Version 2.

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Bowden Systems Inc.
Norcross, GA 30092 http://www.bsi2.com

Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

BOWDEN SYSTEMS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Bowden Systems shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Warranty
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your BSI product can be obtained from the BSI Corporate Office.

Printing History
The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between additions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive these updates or new editions, contact the BSI Corporate Office. October 2001 . . . Edition 1 February 2002 . . . Edition 2 June 2003....Editon 3 July 2004...Edition4 Feb 2008...Edition 5 March 2008...Edition 5a Bowden Systems, Inc. 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 370 Norcross, GA 30092, USA email:sales@bsi2.com web:www.bsi2.com © 2001- 2008 Bowden Systems, Inc.
NSK-SSH, sftp-server-guardian, scmd is a trademark of Bowden Systems Inc. Nonstop, TEDIT, TACL, Guardian 90, 6530, PATHWAY are trademarks of HP. Mr-win6530 is a trademark of Conforte. Cail6530 is a trademark of Cail.

Preface
This manual explains how to install, configure, and use NSK-SSH software for the HP NonStop server. This includes setting up the components of the software which are the ipssh, sshd, and prngd.

Audience and Prerequisites
This manual is intended for system managers and assumes that the user has experience with OSS, GUARDIAN, TCPIP, PTCPIP and SCF.

Prerequisite Equipment
This manual also assumes that the user’s host is S-Series running GUARDIAN G06.22 or higher, GUARDIAN H-Series running H06.05 or higher, or GUARDIAN J-Series J06.02 or higher. This software works with TCPIP V4 and TCPIP V6 tcpip stacks.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TELNET ISOLATION. 61 scmd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ssh-keyscan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . 19 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . 23 prngd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 APPENDIX C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 sftp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. . . . . . . . INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 sftp-server-guardian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. . .TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . 101 APPENDIX D . . . . . 21 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ssh-add. . . . . . . . . 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 sshd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD using two IP stacks. . . . . . . . 97 ssh_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ZZKRN FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KNOWN PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. . . . . . .REQUIRED FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ipssh. . . . . 11 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KERNEL SUBSYSEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT. . . .MAN PAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 scp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ssh-agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 start_ipssh_ztc0a.IPSSH ON CPU 0 . 22 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . 27 ssh-keygen. . . . . . ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH. 103 ipztc00a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 sshd_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 sftp-server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . 105 start_random_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 start_sshd_ztc00b. . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 start_random_ztc0b. .sh . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . 107 start_sshd_ztc00a. . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 . . . 107 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . 105 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 1. . . . . . 104 start_ipssh_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ipztc00b . . . . . . . . . 104 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 0 . .

We now also have the ability to set up all the components of this release in the KERNEL (ZZKRN) subsystem for full fault resilance.4 that is based on OpenSSH 2. you should consult “SSH The Secure Shell” by Daniel J. This new command is called scmd and allows you to execute remote commands from the NonStop system. If you require more detailed information on SSH.02 operating system. This software works with alias and standard GUARDIAN users. We also have added an sftp-server for the guardian file system.SUPER or root user id. You should install this software using the SUPER. This release has also been verified to work with Mr-Win6530.4 Page 1 March 31. This can be purchased from the Oreilly web site (www. In this release. Barrett & Richard E. NSK-SSH V2. This was created do to the need of users that have PCI requirments of not having TELNET running on the system or FTP. and TCP/IP installed and configured on your system. Now you can have up to 4 random number generators per TCPIP V4 OR V6 stack or up to 64 with PTCPIP using the round-robin method of access . This release will allow you to access the NonStop system in a secure manor for session and ftp access. This provides compatibility with programs such as FileZilla.OVERVIEW This is a release of the NSK-SSH V2. This installation document assumes that you have OSS.9p2 with 3.22/H06.oreilly.15 for the G06. This also include the ability to access an isolated TCPIP stack which has telnet running on it for the telnet requirment of SSH.4. This document will tell you how to install and configure NSK-SSH software for access to the system and provide a reference for the MAN pages included with the NSK-SSH software. The random number generator does not require any external programs or files for generating its random numbers.9.9.x security enhancements and PRNGD 0.05/J06. we also added a new command to address problem with executing remote commands from the system.com). You no longer need to have the OSS local socket program running. 2008 . Silverman. The NSK-SSH has been updated to fix various problem the the random number generator and has move to using TCPIP for the communications between the random number generator and the SSH process. This allows you to access the guardian file system just like the unix file system.

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IPSSH. do the following: For the S-Series: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_GO622_V24.Z | pax -rvf - For the H-Series and J-Series operating system: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_H0605_V24. SSH and PRNGD software.Z | pax -rvf - Note that zcat is in the /bin/unsupported directory. This will install the software into the following directories: /etc/ /etc/ssh /usr/local/ssh /usr/local/random Now you are ready to set up the.super to install this software. NSK-SSH V2.INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE You must be the root user or super.tar. To install the software that was downloaded from the web site. 2008 . Note that the above tar file may have a version indicator on it.tar.4 Page 3 March 31.

