Version 2.

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Bowden Systems Inc.
Norcross, GA 30092 http://www.bsi2.com

Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

BOWDEN SYSTEMS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Bowden Systems shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Warranty
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your BSI product can be obtained from the BSI Corporate Office.

Printing History
The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between additions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive these updates or new editions, contact the BSI Corporate Office. October 2001 . . . Edition 1 February 2002 . . . Edition 2 June 2003....Editon 3 July 2004...Edition4 Feb 2008...Edition 5 March 2008...Edition 5a Bowden Systems, Inc. 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 370 Norcross, GA 30092, USA email:sales@bsi2.com web:www.bsi2.com © 2001- 2008 Bowden Systems, Inc.
NSK-SSH, sftp-server-guardian, scmd is a trademark of Bowden Systems Inc. Nonstop, TEDIT, TACL, Guardian 90, 6530, PATHWAY are trademarks of HP. Mr-win6530 is a trademark of Conforte. Cail6530 is a trademark of Cail.

Preface
This manual explains how to install, configure, and use NSK-SSH software for the HP NonStop server. This includes setting up the components of the software which are the ipssh, sshd, and prngd.

Audience and Prerequisites
This manual is intended for system managers and assumes that the user has experience with OSS, GUARDIAN, TCPIP, PTCPIP and SCF.

Prerequisite Equipment
This manual also assumes that the user’s host is S-Series running GUARDIAN G06.22 or higher, GUARDIAN H-Series running H06.05 or higher, or GUARDIAN J-Series J06.02 or higher. This software works with TCPIP V4 and TCPIP V6 tcpip stacks.

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. . . . . . 61 scmd. . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 sshd. . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 sftp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .REQUIRED FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KERNEL SUBSYSEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ssh_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ssh-keyscan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OVERVIEW. . . . . 103 start_ipssh_ztc0a. . . . . 65 scp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KNOWN PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ipssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 sftp-server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 sftp-server-guardian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ipztc00a . . . . . . . . INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE. . 69 ssh-add. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 prngd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ZZKRN FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. 99 APPENDIX C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD using two IP stacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ssh-keygen. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 APPENDIX D . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN PAGES. . . . . . . . . . 97 sshd_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ssh-agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. . . .

. 105 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 01. . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 start_sshd_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 start_ipssh_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 start_random_ztc00a. . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . 108 start_sshd_ztc00b. . . . . . . . . . . . 106 start_random_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . .ipztc00b . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 0 . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . .

This release will allow you to access the NonStop system in a secure manor for session and ftp access.4 that is based on OpenSSH 2. This document will tell you how to install and configure NSK-SSH software for access to the system and provide a reference for the MAN pages included with the NSK-SSH software.22/H06. This new command is called scmd and allows you to execute remote commands from the NonStop system. This can be purchased from the Oreilly web site (www. We also have added an sftp-server for the guardian file system. and TCP/IP installed and configured on your system. Silverman. This allows you to access the guardian file system just like the unix file system. This installation document assumes that you have OSS.4 Page 1 March 31. Barrett & Richard E. You should install this software using the SUPER. You no longer need to have the OSS local socket program running. In this release.x security enhancements and PRNGD 0.oreilly.02 operating system. The NSK-SSH has been updated to fix various problem the the random number generator and has move to using TCPIP for the communications between the random number generator and the SSH process.9p2 with 3.9. This was created do to the need of users that have PCI requirments of not having TELNET running on the system or FTP.4. we also added a new command to address problem with executing remote commands from the system.SUPER or root user id. The random number generator does not require any external programs or files for generating its random numbers.OVERVIEW This is a release of the NSK-SSH V2. This software works with alias and standard GUARDIAN users.9. This also include the ability to access an isolated TCPIP stack which has telnet running on it for the telnet requirment of SSH.15 for the G06. you should consult “SSH The Secure Shell” by Daniel J. 2008 . Now you can have up to 4 random number generators per TCPIP V4 OR V6 stack or up to 64 with PTCPIP using the round-robin method of access . This release has also been verified to work with Mr-Win6530. NSK-SSH V2. We now also have the ability to set up all the components of this release in the KERNEL (ZZKRN) subsystem for full fault resilance.com). This provides compatibility with programs such as FileZilla.05/J06. If you require more detailed information on SSH.

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super to install this software. 2008 . This will install the software into the following directories: /etc/ /etc/ssh /usr/local/ssh /usr/local/random Now you are ready to set up the.tar.Z | pax -rvf - Note that zcat is in the /bin/unsupported directory. NSK-SSH V2. SSH and PRNGD software. IPSSH. do the following: For the S-Series: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_GO622_V24.INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE You must be the root user or super.Z | pax -rvf - For the H-Series and J-Series operating system: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_H0605_V24. To install the software that was downloaded from the web site.4 Page 3 March 31.tar. Note that the above tar file may have a version indicator on it.

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If you do not have these files. c. 2008 . You should have the following products installed on your system: a.bsi to protocols. You will need the following information: a.BASIC SETUP OF SSH To set up your system so that you use the SSH software. then you can copy the files services. OSS Installed and Configured. TCPIP V4 or V6 Installed and Configured OSS Sockets Started on each processor. SSH Client Software ( Mr-Win6530.bsi to services and protocols. TCPIP configure for OSS. If you alreay have a services file. you should do the following: 1.bsi services cp protocols. d. IMPORTANT FOR TELNET ACCESS cd /etc cp services.4 Page 5 March 31. e. Putty. TELNET servr running on the TCPIP stack LOCAL LOOP BACK STARTED for TCPIP stack REMOVE ANY OPENSSH ssh software on your system as this will cause problems with installing and startup up the Bowden Systems version of SSH. Unix SSH) 2. f.bsi protocols Note that the service that the sshd program is looking for is the telent service. Cail6530. b. g. b. then you need to make sure that has the following line: telnet 23/tcp NSK-SSH V2. Verify that you have the services and protocols file in the /etc directory. The ip address and stack process name you will use for SSH access. Know how to use the text editor “vi”. c.

2008 . 3.If the services program does not have this line. NOTE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A /etc/services FILE. or that you want to random number generator to use. then it is not necessary to do this step.sh 5. But if you are using some other tcpip process name. do the following: add_define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME file=\$ZTC1 Note that this is an example. 4.profile”. do the following: info_define all To add the define. Execute a script to change the file setting sh -v . THE TELNET ACCESS TO SSH WILL NOT WORK. NSK-SSH V2. Set your PATH and MANPATH variables. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. Set the correct file settings on the installed files. Verify that the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME is already set./ssh_install_chmod. You should use what ever tcpip process name is defined on your system.4 Page 6 March 31. a. then you need to add it using vi. export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/install export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/ssh/man export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/random/man Note that these can be place in /etc/profile or in your private home directory file “. If you are using the default tcpip process name $ZTC0.

pub .pub .Host Public Key ssh_host_rsa_key .0. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. Modify the system wide configuration to the specify the IP address that the SSHD program will use./start_random. 2008 .RSA Public Key ssh_host_dsa_key .0 to the ipaddress of your system and save the file. Note that this may take a while. Start up the Random number generator (PRNG).Host Private Key ssh_host_key. This step is optional.0.0.1 for the two cpu or greater configuraiton. do the following: vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the line: ListenAddress 0.pub .0.4 Page 7 March 31. sh -v . NSK-SSH V2.0.0.0./ssh_install_makekeys.RSA Private Key ssh_host_rsa_key. The script executes the following: run cpu=0 -gpri= 144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 7. This must be started before any SSH software can be used.0. Note if you are using TCPIP V4 then you should set this to 127.DSA Private Key ssh_host_dsa_key. !!!! IMPORTANT STEP NOT TO FORGET !!!! a. To make this change. Execute a script to startup the random number generator. sh -v .1 port 790.6.sh This will start the random number generator on local sockets connection 127. Generate the system keys.sh This will generate the following files in the /etc/ssh/ directory: ssh_host_key . Execute a script to generate the system wide keys.0 and change the 0.DSA Public Key 8. This is only needed if you ssh to listen again a specific address.

If you only run one SSHD server. If you want to start ssh on one cpu. ssh and sftp). To start the sshd program do the following: run -cpu=0 -gpri=125 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd This will start the sshd server and it will listen on port 22 for any connection. then you should not change the ListenAddress to 127. then you need to stop this software. If this is running.0. do the following: /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -d -d -d This will allow one session to be processed and then the program will exit when the request is finished. 10. If there is more than one address associated with the stack then.1 and change it to the real address of the stack.0.0. 2008 . then you need to stop it. scp.0 If you want to start the program in the debug mode to see what it is doing. If you want to start SSHD on two cpu’s scipt to step 10. If you are starting the Bowden NSK-SSH software on a system that has the Comforte SSH software on it and configured to use the port 22 on $ztc0. scf> abort #ssh-ztc0 This will abort the process and then you can start up the NSK-SSH software. scf> assume process $zzkrn scf>names You should look for #ssh-ztc0. then continue reading. The sshd program will process all request (session.9. NSK-SSH V2. before you can startup the NSK-SSH software. you should leave it set to 0.0.4 Page 8 March 31.

You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. the TCPIP V6 software is configured in fail-over mode and not configurated for round-robin.10. Starting it manually.sh or do the following: 1. 2008 ./start_ssh_ptcpip_2cpu. Note that on most systems. Starting it manually. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh sleep 5 c. we put this startup file in as example of how to run the SSHD server on a system that is uses that configuration. If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. a.sh 2. run -cpu=0 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 701 b./start_ssh_2_cpu.sh or do the following: 1. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using regular TCPIP or P/TCPIP in Failover mode If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. Start the SSHD processes on port 22. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd NSK-SSH V2. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . Start the SSHD process on port 700 and 701. run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh -wait 0 11. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v .4 Page 9 March 31. Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using P/TCPIP with round-robin configuration. a. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu.sh 2. Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process.

Note that you can use this configuraiton on TCPIP V4 if there is more than one IP addres define to the TCPIP stack and it is not in the FAIL-OVER configuraiton. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 10 March 31.

we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. we will talk about advanced set up of the SSH software including the KERNEL subsystem and TELNET isolation. With this configuration. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. 2008 . you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated.TERM $ZHOME/0 2. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 To do this do the following (Note this works on all release of the Guardian OS including H-series and J-series: 1.4 Page 11 March 31.CPU 0. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. ipaddress 127. Start up the TCPIP V4 stack at tacl: TCPIP/name $ZTC99. scf> assume process $ztc99 scf> aler subnet #loop0. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port.PRI 190. Start the #LOOP0 port on the stack.ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH In this section.1 scf> start subnet * scf> exit NSK-SSH V2. To use this feature.sh.

