Version 2.

4

Bowden Systems Inc.
Norcross, GA 30092 http://www.bsi2.com

Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

BOWDEN SYSTEMS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Bowden Systems shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Warranty
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your BSI product can be obtained from the BSI Corporate Office.

Printing History
The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between additions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive these updates or new editions, contact the BSI Corporate Office. October 2001 . . . Edition 1 February 2002 . . . Edition 2 June 2003....Editon 3 July 2004...Edition4 Feb 2008...Edition 5 March 2008...Edition 5a Bowden Systems, Inc. 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 370 Norcross, GA 30092, USA email:sales@bsi2.com web:www.bsi2.com © 2001- 2008 Bowden Systems, Inc.
NSK-SSH, sftp-server-guardian, scmd is a trademark of Bowden Systems Inc. Nonstop, TEDIT, TACL, Guardian 90, 6530, PATHWAY are trademarks of HP. Mr-win6530 is a trademark of Conforte. Cail6530 is a trademark of Cail.

Preface
This manual explains how to install, configure, and use NSK-SSH software for the HP NonStop server. This includes setting up the components of the software which are the ipssh, sshd, and prngd.

Audience and Prerequisites
This manual is intended for system managers and assumes that the user has experience with OSS, GUARDIAN, TCPIP, PTCPIP and SCF.

Prerequisite Equipment
This manual also assumes that the user’s host is S-Series running GUARDIAN G06.22 or higher, GUARDIAN H-Series running H06.05 or higher, or GUARDIAN J-Series J06.02 or higher. This software works with TCPIP V4 and TCPIP V6 tcpip stacks.

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. . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ssh-add. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ssh-keygen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 sshd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .REQUIRED FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN PAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ssh-keyscan. OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 sftp-server-guardian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT. .ZZKRN FILES. . . 71 ssh-agent. . BASIC SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT. 1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. 97 sshd_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD using two IP stacks. . . . . 97 ssh_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 start_ipssh_ztc0a. . . . 21 8. . . . 13 5. . . . . . . KERNEL SUBSYSEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 APPENDIX D . . . . . . . 77 APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE. . . . . . TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ipztc00a . . . . . 37 sftp-server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ipssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KNOWN PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 sftp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 prngd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 scmd. . . . . . . . . . .TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 scp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 APPENDIX C . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 1.PRNGD ON CPU 01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 start_sshd_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 start_sshd_ztc00b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 0 . . . 106 start_random_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 start_ipssh_ztc0b. .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . 106 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 0. . . 104 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 0. . . 107 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . .ipztc00b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . 105 start_random_ztc00a. . . . . . . . .

We also have added an sftp-server for the guardian file system. Barrett & Richard E. If you require more detailed information on SSH. and TCP/IP installed and configured on your system. You no longer need to have the OSS local socket program running.4 that is based on OpenSSH 2. you should consult “SSH The Secure Shell” by Daniel J. This release has also been verified to work with Mr-Win6530. 2008 .05/J06.9. This software works with alias and standard GUARDIAN users.com).x security enhancements and PRNGD 0. In this release.9p2 with 3. This was created do to the need of users that have PCI requirments of not having TELNET running on the system or FTP.SUPER or root user id.OVERVIEW This is a release of the NSK-SSH V2.15 for the G06.4 Page 1 March 31.22/H06. This document will tell you how to install and configure NSK-SSH software for access to the system and provide a reference for the MAN pages included with the NSK-SSH software. This release will allow you to access the NonStop system in a secure manor for session and ftp access. You should install this software using the SUPER.oreilly. The NSK-SSH has been updated to fix various problem the the random number generator and has move to using TCPIP for the communications between the random number generator and the SSH process. This also include the ability to access an isolated TCPIP stack which has telnet running on it for the telnet requirment of SSH. We now also have the ability to set up all the components of this release in the KERNEL (ZZKRN) subsystem for full fault resilance. This allows you to access the guardian file system just like the unix file system. This can be purchased from the Oreilly web site (www.4. This provides compatibility with programs such as FileZilla. we also added a new command to address problem with executing remote commands from the system. This new command is called scmd and allows you to execute remote commands from the NonStop system. This installation document assumes that you have OSS.02 operating system. Now you can have up to 4 random number generators per TCPIP V4 OR V6 stack or up to 64 with PTCPIP using the round-robin method of access . The random number generator does not require any external programs or files for generating its random numbers. NSK-SSH V2. Silverman.9.

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Z | pax -rvf - For the H-Series and J-Series operating system: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_H0605_V24. 2008 . IPSSH. SSH and PRNGD software. Note that the above tar file may have a version indicator on it.super to install this software.tar.tar.4 Page 3 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. do the following: For the S-Series: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_GO622_V24. To install the software that was downloaded from the web site. This will install the software into the following directories: /etc/ /etc/ssh /usr/local/ssh /usr/local/random Now you are ready to set up the.Z | pax -rvf - Note that zcat is in the /bin/unsupported directory.INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE You must be the root user or super.

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IMPORTANT FOR TELNET ACCESS cd /etc cp services. then you need to make sure that has the following line: telnet 23/tcp NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . e. you should do the following: 1.bsi to services and protocols. c.bsi protocols Note that the service that the sshd program is looking for is the telent service. TCPIP configure for OSS. TELNET servr running on the TCPIP stack LOCAL LOOP BACK STARTED for TCPIP stack REMOVE ANY OPENSSH ssh software on your system as this will cause problems with installing and startup up the Bowden Systems version of SSH. b. Unix SSH) 2. Verify that you have the services and protocols file in the /etc directory. Putty. b. SSH Client Software ( Mr-Win6530. If you do not have these files. TCPIP V4 or V6 Installed and Configured OSS Sockets Started on each processor. f. OSS Installed and Configured. If you alreay have a services file.bsi services cp protocols. You should have the following products installed on your system: a.bsi to protocols. Cail6530. Know how to use the text editor “vi”. g. then you can copy the files services. c.4 Page 5 March 31. You will need the following information: a.BASIC SETUP OF SSH To set up your system so that you use the SSH software. d. The ip address and stack process name you will use for SSH access.

If the services program does not have this line. Verify that the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME is already set. or that you want to random number generator to use. a. You should use what ever tcpip process name is defined on your system. Execute a script to change the file setting sh -v .4 Page 6 March 31. export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/install export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/ssh/man export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/random/man Note that these can be place in /etc/profile or in your private home directory file “. Set your PATH and MANPATH variables.sh 5. do the following: add_define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME file=\$ZTC1 Note that this is an example. 2008 . Set the correct file settings on the installed files. 4. THE TELNET ACCESS TO SSH WILL NOT WORK. then it is not necessary to do this step. If you are using the default tcpip process name $ZTC0. then you need to add it using vi. do the following: info_define all To add the define. NOTE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A /etc/services FILE. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b./ssh_install_chmod. But if you are using some other tcpip process name. 3.profile”. NSK-SSH V2.

pub .pub . Note that this may take a while.sh This will generate the following files in the /etc/ssh/ directory: ssh_host_key . Execute a script to generate the system wide keys.DSA Private Key ssh_host_dsa_key. Note if you are using TCPIP V4 then you should set this to 127. This is only needed if you ssh to listen again a specific address.sh This will start the random number generator on local sockets connection 127.Host Private Key ssh_host_key.4 Page 7 March 31. sh -v . NSK-SSH V2.RSA Private Key ssh_host_rsa_key.Host Public Key ssh_host_rsa_key . sh -v .0. To make this change.0. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. The script executes the following: run cpu=0 -gpri= 144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 7.RSA Public Key ssh_host_dsa_key .0.0 and change the 0.0.1 for the two cpu or greater configuraiton.0./ssh_install_makekeys.0 to the ipaddress of your system and save the file./start_random. Generate the system keys.0. Execute a script to startup the random number generator. do the following: vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the line: ListenAddress 0.pub .DSA Public Key 8. This step is optional.1 port 790. 2008 .0.6. !!!! IMPORTANT STEP NOT TO FORGET !!!! a. Start up the Random number generator (PRNG). Modify the system wide configuration to the specify the IP address that the SSHD program will use.0. This must be started before any SSH software can be used.

10. then you should not change the ListenAddress to 127. ssh and sftp).0 If you want to start the program in the debug mode to see what it is doing. The sshd program will process all request (session. before you can startup the NSK-SSH software.9.0. To start the sshd program do the following: run -cpu=0 -gpri=125 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd This will start the sshd server and it will listen on port 22 for any connection. If you are starting the Bowden NSK-SSH software on a system that has the Comforte SSH software on it and configured to use the port 22 on $ztc0.0.0. do the following: /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -d -d -d This will allow one session to be processed and then the program will exit when the request is finished. If there is more than one address associated with the stack then.1 and change it to the real address of the stack. scf> abort #ssh-ztc0 This will abort the process and then you can start up the NSK-SSH software. If this is running. If you only run one SSHD server. NSK-SSH V2. scf> assume process $zzkrn scf>names You should look for #ssh-ztc0. then you need to stop it. If you want to start ssh on one cpu. 2008 . you should leave it set to 0. then you need to stop this software. scp.4 Page 8 March 31. If you want to start SSHD on two cpu’s scipt to step 10.0. then continue reading.

Starting SSH on two cpu’s using P/TCPIP with round-robin configuration. 2008 . Start the SSHD process on port 700 and 701. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd NSK-SSH V2. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . a. Note that on most systems. a./start_ssh_ptcpip_2cpu. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh sleep 5 c. If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . Starting SSH on two cpu’s using regular TCPIP or P/TCPIP in Failover mode If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. the TCPIP V6 software is configured in fail-over mode and not configurated for round-robin. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu.sh or do the following: 1. run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh -wait 0 11.sh 2.sh or do the following: 1. Starting it manually. Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process. Start the SSHD processes on port 22. we put this startup file in as example of how to run the SSHD server on a system that is uses that configuration.4 Page 9 March 31.10. run -cpu=0 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 701 b. Starting it manually./start_ssh_2_cpu. Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process.sh 2.

4 Page 10 March 31.Note that you can use this configuraiton on TCPIP V4 if there is more than one IP addres define to the TCPIP stack and it is not in the FAIL-OVER configuraiton. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.

PRI 190. ipaddress 127. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. we will talk about advanced set up of the SSH software including the KERNEL subsystem and TELNET isolation.TERM $ZHOME/0 2.4 Page 11 March 31. 2008 . This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process.ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH In this section. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 To do this do the following (Note this works on all release of the Guardian OS including H-series and J-series: 1. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. scf> assume process $ztc99 scf> aler subnet #loop0. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. To use this feature.sh. With this configuration. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. Start the #LOOP0 port on the stack. Start up the TCPIP V4 stack at tacl: TCPIP/name $ZTC99. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack.CPU 0.1 scf> start subnet * scf> exit NSK-SSH V2. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port.

