for the per-user configuration file is $HOME/.

The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword. and system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config). the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh. Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used. scp and sftp -o option. BatchMode If set to ``yes''. Otherwise a line is of the format ``keyword arguments''. The default is ``no''. The matched host name is the one given on the command line. NSK-SSH V2. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. CONFIGURATION FILES ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: command line options. more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file. 2008 . Configuration options may be separated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one `='.4 Page 85 March 31. AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether to pass AFS tokens to remote host. the first obtained value will be used. and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification. The configuration file has the following format: Empty lines and lines starting with `#' are comments.. passphrase/password querying will be disabled. The configuration files contain sections bracketed by ``Host'' specifications. This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password.e. and general defaults at the end. The host is the hostname argument given on the command line (i. user's configuration file ($HOME/. the name is not converted to a canonicalized host name before matching). For each parameter.-6 Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only.ssh/config). The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. A single `*' as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. This option applies to protocol version 1 only.

2008 . des is only supported in the ssh client for inM-teroperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. Compression Specifies whether to use compression. CompressionLevel Specifies the compression level to use if compression is enabled. Cipher Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in protocol version 1. and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. the check will not be executed. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The deM-fault is ``aes128-cbc. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order of preference. remote and dynamic port forwardings specified in the configuration files or on the command line be cleared.3des-cbc. best). ``3des''. ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before NSK-SSH V2. The default is ``yes''. Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to ``yes''. The default is ``no''. This allows ssh to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing. The meaning of the values is the same as in gzip(1). This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh command line to clear port forwardings set in configuration files. If the option is set to ``no''. The default is ``3des''. Currently. The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9 (slow.aes256-cbc'' ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. ssh will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file.cast128-cbc. The default is ``no''. The default level is 6. CheckHostIP If this flag is set to ``yes''. and ``des'' are supported.blowfish-cbc.arcfour. ``blowfish''.4 Page 86 March 31. aes192-cbc.BindAddress Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. which is good for most applications.

thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports.4 Page 87 March 31. ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports. ssh binds local port forwardings to the loopback addresss. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. rsh(1) should automatically be used instead (after a suitable warning about the session being unencrypted). This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. The argument should be a single character. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. or ``none'' to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data). GlobalKnownHostsFile NSK-SSH V2. The argument must be an integer. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The escape character can also be set on the command line. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. By default. ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: `~'). The default is 1.falling back to rsh or exiting. The default is ``no''. Multiple forwardings may be specified. FallBackToRsh Specifies that if connecting via ssh fails due to a connection refused error (there is no sshd(8) listening on the remote host). The default is ``no''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address. The default is ``no''. 2008 . `^' followed by a letter. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The argument must be a port number. DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel.

If they are sent. 2008 . and many users want it too. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication. all these identities will be tried in sequence. The file name may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory.ssh/identity in the user's home directory). IdentityFile Specifies the file from which the user's RSA or DSA authentication identity is read (default $HOME/. and some people find it annoying. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Additionally.ssh-dss'' HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files. This option is useful for tunneling ssh connections or for multiple servers running on a single host. This option applies to protocol version 2 only and is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication. Default is the name given on the command line. However. This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts. the value should be set to ``no'' in both NSK-SSH V2. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed.Specifies a file to use for the global host key database instead of /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. To disable keepalives. The default is ``no''. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). HostName Specifies the real host name to log into. any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication. The default for this option is: ``ssh-rsa.4 Page 88 March 31. This is important in scripts. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the protocol version 2 host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of preference. It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files.

Default is 3.hmac-md5-96''. 2008 . Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host. is 22. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports.hmacripemd160. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. The ar- KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT will be forwarded to the server. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh. This will only work if the Kerberos server is actually an AFS kaserver. The default is ``yes''. NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up. gument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. INFO. VERBOSE and DEBUG. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication will be used. FATAL. The argument to this keyword must be an integer. ERROR. The default is ``hmac-md5. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine. Multiple forwardings may be specified. The first argument must be a port number. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The possible values are: QUIET. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Default PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try protocol 2 authentication methods.hmac-sha1-96. and the second must be host:port. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. This allows a client to prefer one method NSK-SSH V2.hmac-sha1. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. The default is INFO.4 Page 89 March 31. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port.the server and the client configuration files.