Now at this point. to your SSHD start file and restart the SSHD servers NSK-SSH V2.bsi1.CPU 0.0. Start up the TELSRV process add define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.T9553D40 .4 Page 12 March 31.3.0.(15SEP2000) .com [PORT $ZTC99 #23 WINDOW $ZTN99.PRI 170/23 Note that the 23 on the TELSERV command is the port to listen to. now you are ready to add the TCPIP_TELNET_STACK.FILE $ZTC99 param TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME $ZTC99 param ZTNT^TRANSPORT^NAME $ZTC99 TELSERV/NAME $ZTN99.#PTYAAAA] TELSERV .(IPMADG) Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice> If this works. 2008 . you should be able to access the TELNET server locally: TELNET 127.1 23 WELCOME TO test.NOWAIT.

scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. This is to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. In the zzkrn subsystem.1. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running.super volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. prngd. $*.0.0. Now.#RANDOM-ZTC00B NSK-SSH V2. you only need Note that you need you need to change 127.*.*.super to do this and your /etc/sshd.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl>logon super.4 Page 13 March 31.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.zzkrnsd on your system. 2008 . What you need to do this. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN.KERNEL SUBSYSTEM We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh.config file to listen on port the ListenAddress configuration line.code 100 run zzkrnsd.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. to be root or super.

script name $ob021 . you must have a script to start up the SSH software in the correct order or it will not start at system startup.process name $sd000 #SSHD-ZTC00B . This script is the following: assume process $zzkrn start #RANDOM-ZTC00A start #RANDOM-ZTC00B start #SSHD-ZTC00A start #SSHD-ZTC00B start #IPSSH-ZTC00A start #IPSSH-ZTC00B For each startup script.script name $ob020 . It is only when you restart the software. the process running in the script does not stop. there are two process names used.process name $RD001 #SSHD-ZTC00A .#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.$ZZKRN.process name $ip000 #IPSSH-ZTC00B . these names are the following: #RANDOM-ZTC00 . When your system is started up.script name $ob10 . that process will be restarted.script name $ob000 .process name $ip001 NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 14 March 31. 2008 . Note that when you abort the software.script name $ob001 . all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.script name $ob11 .process name $RD000 #RANDOM-ZTC01 .process name $sd001 #IPSSH-ZTC00A .

the sshd program will access the user’s default shell script as the standard SSH port does. This port of SSH and PRNGD has been fault tested to make sure that it works when a CPU fails. This is not a part of the standard. we use the telnet subsystem as the pty generator. Under the standard model of SSH. We added a new command to handle remote command execution. because of problem with the select function not support the tty device. We added a distributor to the release so that it is possible to support round-robin access using the standard TCPIP software and scale the ssh software and random number generator software across multiple cpus. The major difference of this port from the standard SSH and Prngd port is how sessions are accessed and how we access the random number generator.0. 2008 . This port of SSH uses the tcpip access to random number generator to increase performance.0. NSK-SSH V2. This port of SSH understands about ALIAS users and does it password authentication against the safeguard database. Which in the case for all commands on SSH. and scalability. If you request that a pty is not allocated. all sessions are accessed using the master/slave pty configurations. We also increase the capacity of the random number generator to handle large request loads. We also have the ability to make this request to another TCPIP stack that is not attached to any Ethernet hardware and is only running TELSRV.Porting Differences This section will talk very briefly about the differences between this port of NSKSSH and what you get would from Open Source.4 Page 15 March 31. The standard SSH software does not know any thing about this. This also reduces connect time when performning any action that requires a random number. we request access on the 127.1 port 23. Since the OSS environment does not support pty’s. When NSK-SSH request a pty. reliablity. This allows all TELSRV services to be stop. This was not a problem in standard SSH. and support for the guardian file system via sftp.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT
At this point, you have done the basic setup for the SSH software. In this section, we will be discussing how to access your system to establish session. You will need an SSH client for your PC, Mac, or Unix system to start a session. In this example we are using, MacSSH, but this will apply to Windows software too. 1. Select your host and select Secure Shell

2. Enter your user name and password:

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3. Get the system access prompt. Note that depending on what type of system, you are executing the sshd software on, it may take a while for the session to connect. This has to do with the encryption of the session.

At this point, you can access the NonStop as you always have. Just login in an start working.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT
If you have other unix system’s, that have SSH installed, you can access the HP NonStop using ssh. To start a session remotely on the HP NonSTop do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com joshua’s password:
WELCOME TO test.bsi1.com [PORT $ZTC0 #23 WINDOW $ZTN0.#PTYW1DX] TELSERV - T9553D40 - (15SEP2000) - (IPMADG)

Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice>

If you want to execute a remote commad, do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com /bin/ls joshua’s password: test.pl test1.pl test2.pl test3.pl test5.pl test_message $ If you want to copy a file from the unix system to the NSK, do the following: $scp test.pl joshua@test.bsi1.com:test.pl joshua’s password:

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com /bin/gtacl joshua’s password: TACL 1> Note that you wil not beable to execute any oss commands with this tacl session because you are not using the standard telnet tty session attributes.If you want to logon directly to TACL. do the following: $ssh joshua@test. 2008 .bsi1.4 Page 20 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.

4 Page 21 March 31. Should you find any problems with this software. 2008 . This will be fixed in next release.KNOWN PROBLEMS We added the scmd program to allow remote command access to a system.com. NSK-SSH V2. This currently only supports commands that do not require any interaction with the user. you should send an email message to support@bsi2.

please send an email message to support@bsi2. Suite 370 Norcross. Any correspondence regarding this software can be sent to the following address: Bowden Systems.bsi2.com email:sales@bsi2. All Rights Reserved NSK-SSH V2.com Copyright (c) 2001-2008 Bowden Systems.4 Page 22 March 31. 2008 . 3500 Parkway Lane. GA 30092 USA +1 866-901-9450 toll free +1 770-441-9450 direct +1 770-441-9449 fax web: www. Inc.INFORMATION If you need any help with this.com. Inc.

random number generator daemon SYNOPSIS prngd [options] (/path/to/socket1 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port) [(/path/to/socket2 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port)] .conf] -s or --seedfile seedpath use seedpath as seedfile [/etc/prngd-seed] -n or --no-seedfile no seedfile. OPTIONS -f or -fg do not fork -d or --debug debugging on -c or --cmdfile cmdpath use cmdpath for entropy commands [/etc/prngd.MAN PAGES prngd PRNGD(8) NAME prngd .4 Page 23 March 31.0. The ports 790 to 793 are against the localhost (127.1) and will use the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME to get the currently defined TCPIP process stack name. keep pool in memory only -m or --mode mode use mode for sockets [0777] -k or --kill kill daemon on other side -v or --version print version and exit DESCRIPTION prngd is a daemon that provides the random number functionality on the NonStop system using either using local sockets or a tcpip port connection.APPENDIX A . The default port that SSH uses for port access is 790 to 793 and the default local socket is /dev/egd-pool.0. The option tcp/ip:addr:port allows the random number generator to liston on specified address instead of the loopback address. 2008 . System Reference Manual PRNGD(8) NSK-SSH V2...

you will still have a random number generator available on the system. most of SSH functions will not work. then a primary and back is good choice. 2008 . If you are running P/TCPIP then you can have more than one random number generator using only port 790. You can configure one prngd program to service both tcp and local socket if you like: prngd /dev/egd-pool tcp/localhost:790 tcp/localhost:791 But you may want to configure the localhost port 790 as the primary and 791 or /dev/egd-pool as the backup. As a note. then you can start up multiple random number generators using the same port number to spead the laod to multiple CPU's.1.4 Page 24 March 31. if there is not a random number generator available. If any one of the CPU's fail. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 This will CPU 1 and CPU 0 the load of the random number generator.168. If you are using using regular TCPIP. prngd tcp/localhost:790 prngd tcp/localhost:791 NSK-SSH V2. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 or run -cpu=1 -gpri=170 prngd /dev/egd-pool You could run the TCPIP random number generator port 790 on cpu 0 and port 791 or the Local Socket random number generator on cpu 1.STARTING DAEMON To start the prngd program using localhost port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/localhost:790 To start the prngd program using tcp/ip option port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/ip:192.210:790 To start the prngd program using the local socket /dev/egd-pool prngd -gpri=170 /dev/egd-pool The SSH program will attempt to use the localhost ports first and then try the local socket next. If you are using Parallel TCPIP with round robin.

This can result in system performance problems and cause the random number generator to take excessive cpu time. SSH has been program to try 5 times and then will go to the next generator viable and try 5 times also. but has been written over by the prngd program. Do not use /G/ directories for entropy generation. In the directory /usr/local/random/etc there is a file call prngd-seed. PERFORMANCE We have notice that the random number generator using TCPIP requires less cpu overhead than one using the local sockets interface. NSK-SSH V2. If this fails the program executing will abend. it will stop generating random numbers. NOTES prngd runs as a named process. 2008 .STOPPING DAEMON You can stop the prngd daemon with the following command: If TCPIP: prngd --kill tcp/localhost:790 If Local Socket prngd --kill /dev/egd-pool Or just use the kill command.4 Page 25 March 31. To use this seed file: cp /usr/local/random/etc/prngd-seed /etc/prngd-seed and restart the program. prngd will not return any random information if it runs out of entropy. SEEDING DAEMON The random number generator software is locate in the /usr/local/random directory. It has been found that if prngd is not properly seed. This will result in processes waiting on this information. The program also produces an EMS message when closing a connection. This file is 1 megabyte random number that can be used a the first seed when starting prngd for the first time. The current seed in the /etc directory is base on this file.

2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.4 Page 26 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.

-instance no the instance of ipssh processes. you need to set this to number..0.0. the main ipssh process wait until a child completes before continuing. If you have more one ipssh process on the system.01 seconds) The default is 100 or 1 sec. this is maximumu number of ipssh processes that will be allowed exist at one time. it is possible to distribute load to those also. the time is set to 1 second -maxload no -debug -wait no NSK-SSH V2. The default is 25.ipssh IPSSH(1) NAME IPSSH SYNOPSIS ipssh . (e. The default is 30 seconds.4 Page 27 March 31..1 interface. This defaults to 700. -ports number is the number of ports to connect to. If you have more than two cpu’s. The default is 2.. port 700. This much like the parrallel tcpip product execpt that it will exeucte on any Nonstop system.701. (1 = . If you enter 0. 2008 . Ipssh listens on port 22 and distributes its ip load to port 700 and 701. The options are as follows: -remote port is the remote port to forward the connection. The default is 5. time to wait before checking if you can bind to the port. When this maximum reach all.etc). -burst rate -interval rate interval in milliseconds.702. This is the number of connections that can be accepted during the interval. The default is zero. Ipssh only forwards to the local 127.TCPIP Multiplexer for SSH IPSSH IPSSH(1) [-remote port] [-ports no] [-burst rate] [-interval rate] [-debug] [-wait no] [-D] DESCRIPTION The ipssh programs allows you to distribute ip traffic to multiple ports on a system. displays debuging information. Each port is of set by one.g. connection rate for burst conditions.

4 Page 28 March 31. indicates that ipssh is to be run waited. NSK-SSH V2.-qlen no number of connection to listen for on the port. you must change the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME. so it will not fork and create a process name -D To change the default TCPIP process from $ZTC0. The default is 5.The primary process name is /G/ISX ($ISX) and the backup process name is /G/ISY ($ISY). 2008 .

authentication key generation. as seen in /etc/rc. ssh-keygen defaults to generating a RSA1 key for use by SSH prottocol version 1. Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in $HOME/.4 Page 29 March 31.pub'' appended. Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to store the private key. there is also a comment field in the key file that is only System Reference Manual SSH-KEYGEN(1) NSK-SSH V2. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. Specifying the -t option instead creates a key for use by SSH protocol version 2. Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long and are not simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only 1-2 bits of entropy per character. 2008 .ssh-keygen SSH-KEYGEN(1) NAME ssh-keygen . The passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an empty passphrase).ssh/id_rsa. The passphrase can be changed later by using the -p option. The public key is stored in a file with the same name but ``. $HOME/. If the passphrase is lost or forgotten. and provides very bad passphrases). management and conversion SYNOPSIS ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t type] [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile] ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -D reader ssh-keygen -U reader [-f input_keyfile] DESCRIPTION ssh-keygen generates. the system administrator may use this to generate host keys. The program also asks for a passphrase. For RSA1 keys.ssh/identity. or it may be a string of arbitrary length. Additionally. manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1).ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding public key to other machines.

Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of creating a new private key. The comment is initialized to ``user@host'' when the key is created.4 Page 30 March 31. The comment can tell what the key is for. Silence ssh-keygen. and key sizes above that no longer improve security but make things slower. This option allows importing keys from several commercial SSH implementations. Minimum is 512 bits. Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient. -e This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and print the key in a `SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout. ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH Public Key File Format'. After a key is generated.for convenience to the user to help identify the key. or whatever is useful. The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create. This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout. Show fingerprint of specified private or public key file. The default is 1024 bits. The program will prompt for the file containing the private keys. -f filename Specifies the filename of the key file. instructions below detail where the keys should be placed to be activated. -c Requests changing the comment in the private and public key files. -i This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private (or public) key to stdout. 2008 . This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial SSH implementations. for the old passphrase. and for the new comment. -l -p -q -y -t type NSK-SSH V2. The program will prompt for the file containing the private key. and twice for the new passphrase. for the passphrase if the key has one. Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key. but can be changed using the -c option.

Specifies the type of the key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. The default is ``rsa1''. -B Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key file.

-C comment Provides the new comment. -D reader Download the RSA public key stored in the smartcard in reader. -N new_passphrase Provides the new passphrase. -P passphrase Provides the (old) passphrase. -U reader Upload an existing RSA private key into the smartcard in reader. FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public tion. The contents of this file should be $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines to log in using RSA authentication. There contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

key for authenticaadded to where the user wishes is no need to keep the

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$HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

SEE ALSO ssh(1),

ssh-add(1),

ssh-agent(1),

sshd(8)

J. Galbraith, and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietfsecsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

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ssh-keyscan
SSH-KEYSCAN(1) NAME ssh-keyscan - gather ssh public keys SYNOPSIS ssh-keyscan [-v46] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [-f file] [host | addrlist namelist] [...] DESCRIPTION ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public ssh host keys of a number of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files. ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as possible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run ssh. For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scanning process involve any encryption. The options are as follows: -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, then the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. Default is 5 seconds. -t type Specifies the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is ``rsa1''. -f filename Read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from this file, one per line. If - is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from the standard input. System Reference Manual SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

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2.3.1.1.n. Causes ssh-keyscan to print debugging messages about its progress.4.2. EXAMPLES Print the rsa1 host key for machine hostname: ssh-keyscan hostname Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: ssh-keyscan -t rsa. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts NSK-SSH V2.-v Verbose mode.4 Output format for rsa1 keys: host-or-namelist bits exponent modulus Output format for rsa and dsa keys: host-or-namelist keytype base64-encoded-key Where keytype is either ``ssh-rsa'' or ``ssh-dsa''. On the other hand. ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created. if the security model allows such a risk. SECURITY If a ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without verifying the keys.ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts FILES Input format: 1. users will be vulnerable to attacks. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only.1.4 Page 34 March 31.domain.4.my. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only.2.4.dsa -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u .name.4 name.3. 2008 . This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).4. -4 -6 DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.n.my.2.domain.

4 Page 35 March 31. 2008 .BUGS It generates "Connection closed by remote host" messages on the consoles of all the machines it scans if the server is older than version 2. reads the public key.net> added support for protocol version 2. sshd(8) AUTHORS David Mazieres <dm@lcs.edu> wrote the initial version.mit. and drops the connection as soon as it gets the key.sourceforge. NSK-SSH V2.9. and Wayne Davison <wayned@users. This is because it opens a connection to the ssh port. SEE ALSO ssh(1).

2008 .4 Page 36 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2.

Both sides then use this random number as a session key which is used to encrypt all further communications in the session. it generates a server RSA key (normally 768 bits). when the daemon starts. sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients.4 Page 37 March 31. . authentication. Whenever a client connects the daemon responds with its public host and server keys. The client then generates a 256 bit random number. or password based authentication. Next. The forked daemons handle key exchange. System Manager's Manual SSHD(8) NSK-SSH V2. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. The rest of the session is encrypted using a conventional cipher. The client tries to authenticate itself using . encryption. currently Blowfish or 3DES. command execution. It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection. It encrypts this random number using both the host key and the server key. This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously. the server and the client enter an authentication dialog. and data exchange. It is normally started at load time from /usr/local/ssh/. This key is normally regenerated every hour if it has been used. The programs are intended to be as easy to install and use as possible. and sends the encrypted number to the server. with 3DES being used by default. Together these programs replace rlogin and rsh. sshd works as follows.sshd SSHD(8) NAME sshd .rhosts authentication combined with RSA host authentication. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. 2008 . RSA challenge-response authentication. The client compares the RSA host key against its own database to verify that it has not changed.rhosts authentication. SSH protocol version 1 Each host has a host-specific RSA key (normally 1024 bits) used to identify the host. and is never stored on disk.NSK-SSH SSH daemon SYNOPSIS sshd [-deiqtD46] [-b bits] [-f config_file] [-g login_grace_time] [-h host_key_file] [-k key_gen_time] [-p port] [-u len] DESCRIPTION sshd (SSH Daemon) is the daemon program for ssh(1). Additionally.

a dialog for preparing the session is entered. In this mode. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal. 3DES. conventional password authentication and challenge response based methods. When the user program terminates and all forwarded X11 and other connections have been closed. and such data is forwarded to/from the shell or command on the server side. Finally. The rest of the session is encrypted using a symmetric cipher. forwarding TCP/IP connections. or 256 bit AES.4 Page 38 March 31.Rhosts authentication is normally disabled because it is fundamentally insecure. it does not generate a server key.. or forwarding the authentication agent connection over the secure channel. CAST128. when the daemon starts. either side may send data at any time. and both sides exit. At this time the client may request things like allocating a pseudo-tty. System security is not improved unless rshd(8). and rexecd(8) are disabled (thus completely disabling rlogin(1) and rsh(1) into the machine). but can be enabled in the server configuration file if desired. SSH protocol version 2 Version 2 works similarly: Each host has a host-specific key (RSA or DSA) used to identify the host. the server sends command exit status to the client. Blowfish. currently 128 bit AES. i. Additionally. /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd. However. Command execution and data forwarding If the client successfully authenticates itself. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. Command-line options override values specified in the configuration file. by executing itself with the name it was started as. forwarding X11 connections. rlogind(8). sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file. Arcfour. This key agreement results in a shared session key. the client either requests a shell or execution of a command. NSK-SSH V2. 192 bit AES. Forward security is provided through a DiffieHellman key agreement. 2008 . Protocol version 2 provides a public key based user (PubkeyAuthentication) or client host (HostbasedAuthentication) authentication method.e. session integrity is provided through a cryptographic message authentication code (hmac-sha1 or hmac-md5). SIGHUP. and the user terminal in the client side. The sides then enter session mode.

Multiple -d options increase the debugging level.g. However. If the client fails to authenticate the user within this many seconds. sshd refuses to start if there is no configuration file. 512) using sshd from inetd may be feasible. sshd will send the output to the standard error instead of the system log. sshd is normally not run from inetd because it needs to generate the server key before it can respond to the client. This option is only intended for debugging for the server. It is possible to have multiple host key files for the different protocol versions and host key algorithms. -i Specifies that sshd is being run from inetd.4 Page 39 March 31. the server disconnects and exits. -h host_key_file Specifies the file from which the host key is read (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key).. or one hour). with small key sizes (e. The motivation for regenerating the key fairly often is that the key is not stored anywhere. -g login_grace_time Gives the grace time for clients to authenticate themselves (default 600 seconds). -d Debug mode. This option must be given if sshd is not run as root (as the normal host file is normally not readable by any one but root). -k key_gen_time Specifies how often the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key is regenerated (default 3600 seconds. and this may take tens of seconds. When this option is specified. The default is /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Maximum is 3. A value of NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . The server sends verbose debug output to the system log. and after about an hour.The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key (default 768). Clients would have to wait too long if the key was regenerated every time. The server also will not fork and will only process one connection. A value of zero indicates no limit. -e -f configuration_file Specifies the name of the configuration file. it becomes impossible to recover the key for decrypting intercepted communications even if the machine is cracked into or physically seized. and does not put itself in the background.

4 Page 40 March 31. TCP_RND_ADDR TCP_RND_PORT0 TCP_RND_PORT1 These environment variables allow you to change the starting and ending port and the default IP address to access for the random number generator request. If it does not find that. Normally the beginning. Specifying -u0 indicates that only dotted decimal addresses should be put into the utmp file.1 for a random number generator. -t -u len -D -4 -6 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR SSHD requires the use of a random number generator for its operation. -q Quiet mode. -u0 is also be used to prevent sshd from making DNS requests unless the authentication mechanism or configuration requires it. RhostsRSAAuthentication. Nothing is sent to the system log. If it does not find this. HostbasedAuthentication and using a from="pattern-list" option in a key file. When this option is specified sshd will not detach and does not become a daemon. the dotted decimal value will be used instead.0. This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change. This allows easy monitoring of sshd. and termination of each connection is logged. Forces sshd to use IPv4 addresses only.0. This option is used to specify the size of the field in the utmp structure that holds the remote host name. This allows hosts with very long host names that overflow this field to still be uniquely identified. 2008 . it fails the random number request. it then looks for the name pipe /dev/egd-pool. authentication. -p port Specifies the port on which the server listens for connections (default 22). you need at least one NSK-SSH V2. In general. Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys. Authentication mechanisms that may require DNS include RhostsAuthentication.zero indicates that the key will never be regenerated. Forces sshd to use IPv6 addresses only. If the resolved host name is longer than len. Test mode. It currently looks on the ports of 790 to 793 of address 127.

This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. Now.super to do this and NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 41 March 31. What you need to do this. you only need to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. $*. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file.zzkrnsd on your system. prngd.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 ZZKRN PERSISTANT PROCESS SETUP We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. To use this feature. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. 2008 .code 100 run zzkrnsd.generator for each TCPIP stack that SSHD is running on. then you might need more than one and you can assign the extra ones to port 791 to 793. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD. Note that you need to be root or super.*. With this configuration. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port.*. If your system is heavly used for SSH request.sh.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl> <logon tacl> volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system.

#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.you need to change your /etc/sshd. This is the ListenAddress configuration line. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system. NSK-SSH V2. The file contains keywordargument pairs.0.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments.0.config file to listen on port 127.#RANDOM-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN. 2008 .4 Page 42 March 31. one per line. In the zzkrn subsystem.1. CONFIGURATION FILE sshd reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line). all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN.