1 23 WELCOME TO test. now you are ready to add the TCPIP_TELNET_STACK. Now at this point.3.#PTYAAAA] TELSERV .bsi1. 2008 .com [PORT $ZTC99 #23 WINDOW $ZTN99.(15SEP2000) .0. you should be able to access the TELNET server locally: TELNET 127.PRI 170/23 Note that the 23 on the TELSERV command is the port to listen to.CPU 0.(IPMADG) Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice> If this works. Start up the TELSRV process add define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.T9553D40 .0.NOWAIT. to your SSHD start file and restart the SSHD servers NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 12 March 31.FILE $ZTC99 param TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME $ZTC99 param ZTNT^TRANSPORT^NAME $ZTC99 TELSERV/NAME $ZTN99.

scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system. to be root or super.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.4 Page 13 March 31.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. Now. This is to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. you only need Note that you need you need to change 127.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl>logon super. prngd.*.zzkrnsd on your system.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file.#RANDOM-ZTC00B NSK-SSH V2.super to do this and your /etc/sshd.code 100 run zzkrnsd. $*.super volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.1.KERNEL SUBSYSTEM We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh. 2008 .0. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN.*. What you need to do this.0. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running.config file to listen on port the ListenAddress configuration line. In the zzkrn subsystem.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.

2008 .script name $ob11 .script name $ob001 .process name $ip000 #IPSSH-ZTC00B . these names are the following: #RANDOM-ZTC00 . you must have a script to start up the SSH software in the correct order or it will not start at system startup. there are two process names used.process name $sd000 #SSHD-ZTC00B .script name $ob10 .process name $sd001 #IPSSH-ZTC00A .#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.process name $RD000 #RANDOM-ZTC01 . When your system is started up.$ZZKRN.process name $RD001 #SSHD-ZTC00A .4 Page 14 March 31.script name $ob021 . all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.process name $ip001 NSK-SSH V2. that process will be restarted. Note that when you abort the software. the process running in the script does not stop.script name $ob020 .script name $ob000 . It is only when you restart the software. This script is the following: assume process $zzkrn start #RANDOM-ZTC00A start #RANDOM-ZTC00B start #SSHD-ZTC00A start #SSHD-ZTC00B start #IPSSH-ZTC00A start #IPSSH-ZTC00B For each startup script.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.

This also reduces connect time when performning any action that requires a random number. because of problem with the select function not support the tty device. Since the OSS environment does not support pty’s. When NSK-SSH request a pty. 2008 . This port of SSH understands about ALIAS users and does it password authentication against the safeguard database. If you request that a pty is not allocated. Which in the case for all commands on SSH. This allows all TELSRV services to be stop. We also increase the capacity of the random number generator to handle large request loads. This is not a part of the standard. The major difference of this port from the standard SSH and Prngd port is how sessions are accessed and how we access the random number generator. we request access on the 127. Under the standard model of SSH. This was not a problem in standard SSH.4 Page 15 March 31.1 port 23. We added a new command to handle remote command execution. the sshd program will access the user’s default shell script as the standard SSH port does. reliablity. all sessions are accessed using the master/slave pty configurations. we use the telnet subsystem as the pty generator. This port of SSH and PRNGD has been fault tested to make sure that it works when a CPU fails. and support for the guardian file system via sftp.0. The standard SSH software does not know any thing about this. and scalability. This port of SSH uses the tcpip access to random number generator to increase performance.0. NSK-SSH V2. We added a distributor to the release so that it is possible to support round-robin access using the standard TCPIP software and scale the ssh software and random number generator software across multiple cpus. We also have the ability to make this request to another TCPIP stack that is not attached to any Ethernet hardware and is only running TELSRV.Porting Differences This section will talk very briefly about the differences between this port of NSKSSH and what you get would from Open Source.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT
At this point, you have done the basic setup for the SSH software. In this section, we will be discussing how to access your system to establish session. You will need an SSH client for your PC, Mac, or Unix system to start a session. In this example we are using, MacSSH, but this will apply to Windows software too. 1. Select your host and select Secure Shell

2. Enter your user name and password:

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3. Get the system access prompt. Note that depending on what type of system, you are executing the sshd software on, it may take a while for the session to connect. This has to do with the encryption of the session.

At this point, you can access the NonStop as you always have. Just login in an start working.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT
If you have other unix system’s, that have SSH installed, you can access the HP NonStop using ssh. To start a session remotely on the HP NonSTop do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com joshua’s password:
WELCOME TO test.bsi1.com [PORT $ZTC0 #23 WINDOW $ZTN0.#PTYW1DX] TELSERV - T9553D40 - (15SEP2000) - (IPMADG)

Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice>

If you want to execute a remote commad, do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com /bin/ls joshua’s password: test.pl test1.pl test2.pl test3.pl test5.pl test_message $ If you want to copy a file from the unix system to the NSK, do the following: $scp test.pl joshua@test.bsi1.com:test.pl joshua’s password:

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NSK-SSH V2.If you want to logon directly to TACL. 2008 .4 Page 20 March 31.com /bin/gtacl joshua’s password: TACL 1> Note that you wil not beable to execute any oss commands with this tacl session because you are not using the standard telnet tty session attributes.bsi1. do the following: $ssh joshua@test.

This will be fixed in next release. Should you find any problems with this software.4 Page 21 March 31.KNOWN PROBLEMS We added the scmd program to allow remote command access to a system. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .com. you should send an email message to support@bsi2. This currently only supports commands that do not require any interaction with the user.

INFORMATION If you need any help with this. GA 30092 USA +1 866-901-9450 toll free +1 770-441-9450 direct +1 770-441-9449 fax web: www.bsi2.com email:sales@bsi2. All Rights Reserved NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 22 March 31. 3500 Parkway Lane. Inc. Inc.com. please send an email message to support@bsi2. Suite 370 Norcross. Any correspondence regarding this software can be sent to the following address: Bowden Systems.com Copyright (c) 2001-2008 Bowden Systems.

System Reference Manual PRNGD(8) NSK-SSH V2. The default port that SSH uses for port access is 790 to 793 and the default local socket is /dev/egd-pool. OPTIONS -f or -fg do not fork -d or --debug debugging on -c or --cmdfile cmdpath use cmdpath for entropy commands [/etc/prngd. The option tcp/ip:addr:port allows the random number generator to liston on specified address instead of the loopback address.MAN PAGES prngd PRNGD(8) NAME prngd . The ports 790 to 793 are against the localhost (127. keep pool in memory only -m or --mode mode use mode for sockets [0777] -k or --kill kill daemon on other side -v or --version print version and exit DESCRIPTION prngd is a daemon that provides the random number functionality on the NonStop system using either using local sockets or a tcpip port connection..random number generator daemon SYNOPSIS prngd [options] (/path/to/socket1 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port) [(/path/to/socket2 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port)] . 2008 .0.APPENDIX A .4 Page 23 March 31.1) and will use the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME to get the currently defined TCPIP process stack name..0.conf] -s or --seedfile seedpath use seedpath as seedfile [/etc/prngd-seed] -n or --no-seedfile no seedfile.

210:790 To start the prngd program using the local socket /dev/egd-pool prngd -gpri=170 /dev/egd-pool The SSH program will attempt to use the localhost ports first and then try the local socket next. If you are running P/TCPIP then you can have more than one random number generator using only port 790. you will still have a random number generator available on the system.STARTING DAEMON To start the prngd program using localhost port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/localhost:790 To start the prngd program using tcp/ip option port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/ip:192. then a primary and back is good choice.168. You can configure one prngd program to service both tcp and local socket if you like: prngd /dev/egd-pool tcp/localhost:790 tcp/localhost:791 But you may want to configure the localhost port 790 as the primary and 791 or /dev/egd-pool as the backup. most of SSH functions will not work. As a note. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 This will CPU 1 and CPU 0 the load of the random number generator.1. If you are using using regular TCPIP. If you are using Parallel TCPIP with round robin. then you can start up multiple random number generators using the same port number to spead the laod to multiple CPU's. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 or run -cpu=1 -gpri=170 prngd /dev/egd-pool You could run the TCPIP random number generator port 790 on cpu 0 and port 791 or the Local Socket random number generator on cpu 1. If any one of the CPU's fail. prngd tcp/localhost:790 prngd tcp/localhost:791 NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 24 March 31. if there is not a random number generator available.

it will stop generating random numbers. In the directory /usr/local/random/etc there is a file call prngd-seed.4 Page 25 March 31. prngd will not return any random information if it runs out of entropy.STOPPING DAEMON You can stop the prngd daemon with the following command: If TCPIP: prngd --kill tcp/localhost:790 If Local Socket prngd --kill /dev/egd-pool Or just use the kill command. SSH has been program to try 5 times and then will go to the next generator viable and try 5 times also. If this fails the program executing will abend. It has been found that if prngd is not properly seed. To use this seed file: cp /usr/local/random/etc/prngd-seed /etc/prngd-seed and restart the program. NOTES prngd runs as a named process. Do not use /G/ directories for entropy generation. 2008 . The program also produces an EMS message when closing a connection. This will result in processes waiting on this information. This can result in system performance problems and cause the random number generator to take excessive cpu time. PERFORMANCE We have notice that the random number generator using TCPIP requires less cpu overhead than one using the local sockets interface. but has been written over by the prngd program. SEEDING DAEMON The random number generator software is locate in the /usr/local/random directory. This file is 1 megabyte random number that can be used a the first seed when starting prngd for the first time. NSK-SSH V2. The current seed in the /etc directory is base on this file.

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connection rate for burst conditions.g. If you enter 0. port 700. When this maximum reach all. The default is 30 seconds.4 Page 27 March 31. Each port is of set by one. the time is set to 1 second -maxload no -debug -wait no NSK-SSH V2. -ports number is the number of ports to connect to. The default is zero. (1 = . Ipssh listens on port 22 and distributes its ip load to port 700 and 701. time to wait before checking if you can bind to the port. this is maximumu number of ipssh processes that will be allowed exist at one time. 2008 . -instance no the instance of ipssh processes..701. you need to set this to number. displays debuging information..ipssh IPSSH(1) NAME IPSSH SYNOPSIS ipssh . The default is 2. -burst rate -interval rate interval in milliseconds.1 interface.TCPIP Multiplexer for SSH IPSSH IPSSH(1) [-remote port] [-ports no] [-burst rate] [-interval rate] [-debug] [-wait no] [-D] DESCRIPTION The ipssh programs allows you to distribute ip traffic to multiple ports on a system. (e. This defaults to 700. The options are as follows: -remote port is the remote port to forward the connection. it is possible to distribute load to those also.etc). the main ipssh process wait until a child completes before continuing. This is the number of connections that can be accepted during the interval.702.01 seconds) The default is 100 or 1 sec.0. The default is 5. This much like the parrallel tcpip product execpt that it will exeucte on any Nonstop system. If you have more than two cpu’s.0.. The default is 25. Ipssh only forwards to the local 127. If you have more one ipssh process on the system.