The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The command string extends to the end of the line. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port.g. Note that this declaration only affects the client side and has no effect whatsoever on security. 2008 . The first argument must be a port number. In the command string. password) The default for this option is: ``hostbased. and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output. This option applies to protocol version 2 only.publickey.4 Page 90 March 31. It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine. and the second must be host:port. The default is ``2. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e.keyboardinteractive. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. or execute sshd -i somewhere. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user). RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication. Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce authentication time on slow connections when rhosts authentication is not used. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. This means that ssh tries version 2 and falls back to version 1 if version 2 is not available. Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command. `%h' will be substituted by the host name to connect and `%p' by the port.(e.1''. The default is ``yes''. Multiple forwardings may be specified. ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server. Multiple versions must be comma-separated. The deM-fault is ``yes''. and is executed with /bin/sh.g. NSK-SSH V2. RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the local machine.password'' Protocol Specifies the protocol versions ssh should support in order of preference. The command can be basically anything. Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication). PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports.

RSA authentication will only be attempted if the identity file exists. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. The default is ``yes''.4 Page 91 March 31. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge response authentication. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``yes''.ssh/known_hosts file. however. new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do. ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files. can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained. The host keys of known hosts will be verified automatically in all cases. and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. ssh will never automatically add host keys to the $HOME/. or an authentication agent is running. SmartcardDevice Specifies which smartcard device to use. If this flag is set to ``no''. The default is ``yes''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. By default. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks. or connections to new hosts are frequently made. If this flag is set to ``ask''. no device is specified and smartcard support is not activated. The argument to this keyword is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts. The default is ``no''. The default is ``ask''. NSK-SSH V2. ``no'' or ``ask''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to ``yes''. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections. Note that this option must be set to ``yes'' if RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication authentications are needed with older servers. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA host authentication. 2008 . RSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try RSA authentication. The argument must be ``yes''.

User Specifies the user to log in as. as that will render the X11 connection insecure (and will require the user to manually copy any required authorization cookies). set for compatibility with systems that use this variable. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. If ssh does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. Set to the path of the user's home directory.Xsession or related script. 2008 . This is particularly useful when calling ssh from a . HOME LOGNAME Synonym for USER. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. NSK-SSH V2. ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections over the secure channel. This causes ssh to immediately execute rsh(1). It is possible that the host does not at all support the ssh protocol.4 Page 92 March 31. as specified when compiling ssh. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. It is automatically set by ssh to point to a value of the form ``hostname:n'' where hostname indicates the host where the shell runs. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. UserKnownHostsFile Specifies a file to use for the user host key database instead of $HOME/. SSH_ASKPASS If ssh needs a passphrase. This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. Set to the default PATH.ssh/known_hosts. and n is an integer >= 1. All other options (except HostName) are ignored if this has been specified. The default is ENVIRONMENT ssh will normally set the following environment variables: DISPLAY The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server. This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line. UseRsh Specifies that rlogin/rsh should be used for this host. MAIL PATH Set to the path of the user's mailbox. The user should normally not set DISPLAY explicitly.

TZ The timezone variable is set to indicate the present timezone if it was set when the daemon was started (i.ssh/identity. GNOTTY 1 . $HOME/. client port number. SSH_CLIENT Identifies the client end of the connection. 2008 . NONSTOP ADDITIONAL OPTIONS If you need to use the SSH program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password.e. See sshd(8)..ssh/id_dsa. $HOME/. USER Additionally. They are for protocol 1 RSA.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . the daemon passes the value on to new connections).) SSH_AUTH_SOCK Identifies the path of a unix-domain socket used to communicate with the agent. It can be used to extract the original arguments. SSH_TTY This is set to the name of the tty (path to the device) associated with the current shell or command. NSK-SSH V2. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. this variable is not set.4 Page 93 March 31. $HOME/. respectively. and adds lines of the format ``VARNAME=value'' to the environment. ssh reads $HOME/. and server port number. If the current session has no tty.Set this to the password for the public key or user id FILES $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the authentication identity of the user.ssh/environment.ssh/known_hosts Records host keys for all hosts the user has logged into that are not in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. The variable contains three space-separated values: client ip-address. SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND The variable contains the original command line if a forced command is executed.(Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. Set to the name of the user logging in. protocol 2 DSA. and protocol 2 RSA.