The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%'. AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. Only group names are valid. %h is replaced by the home directory of the user being authenticated and %u is replaced by the username of that user.The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether an AFS token may be forwarded to the server. By default login is allowed regardless of the user name. AllowGroups This keyword can be followed by a list of group names. The default is ``yes''. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. as they can always install their own forwarders. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. AuthorizedKeysFile Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication. login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. Only user names are valid. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked. restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access. AllowUsers This keyword can be followed by a list of user names. NSK-SSH V2. login is allowed only for users names that match one of the patterns.4 Page 43 March 31. This option is only available for protocol version 2. sending a warning message before authentication may be relevant for getting legal protection.ssh/authorized_keys'' Banner In some jurisdictions. separated by spaces. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. a numerical user ID is not recognized. If specified. AuthorizedKeysFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection set-up. 2008 . a numerical group ID is not recognized. After expansion. AllowTcpForwarding Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted. If specified. The default is ``. separated by spaces. Default is ``yes''.

The default is 0. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns.conf(5) are supported. Users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns aren't allowed to log in. The default is ``yes''. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2. The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. All authentication styles from login. sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. unresponsive ssh clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds. a numerical user ID is not recognized. If ClientAliveInterval (above) is set to 15. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. Only user names are valid. Only group names are valid. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. The default is ``aes128-cbc.blowfish-cbc. sshd will disconnect the client. separated by spaces.arcfour.4 Page 44 March 31.'' ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client.ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether challenge response authentication is allowed. a numerical group ID is not recognized. ClientAliveCountMax Sets the number of client alive messages (see above) which may be sent without sshd receiving any messages back from the client.3des-cbc. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from Keepalive (below). separated by spaces. The TCP keepalive option enabled by Keepalive is spoofable.cast128-cbc. By default login is allowed regardless of the user NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent. terminating the session. The default value is 3. indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. DenyGroups This keyword can be followed by a number of group names. and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default. The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive. DenyUsers This keyword can be followed by a number of user names.

Note that sshd will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible. IgnoreUserKnownHosts Specifies whether sshd should ignore the user's $HOME/. The default is ``no''.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (hostbased authentication). RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. The default is ``no''. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client.equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts. ``rsa1''keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'' or ``rsa'' are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol. NSK-SSH V2. if keepalives are not sent. By default. If they are sent.shosts files will not be used in RhostsAuthentication. leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources.ssh/known_hosts during RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. sshd binds remote port forwardings to the loopback addresss. /etc/hosts. HostKey Specifies the file containing the private host keys (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key) used by SSH protocol versions 1 and 2. sessions may hang indefinitely on the server. This option is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only. 2008 . death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. The default is ``yes''.rhosts and . HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts.name. It is possible to have multiple host key files. and some people find it annoying. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. The default is ``no''.4 Page 45 March 31.equiv are still used. However. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. On the other hand. IgnoreRhosts Specifies that . GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should bind remote port forwardings to the wildcard address. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports.

the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity. as this only works when the Kerberos KDC is actually an AFS kaserver. Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted. To use this option. KeyRegenerationInterval In protocol version 1. The default is 3600 (seconds). This can be in the form of a Kerberos ticket. Default is ``yes''. The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys. 2008 . the key is never regenerated. sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified. To disable keepalives. ListenAddress Specifies the local addresses sshd should listen on. KerberosOrLocalPasswd If set then if password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd. ing forms may be used: ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port If port is not specified.4 Page 46 March 31. Default is ``yes''. the password provided by the user will be validated through the Kerberos KDC. the value should be set to ``no'' in both the server and the client configuration files. Default is ``no''. KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT may be forwarded to the server. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication is allowed. This avoids infinitely hanging sessions. Ad- The follow- NSK-SSH V2. KerberosTicketCleanup Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout. and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host reboots. or if PasswordAuthentication is yes. the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many seconds (if it has been used). If the value is 0. The default is to listen on all local addresses. The key is never stored anywhere. Default is ``yes''.The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives).

there is no time limit. MaxStartups Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the sshd daemon. If the value is 0. FATAL. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd. PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt Specifies whether PAM challenge response authentication is allowed. random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values ``start:rate:full'' (e. The default is 10. fault is ``yes''. sshd will refuse connection attempts with a probability of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections. LoginGraceTime The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. 2008 . The default is ``hmac-md5. The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60). "10:30:60"). The default is ``no''. The default is INFO. Alternatively.hmac-md5-96''. The de- PermitEmptyPasswords When password authentication is allowed.g. any Port options must precede this option for non port qualified addresses.hmacsha1-96. Logging with level DEBUG violates the privacy of users and is not recommended. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated.4 Page 47 March 31. This allows the use of most PAM challenge response authentication modules.ditionally. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether password authentication is allowed.hmac-ripemd160. it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings. The possible values are: QUIET. but it will allow password authentication regardless of whether PasswordAuthentication is disabled.. MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms. NSK-SSH V2. The default is 600 (seconds). Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection. INFO. The default is ``no''. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. ERROR.hmac-sha1. VERBOSE and DEBUG.

The default is 22. Multiple options of this type are permitted. The argument must be ``yes''. See also ListenAddress. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. All other authentication methods are disabled for root. PrintMotd Specifies whether sshd should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively. Port Specifies the port number that sshd listens on. The default is ``2. If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'' root login with public key authentication will be allowed. but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed). Multiple versions must be commaseparated.1''. If this option is set to ``without-password'' password authentication is disabled for root. Specifies the protocol versions sshd should support. The default is ``yes''.4 Page 48 March 31. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed. or equivalent.) Protocol The default is ``yes''. 2008 . If this option is set to ``no'' root is not allowed to login. The default is /var/run/sshd. The default is ``yes''. ``forced-commands-only'' or ``no''. PrintLastLog Specifies whether sshd should print the date and time when the user last logged in. ``without-password''.PermitRootLogin Specifies whether root can login using ssh(1).pid. The default is ``yes''. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. ReverseMappingCheck Specifies whether sshd should try to verify the remote host name and check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address NSK-SSH V2. (On some systems it is also printed by the shell. PidFile Specifies the file that contains the process identifier of the sshd daemon. /etc/profile.

This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The possible values are: DAEMON. and the default is 768. 2008 . SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd. Note that login(1) is never used NSK-SSH V2. Normally. UseLogin Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions. The default is ``yes''. Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command to execute upon subsystem request. this method should not be permitted because it is insecure. LOCAL1. LOCAL3. because it performs RSA-based host authentication in addition to normal rhosts or /etc/hosts.equiv files is sufficient. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether authentication using rhosts or /etc/hosts. The default is ``no''. Subsystem Configures an external subsystem (e. The default is ``no''. LOCAL0. The default is ``yes''. The minimum value is 512. file transfer daemon). This option applies to protocol version 1 only. RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts.. StrictModes Specifies whether sshd should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem. The default is ``no''. ServerKeyBits Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key. By default no subsystems are defined.maps back to the very same IP address. LOCAL5. USER. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed. The default is AUTH.equiv authentication together with successful RSA host authentication is allowed. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. LOCAL6. AUTH. The default is ``no''.g.4 Page 49 March 31.equiv authentication. LOCAL4. LOCAL2. RhostsRSAAuthentication should be used instead. LOCAL7.

XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program.4 Page 50 March 31. Note also. as users can always install their own forwarders.for remote command execution. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers. X11DisplayOffset Specifies the first display number available for sshd's X11 forwarding. where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following: <none> s | S m | M h | H d | D w | W seconds seconds minutes hours days weeks The default is Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value. that if this is enabled. 2008 . Time format examples: 600 10m 1h30m 600 seconds (10 minutes) 10 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes) NSK-SSH V2. Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not improve security in any way. X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1) cookies. X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin is enabled. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. Time Formats sshd command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time[qualifier]. X11Forwarding Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. The default is ``no''. The default is 10.

if it exists. comment.pub file and NSK-SSH V2.ssh/authorized_keys is the default file that lists the public keys that are permitted for RSA authentication in protocol version 1 and for public key authentication (PubkeyAuthentication) in protocol version 2. bits. The bits. the comment field is not used for anything (but may be convenient for the user to identify the key). The options fields are optional. 5. Changes to user's home directory. prints last login time and /etc/motd (unless prevented in the configuration file or by $HOME/. exponent. Checks /etc/nologin. exponent. Each protocol version 2 public key consists of: options. prints contents and quits (unless root). You don't want to type them in. separated by spaces: options. Runs user's shell or command. 7.ssh/environment if it exists. otherwise runs xauth. runs it. 8. 9. and no command has been specified. 3. If the login is on a tty. see the FILES section).pub. keytype. Note that lines in this file are usually several hundred bytes long (because of the size of the RSA key modulus). 2.hushlogin. 4. instead. The ``rc'' files are given the X11 authentication protocol and cookie in standard input. records login time. copy the identity. If the login is on a tty. id_dsa. Changes to run with normal user privileges. modulus. Sets up basic environment. 2008 . If $HOME/. else if /etc/ssh/sshrc exists. AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT $HOME/. runs it.4 Page 51 March 31. sshd does the following: 1. modulus and comment fields give the RSA key for protocol version 1. Each RSA public key consists of the following fields. its presence is determined by whether the line starts with a number or not (the option field never starts with a number).ssh/rc exists.LOGIN PROCESS When a user successfully logs in. For protocol version 2 the keytype is ``ssh-dss'' or ``ssh-rsa''. base64 encoded key. Each line of the file contains one key (empty lines and lines starting with a `#' are ignored as comments).pub or the id_rsa. comment. 6. Reads $HOME/. AuthorizedKeysFile may be used to specify an alternative file.

This might be used. Multiple options of this type are permitted. No spaces are permitted. The options (if present) consist of comma-separated option specifications. however. otherwise it is run without a tty. in connection with the command option. The command is run on a pty if the client requests a pty. command or subsystem execution. if somebody somehow steals the key. This option might be useful to restrict certain RSA keys to perform just a specific operation. A quote may be included in the command by quoting it with a backslash. e. 2008 .4 Page 52 March 31. The purpose of this option is to optionally increase security: RSA authentication by itself does not trust the network or name servers or anything (but the key). environment="NAME=value" Specifies that the string is to be added to the environment when logging in using this key. no-port-forwarding Forbids TCP/IP forwarding when this key is used for authentication. except within double quotes. The command supplied by the user (if any) is ignored. This additional option makes using a stolen key more difficult (name servers and/or routers would have to be compromised in addition to just the key). command="command" Specifies that the command is executed whenever this key is used for authentication. If a 8-bit clean channel is required. Any port forward requests by the client will return an error. The following option specifications are supported (note that option keywords are case-insensitive): from="pattern-list" Specifies that in addition to RSA authentication. the key permits an intruder to log in from anywhere in the world. Note that this option applies to shell.g. The list may also contain patterns negated by prefixing them with `!'. if the canonical host name matches a negated pattern.. Note that the client may specify TCP/IP and/or X11 forwarding unless they are explicitly prohibited. the key is not accepted. An example might be a key that permits remote backups but nothing else. Environment variables set this way override other default environment values. NSK-SSH V2. one must not request a pty or should specify no-pty.edit it. the canonical name of the remote host must be present in the comma-separated list of patterns (`*' and `?' serve as wildcards).

. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port..pub.fi" 1024 35 23.fi permitopen="10.1.56:25" 1024 33 23. exponent.niksula.!pc.2323 backup. NSK-SSH V2.2. Any X11 forward requests by the client will return an error. Hostnames is a comma-separated list of patterns ('*' and '?' act as wildcards). A pattern may also be preceded by `!' to indicate negation: if the host name matches a negated pattern.2323 SSH_KNOWN_HOSTS FILE FORMAT The /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.312314325 ylo@foo.no-X11-forwarding Forbids X11 forwarding when this key is used for authentication.no-pty.. no-agent-forwarding Forbids authentication agent forwarding when this key is used for authentication.permitopen="10. permitopen="host:port" Limit local ``ssh -L'' port forwarding such that it may only connect to the specified host and port.hut. it is not accepted (by that line) even if it matched another pattern on the line.niksula.. The optional comment field continues to the end of the line.2. and the per-user file is maintained automatically: whenever the user connects from an unknown host its key is added to the per-user file. from /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.55:80". each pattern in turn is matched against the canonical host name (when authenticating a client) or against the user-supplied name (when authenticating a server).4 Page 53 March 31. they can be obtained. 2008 . Each line in these files contains the following fields: hostnames. and $HOME/. no-pty Prevents tty allocation (a request to allocate a pty will fail)... Multiple permitopen options may be applied separated by commas.. The fields are separated by spaces. e.ssh/known_hosts files contain host public keys for all known hosts. bits. they must be literal domains or addresses. No pattern matching is performed on the specified hostnames. modulus. and modulus are taken directly from the RSA host key. The global file should be prepared by the administrator (optional).1. and is not used.. Examples 1024 33 12121.hut.bar from="*.g.hut. comment. exponent.fi. Bits.no-port-forwarding 1024 33 23..2334 ylo@niksula command="dump /home".

pub. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key..4 Page 54 March 31. Rather. they are provided for the convenience of the user so their contents can be copied to known hosts files. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. /var/run/sshd. and not accessible to others. These files are not really used for anything. This file should be writable by root only... These files should only be owned by root. When performing host authentication.pub These three files contain the public parts of the host keys.93 closenet. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.3 ssh-rsa AAAA1234.fi cvs.208. These files should be world-readable but writable only by root.185...hut. Note that the lines in these files are typically hundreds of characters long. Note that sshd does not start if this file is group/world-accessible.pub and adding the host names at the front.233...pid Contains the process ID of the sshd listening for connections (if NSK-SSH V2. but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable. This will inevitably happen when short forms of host names from different domains are put in the file.Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are ignored as comments. 2008 . /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key These three files contain the private parts of the host keys..137..pub. It is possible that the files contain conflicting information.. authentication is accepted if any matching line has the proper key.= FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd.org. readable only by root. generate them by a script or by taking /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. and you definitely don't want to type in the host keys by hand. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. /etc/ssh/moduli Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the "Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange". /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. It is thus permissible (but not recommended) to have several lines or different host keys for the same names. These files are created using ssh-keygen(1). Their contents should match the respective private parts.199.openbsd.41 1024 37 159. authentication is accepted if valid information can be found from either file.130. Examples closenet.

ssh/known_hosts These files are consulted when using rhosts with RSA host authentication or protocol version 2 hostbased authentication to check the public key of the host.pub files into this file.pub. this file is not used by rlogin and rshd. However. $HOME/. /etc/nologin If this file exists. this file is exactly the same as for . one corresponding host is permitted same file is used by rlogind and only by the user. $HOME/. It is recommended that it not be accessible by others. Either host or user name may be of the form +@groupname to specify all hosts or all users in the group.rhosts. sshd refuses to let anyone except root log in. The client uses the same files to verify that it is connecting to the correct remote host. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts should be world-readable. The content of this file is not sensitive. this contains the pid of the one started last). These files should be writable only by root/the owner. Users will place the contents of their identity. tcp-wrappers access controls may be defined here as described in hosts_access(5). it is recomby others. 2008 .shosts For ssh. The file must be writable mended that it not be accessible pairs. it can be world-readable.pub and/or id_rsa.there are several daemons running concurrently for different ports. If is also possible to use netgroups in the file. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/. /etc/hosts. This file must be readable by root (which may on some machines imply it being world-readable if the user's home directory resides on an NFS volume). id_dsa. /etc/hosts. The rshd.ssh/known_hosts can but need not be world-readable. and $HOME/. The contents of the file are displayed to anyone trying to log in.allow. $HOME/. and non-root connections are refused. as described in ssh-keygen(1). separated by a space.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA or DSA) that can be used to log into the user's account.deny If compiled with LIBWRAP support. The format of this file is described above. The file should be world-readable. so using this permits NSK-SSH V2.rhosts This file contains host-username per line. The given user on the to log in without password. The key must be listed in one of these files to be accepted.4 Page 55 March 31.

This file must be writable only by root. it need not be readable by anyone else.rhosts authentication. Warning: It is almost never a good idea to use user names in hosts. one per line. If the client host/user is successfully matched in this file. this file may be useful in environments that want to run both rsh/rlogin and ssh. the syntax ``+@group'' can be used to specify netgroups. it is recommended that it be world-readable. daemon. comment lines (that start with `#'). The only valid use for user names that I can think of is in negative entries. However. The primary purpose of this file is to run any initialization routines which may be needed before the user's home directory becomes accessible. $HOME/. If X11 spoofing is in use. 2008 . /etc/ssh/shosts. it is run with /bin/sh after reading the environment files but before starting the user's shell or command. successful RSA host authentication is normally required.4 Page 56 March 31. $HOME/.equiv This is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. Using a user name practically grants the user root access. this will receive the "proto cookie" pair in standard input (and DISPLAY in environment).ssh/environment This file is read into the environment at login (if it exists). Additionally. Beware that it really means that the named user(s) can log in as anybody. AFS is a particular example of such an environ- NSK-SSH V2. Negated entries start with `-'. provided they have the same user name on both machines. The file should be writable only by the user. Note that this warning also applies to rsh/rlogin. and other accounts that own critical binaries and directories. Additionally. This must call xauth(1) in that case. such users are permitted to log in as any user on this machine (except root). login is automatically permitted provided the client and server user names are the same. adm.access using SSH only.equiv. Users on those hosts are permitted to log in without a password. which includes bin. and assignment lines of the form name=value. The host name may also be followed by a user name.equiv. this file contains host names. /etc/hosts.equiv This file is used during .ssh/rc If this file exists. In the simplest form. It can only contain empty lines.

login. then echo add $DISPLAY $proto $cookie | xauth -q fi If this file does not exist. ssh-agent(1). /etc/ssh/sshrc is run. This file should be writable only by the user. SEE ALSO scp(1). ssh(1). This file should be writable only by root. /etc/ssh/sshrc Like $HOME/.4 Page 57 March 31. This can be used to specify machine-specific login-time initializations globally.conf(5). sftp(1). sftp-server(8) ssh-keygen(1). This file will probably contain some initialization code followed by something similar to: if read proto cookie. and should be world-readable. and need not be readable by anyone else. moduli(5).ssh/rc.ment. xauth is used to store the cookie. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . and if that does not exist either. ssh-add(1).

2008 .4 Page 58 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

SEE ALSO sftp(1). January 2001. Lehtinen.sftp-server SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server . 2008 . sshd(8) T.txt.8 . System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). work in progress material. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). See sshd(8) for more information. SSH File Transfer Protocol. Ylonen.org> HISTORY sftp-server first appeared in OpenBSD 2.4 Page 59 March 31.SFTP server subsystem SYNOPSIS sftp-server DESCRIPTION sftp-server is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. and S. AUTHORS Markus Friedl <markus@openbsd. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. NSK-SSH V2. sftp-server is not intended to be called directly.

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Lehtinen. For example. SEE ALSO sftp(1).txt. January 2001. 2008 . and S. SSH File Transfer Protocol.com> HISTORY sftp-server-guardian first appeared in 2005. Ylonen.SFTP server subsystem for guardian access SYNOPSIS sftp-server-guardian DESCRIPTION sftp-server-guardian is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). it will be stored as an edit file. using the sftp-server-guardian you would use the /system/system option.txt file on it. See sshd(8) for more information.sftp-server-guardian SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server-guardian . The sftp-server-guardian support reading and writing files directly to the guardian filesystem using the standard unix syntax. Eventhough this feature was designed into the subsystem. As with all guardian filenames. work in progress material. sftp-server-guardian is not intended to be called directly. If the filename is too long you will get an error. AUTHORS Bowden Systems Inc <sales@bsi2.system file system. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option.4 Page 61 March 31. If the filename has a . draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. you must limit your filenames to 8 characters. there was no way to allow this via a graphical interface and unix filesystem syntax. This make the sftp-server-guardian subsystem compatible with graphical user interfaces such as FileZilla. NSK-SSH V2. if you wish to access the $system. This subsystem does not have access to files residing on another node. sshd(8) T.

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scmd SCMD(1) System Reference Manual SCMD(1) NAME scmd . ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCMD program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. 2008 .4 Page 63 March 31. it should be enclosed in double or single quotes. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. SEE ALSO ssh(1) NSK-SSH V2. -v used for displaying detail ssh information on stderr.Set this to the password for the public key or user id HISTORY This program was written to solve the select problem for ssh in OSS. GNOTTY 1 . If cmd is more than one command.secure command (remote command execution) SYNOPSIS scmd [-v] user@host cmd DESCRIPTION scmd is a command front-end for ssh.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password .

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then enters an interactive command mode. sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get. rename. The last usage format allows the sftp client to start in a remote directory. 2008 .Secure file transfer program SYNOPSIS sftp [-1Cv] [-b batchfile] [-F ssh_config] [-o ssh_option] [-s subsystem | sftp_server] [-S program] host sftp [[user@]host[:file [file]]] sftp [[user@]host[:dir[/]]] DESCRIPTION sftp is an interactive file transfer program. For exam- NSK-SSH V2. similar to ftp(1). put. System Reference Manual SFTP(1) -b batchfile Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. rm and lmkdir. ln. such as public key authentication and compression.4 Page 65 March 31. The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used.sftp SFTP(1) NAME sftp . -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. Since it lacks user interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication. -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. It may also use many features of ssh. The options are as follows: -1 Specify the use of protocol version 1. otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication. sftp connects and logs into the specified host. which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh(1) transport. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag. -C Enables compression (via ssh's -C flag).

lcd path Change local directory to path. -s subsystem | sftp_server Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host. chgrp grp path Change group of file path to grp. chown own path Change owner of file path to own. Quit sftp. to specify an alternate port use: sftp -oPort=24. GNOTTY 1 .Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . program must understand ssh(1) options. A path is useful for using sftp over protocol version 1. NSK-SSH V2. grp must be a numeric GID. 2008 . The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SFTP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. or when the remote sshd does not have an sftp subsystem configured. sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1). chmod mode path Change permissions of file path to mode.ple. -S program Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection. -v Raise logging level. bye cd path Change remote directory to path.4 Page 66 March 31.Set this to the password for the public key or user id INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Once in interactive mode. Commands are case insensitive and pathnames may be enclosed in quotes if they contain spaces. exit Quit sftp. This option is also passed to ssh. own must be a numeric UID.

ls [path] Display remote directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. it is given the same name it has on the local machine. If the -P flag is specified. Quit sftp. If the local path name is not specified. it is given the same name it has on the remote machine.4 Page 67 March 31. mkdir path Create remote directory specified by path. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. If the remote path name is not specified. lpwd Print local working directory. rmdir path Remove remote directory specified by path. ln oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. rm path NSK-SSH V2. lumask umask Set local umask to umask.get [flags] remote-path [local-path] Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. If the -P flag is specified. pwd quit Display remote working directory. lmkdir path Create local directory specified by path. rename oldpath newpath Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. put [flags] local-path [local-path] Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine. lls [ls-options [path]] Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. help Display help text. 2008 .