NSK-SSH V2.The primary process name is /G/ISX ($ISX) and the backup process name is /G/ISY ($ISY). 2008 .4 Page 28 March 31. indicates that ipssh is to be run waited.-qlen no number of connection to listen for on the port. The default is 5. you must change the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME. so it will not fork and create a process name -D To change the default TCPIP process from $ZTC0.

and provides very bad passphrases). the system administrator may use this to generate host keys. For RSA1 keys. there is also a comment field in the key file that is only System Reference Manual SSH-KEYGEN(1) NSK-SSH V2. The passphrase can be changed later by using the -p option.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. The public key is stored in a file with the same name but ``. a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding public key to other machines. manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1). management and conversion SYNOPSIS ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t type] [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile] ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -D reader ssh-keygen -U reader [-f input_keyfile] DESCRIPTION ssh-keygen generates.ssh-keygen SSH-KEYGEN(1) NAME ssh-keygen . Additionally. or it may be a string of arbitrary length. $HOME/. If the passphrase is lost or forgotten. The program also asks for a passphrase.pub'' appended. Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in $HOME/.4 Page 29 March 31.ssh/identity. 2008 . Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to store the private key.ssh/id_rsa.authentication key generation. Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long and are not simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only 1-2 bits of entropy per character. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. as seen in /etc/rc. Specifying the -t option instead creates a key for use by SSH protocol version 2. ssh-keygen defaults to generating a RSA1 key for use by SSH prottocol version 1. The passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an empty passphrase).

ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH Public Key File Format'. -i This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private (or public) key to stdout. -e This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and print the key in a `SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout. Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient. The comment can tell what the key is for. This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial SSH implementations. and for the new comment. The default is 1024 bits. Minimum is 512 bits. After a key is generated. and key sizes above that no longer improve security but make things slower. Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key. but can be changed using the -c option. The program will prompt for the file containing the private key. The program will prompt for the file containing the private keys. 2008 . Show fingerprint of specified private or public key file. and twice for the new passphrase. This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout. instructions below detail where the keys should be placed to be activated. -c Requests changing the comment in the private and public key files. This option allows importing keys from several commercial SSH implementations. The comment is initialized to ``user@host'' when the key is created. for the passphrase if the key has one. Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of creating a new private key. The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create. -f filename Specifies the filename of the key file.for convenience to the user to help identify the key. -l -p -q -y -t type NSK-SSH V2. for the old passphrase.4 Page 30 March 31. Silence ssh-keygen. or whatever is useful.

Specifies the type of the key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. The default is ``rsa1''. -B Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key file.

-C comment Provides the new comment. -D reader Download the RSA public key stored in the smartcard in reader. -N new_passphrase Provides the new passphrase. -P passphrase Provides the (old) passphrase. -U reader Upload an existing RSA private key into the smartcard in reader. FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public tion. The contents of this file should be $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines to log in using RSA authentication. There contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

key for authenticaadded to where the user wishes is no need to keep the

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$HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

SEE ALSO ssh(1),

ssh-add(1),

ssh-agent(1),

sshd(8)

J. Galbraith, and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietfsecsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

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ssh-keyscan
SSH-KEYSCAN(1) NAME ssh-keyscan - gather ssh public keys SYNOPSIS ssh-keyscan [-v46] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [-f file] [host | addrlist namelist] [...] DESCRIPTION ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public ssh host keys of a number of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files. ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as possible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run ssh. For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scanning process involve any encryption. The options are as follows: -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, then the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. Default is 5 seconds. -t type Specifies the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is ``rsa1''. -f filename Read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from this file, one per line. If - is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from the standard input. System Reference Manual SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

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n.2.4. Causes ssh-keyscan to print debugging messages about its progress. EXAMPLES Print the rsa1 host key for machine hostname: ssh-keyscan hostname Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: ssh-keyscan -t rsa.name. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts NSK-SSH V2.1.4. SECURITY If a ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without verifying the keys. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only.domain.4.-v Verbose mode.my.2.3.2.4 Output format for rsa1 keys: host-or-namelist bits exponent modulus Output format for rsa and dsa keys: host-or-namelist keytype base64-encoded-key Where keytype is either ``ssh-rsa'' or ``ssh-dsa''. -4 -6 DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.3. On the other hand.n. 2008 .1.1.4 Page 34 March 31.4.2. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). if the security model allows such a risk.4 name. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only.ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts FILES Input format: 1. users will be vulnerable to attacks. ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created.my.domain.dsa -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u .

and Wayne Davison <wayned@users.net> added support for protocol version 2. and drops the connection as soon as it gets the key.mit.sourceforge.BUGS It generates "Connection closed by remote host" messages on the consoles of all the machines it scans if the server is older than version 2.9.4 Page 35 March 31. 2008 . This is because it opens a connection to the ssh port. sshd(8) AUTHORS David Mazieres <dm@lcs. SEE ALSO ssh(1). NSK-SSH V2. reads the public key.edu> wrote the initial version.

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The forked daemons handle key exchange. or password based authentication. The client compares the RSA host key against its own database to verify that it has not changed. This key is normally regenerated every hour if it has been used. currently Blowfish or 3DES. . The client tries to authenticate itself using .sshd SSHD(8) NAME sshd .NSK-SSH SSH daemon SYNOPSIS sshd [-deiqtD46] [-b bits] [-f config_file] [-g login_grace_time] [-h host_key_file] [-k key_gen_time] [-p port] [-u len] DESCRIPTION sshd (SSH Daemon) is the daemon program for ssh(1).rhosts authentication. The client then generates a 256 bit random number. This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously. with 3DES being used by default. it generates a server RSA key (normally 768 bits).rhosts authentication combined with RSA host authentication. It is normally started at load time from /usr/local/ssh/. and sends the encrypted number to the server. when the daemon starts. authentication. The rest of the session is encrypted using a conventional cipher. command execution. Additionally. It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. RSA challenge-response authentication. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. sshd works as follows. Next. Together these programs replace rlogin and rsh. and data exchange. 2008 . The programs are intended to be as easy to install and use as possible. the server and the client enter an authentication dialog.4 Page 37 March 31. It encrypts this random number using both the host key and the server key. encryption. and is never stored on disk. Whenever a client connects the daemon responds with its public host and server keys. Both sides then use this random number as a session key which is used to encrypt all further communications in the session. sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients. System Manager's Manual SSHD(8) NSK-SSH V2. SSH protocol version 1 Each host has a host-specific RSA key (normally 1024 bits) used to identify the host.

SIGHUP. SSH protocol version 2 Version 2 works similarly: Each host has a host-specific key (RSA or DSA) used to identify the host. Additionally. When the user program terminates and all forwarded X11 and other connections have been closed. the server sends command exit status to the client. the client either requests a shell or execution of a command. and the user terminal in the client side. or 256 bit AES. sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file. i. /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd. but can be enabled in the server configuration file if desired.e. conventional password authentication and challenge response based methods. either side may send data at any time. Finally. CAST128. System security is not improved unless rshd(8). or forwarding the authentication agent connection over the secure channel. forwarding X11 connections. Command-line options override values specified in the configuration file. when the daemon starts. The sides then enter session mode. it does not generate a server key. Arcfour. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. Blowfish. 2008 . and such data is forwarded to/from the shell or command on the server side. Protocol version 2 provides a public key based user (PubkeyAuthentication) or client host (HostbasedAuthentication) authentication method. by executing itself with the name it was started as.. Command execution and data forwarding If the client successfully authenticates itself. Forward security is provided through a DiffieHellman key agreement. session integrity is provided through a cryptographic message authentication code (hmac-sha1 or hmac-md5). At this time the client may request things like allocating a pseudo-tty. and rexecd(8) are disabled (thus completely disabling rlogin(1) and rsh(1) into the machine). and both sides exit. currently 128 bit AES. However. 3DES. In this mode. 192 bit AES.Rhosts authentication is normally disabled because it is fundamentally insecure. a dialog for preparing the session is entered. This key agreement results in a shared session key. forwarding TCP/IP connections.4 Page 38 March 31. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal. NSK-SSH V2. The rest of the session is encrypted using a symmetric cipher. rlogind(8).

-g login_grace_time Gives the grace time for clients to authenticate themselves (default 600 seconds). If the client fails to authenticate the user within this many seconds. When this option is specified. it becomes impossible to recover the key for decrypting intercepted communications even if the machine is cracked into or physically seized. sshd refuses to start if there is no configuration file. A value of zero indicates no limit. and does not put itself in the background. The server also will not fork and will only process one connection. This option must be given if sshd is not run as root (as the normal host file is normally not readable by any one but root). However. with small key sizes (e. 2008 . -k key_gen_time Specifies how often the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key is regenerated (default 3600 seconds. and this may take tens of seconds. It is possible to have multiple host key files for the different protocol versions and host key algorithms. The motivation for regenerating the key fairly often is that the key is not stored anywhere.. the server disconnects and exits. and after about an hour. -h host_key_file Specifies the file from which the host key is read (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key). A value of NSK-SSH V2. This option is only intended for debugging for the server. The default is /etc/ssh/sshd_config. or one hour).The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key (default 768). sshd will send the output to the standard error instead of the system log. The server sends verbose debug output to the system log. -i Specifies that sshd is being run from inetd. Clients would have to wait too long if the key was regenerated every time. -d Debug mode.g. 512) using sshd from inetd may be feasible. Maximum is 3. sshd is normally not run from inetd because it needs to generate the server key before it can respond to the client. -e -f configuration_file Specifies the name of the configuration file.4 Page 39 March 31. Multiple -d options increase the debugging level.

Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys.4 Page 40 March 31. This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change. RhostsRSAAuthentication. -p port Specifies the port on which the server listens for connections (default 22). the dotted decimal value will be used instead.0. Test mode. you need at least one NSK-SSH V2. It currently looks on the ports of 790 to 793 of address 127. This option is used to specify the size of the field in the utmp structure that holds the remote host name. -u0 is also be used to prevent sshd from making DNS requests unless the authentication mechanism or configuration requires it. If it does not find this. This allows easy monitoring of sshd. 2008 . Authentication mechanisms that may require DNS include RhostsAuthentication. it fails the random number request.0. In general. HostbasedAuthentication and using a from="pattern-list" option in a key file. When this option is specified sshd will not detach and does not become a daemon. Specifying -u0 indicates that only dotted decimal addresses should be put into the utmp file. Nothing is sent to the system log. -t -u len -D -4 -6 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR SSHD requires the use of a random number generator for its operation. Normally the beginning.zero indicates that the key will never be regenerated. -q Quiet mode.1 for a random number generator. authentication. and termination of each connection is logged. If the resolved host name is longer than len. Forces sshd to use IPv4 addresses only. This allows hosts with very long host names that overflow this field to still be uniquely identified. If it does not find that. it then looks for the name pipe /dev/egd-pool. Forces sshd to use IPv6 addresses only. TCP_RND_ADDR TCP_RND_PORT0 TCP_RND_PORT1 These environment variables allow you to change the starting and ending port and the default IP address to access for the random number generator request.

To use this feature. If your system is heavly used for SSH request. then you might need more than one and you can assign the extra ones to port 791 to 793. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.*.sh. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. prngd.code 100 run zzkrnsd. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack.super to do this and NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .zzkrnsd on your system. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 ZZKRN PERSISTANT PROCESS SETUP We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl> <logon tacl> volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.4 Page 41 March 31. Note that you need to be root or super. With this configuration.generator for each TCPIP stack that SSHD is running on.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. you only need to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. $*.*. Now. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. What you need to do this. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file.

4 Page 42 March 31. In the zzkrn subsystem. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN.1. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. NSK-SSH V2. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.you need to change your /etc/sshd. CONFIGURATION FILE sshd reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line). This is the ListenAddress configuration line. 2008 . The file contains keywordargument pairs.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.0.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running.#RANDOM-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.config file to listen on port 127. one per line.0.