ssh/identity. This file does not usually contain any sensitive information. When different names are used for the same machine.pub file should be added to $HOME/. and not accessible by others.These files contain sensitive data and should be readable by the user but not accessible by others (read/write/execute). separated by commas. This file is used by the ssh client. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user. they are only provided for the convenience of the user. $HOME/. This file should be prepared by the system administrator to contain the public host keys of all machines in the organization. other names NSK-SSH V2. In the simplest form the format is the same as the . all such names should be listed. The format is described on the sshd(8) manual page.ssh/identity.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 1 RSA authentication.ssh/id_rsa. The format of this file is described in the sshd(8) manual page.pub. $HOME/.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file.pub file should be added to $HOME/. The contents of the $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub. The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by sshd(8) to verify the client host when logging in. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user. and not accessible by others.ssh/id_rsa. one per line. Note that ssh ignores a private key file if it is accessible by othM-ers. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts Systemwide list of known host keys. public key and optional comment field.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the public key for authentication (public part of the identity file in human-readable form). These files are not sensitive and can (but need not) be readable by anyone. This file contains public keys. the passphrase will be used to encrypt the sensitive part of this file using 3DES. This file is not highly sensitive. $HOME/.pub and $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 2 DSA/RSA authentication. $HOME/. $HOME/. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. in the following format (fields separated by spaces): system name.4 Page 94 March 31. These files are never used automatically and are not necessary.pub identity files.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA/DSA) that can be used for logging in as this user. The format of this file is described above. 2008 . This file should be worldreadable. The contents of the $HOME/.

are needed because ssh does not convert the user-supplied name to a canonical name before checking the key. This file should only be writable by root. $HOME/. $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts. NSK-SSH V2.rhosts authentication. login is automatically permitted provided client and server user names are the same. The purpose for having this file is to be able to use rhosts authentication with ssh without permitting login with rlogin(1) or rsh(1).) Each line of the file contains a host name (in the canonical form returned by name servers). On some machines this file may need to be world-readable if the user's home directory is on a NFS partition. because sshd(8) reads it as root. and for those users who do not have a configuration file. /etc/hosts. If the client host is found in this file. /etc/ssh/shosts. it can be stored in $HOME/. one per line (the full format is described on the sshd(8) manual page). Additionally. Note that by default sshd(8) will be installed so that it requires successful RSA host authentication before permitting . This file must be world-readable. It contains canonical hosts names.4 Page 95 March 31. This file may be useful to permit logins using ssh but not using rsh/rlogin.equiv This file is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. and must not have write permissions for anyone else. separated by a space. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file.rhosts authentication to list the host/user pairs that are permitted to log in.shosts This file is used exactly the same way as . 2008 .equiv. (Note that this file is also used by rlogin and rsh.rhosts. The easiest way to do this is to connect back to the client from the server machine using ssh. and not accessible by others. The recommended permission for most machines is read/write for the user. If the server machine does not have the client's host key in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.rhosts This file is used in .rhosts authentication.ssh/known_hosts. and then a user name on that host. this will automatically add the host key to $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. which makes using this file insecure.equiv This file is used during . Additionally. because someone with access to the name servers would then be able to fool host authentication. this file must be owned by the user.

4 Page 96 March 31. $HOME/. rsh(1). NSK-SSH V2.ssh/environment Contains additional definitions for environment variables. sshd(8) ssh-add(1). telnet(1). ssh- T. draft-ietf-secsh-architecture-09. keygen(1). see section ENVIRONMENT above. SSH Protocol Architecture. 2008 . M./etc/ssh/sshrc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. sftp(1).ssh/rc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. $HOME/. Saarinen. July 2001. and S. Lehtinen. Ylonen. See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. T.txt. See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. work in progress material. Kivinen. Rinne. T. scp(1). ssh-agent(1). SEE ALSO rlogin(1).

# for more information.4 Page 97 March 31. 2008 .APPENDIX B .0.rhosts and ~/.FILES sshd_config FILE # This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/ssh/bin # This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file. Port 22 #Protocol 2.0.1 ListenAddress 0.ssh/authorized_keys # rhosts authentication should not be used RhostsAuthentication no # Don't read the user's ~/.shosts files IgnoreRhosts yes # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts RhostsRSAAuthentication no # similar for protocol version 2 See sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.0 #ListenAddress :: # HostKey for protocol version 1 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key # HostKeys for protocol version 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key # Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key KeyRegenerationInterval 3600 ServerKeyBits 768 # Logging SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging # Authentication: LoginGraceTime 600 PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes RSAAuthentication yes PubkeyAuthentication yes #AuthorizedKeysFile %h/.

4 Page 98 March 31. 2008 .ssh/known_hosts for RhostsRSAAuthentication #IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes # To disable tunneled clear text passwords.HostbasedAuthentication no # Uncomment if you don't trust ~/.net #ReverseMappingCheck yes Subsystem Subsystem sftp sftp-g /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server-guardian NSK-SSH V2. change to no here! PasswordAuthentication yes PermitEmptyPasswords no # Uncomment to disable s/key passwords #ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # Uncomment to enable PAM keyboard-interactive authentication # Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication' #PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes # To change Kerberos options #KerberosAuthentication no #KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes #AFSTokenPassing no #KerberosTicketCleanup no # Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver #KerberosTgtPassing yes X11Forwarding no X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintMotd yes #PrintLastLog no KeepAlive yes #UseLogin no #MaxStartups 10:30:60 #Banner /etc/issue.