Delete remote file specified by path. symlink oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath.txt. work in progress material. ssh(1). sftp-server(8). ! command Execute command in local shell. 2008 . and S. Synonym for help. Lehtinen. SSH File Transfer Protocol. ssh-keygen(1). sshd(8) T.org> SEE ALSO scp(1). Ylonen. AUTHORS Damien Miller <djm@mindrot. ! ? Escape to local shell. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. NSK-SSH V2. January 2001. ssh-add(1).4 Page 68 March 31.

This is helpful in debugging connection. -r -v -B -q NSK-SSH V2. access times. authentication. Verbose mode. option is directly passed to ssh(1). and modes from the original file. 2008 . Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases). and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh(1). Any file name may contain a host and user specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from that host.scp SCP(1) NAME scp . Unlike rcp(1).secure copy (remote file copy program) SYNOPSIS scp [-pqrvBC46] [-F ssh_config] [-S program] [-P port] [-c cipher] [-i identity_file] [-o ssh_option] [[user@]host1:]file1 [. Recursively copy entire directories.4 Page 69 March 31. Copies between two remote hosts are permitted. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). System Reference Manual SCP(1) This -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read. It uses ssh(1) for data transfer. and configuration problems.. Causes scp and ssh(1) to print debugging messages about their progress.. scp will ask for passwords or passphrases if they are needed for authentication. -p Preserves modification times.] [[user@]host2:]file2 DESCRIPTION scp copies files between hosts on a network. Disables the progress meter. The options are as follows: -c cipher Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer.

hut. Note that this option is written with a capital `P'.fi> and Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs. NSK-SSH V2.Set this to the password for the public key or user id AUTHORS Timo Rinne <tri@iki. For example. sshd(8) sftp(1). -S program Name of program to use for the encrypted connection. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . SEE ALSO rcp(1). 2008 .-C Compression enable. forcing the use of protocol version 1 is specified using scp -oProtocol=1. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. ssh-add(1). -P port Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host.4 Page 70 March 31. Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable com- -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. because -p is already reserved for preserving the times and modes of the file in rcp(1). Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only. This option is directly passed to ssh(1).fi> HISTORY scp is based on the rcp(1) program in BSD source code from the Regents of the University of California. ssh-keygen(1). GNOTTY 1 . This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag. ssh(1). -4 -6 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only. pression. must understand ssh(1) options. ssh-agent(1). The program -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file.

-e reader Remove key in smartcard reader. The authentication agent must be running and must be an ancestor of the current process for ssh-add to work. it adds the file $HOME/. The options are as follows: -l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent. If any file requires a passphrase.ssh/identity.ssh-add SSH-ADD(1) NAME ssh-add . The passphrase is read from the user's tty. NSK-SSH V2.. removes the identity from the agent. Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented by the agent. ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user. When run without arguments.. Deletes all identities from the agent.4 Page 71 March 31. System Reference Manual SSH-ADD(1) -L -d -D -s reader Add key in smartcard reader.] ssh-add -s reader ssh-add -e reader DESCRIPTION ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent. Alternative file names can be given on the command line. 2008 . Instead of adding the identity.adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-add [-lLdD] [file . sshagent(1). ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given.

ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a . If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. $HOME/. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. This is the default file added by ssh-add when no other files have been specified. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). $HOME/. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. ssh-agent(1).FILES $HOME/. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user.Xsession or related script. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. Note that ssh-add ignores this file if it is accessible by others.) SEE ALSO ssh(1).ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. ENVIRONMENT DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS If ssh-add needs a passphrase. ssh-keygen(1).4 Page 72 March 31. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. 2008 . sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.

Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout. 2008 .]] ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k DESCRIPTION ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA. fork. Through use of environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for authentication when logging in to other machines using ssh(1). so does the agent. the agent can automatically use any of these identities. Debug mode. The agent initially does not have any private keys. It then sends the identity to the agent.ssh-agent SSH-AGENT(1) NAME ssh-agent . this is executed as a subprocess of the agent. or from the terminal if running without X). If the identity has a passphrase. This is the default if SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell.. Several identities can be stored in the agent. The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session. The options are as follows: -c Generate C-shell commands on stdout.authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-agent [-c | -s] [-d] [command [args . ssh-add(1) adds the $HOME/. Keys are added using ssh-add(1).4 Page 73 March 31. When this option is specified ssh-agent will not System Reference Manual SSH-AGENT(1) -s -k -d If a commandline is given. This is the default if SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell. and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program. When executed without arguments. DSA). NSK-SSH V2. Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable). When the command dies.. ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by the agent. ssh-add(1) asks for the passphrase (using a small X11 application if running under X11.ssh/identity file.

ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. and the user can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere in the network in a secure way. Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection to the agent.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user.4 Page 74 March 31. $HOME/. the connection to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins. 2008 . FILES $HOME/. NSK-SSH V2.The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). and authentication passphrases never go over the network. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. laptop. or terminal. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key.<pid>). The agent exits automatically when the command given on the command line terminates. This file is not used by ssh-agent but is normally added to the agent using ssh-add(1) at login time. The socket is made accessible only to the current user. However. and the name of this socket is stored in the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. There are two main ways to get an agent setup: Either the agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment variables are exported. Authentication data need not be stored on any other machine. or the agent prints the needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be generated) which can be evalled in the calling shell. The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's PID. This method is easily abused by root or another instance of the same user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. A unix-domain socket is created (/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent.

ssh-add(1).4 Page 75 March 31. The sockets should get automatically removed when the agent exits. These sockets should only be readable by the owner. 2008 . ssh-keygen(1). SEE ALSO ssh(1)./tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent.<pid> Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection to the authentication agent. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.

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equiv.NSK SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine. if the machine the user logs in from is listed in /etc/hosts. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. DNS spoofing and routing spoofing. The second authentication method is the rhosts or hosts.ssh/known_hosts in the FILES section).equiv method combined with RSA-based host authentication. It means that if the login would be permitted by $HOME/. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. and if additionally the server can verify the client's host key (see /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.shosts.equiv. $HOME/. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods deM-pending on the protocol version used: SSH protocol version 1 First. the user is immediately permitted to log in. the user is permitted to log in.ssh SSH(1) NAME ssh .rhosts. and the user names are the same on both sides. /etc/hosts. ssh connects and logs into the specified hostname. or /etc/ssh/shosts. if . are inherently insecure and should be System Reference Manual SSH(1) NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . [Note to the administrator: /etc/hosts.rhosts.4 Page 77 March 31.equiv or /etc/ssh/shosts. only then login is permitted.equiv on the remote machine. $HOME/.shosts exists in the user's home directory on the remote machine and contains a line containing the name of the client machine and the name of the user on that machine.rhosts or . and the rlogin/rsh protocol in general. This form of authentication alone is normally not allowed by the server because it is not secure.equiv. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh. Second. This authentication method closes security holes due to IP spoofing.

The server knows the public key. and it is not possible to derive the decryption key from the encryption key.ssh/identity and the public key in $HOME/. though the lines can be very long). See ssh-agent(1) for more information. since all communications are encrypted. ssh supports RSA based authentication. The file $HOME/. if this method fails public key authentication is attempted. the user can log in without giving the password. a random number. The user creates his/her RSA key pair by running ssh-keygen(1). The scheme is based on public-key cryptography: there are cryptosystems where encryption and decryption are done using separate keys. The public key method is similar to RSA authentication described in the NSK-SSH V2. SSH protocol version 2 When a user connects using the protocol version 2 different authentication methods are available. the ssh program tells the server which key pair it would like to use for authentication. When the user logs in. The password is sent to the remote host for checking.rhosts file. If other authentication methods fail. and only the user knows the private key. After this. and finally if this method fails keyboard-interactive and password authentication are tried.pub in the user's home directory. RSA authentication is much more secure than rhosts authentication. and if so. the client will try to authenticate first using the hostbased method. The server checks if this key is permitted. and has one key per line. encrypted by the user's public key. The challenge can only be decrypted using the proper private key. Using the default values for PreferredAuthentications. The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may be with an authentication agent.disabled if security is desired. proving that he/she knows the private key but without disclosing it to the server.ssh/authorized_keys lists the public keys that are permitted for logging in. however.4 Page 78 March 31. This stores the private key in $HOME/. 2008 . The user should then copy the identity. The idea is that each user creates a public/private key pair for authentication purposes.ssh/authorized_keys in his/her home directory on the remote machine (the authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional $HOME/. the password cannot be seen by someone listening on the network. The user's client then decrypts the challenge using the private key.pub to $HOME/. ssh prompts the user for a password.ssh/identity. sends the user (actually the ssh program running on behalf of the user) a challenge. RSA is one such system. ssh implements the RSA authentication protocol automatically.] As a third authentication method.

The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh. The session identifier is derived from a shared Diffie-Hellman value and is only known to the client and the server. The server checks whether the matching public key is listed in $HOME/. On most systems. the user may use the escape characters noted below.4 Page 79 March 31. Escape Characters When a pseudo terminal has been requested. CAST128 or Arcfour) and integrity (hmac-md5. Note that protocol 1 lacks a strong mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the connection. If a pseudo-terminal has been allocated (normal login session). Blowfish. If public key authentication fails or is not available a password can be sent encrypted to the remote host for proving the user's identity. the server either executes the given command. The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP connections have been closed. $HOME/. the session is transparent and can be used to reliably transfer binary data. ssh supports a number of functions through the use of an escape character. Additionally. Protocol 2 provides additional mechanisms for confidentiality (the traffic is encrypted using 3DES. 2008 . or logs into the machine and gives the user a normal shell on the remote machine. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted. If no pseudo tty has been allocated. to sign the session identifier and sends the result to the server.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. The escape character can be changed in configuration files using the EscapeChar configuration directive or on the command line by the -e option.ssh/authorized_keys and grants access if both the key is found and the signature is correct. The escape character must always follow a newline to be interpreted as special.previous section and allows the RSA or DSA algorithm to be used: The client uses his private key. Login session and remote execution When the user's identity has been accepted by the server. setting the escape character to ``none'' will also make the session transparent even if a tty is used. hmac-sha1). NSK-SSH V2. ssh supports hostbased or challenge response authentication.ssh/id_rsa. A single tilde character can be sent as ~~ or by following the tilde by a character other than those described below.