AllowTcpForwarding Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted. a numerical group ID is not recognized. sending a warning message before authentication may be relevant for getting legal protection. The default is ``. a numerical user ID is not recognized. separated by spaces. If specified. login is allowed only for users names that match one of the patterns. Only group names are valid.ssh/authorized_keys'' Banner In some jurisdictions. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. Default is ``yes''. separated by spaces. This option is only available for protocol version 2. The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%'. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . If specified. as they can always install their own forwarders. %h is replaced by the home directory of the user being authenticated and %u is replaced by the username of that user. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked. login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns.The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether an AFS token may be forwarded to the server. Only user names are valid. The default is ``yes''. AuthorizedKeysFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection set-up. By default login is allowed regardless of the user name. AuthorizedKeysFile Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication. AllowGroups This keyword can be followed by a list of group names. After expansion.4 Page 43 March 31. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access. AllowUsers This keyword can be followed by a list of user names.

3des-cbc. a numerical user ID is not recognized. a numerical group ID is not recognized. The default is 0. The TCP keepalive option enabled by Keepalive is spoofable.blowfish-cbc. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. The default is ``aes128-cbc. Only group names are valid. unresponsive ssh clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds. and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default. separated by spaces. If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive. If ClientAliveInterval (above) is set to 15. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns.arcfour. DenyGroups This keyword can be followed by a number of group names. Users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns aren't allowed to log in.4 Page 44 March 31. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns. By default login is allowed regardless of the user NSK-SSH V2. sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. 2008 . The default value is 3. terminating the session.'' ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client. The default is ``yes''.cast128-cbc. The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2. separated by spaces. DenyUsers This keyword can be followed by a number of user names.ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether challenge response authentication is allowed. ClientAliveCountMax Sets the number of client alive messages (see above) which may be sent without sshd receiving any messages back from the client. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated.conf(5) are supported. sshd will disconnect the client. All authentication styles from login. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from Keepalive (below). Only user names are valid.

HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. IgnoreRhosts Specifies that .rhosts and . However. This option is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only. HostKey Specifies the file containing the private host keys (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key) used by SSH protocol versions 1 and 2. It is possible to have multiple host key files. The default is ``no''.equiv are still used. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily.name. sessions may hang indefinitely on the server. Note that sshd will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible. If they are sent. RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed.equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. The default is ``no''. By default. leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (hostbased authentication). if keepalives are not sent. The default is ``yes''. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should bind remote port forwardings to the wildcard address. sshd binds remote port forwardings to the loopback addresss. /etc/hosts. 2008 . The default is ``no''. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client. NSK-SSH V2. On the other hand. IgnoreUserKnownHosts Specifies whether sshd should ignore the user's $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts during RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. and some people find it annoying.4 Page 45 March 31. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports.shosts files will not be used in RhostsAuthentication. ``rsa1''keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'' or ``rsa'' are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol.

The default is 3600 (seconds). To disable keepalives. and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host reboots.4 Page 46 March 31. The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys. Default is ``yes''. If the value is 0. the value should be set to ``no'' in both the server and the client configuration files. ing forms may be used: ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port If port is not specified. The default is to listen on all local addresses. The key is never stored anywhere. the key is never regenerated. KerberosTicketCleanup Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout.The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). Default is ``no''. Default is ``yes''. This avoids infinitely hanging sessions. KerberosOrLocalPasswd If set then if password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication is allowed. Default is ``yes''. the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity. 2008 . as this only works when the Kerberos KDC is actually an AFS kaserver. the password provided by the user will be validated through the Kerberos KDC. Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted. the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many seconds (if it has been used). sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified. KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT may be forwarded to the server. KeyRegenerationInterval In protocol version 1. ListenAddress Specifies the local addresses sshd should listen on. This can be in the form of a Kerberos ticket. or if PasswordAuthentication is yes. To use this option. Ad- The follow- NSK-SSH V2.

The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60). there is no time limit. INFO. If the value is 0.ditionally. MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms. This allows the use of most PAM challenge response authentication modules. The default is ``no''. MaxStartups Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the sshd daemon. ERROR. The de- PermitEmptyPasswords When password authentication is allowed. PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt Specifies whether PAM challenge response authentication is allowed. The default is ``hmac-md5. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether password authentication is allowed.hmacsha1-96. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection.g.hmac-md5-96''. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated.hmac-ripemd160. "10:30:60"). random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values ``start:rate:full'' (e.. The possible values are: QUIET. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd. The default is ``no''. it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings. FATAL. sshd will refuse connection attempts with a probability of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections. Logging with level DEBUG violates the privacy of users and is not recommended. The default is 600 (seconds).hmac-sha1. The default is 10. but it will allow password authentication regardless of whether PasswordAuthentication is disabled. VERBOSE and DEBUG. 2008 . The default is INFO. any Port options must precede this option for non port qualified addresses. Alternatively. LoginGraceTime The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. NSK-SSH V2. fault is ``yes''.4 Page 47 March 31.

The default is ``yes''. PidFile Specifies the file that contains the process identifier of the sshd daemon.) Protocol The default is ``yes''. 2008 . The default is ``yes''. The default is ``yes''. PrintMotd Specifies whether sshd should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively. ``without-password''. The argument must be ``yes''. Multiple versions must be commaseparated. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. The default is /var/run/sshd.4 Page 48 March 31. ReverseMappingCheck Specifies whether sshd should try to verify the remote host name and check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address NSK-SSH V2. but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed). Port Specifies the port number that sshd listens on. (On some systems it is also printed by the shell. PrintLastLog Specifies whether sshd should print the date and time when the user last logged in.1''. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed. Specifies the protocol versions sshd should support. Multiple options of this type are permitted.PermitRootLogin Specifies whether root can login using ssh(1). The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''.pid. If this option is set to ``without-password'' password authentication is disabled for root. The default is ``2. The default is 22. All other authentication methods are disabled for root. See also ListenAddress. or equivalent. If this option is set to ``no'' root is not allowed to login. ``forced-commands-only'' or ``no''. /etc/profile. If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'' root login with public key authentication will be allowed.

Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. Normally. LOCAL5.maps back to the very same IP address. LOCAL0.4 Page 49 March 31. The default is AUTH. LOCAL4. ServerKeyBits Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key. The default is ``no''. RhostsRSAAuthentication should be used instead.equiv authentication together with successful RSA host authentication is allowed. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``no''. The default is ``yes''. USER. file transfer daemon).equiv files is sufficient.equiv authentication. UseLogin Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions. The minimum value is 512. LOCAL3. SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd. The possible values are: DAEMON. Note that login(1) is never used NSK-SSH V2. LOCAL7. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed.g. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether authentication using rhosts or /etc/hosts. The default is ``no''. and the default is 768. 2008 . This option applies to protocol version 1 only. AUTH. Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command to execute upon subsystem request. this method should not be permitted because it is insecure. Subsystem Configures an external subsystem (e. By default no subsystems are defined. because it performs RSA-based host authentication in addition to normal rhosts or /etc/hosts. The default is ``yes''. LOCAL2. RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. LOCAL1. The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem. StrictModes Specifies whether sshd should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. LOCAL6. This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``no''..

that if this is enabled.4 Page 50 March 31. Note also. Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not improve security in any way. X11Forwarding Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. Time format examples: 600 10m 1h30m 600 seconds (10 minutes) 10 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes) NSK-SSH V2. The default is ``no''. where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following: <none> s | S m | M h | H d | D w | W seconds seconds minutes hours days weeks The default is Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. as users can always install their own forwarders. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers. Time Formats sshd command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time[qualifier]. The default is 10.for remote command execution. X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin is enabled. X11DisplayOffset Specifies the first display number available for sshd's X11 forwarding. X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1) cookies. 2008 . /usr/bin/X11/xauth.

records login time. prints last login time and /etc/motd (unless prevented in the configuration file or by $HOME/. 2008 . instead. Runs user's shell or command. The bits. exponent. Changes to run with normal user privileges. 4. base64 encoded key. Each RSA public key consists of the following fields. If the login is on a tty. keytype. 9. separated by spaces: options. Note that lines in this file are usually several hundred bytes long (because of the size of the RSA key modulus). runs it. copy the identity. Each protocol version 2 public key consists of: options. otherwise runs xauth. sshd does the following: 1. runs it.ssh/environment if it exists. the comment field is not used for anything (but may be convenient for the user to identify the key).pub file and NSK-SSH V2. comment.hushlogin. 7.ssh/rc exists. bits. its presence is determined by whether the line starts with a number or not (the option field never starts with a number). AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT $HOME/.pub or the id_rsa. Changes to user's home directory. see the FILES section). and no command has been specified. Sets up basic environment. The options fields are optional. comment. prints contents and quits (unless root).ssh/authorized_keys is the default file that lists the public keys that are permitted for RSA authentication in protocol version 1 and for public key authentication (PubkeyAuthentication) in protocol version 2.pub. exponent. else if /etc/ssh/sshrc exists. Each line of the file contains one key (empty lines and lines starting with a `#' are ignored as comments). modulus and comment fields give the RSA key for protocol version 1. Checks /etc/nologin. 2. If $HOME/. AuthorizedKeysFile may be used to specify an alternative file. modulus. id_dsa.LOGIN PROCESS When a user successfully logs in. if it exists. 5.4 Page 51 March 31. 3. If the login is on a tty. For protocol version 2 the keytype is ``ssh-dss'' or ``ssh-rsa''. You don't want to type them in. 8. Reads $HOME/. 6. The ``rc'' files are given the X11 authentication protocol and cookie in standard input.

edit it. Any port forward requests by the client will return an error. command="command" Specifies that the command is executed whenever this key is used for authentication. A quote may be included in the command by quoting it with a backslash. e. in connection with the command option. one must not request a pty or should specify no-pty. environment="NAME=value" Specifies that the string is to be added to the environment when logging in using this key. The purpose of this option is to optionally increase security: RSA authentication by itself does not trust the network or name servers or anything (but the key). otherwise it is run without a tty. except within double quotes. No spaces are permitted.g.. if somebody somehow steals the key. Note that the client may specify TCP/IP and/or X11 forwarding unless they are explicitly prohibited. An example might be a key that permits remote backups but nothing else.4 Page 52 March 31. This additional option makes using a stolen key more difficult (name servers and/or routers would have to be compromised in addition to just the key). command or subsystem execution. the canonical name of the remote host must be present in the comma-separated list of patterns (`*' and `?' serve as wildcards). Note that this option applies to shell. The command supplied by the user (if any) is ignored. no-port-forwarding Forbids TCP/IP forwarding when this key is used for authentication. This option might be useful to restrict certain RSA keys to perform just a specific operation. The options (if present) consist of comma-separated option specifications. the key permits an intruder to log in from anywhere in the world. The following option specifications are supported (note that option keywords are case-insensitive): from="pattern-list" Specifies that in addition to RSA authentication. The command is run on a pty if the client requests a pty. however. Environment variables set this way override other default environment values. Multiple options of this type are permitted. if the canonical host name matches a negated pattern. If a 8-bit clean channel is required. the key is not accepted. 2008 . The list may also contain patterns negated by prefixing them with `!'. NSK-SSH V2. This might be used.