# Site-wide defaults for various options # Host * # ForwardAgent no # ForwardX11 no # RhostsAuthentication no # RhostsRSAAuthentication yes # RSAAuthentication yes # PasswordAuthentication yes # FallBackToRsh no # UseRsh no # BatchMode no # CheckHostIP yes # StrictHostKeyChecking yes # IdentityFile ~/. command line options 2. See ssh(1) for more # information. user-specific file 3.ssh_config FILE # This is ssh client systemwide configuration file.ssh/id_rsa # Port 22 # Protocol 2.ssh/id_dsa # IdentityFile ~/.4 Page 99 March 31. host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the configuration file. Thus. and the values can # be changed in per-user configuration files or on the command line.ssh/identity # IdentityFile ~/. 2008 . and defaults at the end. This file provides defaults for users. # # # # # # # Configuration data is parsed as follows: 1. system-wide file Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set.1 # Cipher blowfish # EscapeChar ~ NSK-SSH V2.

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4 Page 101 March 31.sh FILE ############################################ # Start SSH with IPSSH across two cpus ## ## Start the SSH process on port 700 and 701 export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 run -cpu=0 sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 sshd -p 701 ## Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process run -cpu=0 ipssh sleep 5 ## Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process run -cpu=1 ipssh -wait 0 # Startup complete NSK-SSH V2.APPENDIX C . 2008 .TELNET ISOLATION FILES start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack.

Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 102 March 31.

& HOMETERM $zhome. & AUTORESTART 10.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00a start_ipssh_ztc0a.255.ZZKRN FILES ipztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00a add process IPSSH-ztc00a. 2008 .4 Page 103 March 31.osh.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0a.& program $system.sh <.& primarycpu 0.APPENDIX D .& userid 255. & outfile $zhome.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip000 run -name=/G/ip000 -cpu=0 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2. & name $ob010.system. & startmode manual.

sh <. & name $ob011.4 Page 104 March 31.system.& HOMETERM $zhome.& program $system. # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip001 run -name=/G/ip001 -cpu=1 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D -wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2. & outfile $zhome. If the other ipssh process # dies.ipztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00b add process IPSSH-ztc00b. 2008 .& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0b.255. & AUTORESTART 10.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00b start_ipssh_ztc0b. this process will take over.osh.& primarycpu 1.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # # Note that the wait 0 is used just incase the other ipssh process # has been started and is on port 22.& userid 255. & startmode manual.

& primarycpu 0.255.& userid 255.4 Page 105 March 31.sh <. & AUTORESTART 10.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00a.& program $system. & name $ob000.osh.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 790" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb000 run -name=/G/rb000 -cpu=0 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:790 # NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . & outfile $zhome. & startmode manual.ranztc0a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00a add process RANDOM-ztc00a.system.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00a start_random_ztc00a.& HOMETERM $zhome.

& program $system.system. 2008 .ranztc0b FILE llow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00b add process RANDOM-ztc00b.sh <. & outfile $zhome.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00b.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00b start_random_ztc0b. & startmode manual.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 791" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb001 run -name=/G/rb001 -cpu=1 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:791 # NSK-SSH V2.osh. & AUTORESTART 10.& HOMETERM $zhome.& primarycpu 1.255.& userid 255. & name $ob001.4 Page 106 March 31.

& AUTORESTART 10. & startmode manual.& HOMETERM $zhome. & outfile $zhome.4 Page 107 March 31.sdztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00a add process SSHD-ztc00a.& userid 255.system.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00a start_sshd_ztc00a.sh <.& primarycpu 0.255.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00a.osh. & name $ob020.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 700" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd000 run -name=/G/sd000 -cpu=0 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 700 # NSK-SSH V2.& program $system. 2008 .

sh <.& userid 255.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00b.system.osh. & outfile $zhome.4 Page 108 March 31. & AUTORESTART 10.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00b start_sshd_ztc00b.sdztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00b add process SSHD-ztc00b. & name $ob021.& primarycpu 1.& program $system.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 701" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd001 run -name=/G/sd001 -cpu=1 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 701 # NSK-SSH V2.255.& HOMETERM $zhome. & startmode manual. 2008 .

4 Page 109 March 31.INSTALL NOTES: NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .

4 Page 110 March 31. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

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