One possible application of TCP/IP forwarding is a secure connection to an electronic purse. This is normal. ~^Z ~# ~& Disconnect Background ssh List forwarded connections Background ssh at logout when waiting for forwarded connection / X11 sessions to terminate (protocol version 1 only) Display a list of escape characters Request rekeying of the connection (only useful for SSH protocol version 2 and if the peer supports it) ~? ~R X11 and TCP forwarding If the ForwardX11 variable is set to ``yes'' (or. For this purpose.4 Page 80 March 31. another is going through firewalls. ssh will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. and verify that any forwarded connections carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened. and happens because ssh creates a ``proxy'' X server on the server machine for forwarding the connections over the encrypted channel. see the description of the -X and -x options described later) and the user is using X11 (the DISPLAY environment variable is set). The real authentication cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain).The supported escapes (assuming the default `~') are: ~. If the user is using an authentication agent. Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file. the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted channel. store it in Xauthority on the server. and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine. the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the remote side unless disabled on the command line or in a configuration file. NSK-SSH V2. but with a display number greater than zero. Forwarding of X11 connections can be configured on the command line or in configuration files. 2008 . The DISPLAY value set by ssh will point to the server machine. The user should not manually set DISPLAY. it will generate a random authorization cookie.

ssh/known_hosts in the user's home directory. The escape character followed by a dot (`. Setting the NSK-SSH V2.Server authentication ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing identifications for all hosts it has ever been used with. followed by control-Z suspends the connection. 3des is used by default. Host keys are stored in $HOME/. Additionally. Another purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption. -c blowfish|3des|des Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the session. blowfish is a fast block cipher. The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of ciphers can be specified in order of preference. The StrictHostKeyChecking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines whose host key is not known or has changed. ssh warns about this and disables password authentication to prevent a trojan horse from getting the user's password. 2008 . -e ch|^ch|none Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: `~'). The options are as follows: -a -A Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection.4 Page 81 March 31. See Ciphers for more information. des is only supported in the ssh client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher.') closes the connection. If a host's identification ever changes. Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. 3des (triple-des) is an encrypt-decrypt-encrypt triple with three different keys. It is believed to be secure. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. Any new hosts are automatically added to the user's file. it appears very secure and is much faster than 3des. the file /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts. -c cipher_spec Additionally. and followed by itself sends the escape character once. -b bind_address Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses.

ssh/identity in the user's home directory. prevents reading from stdin). see also the -f option.4 Page 82 March 31. This implies -n. -g -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA or DSA authentication is read. -I smartcard_device Specifies which smartcard device to use. Default is $HOME/.fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows. For example. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. but the user wants it in the background.character to ``none'' disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent. ssh -n shadows.hut. 2008 . This is useful for just forwarding ports (protocol version 2 only).cs. Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports. Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). -k Disables forwarding of Kerberos tickets and AFS tokens. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases. and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel. -m mac_spec Additionally.) Do not execute a remote command. The argument is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase. -N NSK-SSH V2. This must be used when ssh is run in the background. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms can be specified in order of preference. See the MACs keyword for more information. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine. This may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. -l login_name Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine. The ssh program will be put in the background.cs. -n Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually. This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.hut. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm.fi.

-q -s May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system. Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections. -P Use a non-privileged port for outgoing connections. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress. Quiet mode. The subsystem is specified as the remote command. when implementing menu services. stderr. e. 2008 . and data for forwarded X11 and TCP/IP connections). This can also be specified on a per-host -t -T -v -x -X basis in a configuration file. Multiple -v options increases the verbosity. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. Enables X11 forwarding. stdout. but will only slow down things on fast networks. Disable pseudo-tty allocation. Disables X11 forwarding.g. This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. sftp). The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the con- NSK-SSH V2. Note that this option turns off RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication for older servers. even if ssh has no local tty. The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1). -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin. Multiple -t options force tty allocation. Force pseudo-tty allocation. authentication. which can be very useful. and configuration problems. and the ``level'' can be controlled by the CompressionLevel option (see below).-o option Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. Subsystems are a feature of the SSH2 protocol which facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (eg. Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be Only fatal errors are displayed. This is helpful in debugging connection. This can be used if a firewall does not permit connections from privileged ports. Verbose mode. -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. Maximum is 3.. This can be used to execute arbiM-trary screen-based programs on a remote machine.4 Page 83 March 31. suppressed.

Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. and whenever a connection is made to this port. If a configuration file is given on the command line. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine. and whenever a connection is made to this port. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the remote side. -L port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the local (client) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the remote side. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -R port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the remote (server) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the local side. the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. -1 -2 -4 Forces ssh to try protocol version 1 only. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. see the Compression option below. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. 2008 . and a connection is made to host port hostport from the remote machine. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 84 March 31. and whenever a connection is made to this port. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. The default for the per-user configuration file is $HOME/.figuration files. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the local machine. Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. -F configfile Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -D port Specifies a local ``dynamic'' application-level port forwarding. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. Only root can forward priviM-leged ports. Only root can forward privileged ports. Forces ssh to try protocol version 2 only. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file.ssh/config.

BatchMode If set to ``yes''. the first obtained value will be used. Configuration options may be separated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one `='. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Otherwise a line is of the format ``keyword arguments''. The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword.. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. 2008 .e. and general defaults at the end. user's configuration file ($HOME/. For each parameter.4 Page 85 March 31. The matched host name is the one given on the command line.ssh/config). and system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config). NSK-SSH V2. Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used. AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether to pass AFS tokens to remote host. and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification. This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password. the name is not converted to a canonicalized host name before matching). The configuration files contain sections bracketed by ``Host'' specifications. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. CONFIGURATION FILES ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: command line options. The default is ``no''. scp and sftp -o option. The host is the hostname argument given on the command line (i. passphrase/password querying will be disabled.-6 Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file. the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh. The configuration file has the following format: Empty lines and lines starting with `#' are comments. A single `*' as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts.

and ``des'' are supported. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. This allows ssh to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing. and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). The meaning of the values is the same as in gzip(1). The default is ``3des''.aes256-cbc'' ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local. ssh will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file. ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . remote and dynamic port forwardings specified in the configuration files or on the command line be cleared. If the option is set to ``no''. Cipher Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in protocol version 1. Compression Specifies whether to use compression. Currently. The default is ``no''. This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh command line to clear port forwardings set in configuration files. the check will not be executed. ``3des''. des is only supported in the ssh client for inM-teroperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher.4 Page 86 March 31. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. CheckHostIP If this flag is set to ``yes''.arcfour. The deM-fault is ``aes128-cbc. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to ``yes''. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order of preference. best).3des-cbc. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default level is 6. The default is ``yes''. The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9 (slow. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. CompressionLevel Specifies the compression level to use if compression is enabled. which is good for most applications. aes192-cbc.BindAddress Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses.blowfish-cbc. ``blowfish''. The default is ``no''.cast128-cbc.

The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.falling back to rsh or exiting. `^' followed by a letter. ssh binds local port forwardings to the loopback addresss. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. rsh(1) should automatically be used instead (after a suitable warning about the session being unencrypted). The argument must be a port number. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. The default is ``no''. The default is ``no''. The default is 1. By default. The argument must be an integer. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address. The escape character can also be set on the command line. DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel. GlobalKnownHostsFile NSK-SSH V2. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: `~'). and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The argument should be a single character. The default is ``no''. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. or ``none'' to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data). Multiple forwardings may be specified. The default is ``no''. ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. 2008 . and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine.4 Page 87 March 31. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. FallBackToRsh Specifies that if connecting via ssh fails due to a connection refused error (there is no sshd(8) listening on the remote host). thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine.

HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication.ssh/identity in the user's home directory).ssh-dss'' HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files. any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication. If they are sent. IdentityFile Specifies the file from which the user's RSA or DSA authentication identity is read (default $HOME/. The default is ``no''. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). However. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts. the value should be set to ``no'' in both NSK-SSH V2. and many users want it too. and some people find it annoying. all these identities will be tried in sequence.4 Page 88 March 31. 2008 . HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the protocol version 2 host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of preference. To disable keepalives.Specifies a file to use for the global host key database instead of /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. This option applies to protocol version 2 only and is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication. This is important in scripts. The file name may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory. The default for this option is: ``ssh-rsa. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. Additionally. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies. HostName Specifies the real host name to log into. This option is useful for tunneling ssh connections or for multiple servers running on a single host. It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Default is the name given on the command line.

is 22. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication will be used.hmac-sha1-96. Default PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try protocol 2 authentication methods.hmac-md5-96''. The default is ``yes''. The possible values are: QUIET. gument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Default is 3. 2008 . This will only work if the Kerberos server is actually an AFS kaserver. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. The ar- KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT will be forwarded to the server. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. VERBOSE and DEBUG. The default is ``hmac-md5. This allows a client to prefer one method NSK-SSH V2.the server and the client configuration files. The first argument must be a port number. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports.4 Page 89 March 31. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine. Multiple forwardings may be specified. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. The argument to this keyword must be an integer. and the second must be host:port. NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up.hmacripemd160. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host. INFO. ERROR. FATAL. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication. The default is INFO.hmac-sha1.

publickey. Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. The command can be basically anything. ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. The deM-fault is ``yes''.g. or execute sshd -i somewhere. `%h' will be substituted by the host name to connect and `%p' by the port. The default is ``2. The command string extends to the end of the line. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line.(e. password) The default for this option is: ``hostbased. and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output.g. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. Multiple versions must be comma-separated.keyboardinteractive. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''.4 Page 90 March 31. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user). and the second must be host:port. This means that ssh tries version 2 and falls back to version 1 if version 2 is not available. The first argument must be a port number. 2008 . Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e. Multiple forwardings may be specified. RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the local machine. Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce authentication time on slow connections when rhosts authentication is not used. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. In the command string. It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine. Note that this declaration only affects the client side and has no effect whatsoever on security. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. NSK-SSH V2.password'' Protocol Specifies the protocol versions ssh should support in order of preference. and is executed with /bin/sh. The default is ``yes''.1''. Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication).

The default is ``yes''. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts. and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge response authentication. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try RSA authentication. If this flag is set to ``ask''. StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to ``yes''. By default. NSK-SSH V2. The argument must be ``yes''. RSA authentication will only be attempted if the identity file exists. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections. ``no'' or ``ask''. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed.4 Page 91 March 31. If this flag is set to ``no''. 2008 . Note that this option must be set to ``yes'' if RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication authentications are needed with older servers. SmartcardDevice Specifies which smartcard device to use. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``ask''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``yes''.RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA host authentication. The argument to this keyword is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. or an authentication agent is running. new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do.ssh/known_hosts file. The host keys of known hosts will be verified automatically in all cases. no device is specified and smartcard support is not activated. ssh will never automatically add host keys to the $HOME/. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. however. The default is ``yes''. ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files. The default is ``no''. or connections to new hosts are frequently made.

ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections over the secure channel. This is particularly useful when calling ssh from a . If ssh does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. It is automatically set by ssh to point to a value of the form ``hostname:n'' where hostname indicates the host where the shell runs. as that will render the X11 connection insecure (and will require the user to manually copy any required authorization cookies). The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. as specified when compiling ssh. HOME LOGNAME Synonym for USER. and n is an integer >= 1. /usr/bin/X11/xauth.User Specifies the user to log in as. Set to the default PATH. Set to the path of the user's home directory. The default is ENVIRONMENT ssh will normally set the following environment variables: DISPLAY The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server. SSH_ASKPASS If ssh needs a passphrase. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. It is possible that the host does not at all support the ssh protocol.Xsession or related script. MAIL PATH Set to the path of the user's mailbox. NSK-SSH V2. UseRsh Specifies that rlogin/rsh should be used for this host.ssh/known_hosts. This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. All other options (except HostName) are ignored if this has been specified. The user should normally not set DISPLAY explicitly. set for compatibility with systems that use this variable. 2008 . UserKnownHostsFile Specifies a file to use for the user host key database instead of $HOME/.4 Page 92 March 31. This causes ssh to immediately execute rsh(1). This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines.