!pc.g. and $HOME/.2323 backup.ssh/known_hosts files contain host public keys for all known hosts.2323 SSH_KNOWN_HOSTS FILE FORMAT The /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. comment.55:80".2334 ylo@niksula command="dump /home". Hostnames is a comma-separated list of patterns ('*' and '?' act as wildcards).. bits. NSK-SSH V2. and modulus are taken directly from the RSA host key. A pattern may also be preceded by `!' to indicate negation: if the host name matches a negated pattern. Examples 1024 33 12121... The global file should be prepared by the administrator (optional).56:25" 1024 33 23.no-port-forwarding 1024 33 23.fi" 1024 35 23.pub.fi permitopen="10.1. e.. no-agent-forwarding Forbids authentication agent forwarding when this key is used for authentication. modulus.niksula. No pattern matching is performed on the specified hostnames. Bits.4 Page 53 March 31. they can be obtained.hut. Each line in these files contains the following fields: hostnames. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port.fi.niksula. Any X11 forward requests by the client will return an error. 2008 . The optional comment field continues to the end of the line. and the per-user file is maintained automatically: whenever the user connects from an unknown host its key is added to the per-user file.. exponent.hut. exponent. from /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. The fields are separated by spaces.no-X11-forwarding Forbids X11 forwarding when this key is used for authentication. permitopen="host:port" Limit local ``ssh -L'' port forwarding such that it may only connect to the specified host and port. and is not used..312314325 ylo@foo.1. no-pty Prevents tty allocation (a request to allocate a pty will fail). Multiple permitopen options may be applied separated by commas. it is not accepted (by that line) even if it matched another pattern on the line.permitopen="10...hut.bar from="*. they must be literal domains or addresses. each pattern in turn is matched against the canonical host name (when authenticating a client) or against the user-supplied name (when authenticating a server).no-pty.2..2.

When performing host authentication.130. Note that the lines in these files are typically hundreds of characters long.hut.4 Page 54 March 31. These files should only be owned by root. These files should be world-readable but writable only by root.pub.. readable only by root. generate them by a script or by taking /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.. These files are created using ssh-keygen(1). It is possible that the files contain conflicting information. This will inevitably happen when short forms of host names from different domains are put in the file.41 1024 37 159. but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable.pub. /var/run/sshd. they are provided for the convenience of the user so their contents can be copied to known hosts files. 2008 .pub and adding the host names at the front. This file should be writable by root only. and not accessible to others. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. It is thus permissible (but not recommended) to have several lines or different host keys for the same names. authentication is accepted if valid information can be found from either file. authentication is accepted if any matching line has the proper key. Rather. /etc/ssh/moduli Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the "Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange".Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are ignored as comments. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. Note that sshd does not start if this file is group/world-accessible.93 closenet..3 ssh-rsa AAAA1234..openbsd. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.fi cvs..org..233.pub These three files contain the public parts of the host keys. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key These three files contain the private parts of the host keys.pid Contains the process ID of the sshd listening for connections (if NSK-SSH V2. Their contents should match the respective private parts.= FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.. and you definitely don't want to type in the host keys by hand. Examples closenet. These files are not really used for anything.. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.208.199..185..137.

pub. The file must be writable mended that it not be accessible pairs. This file must be readable by root (which may on some machines imply it being world-readable if the user's home directory resides on an NFS volume).allow. It is recommended that it not be accessible by others. Either host or user name may be of the form +@groupname to specify all hosts or all users in the group. /etc/nologin If this file exists. Users will place the contents of their identity. The content of this file is not sensitive. sshd refuses to let anyone except root log in. The key must be listed in one of these files to be accepted. as described in ssh-keygen(1). 2008 . /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts should be world-readable. The file should be world-readable. this contains the pid of the one started last).ssh/known_hosts These files are consulted when using rhosts with RSA host authentication or protocol version 2 hostbased authentication to check the public key of the host. and $HOME/. /etc/hosts.pub files into this file. id_dsa. it can be world-readable. and non-root connections are refused. The rshd.rhosts This file contains host-username per line.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA or DSA) that can be used to log into the user's account. this file is exactly the same as for . so using this permits NSK-SSH V2. this file is not used by rlogin and rshd. $HOME/. The format of this file is described above.pub and/or id_rsa. If is also possible to use netgroups in the file.ssh/known_hosts can but need not be world-readable. one corresponding host is permitted same file is used by rlogind and only by the user. separated by a space.4 Page 55 March 31.rhosts. The given user on the to log in without password. /etc/hosts. These files should be writable only by root/the owner. $HOME/.shosts For ssh. The contents of the file are displayed to anyone trying to log in. $HOME/.there are several daemons running concurrently for different ports. it is recomby others. However. tcp-wrappers access controls may be defined here as described in hosts_access(5).deny If compiled with LIBWRAP support. The client uses the same files to verify that it is connecting to the correct remote host.

and other accounts that own critical binaries and directories. this file may be useful in environments that want to run both rsh/rlogin and ssh.equiv This file is used during . and assignment lines of the form name=value.equiv. The primary purpose of this file is to run any initialization routines which may be needed before the user's home directory becomes accessible. Warning: It is almost never a good idea to use user names in hosts. $HOME/. Beware that it really means that the named user(s) can log in as anybody.access using SSH only. it is run with /bin/sh after reading the environment files but before starting the user's shell or command. which includes bin.4 Page 56 March 31.ssh/rc If this file exists. Note that this warning also applies to rsh/rlogin. The host name may also be followed by a user name. such users are permitted to log in as any user on this machine (except root). The file should be writable only by the user. the syntax ``+@group'' can be used to specify netgroups. it is recommended that it be world-readable. /etc/ssh/shosts. The only valid use for user names that I can think of is in negative entries. In the simplest form. /etc/hosts. Using a user name practically grants the user root access. comment lines (that start with `#'). AFS is a particular example of such an environ- NSK-SSH V2. daemon. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. If X11 spoofing is in use. If the client host/user is successfully matched in this file. one per line.equiv. provided they have the same user name on both machines. this file contains host names. it need not be readable by anyone else. $HOME/. It can only contain empty lines.ssh/environment This file is read into the environment at login (if it exists). this will receive the "proto cookie" pair in standard input (and DISPLAY in environment). login is automatically permitted provided the client and server user names are the same. However. This file must be writable only by root.rhosts authentication. Additionally. This must call xauth(1) in that case. 2008 . Users on those hosts are permitted to log in without a password. Negated entries start with `-'. adm.equiv This is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. Additionally.

ssh-agent(1). xauth is used to store the cookie. This file will probably contain some initialization code followed by something similar to: if read proto cookie. and should be world-readable. ssh(1). sftp(1). and need not be readable by anyone else. This file should be writable only by root. 2008 . /etc/ssh/sshrc Like $HOME/. moduli(5).4 Page 57 March 31.ssh/rc. and if that does not exist either. login.conf(5). /etc/ssh/sshrc is run. then echo add $DISPLAY $proto $cookie | xauth -q fi If this file does not exist. ssh-add(1).ment. NSK-SSH V2. sftp-server(8) ssh-keygen(1). This file should be writable only by the user. SEE ALSO scp(1). This can be used to specify machine-specific login-time initializations globally.

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See sshd(8) for more information. SSH File Transfer Protocol. SEE ALSO sftp(1).8 . sftp-server is not intended to be called directly.org> HISTORY sftp-server first appeared in OpenBSD 2. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). Ylonen. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). AUTHORS Markus Friedl <markus@openbsd. Lehtinen. NSK-SSH V2.sftp-server SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server . DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.SFTP server subsystem SYNOPSIS sftp-server DESCRIPTION sftp-server is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin.4 Page 59 March 31. January 2001. sshd(8) T. work in progress material.txt. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. 2008 . and S.

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AUTHORS Bowden Systems Inc <sales@bsi2. The sftp-server-guardian support reading and writing files directly to the guardian filesystem using the standard unix syntax. January 2001. you must limit your filenames to 8 characters. using the sftp-server-guardian you would use the /system/system option. As with all guardian filenames.4 Page 61 March 31. it will be stored as an edit file. Ylonen. 2008 .SFTP server subsystem for guardian access SYNOPSIS sftp-server-guardian DESCRIPTION sftp-server-guardian is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin.sftp-server-guardian SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server-guardian . there was no way to allow this via a graphical interface and unix filesystem syntax. This make the sftp-server-guardian subsystem compatible with graphical user interfaces such as FileZilla. SSH File Transfer Protocol. work in progress material. SEE ALSO sftp(1). but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. sshd(8) T. if you wish to access the $system.system file system. and S. sftp-server-guardian is not intended to be called directly. See sshd(8) for more information.txt. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). If the filename is too long you will get an error. Lehtinen.txt file on it.com> HISTORY sftp-server-guardian first appeared in 2005. Eventhough this feature was designed into the subsystem. This subsystem does not have access to files residing on another node. NSK-SSH V2. For example. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. If the filename has a .

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Set this to the password for the public key or user id HISTORY This program was written to solve the select problem for ssh in OSS. SEE ALSO ssh(1) NSK-SSH V2. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. it should be enclosed in double or single quotes.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . 2008 .secure command (remote command execution) SYNOPSIS scmd [-v] user@host cmd DESCRIPTION scmd is a command front-end for ssh. -v used for displaying detail ssh information on stderr. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCMD program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. If cmd is more than one command.scmd SCMD(1) System Reference Manual SCMD(1) NAME scmd .4 Page 63 March 31. GNOTTY 1 .

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which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh(1) transport. such as public key authentication and compression.Secure file transfer program SYNOPSIS sftp [-1Cv] [-b batchfile] [-F ssh_config] [-o ssh_option] [-s subsystem | sftp_server] [-S program] host sftp [[user@]host[:file [file]]] sftp [[user@]host[:dir[/]]] DESCRIPTION sftp is an interactive file transfer program. ln. put. rename.4 Page 65 March 31. -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. System Reference Manual SFTP(1) -b batchfile Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag.sftp SFTP(1) NAME sftp . sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get. sftp connects and logs into the specified host. -C Enables compression (via ssh's -C flag). rm and lmkdir. then enters an interactive command mode. For exam- NSK-SSH V2. The options are as follows: -1 Specify the use of protocol version 1. -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. The last usage format allows the sftp client to start in a remote directory. similar to ftp(1). This option is directly passed to ssh(1). Since it lacks user interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication. It may also use many features of ssh. 2008 . otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication. The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used.