NSK-SSH V2. It can be used to extract the original arguments.e. and protocol 2 RSA.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . the daemon passes the value on to new connections). USER Additionally. SSH_CLIENT Identifies the client end of the connection. $HOME/. this variable is not set. client port number. Set to the name of the user logging in. SSH_TTY This is set to the name of the tty (path to the device) associated with the current shell or command.) SSH_AUTH_SOCK Identifies the path of a unix-domain socket used to communicate with the agent.(Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work.ssh/identity. They are for protocol 1 RSA. and adds lines of the format ``VARNAME=value'' to the environment. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. GNOTTY 1 . ssh reads $HOME/. $HOME/..ssh/environment.Set this to the password for the public key or user id FILES $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.ssh/id_rsa Contains the authentication identity of the user. TZ The timezone variable is set to indicate the present timezone if it was set when the daemon was started (i. protocol 2 DSA. See sshd(8).4 Page 93 March 31. respectively. SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND The variable contains the original command line if a forced command is executed. 2008 . The variable contains three space-separated values: client ip-address. and server port number.ssh/known_hosts Records host keys for all hosts the user has logged into that are not in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. NONSTOP ADDITIONAL OPTIONS If you need to use the SSH program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. If the current session has no tty. $HOME/.

ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 1 RSA authentication.ssh/id_rsa. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key.4 Page 94 March 31. and not accessible by others. and not accessible by others. all such names should be listed. In the simplest form the format is the same as the . in the following format (fields separated by spaces): system name. This file should be worldreadable.pub.ssh/id_dsa. they are only provided for the convenience of the user.ssh/identity.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. This file should be prepared by the system administrator to contain the public host keys of all machines in the organization. When different names are used for the same machine.ssh/id_rsa. The format is described on the sshd(8) manual page. These files are never used automatically and are not necessary.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 2 DSA/RSA authentication. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user. Note that ssh ignores a private key file if it is accessible by othM-ers. $HOME/. separated by commas. The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by sshd(8) to verify the client host when logging in.These files contain sensitive data and should be readable by the user but not accessible by others (read/write/execute). The format of this file is described in the sshd(8) manual page. $HOME/. This file does not usually contain any sensitive information. $HOME/.pub file should be added to $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts Systemwide list of known host keys. The contents of the $HOME/. other names NSK-SSH V2. one per line. the passphrase will be used to encrypt the sensitive part of this file using 3DES. public key and optional comment field. 2008 .pub identity files.pub and $HOME/. $HOME/. These files are not sensitive and can (but need not) be readable by anyone.pub Contains the public key for authentication (public part of the identity file in human-readable form).pub file should be added to $HOME/.pub. This file is used by the ssh client. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user. The contents of the $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA/DSA) that can be used for logging in as this user. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa. This file is not highly sensitive. This file contains public keys. The format of this file is described above.ssh/identity.

shosts This file is used exactly the same way as . one per line (the full format is described on the sshd(8) manual page).equiv This file is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. If the server machine does not have the client's host key in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file.) Each line of the file contains a host name (in the canonical form returned by name servers). /etc/ssh/shosts. $HOME/.rhosts authentication to list the host/user pairs that are permitted to log in.ssh/known_hosts.rhosts authentication. which makes using this file insecure. Note that by default sshd(8) will be installed so that it requires successful RSA host authentication before permitting . because sshd(8) reads it as root. If the client host is found in this file.4 Page 95 March 31. Additionally. The easiest way to do this is to connect back to the client from the server machine using ssh. The purpose for having this file is to be able to use rhosts authentication with ssh without permitting login with rlogin(1) or rsh(1). $HOME/.are needed because ssh does not convert the user-supplied name to a canonical name before checking the key.ssh/known_hosts. /etc/hosts. because someone with access to the name servers would then be able to fool host authentication. this file must be owned by the user.rhosts.rhosts This file is used in .equiv. (Note that this file is also used by rlogin and rsh. and for those users who do not have a configuration file. 2008 . and then a user name on that host.equiv This file is used during . Additionally. this will automatically add the host key to $HOME/. On some machines this file may need to be world-readable if the user's home directory is on a NFS partition. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. NSK-SSH V2. it can be stored in $HOME/. The recommended permission for most machines is read/write for the user. and not accessible by others. This file must be world-readable. This file may be useful to permit logins using ssh but not using rsh/rlogin.rhosts authentication. login is automatically permitted provided client and server user names are the same. This file should only be writable by root. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. separated by a space. and must not have write permissions for anyone else. It contains canonical hosts names.

ssh/rc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. $HOME/. Lehtinen. ssh- T./etc/ssh/sshrc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started.txt. Saarinen.4 Page 96 March 31. draft-ietf-secsh-architecture-09.ssh/environment Contains additional definitions for environment variables. M. rsh(1). T. T. see section ENVIRONMENT above. work in progress material. telnet(1). See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. July 2001. Kivinen. $HOME/. SEE ALSO rlogin(1). sftp(1). SSH Protocol Architecture. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2. See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. ssh-agent(1). keygen(1). Ylonen. sshd(8) ssh-add(1). scp(1). Rinne. and S.

Port 22 #Protocol 2.APPENDIX B .0 #ListenAddress :: # HostKey for protocol version 1 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key # HostKeys for protocol version 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key # Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key KeyRegenerationInterval 3600 ServerKeyBits 768 # Logging SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging # Authentication: LoginGraceTime 600 PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes RSAAuthentication yes PubkeyAuthentication yes #AuthorizedKeysFile %h/. 2008 .rhosts and ~/.1 ListenAddress 0.0. # for more information.shosts files IgnoreRhosts yes # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts RhostsRSAAuthentication no # similar for protocol version 2 See sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.ssh/authorized_keys # rhosts authentication should not be used RhostsAuthentication no # Don't read the user's ~/.0.4 Page 97 March 31.FILES sshd_config FILE # This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/ssh/bin # This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file.

HostbasedAuthentication no # Uncomment if you don't trust ~/.ssh/known_hosts for RhostsRSAAuthentication #IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes # To disable tunneled clear text passwords.4 Page 98 March 31. 2008 . change to no here! PasswordAuthentication yes PermitEmptyPasswords no # Uncomment to disable s/key passwords #ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # Uncomment to enable PAM keyboard-interactive authentication # Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication' #PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes # To change Kerberos options #KerberosAuthentication no #KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes #AFSTokenPassing no #KerberosTicketCleanup no # Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver #KerberosTgtPassing yes X11Forwarding no X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintMotd yes #PrintLastLog no KeepAlive yes #UseLogin no #MaxStartups 10:30:60 #Banner /etc/issue.net #ReverseMappingCheck yes Subsystem Subsystem sftp sftp-g /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server-guardian NSK-SSH V2.

# # # # # # # Configuration data is parsed as follows: 1. command line options 2. and defaults at the end. # Site-wide defaults for various options # Host * # ForwardAgent no # ForwardX11 no # RhostsAuthentication no # RhostsRSAAuthentication yes # RSAAuthentication yes # PasswordAuthentication yes # FallBackToRsh no # UseRsh no # BatchMode no # CheckHostIP yes # StrictHostKeyChecking yes # IdentityFile ~/.ssh_config FILE # This is ssh client systemwide configuration file. 2008 .4 Page 99 March 31. host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the configuration file. user-specific file 3. This file provides defaults for users.1 # Cipher blowfish # EscapeChar ~ NSK-SSH V2. system-wide file Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set. and the values can # be changed in per-user configuration files or on the command line.ssh/id_rsa # Port 22 # Protocol 2.ssh/id_dsa # IdentityFile ~/. See ssh(1) for more # information. Thus.ssh/identity # IdentityFile ~/.

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APPENDIX C . 2008 .TELNET ISOLATION FILES start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack.4 Page 101 March 31.sh FILE ############################################ # Start SSH with IPSSH across two cpus ## ## Start the SSH process on port 700 and 701 export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 run -cpu=0 sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 sshd -p 701 ## Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process run -cpu=0 ipssh sleep 5 ## Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process run -cpu=1 ipssh -wait 0 # Startup complete NSK-SSH V2.

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255.system.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip000 run -name=/G/ip000 -cpu=0 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0a.4 Page 103 March 31. & AUTORESTART 10.sh <.& userid 255. & startmode manual.& program $system. 2008 . & name $ob010.APPENDIX D .ZZKRN FILES ipztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00a add process IPSSH-ztc00a.osh.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00a start_ipssh_ztc0a.& primarycpu 0. & outfile $zhome.& HOMETERM $zhome.

& name $ob011.& program $system.& HOMETERM $zhome. & outfile $zhome.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # # Note that the wait 0 is used just incase the other ipssh process # has been started and is on port 22. 2008 .4 Page 104 March 31. & startmode manual.& primarycpu 1.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0b. If the other ipssh process # dies. & AUTORESTART 10.system.ipztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00b add process IPSSH-ztc00b. # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip001 run -name=/G/ip001 -cpu=1 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D -wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2. this process will take over.255.& userid 255.sh <.osh.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00b start_ipssh_ztc0b.

sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 790" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb000 run -name=/G/rb000 -cpu=0 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:790 # NSK-SSH V2.& HOMETERM $zhome.& primarycpu 0.255.system.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00a start_random_ztc00a.& userid 255. & outfile $zhome.4 Page 105 March 31.osh. & startmode manual.& program $system.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00a.sh <. 2008 .ranztc0a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00a add process RANDOM-ztc00a. & AUTORESTART 10. & name $ob000.

& HOMETERM $zhome.ranztc0b FILE llow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00b add process RANDOM-ztc00b.sh <. & AUTORESTART 10. & outfile $zhome.& primarycpu 1.& program $system.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 791" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb001 run -name=/G/rb001 -cpu=1 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:791 # NSK-SSH V2.system. & name $ob001. 2008 .& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00b.osh.& userid 255. & startmode manual.4 Page 106 March 31.255.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00b start_random_ztc0b.

4 Page 107 March 31.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00a.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00a start_sshd_ztc00a. & outfile $zhome. 2008 .sh <.& HOMETERM $zhome. & name $ob020.system. & AUTORESTART 10.& primarycpu 0. & startmode manual.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 700" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd000 run -name=/G/sd000 -cpu=0 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 700 # NSK-SSH V2.& program $system.osh.& userid 255.sdztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00a add process SSHD-ztc00a.255.

sh <.255.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00b start_sshd_ztc00b.& program $system. 2008 . & AUTORESTART 10. & name $ob021.& HOMETERM $zhome.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 701" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd001 run -name=/G/sd001 -cpu=1 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 701 # NSK-SSH V2. & outfile $zhome.osh.& userid 255. & startmode manual.system.4 Page 108 March 31.& primarycpu 1.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00b.sdztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00b add process SSHD-ztc00b.

INSTALL NOTES: NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 109 March 31. 2008 .

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