NSK-SSH V2. program must understand ssh(1) options.Set this to the password for the public key or user id INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Once in interactive mode. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. grp must be a numeric GID. lcd path Change local directory to path. chgrp grp path Change group of file path to grp.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . -S program Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection.4 Page 66 March 31. own must be a numeric UID. exit Quit sftp. The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SFTP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. This option is also passed to ssh. Commands are case insensitive and pathnames may be enclosed in quotes if they contain spaces.ple. sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1). 2008 . bye cd path Change remote directory to path. chmod mode path Change permissions of file path to mode. Quit sftp. A path is useful for using sftp over protocol version 1. to specify an alternate port use: sftp -oPort=24. chown own path Change owner of file path to own. or when the remote sshd does not have an sftp subsystem configured. GNOTTY 1 . -s subsystem | sftp_server Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host. -v Raise logging level.

lmkdir path Create local directory specified by path. put [flags] local-path [local-path] Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine. pwd quit Display remote working directory. 2008 .get [flags] remote-path [local-path] Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. ls [path] Display remote directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. Quit sftp. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. rm path NSK-SSH V2. mkdir path Create remote directory specified by path. lumask umask Set local umask to umask. If the remote path name is not specified. If the -P flag is specified. ln oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. it is given the same name it has on the remote machine. If the local path name is not specified. help Display help text. lls [ls-options [path]] Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified.4 Page 67 March 31. lpwd Print local working directory. rmdir path Remove remote directory specified by path. If the -P flag is specified. it is given the same name it has on the local machine. rename oldpath newpath Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath.

org> SEE ALSO scp(1). ! command Execute command in local shell. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. ssh-keygen(1).Delete remote file specified by path. symlink oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. work in progress material. ssh-add(1). Ylonen. 2008 . ssh(1). AUTHORS Damien Miller <djm@mindrot. sshd(8) T.txt. sftp-server(8). Lehtinen. and S. Synonym for help. January 2001. SSH File Transfer Protocol. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 68 March 31. ! ? Escape to local shell.

Verbose mode. and configuration problems. The options are as follows: -c cipher Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer. 2008 . Causes scp and ssh(1) to print debugging messages about their progress. System Reference Manual SCP(1) This -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read. and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh(1). -p Preserves modification times. Recursively copy entire directories. Copies between two remote hosts are permitted. authentication. access times. Any file name may contain a host and user specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from that host.] [[user@]host2:]file2 DESCRIPTION scp copies files between hosts on a network. -r -v -B -q NSK-SSH V2. It uses ssh(1) for data transfer.4 Page 69 March 31. Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases). This option is directly passed to ssh(1). scp will ask for passwords or passphrases if they are needed for authentication. and modes from the original file..scp SCP(1) NAME scp . Unlike rcp(1). This is helpful in debugging connection.secure copy (remote file copy program) SYNOPSIS scp [-pqrvBC46] [-F ssh_config] [-S program] [-P port] [-c cipher] [-i identity_file] [-o ssh_option] [[user@]host1:]file1 [.. option is directly passed to ssh(1). Disables the progress meter.

Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable com- -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. NSK-SSH V2.-C Compression enable. SEE ALSO rcp(1). ssh-agent(1). ssh(1). ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. For example. ssh-keygen(1). -P port Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host. The program -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only. ssh-add(1). GNOTTY 1 . This option is directly passed to ssh(1). -S program Name of program to use for the encrypted connection. pression.Set this to the password for the public key or user id AUTHORS Timo Rinne <tri@iki.fi> HISTORY scp is based on the rcp(1) program in BSD source code from the Regents of the University of California. 2008 . must understand ssh(1) options.hut.fi> and Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . Note that this option is written with a capital `P'. forcing the use of protocol version 1 is specified using scp -oProtocol=1. -4 -6 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. because -p is already reserved for preserving the times and modes of the file in rcp(1). sshd(8) sftp(1).4 Page 70 March 31.

ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user. ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given. it adds the file $HOME/.] ssh-add -s reader ssh-add -e reader DESCRIPTION ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent. -e reader Remove key in smartcard reader. The options are as follows: -l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent. Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented by the agent. If any file requires a passphrase. The passphrase is read from the user's tty. When run without arguments. Deletes all identities from the agent. 2008 . Alternative file names can be given on the command line.4 Page 71 March 31.. removes the identity from the agent. The authentication agent must be running and must be an ancestor of the current process for ssh-add to work. Instead of adding the identity.ssh-add SSH-ADD(1) NAME ssh-add . NSK-SSH V2.. System Reference Manual SSH-ADD(1) -L -d -D -s reader Add key in smartcard reader.ssh/identity.adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-add [-lLdD] [file . sshagent(1).

If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. $HOME/. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. 2008 .Xsession or related script.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. ENVIRONMENT DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS If ssh-add needs a passphrase. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. ssh-keygen(1). $HOME/. Note that ssh-add ignores this file if it is accessible by others.) SEE ALSO ssh(1). It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a . ssh-agent(1).FILES $HOME/. This is the default file added by ssh-add when no other files have been specified.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user.4 Page 72 March 31. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user.

NSK-SSH V2.]] ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k DESCRIPTION ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA. the agent can automatically use any of these identities.ssh/identity file. Keys are added using ssh-add(1).. The options are as follows: -c Generate C-shell commands on stdout.4 Page 73 March 31. or from the terminal if running without X). so does the agent. If the identity has a passphrase. DSA). 2008 . this is executed as a subprocess of the agent. Several identities can be stored in the agent. fork. This is the default if SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell.ssh-agent SSH-AGENT(1) NAME ssh-agent . When the command dies. When executed without arguments. Debug mode. Through use of environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for authentication when logging in to other machines using ssh(1). When this option is specified ssh-agent will not System Reference Manual SSH-AGENT(1) -s -k -d If a commandline is given. ssh-add(1) adds the $HOME/. The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session. Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable). and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program.authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-agent [-c | -s] [-d] [command [args . This is the default if SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell.. The agent initially does not have any private keys. ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by the agent. ssh-add(1) asks for the passphrase (using a small X11 application if running under X11. Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout. It then sends the identity to the agent.

and the user can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere in the network in a secure way. the connection to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). $HOME/. and the name of this socket is stored in the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. laptop.The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC.4 Page 74 March 31. This method is easily abused by root or another instance of the same user. The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's PID.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. A unix-domain socket is created (/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. FILES $HOME/. $HOME/. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. or the agent prints the needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be generated) which can be evalled in the calling shell. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. However.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user.<pid>).ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. The socket is made accessible only to the current user. Authentication data need not be stored on any other machine. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. NSK-SSH V2. and authentication passphrases never go over the network. or terminal. Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection to the agent. There are two main ways to get an agent setup: Either the agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment variables are exported. 2008 . The agent exits automatically when the command given on the command line terminates. This file is not used by ssh-agent but is normally added to the agent using ssh-add(1) at login time. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.

2008 .4 Page 75 March 31. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. ssh-add(1). The sockets should get automatically removed when the agent exits. These sockets should only be readable by the owner./tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. ssh-keygen(1). SEE ALSO ssh(1).<pid> Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection to the authentication agent.

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/etc/hosts.ssh SSH(1) NAME ssh . DNS spoofing and routing spoofing. if .equiv. are inherently insecure and should be System Reference Manual SSH(1) NSK-SSH V2. and the rlogin/rsh protocol in general. 2008 .NSK SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine.rhosts.equiv or /etc/ssh/shosts.rhosts.shosts.equiv method combined with RSA-based host authentication. and the user names are the same on both sides. The second authentication method is the rhosts or hosts. the user is immediately permitted to log in. Second.shosts exists in the user's home directory on the remote machine and contains a line containing the name of the client machine and the name of the user on that machine. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods deM-pending on the protocol version used: SSH protocol version 1 First. $HOME/. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network.equiv on the remote machine. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel.equiv.equiv. ssh connects and logs into the specified hostname. [Note to the administrator: /etc/hosts. the user is permitted to log in. This authentication method closes security holes due to IP spoofing. It means that if the login would be permitted by $HOME/.4 Page 77 March 31. only then login is permitted. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh. $HOME/. This form of authentication alone is normally not allowed by the server because it is not secure.ssh/known_hosts in the FILES section). and if additionally the server can verify the client's host key (see /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.rhosts or . if the machine the user logs in from is listed in /etc/hosts. or /etc/ssh/shosts.

4 Page 78 March 31. The password is sent to the remote host for checking. sends the user (actually the ssh program running on behalf of the user) a challenge. the client will try to authenticate first using the hostbased method.pub in the user's home directory. and only the user knows the private key. and has one key per line. The user should then copy the identity. proving that he/she knows the private key but without disclosing it to the server.rhosts file. ssh prompts the user for a password.] As a third authentication method.pub to $HOME/. The scheme is based on public-key cryptography: there are cryptosystems where encryption and decryption are done using separate keys. Using the default values for PreferredAuthentications. SSH protocol version 2 When a user connects using the protocol version 2 different authentication methods are available. After this. The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may be with an authentication agent.ssh/authorized_keys in his/her home directory on the remote machine (the authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional $HOME/. The challenge can only be decrypted using the proper private key. The idea is that each user creates a public/private key pair for authentication purposes. however. The server checks if this key is permitted. though the lines can be very long).ssh/identity.disabled if security is desired. if this method fails public key authentication is attempted. the ssh program tells the server which key pair it would like to use for authentication. and finally if this method fails keyboard-interactive and password authentication are tried. ssh supports RSA based authentication. The user's client then decrypts the challenge using the private key. and it is not possible to derive the decryption key from the encryption key. a random number. the password cannot be seen by someone listening on the network. If other authentication methods fail. When the user logs in. encrypted by the user's public key.ssh/identity and the public key in $HOME/. and if so. The public key method is similar to RSA authentication described in the NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . RSA authentication is much more secure than rhosts authentication. This stores the private key in $HOME/. since all communications are encrypted. The file $HOME/. The server knows the public key. See ssh-agent(1) for more information. ssh implements the RSA authentication protocol automatically. The user creates his/her RSA key pair by running ssh-keygen(1). the user can log in without giving the password.ssh/authorized_keys lists the public keys that are permitted for logging in. RSA is one such system.

ssh supports a number of functions through the use of an escape character. setting the escape character to ``none'' will also make the session transparent even if a tty is used. to sign the session identifier and sends the result to the server. Escape Characters When a pseudo terminal has been requested.4 Page 79 March 31. the server either executes the given command.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. or logs into the machine and gives the user a normal shell on the remote machine. On most systems. Protocol 2 provides additional mechanisms for confidentiality (the traffic is encrypted using 3DES. the user may use the escape characters noted below.previous section and allows the RSA or DSA algorithm to be used: The client uses his private key. ssh supports hostbased or challenge response authentication. Note that protocol 1 lacks a strong mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the connection. $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys and grants access if both the key is found and the signature is correct. If a pseudo-terminal has been allocated (normal login session). A single tilde character can be sent as ~~ or by following the tilde by a character other than those described below. NSK-SSH V2. The session identifier is derived from a shared Diffie-Hellman value and is only known to the client and the server. hmac-sha1). Login session and remote execution When the user's identity has been accepted by the server. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted. The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh. CAST128 or Arcfour) and integrity (hmac-md5. Blowfish. If public key authentication fails or is not available a password can be sent encrypted to the remote host for proving the user's identity. The server checks whether the matching public key is listed in $HOME/. The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP connections have been closed. If no pseudo tty has been allocated. Additionally. The escape character can be changed in configuration files using the EscapeChar configuration directive or on the command line by the -e option. 2008 .ssh/id_rsa. the session is transparent and can be used to reliably transfer binary data. The escape character must always follow a newline to be interpreted as special.

The supported escapes (assuming the default `~') are: ~. The real authentication cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain). and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine.4 Page 80 March 31. Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . see the description of the -X and -x options described later) and the user is using X11 (the DISPLAY environment variable is set). and happens because ssh creates a ``proxy'' X server on the server machine for forwarding the connections over the encrypted channel. Forwarding of X11 connections can be configured on the command line or in configuration files. and verify that any forwarded connections carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened. The DISPLAY value set by ssh will point to the server machine. store it in Xauthority on the server. it will generate a random authorization cookie. the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted channel. another is going through firewalls. If the user is using an authentication agent. This is normal. ssh will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the remote side unless disabled on the command line or in a configuration file. but with a display number greater than zero. One possible application of TCP/IP forwarding is a secure connection to an electronic purse. ~^Z ~# ~& Disconnect Background ssh List forwarded connections Background ssh at logout when waiting for forwarded connection / X11 sessions to terminate (protocol version 1 only) Display a list of escape characters Request rekeying of the connection (only useful for SSH protocol version 2 and if the peer supports it) ~? ~R X11 and TCP forwarding If the ForwardX11 variable is set to ``yes'' (or. The user should not manually set DISPLAY. For this purpose.

Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. Another purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. followed by control-Z suspends the connection. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. -b bind_address Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses.4 Page 81 March 31. Any new hosts are automatically added to the user's file. ssh warns about this and disables password authentication to prevent a trojan horse from getting the user's password. des is only supported in the ssh client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. 3des (triple-des) is an encrypt-decrypt-encrypt triple with three different keys.') closes the connection. The options are as follows: -a -A Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. Host keys are stored in $HOME/.Server authentication ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing identifications for all hosts it has ever been used with. See Ciphers for more information. -e ch|^ch|none Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: `~'). and followed by itself sends the escape character once. -c blowfish|3des|des Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the session. Additionally. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of ciphers can be specified in order of preference. -c cipher_spec Additionally. It is believed to be secure. The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line.ssh/known_hosts in the user's home directory. If a host's identification ever changes. Setting the NSK-SSH V2. blowfish is a fast block cipher. The escape character followed by a dot (`. 2008 . it appears very secure and is much faster than 3des. The StrictHostKeyChecking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines whose host key is not known or has changed. the file /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts. 3des is used by default.

The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm. It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). -m mac_spec Additionally. and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel. Default is $HOME/. -k Disables forwarding of Kerberos tickets and AFS tokens.4 Page 82 March 31. The ssh program will be put in the background. ssh -n shadows. -N NSK-SSH V2. -l login_name Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine. This must be used when ssh is run in the background. -g -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA or DSA authentication is read. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution.fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine.hut. -n Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually. Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms can be specified in order of preference. Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.ssh/identity in the user's home directory. prevents reading from stdin). This implies -n. but the user wants it in the background. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase.character to ``none'' disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent. 2008 . see also the -f option. This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. -I smartcard_device Specifies which smartcard device to use.fi. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases. The argument is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. See the MACs keyword for more information.cs. This may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.cs. This is useful for just forwarding ports (protocol version 2 only).) Do not execute a remote command.hut. For example.

-o option Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. This can be used to execute arbiM-trary screen-based programs on a remote machine. stderr. -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin. The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the con- NSK-SSH V2. Multiple -v options increases the verbosity. when implementing menu services. This is helpful in debugging connection. Multiple -t options force tty allocation. sftp).g. Disables X11 forwarding. and data for forwarded X11 and TCP/IP connections). authentication.. Verbose mode. Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be Only fatal errors are displayed. Enables X11 forwarding. Note that this option turns off RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication for older servers. but will only slow down things on fast networks. Quiet mode. This can also be specified on a per-host -t -T -v -x -X basis in a configuration file. This can be used if a firewall does not permit connections from privileged ports. which can be very useful. Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections. e. The subsystem is specified as the remote command. Force pseudo-tty allocation. even if ssh has no local tty. and the ``level'' can be controlled by the CompressionLevel option (see below). -q -s May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system. stdout. suppressed. The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1). Subsystems are a feature of the SSH2 protocol which facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (eg. -P Use a non-privileged port for outgoing connections. This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress.4 Page 83 March 31. Disable pseudo-tty allocation. and configuration problems. -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. 2008 . Maximum is 3.

and whenever a connection is made to this port. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the remote machine. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file.4 Page 84 March 31. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. -F configfile Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file. The default for the per-user configuration file is $HOME/. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine.figuration files. and whenever a connection is made to this port. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the remote side. 2008 . If a configuration file is given on the command line. Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. Only root can forward priviM-leged ports. NSK-SSH V2. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. -1 -2 -4 Forces ssh to try protocol version 1 only. see the Compression option below. the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. -L port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the local (client) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the remote side. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -R port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the remote (server) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the local side. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the local machine. Forces ssh to try protocol version 2 only. and whenever a connection is made to this port.ssh/config. Only root can forward privileged ports. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -D port Specifies a local ``dynamic'' application-level port forwarding.

The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.e.4 Page 85 March 31.. the name is not converted to a canonicalized host name before matching). BatchMode If set to ``yes''. Configuration options may be separated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one `='. The configuration files contain sections bracketed by ``Host'' specifications. and general defaults at the end. scp and sftp -o option. NSK-SSH V2. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The host is the hostname argument given on the command line (i. The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword. Otherwise a line is of the format ``keyword arguments''.-6 Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only. For each parameter. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. A single `*' as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. CONFIGURATION FILES ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: command line options. and system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config). This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password. 2008 . Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used. passphrase/password querying will be disabled. the first obtained value will be used. The configuration file has the following format: Empty lines and lines starting with `#' are comments. The default is ``no''.ssh/config). and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification. the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh. AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether to pass AFS tokens to remote host. user's configuration file ($HOME/. more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file. The matched host name is the one given on the command line.

blowfish-cbc.cast128-cbc. The default is ``3des''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``yes''. the check will not be executed.BindAddress Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. which is good for most applications.4 Page 86 March 31. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. The default is ``no''.arcfour. ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before NSK-SSH V2. The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9 (slow. Compression Specifies whether to use compression. The default level is 6. aes192-cbc. best). and ``des'' are supported. des is only supported in the ssh client for inM-teroperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. The default is ``no''. The deM-fault is ``aes128-cbc. The meaning of the values is the same as in gzip(1). 2008 . Cipher Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in protocol version 1. This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh command line to clear port forwardings set in configuration files. Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to ``yes''. If the option is set to ``no''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order of preference. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. This allows ssh to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing. ``blowfish''.3des-cbc. and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). Currently. ssh will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file.aes256-cbc'' ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local. ``3des''. remote and dynamic port forwardings specified in the configuration files or on the command line be cleared. CheckHostIP If this flag is set to ``yes''. CompressionLevel Specifies the compression level to use if compression is enabled.

GlobalKnownHostsFile NSK-SSH V2. Multiple forwardings may be specified. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. 2008 . ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports. The default is ``no''. The argument must be an integer. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address. The default is ``no''. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: `~'). FallBackToRsh Specifies that if connecting via ssh fails due to a connection refused error (there is no sshd(8) listening on the remote host). The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The argument must be a port number. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''.falling back to rsh or exiting. By default. rsh(1) should automatically be used instead (after a suitable warning about the session being unencrypted). ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine. `^' followed by a letter. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. The argument should be a single character. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is 1. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. ssh binds local port forwardings to the loopback addresss. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. or ``none'' to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data). Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. The escape character can also be set on the command line. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line.4 Page 87 March 31. The default is ``no''.

all these identities will be tried in sequence. Additionally.ssh/identity in the user's home directory). It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files. HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the protocol version 2 host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of preference. 2008 . this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. This is important in scripts. The file name may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory.Specifies a file to use for the global host key database instead of /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. IdentityFile Specifies the file from which the user's RSA or DSA authentication identity is read (default $HOME/. Default is the name given on the command line.ssh-dss'' HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files. HostName Specifies the real host name to log into. and many users want it too. The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). This option applies to protocol version 2 only and is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication.4 Page 88 March 31. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies. and some people find it annoying. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication. This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts. If they are sent. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). the value should be set to ``no'' in both NSK-SSH V2. This option is useful for tunneling ssh connections or for multiple servers running on a single host. However. To disable keepalives. The default for this option is: ``ssh-rsa.

IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. This allows a client to prefer one method NSK-SSH V2. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. ERROR. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. VERBOSE and DEBUG. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh. The ar- KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT will be forwarded to the server. 2008 . The default is ``yes''.hmac-sha1. The possible values are: QUIET.hmac-md5-96''. The default is ``hmac-md5.hmac-sha1-96.4 Page 89 March 31. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine. gument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. is 22. and the second must be host:port. This will only work if the Kerberos server is actually an AFS kaserver. Default PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try protocol 2 authentication methods. Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host. The first argument must be a port number. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication will be used. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication. The argument to this keyword must be an integer. Multiple forwardings may be specified.the server and the client configuration files. INFO. Default is 3. FATAL.hmacripemd160. The default is INFO.

NSK-SSH V2. RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the local machine. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user). The first argument must be a port number. Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce authentication time on slow connections when rhosts authentication is not used. Multiple versions must be comma-separated. In the command string. and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. or execute sshd -i somewhere. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. This means that ssh tries version 2 and falls back to version 1 if version 2 is not available.g. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication). Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The command string extends to the end of the line. ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server.(e. Note that this declaration only affects the client side and has no effect whatsoever on security. password) The default for this option is: ``hostbased. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e. and the second must be host:port. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. The deM-fault is ``yes''.1''. `%h' will be substituted by the host name to connect and `%p' by the port. 2008 .g.keyboardinteractive. The default is ``2. It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine. The command can be basically anything.publickey.password'' Protocol Specifies the protocol versions ssh should support in order of preference. and is executed with /bin/sh. Multiple forwardings may be specified.4 Page 90 March 31. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication. The default is ``yes''.

The host keys of known hosts will be verified automatically in all cases. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Note that this option must be set to ``yes'' if RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication authentications are needed with older servers. or connections to new hosts are frequently made. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections. The default is ``yes''. and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. If this flag is set to ``no''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do.RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA host authentication. The default is ``yes''.4 Page 91 March 31. ``no'' or ``ask''.ssh/known_hosts file. The argument to this keyword is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. The default is ``ask''. or an authentication agent is running. SmartcardDevice Specifies which smartcard device to use. no device is specified and smartcard support is not activated. can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained. The argument must be ``yes''. NSK-SSH V2. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try RSA authentication. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. RSA authentication will only be attempted if the identity file exists. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge response authentication. and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to ``yes''. By default. The default is ``yes''. however. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. ssh will never automatically add host keys to the $HOME/. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts. If this flag is set to ``ask''. 2008 . ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files.

Set to the default PATH. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. All other options (except HostName) are ignored if this has been specified.ssh/known_hosts. It is possible that the host does not at all support the ssh protocol. SSH_ASKPASS If ssh needs a passphrase. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. and n is an integer >= 1. HOME LOGNAME Synonym for USER. as specified when compiling ssh. set for compatibility with systems that use this variable. The default is ENVIRONMENT ssh will normally set the following environment variables: DISPLAY The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server. ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections over the secure channel. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2. Set to the path of the user's home directory. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. as that will render the X11 connection insecure (and will require the user to manually copy any required authorization cookies). XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line.4 Page 92 March 31.User Specifies the user to log in as.Xsession or related script. MAIL PATH Set to the path of the user's mailbox. It is automatically set by ssh to point to a value of the form ``hostname:n'' where hostname indicates the host where the shell runs. This causes ssh to immediately execute rsh(1). If ssh does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. The user should normally not set DISPLAY explicitly. UseRsh Specifies that rlogin/rsh should be used for this host. UserKnownHostsFile Specifies a file to use for the user host key database instead of $HOME/. This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines. This is particularly useful when calling ssh from a .

protocol 2 DSA. this variable is not set.(Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. NONSTOP ADDITIONAL OPTIONS If you need to use the SSH program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. GNOTTY 1 . If the current session has no tty. ssh reads $HOME/. the daemon passes the value on to new connections).Set this to the password for the public key or user id FILES $HOME/. They are for protocol 1 RSA.ssh/known_hosts Records host keys for all hosts the user has logged into that are not in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. See sshd(8). TZ The timezone variable is set to indicate the present timezone if it was set when the daemon was started (i. and server port number.e. $HOME/.4 Page 93 March 31. Set to the name of the user logging in. client port number. and adds lines of the format ``VARNAME=value'' to the environment. 2008 . SSH_TTY This is set to the name of the tty (path to the device) associated with the current shell or command.ssh/identity. and protocol 2 RSA. SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND The variable contains the original command line if a forced command is executed. The variable contains three space-separated values: client ip-address.) SSH_AUTH_SOCK Identifies the path of a unix-domain socket used to communicate with the agent. It can be used to extract the original arguments..ssh/id_rsa Contains the authentication identity of the user. $HOME/. SSH_CLIENT Identifies the client end of the connection.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password .ssh/environment. respectively. $HOME/. USER Additionally.ssh/id_dsa. NSK-SSH V2.

public key and optional comment field. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user. When different names are used for the same machine. and not accessible by others.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 1 RSA authentication. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user. $HOME/. $HOME/. This file is used by the ssh client. These files are not sensitive and can (but need not) be readable by anyone. The format is described on the sshd(8) manual page.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA/DSA) that can be used for logging in as this user. all such names should be listed. they are only provided for the convenience of the user. The contents of the $HOME/.ssh/identity. This file is not highly sensitive.pub.pub and $HOME/.These files contain sensitive data and should be readable by the user but not accessible by others (read/write/execute). This file does not usually contain any sensitive information. This file should be worldreadable.ssh/id_rsa.ssh/id_dsa.pub file should be added to $HOME/. The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by sshd(8) to verify the client host when logging in. In the simplest form the format is the same as the . $HOME/. $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 2 DSA/RSA authentication. This file should be prepared by the system administrator to contain the public host keys of all machines in the organization. This file contains public keys. Note that ssh ignores a private key file if it is accessible by othM-ers. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. in the following format (fields separated by spaces): system name. The contents of the $HOME/.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file.ssh/identity. separated by commas.ssh/id_rsa. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts Systemwide list of known host keys.pub Contains the public key for authentication (public part of the identity file in human-readable form). other names NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 94 March 31. the passphrase will be used to encrypt the sensitive part of this file using 3DES. and not accessible by others. These files are never used automatically and are not necessary. $HOME/.pub identity files. one per line.pub. 2008 .pub file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa. The format of this file is described in the sshd(8) manual page. The format of this file is described above.

ssh/known_hosts. 2008 . This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. because sshd(8) reads it as root. and must not have write permissions for anyone else.equiv This file is used during .equiv This file is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. and then a user name on that host. Additionally. $HOME/. /etc/hosts. and for those users who do not have a configuration file. separated by a space. On some machines this file may need to be world-readable if the user's home directory is on a NFS partition.rhosts. This file must be world-readable. If the server machine does not have the client's host key in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. (Note that this file is also used by rlogin and rsh. because someone with access to the name servers would then be able to fool host authentication. If the client host is found in this file. login is automatically permitted provided client and server user names are the same.) Each line of the file contains a host name (in the canonical form returned by name servers).equiv. it can be stored in $HOME/. This file should only be writable by root.rhosts This file is used in . $HOME/.shosts This file is used exactly the same way as . The purpose for having this file is to be able to use rhosts authentication with ssh without permitting login with rlogin(1) or rsh(1). This file may be useful to permit logins using ssh but not using rsh/rlogin. NSK-SSH V2. one per line (the full format is described on the sshd(8) manual page). this will automatically add the host key to $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. which makes using this file insecure. /etc/ssh/shosts. It contains canonical hosts names.rhosts authentication to list the host/user pairs that are permitted to log in. The easiest way to do this is to connect back to the client from the server machine using ssh. Additionally.ssh/known_hosts. this file must be owned by the user.are needed because ssh does not convert the user-supplied name to a canonical name before checking the key.4 Page 95 March 31.rhosts authentication. and not accessible by others. The recommended permission for most machines is read/write for the user.rhosts authentication. Note that by default sshd(8) will be installed so that it requires successful RSA host authentication before permitting .

4 Page 96 March 31. draft-ietf-secsh-architecture-09. see section ENVIRONMENT above. Rinne. NSK-SSH V2. T.ssh/environment Contains additional definitions for environment variables. scp(1). sftp(1).ssh/rc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. telnet(1). $HOME/./etc/ssh/sshrc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. T. rsh(1). and S. ssh-agent(1). ssh- T. SEE ALSO rlogin(1). See the sshd(8) manual page for more information.txt. Saarinen. See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. 2008 . work in progress material. keygen(1). M. SSH Protocol Architecture. Ylonen. July 2001. $HOME/. Kivinen. sshd(8) ssh-add(1). Lehtinen.

4 Page 97 March 31. # for more information.0.shosts files IgnoreRhosts yes # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts RhostsRSAAuthentication no # similar for protocol version 2 See sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.rhosts and ~/.0.APPENDIX B . Port 22 #Protocol 2.ssh/authorized_keys # rhosts authentication should not be used RhostsAuthentication no # Don't read the user's ~/. 2008 .1 ListenAddress 0.0 #ListenAddress :: # HostKey for protocol version 1 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key # HostKeys for protocol version 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key # Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key KeyRegenerationInterval 3600 ServerKeyBits 768 # Logging SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging # Authentication: LoginGraceTime 600 PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes RSAAuthentication yes PubkeyAuthentication yes #AuthorizedKeysFile %h/.FILES sshd_config FILE # This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/ssh/bin # This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file.

ssh/known_hosts for RhostsRSAAuthentication #IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes # To disable tunneled clear text passwords.net #ReverseMappingCheck yes Subsystem Subsystem sftp sftp-g /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server-guardian NSK-SSH V2. change to no here! PasswordAuthentication yes PermitEmptyPasswords no # Uncomment to disable s/key passwords #ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # Uncomment to enable PAM keyboard-interactive authentication # Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication' #PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes # To change Kerberos options #KerberosAuthentication no #KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes #AFSTokenPassing no #KerberosTicketCleanup no # Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver #KerberosTgtPassing yes X11Forwarding no X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintMotd yes #PrintLastLog no KeepAlive yes #UseLogin no #MaxStartups 10:30:60 #Banner /etc/issue.HostbasedAuthentication no # Uncomment if you don't trust ~/.4 Page 98 March 31. 2008 .

user-specific file 3.ssh/identity # IdentityFile ~/.4 Page 99 March 31. # # # # # # # Configuration data is parsed as follows: 1. system-wide file Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set. and defaults at the end.ssh/id_rsa # Port 22 # Protocol 2. 2008 . command line options 2. host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the configuration file.1 # Cipher blowfish # EscapeChar ~ NSK-SSH V2. This file provides defaults for users. See ssh(1) for more # information. and the values can # be changed in per-user configuration files or on the command line.ssh_config FILE # This is ssh client systemwide configuration file. Thus. # Site-wide defaults for various options # Host * # ForwardAgent no # ForwardX11 no # RhostsAuthentication no # RhostsRSAAuthentication yes # RSAAuthentication yes # PasswordAuthentication yes # FallBackToRsh no # UseRsh no # BatchMode no # CheckHostIP yes # StrictHostKeyChecking yes # IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_dsa # IdentityFile ~/.

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APPENDIX C .TELNET ISOLATION FILES start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. 2008 .4 Page 101 March 31.sh FILE ############################################ # Start SSH with IPSSH across two cpus ## ## Start the SSH process on port 700 and 701 export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 run -cpu=0 sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 sshd -p 701 ## Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process run -cpu=0 ipssh sleep 5 ## Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process run -cpu=1 ipssh -wait 0 # Startup complete NSK-SSH V2.

Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 .4 Page 102 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.

& AUTORESTART 10.system.& program $system. & name $ob010.255. & startmode manual. & outfile $zhome.APPENDIX D .& userid 255.osh.sh <.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip000 run -name=/G/ip000 -cpu=0 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.ZZKRN FILES ipztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00a add process IPSSH-ztc00a.& HOMETERM $zhome.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00a start_ipssh_ztc0a.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0a. 2008 .& primarycpu 0.4 Page 103 March 31.

this process will take over.& HOMETERM $zhome.ipztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00b add process IPSSH-ztc00b.255. & name $ob011. # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip001 run -name=/G/ip001 -cpu=1 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D -wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0b.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # # Note that the wait 0 is used just incase the other ipssh process # has been started and is on port 22. & AUTORESTART 10. & startmode manual. & outfile $zhome.4 Page 104 March 31.& program $system.osh.& primarycpu 1.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00b start_ipssh_ztc0b.sh <. If the other ipssh process # dies.& userid 255.system.

& startmode manual.osh.4 Page 105 March 31.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00a start_random_ztc00a.& primarycpu 0.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00a.ranztc0a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00a add process RANDOM-ztc00a. & name $ob000.system.sh <. & AUTORESTART 10.& userid 255.& HOMETERM $zhome.255.& program $system.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 790" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb000 run -name=/G/rb000 -cpu=0 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:790 # NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . & outfile $zhome.

4 Page 106 March 31. 2008 .ranztc0b FILE llow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00b add process RANDOM-ztc00b.sh <.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00b. & AUTORESTART 10.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00b start_random_ztc0b.& HOMETERM $zhome.& primarycpu 1.& program $system.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 791" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb001 run -name=/G/rb001 -cpu=1 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:791 # NSK-SSH V2.255. & startmode manual. & outfile $zhome.system.& userid 255. & name $ob001.osh.

& outfile $zhome. & startmode manual.system.& primarycpu 0. & name $ob020.& program $system.& HOMETERM $zhome. & AUTORESTART 10.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 700" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd000 run -name=/G/sd000 -cpu=0 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 700 # NSK-SSH V2.osh. 2008 .255.sh <.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00a start_sshd_ztc00a.& userid 255.sdztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00a add process SSHD-ztc00a.4 Page 107 March 31.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00a.

& name $ob021.& HOMETERM $zhome.4 Page 108 March 31.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00b.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 701" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd001 run -name=/G/sd001 -cpu=1 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 701 # NSK-SSH V2.system. & AUTORESTART 10.sh <.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00b start_sshd_ztc00b.& userid 255.osh.255.sdztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00b add process SSHD-ztc00b. 2008 . & startmode manual.& primarycpu 1.& program $system. & outfile $zhome.

4 Page 109 March 31. 2008 .INSTALL NOTES: NSK-SSH V2.

2008 .4 Page 110 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2.

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