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If you do not have these files. b. SSH Client Software ( Mr-Win6530. f. Verify that you have the services and protocols file in the /etc directory. e. You should have the following products installed on your system: a.bsi services cp protocols.bsi protocols Note that the service that the sshd program is looking for is the telent service. c. c. then you can copy the files services.bsi to services and protocols. Putty. then you need to make sure that has the following line: telnet 23/tcp NSK-SSH V2. OSS Installed and Configured. 2008 . Unix SSH) 2. TCPIP V4 or V6 Installed and Configured OSS Sockets Started on each processor. g. Cail6530. IMPORTANT FOR TELNET ACCESS cd /etc cp services.BASIC SETUP OF SSH To set up your system so that you use the SSH software. d. The ip address and stack process name you will use for SSH access. TCPIP configure for OSS. TELNET servr running on the TCPIP stack LOCAL LOOP BACK STARTED for TCPIP stack REMOVE ANY OPENSSH ssh software on your system as this will cause problems with installing and startup up the Bowden Systems version of SSH. If you alreay have a services file. you should do the following: 1.4 Page 5 March 31. You will need the following information: a.bsi to protocols. b. Know how to use the text editor “vi”.

2008 . Set your PATH and MANPATH variables. then it is not necessary to do this step. a.sh 5.4 Page 6 March 31. You should use what ever tcpip process name is defined on your system.profile”./ssh_install_chmod. But if you are using some other tcpip process name. 4. do the following: info_define all To add the define. Set the correct file settings on the installed files. If you are using the default tcpip process name $ZTC0. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. THE TELNET ACCESS TO SSH WILL NOT WORK. NOTE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A /etc/services FILE. NSK-SSH V2. then you need to add it using vi. do the following: add_define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME file=\$ZTC1 Note that this is an example. 3. export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/install export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/ssh/man export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/random/man Note that these can be place in /etc/profile or in your private home directory file “. or that you want to random number generator to use. Verify that the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME is already set. Execute a script to change the file setting sh -v .If the services program does not have this line.

0./ssh_install_makekeys. !!!! IMPORTANT STEP NOT TO FORGET !!!! a.6. To make this change. Modify the system wide configuration to the specify the IP address that the SSHD program will use.0.0.Host Public Key ssh_host_rsa_key .1 port 790. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. The script executes the following: run cpu=0 -gpri= 144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 7.0.pub .Host Private Key ssh_host_key.RSA Private Key ssh_host_rsa_key. NSK-SSH V2. sh -v . Note if you are using TCPIP V4 then you should set this to 127. Execute a script to startup the random number generator. sh -v .RSA Public Key ssh_host_dsa_key .sh This will generate the following files in the /etc/ssh/ directory: ssh_host_key .4 Page 7 March 31.0.0. This step is optional.sh This will start the random number generator on local sockets connection 127. Note that this may take a while.DSA Public Key 8. Generate the system keys.pub . 2008 .DSA Private Key ssh_host_dsa_key.0. This must be started before any SSH software can be used./start_random. do the following: vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the line: ListenAddress 0. Execute a script to generate the system wide keys.pub .0 to the ipaddress of your system and save the file. Start up the Random number generator (PRNG).0. This is only needed if you ssh to listen again a specific address.1 for the two cpu or greater configuraiton.0 and change the 0.

If you want to start ssh on one cpu. NSK-SSH V2.0. 2008 . then you need to stop it.0.4 Page 8 March 31. To start the sshd program do the following: run -cpu=0 -gpri=125 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd This will start the sshd server and it will listen on port 22 for any connection. scf> assume process $zzkrn scf>names You should look for #ssh-ztc0. If you want to start SSHD on two cpu’s scipt to step 10. The sshd program will process all request (session. then you should not change the ListenAddress to 127. If you are starting the Bowden NSK-SSH software on a system that has the Comforte SSH software on it and configured to use the port 22 on $ztc0. 10.0 If you want to start the program in the debug mode to see what it is doing. do the following: /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -d -d -d This will allow one session to be processed and then the program will exit when the request is finished. If there is more than one address associated with the stack then.0. ssh and sftp). scf> abort #ssh-ztc0 This will abort the process and then you can start up the NSK-SSH software.9. If this is running. you should leave it set to 0.1 and change it to the real address of the stack. then continue reading.0. If you only run one SSHD server. scp. then you need to stop this software. before you can startup the NSK-SSH software.

run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh sleep 5 c. Note that on most systems. Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process. run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh -wait 0 11.10. Start the SSHD process on port 700 and 701. run -cpu=0 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 701 b. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v .sh 2.sh or do the following: 1. a.sh or do the following: 1./start_ssh_2_cpu. we put this startup file in as example of how to run the SSHD server on a system that is uses that configuration. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. the TCPIP V6 software is configured in fail-over mode and not configurated for round-robin. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . Starting it manually. Starting it manually. Start the SSHD processes on port 22.sh 2. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using P/TCPIP with round-robin configuration./start_ssh_ptcpip_2cpu. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd NSK-SSH V2. If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process. a. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using regular TCPIP or P/TCPIP in Failover mode If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. 2008 .4 Page 9 March 31.

2008 . NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 10 March 31.Note that you can use this configuraiton on TCPIP V4 if there is more than one IP addres define to the TCPIP stack and it is not in the FAIL-OVER configuraiton.

so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 To do this do the following (Note this works on all release of the Guardian OS including H-series and J-series: 1.PRI 190.TERM $ZHOME/0 2. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. Start the #LOOP0 port on the stack. With this configuration. scf> assume process $ztc99 scf> aler subnet #loop0.CPU 0. Start up the TCPIP V4 stack at tacl: TCPIP/name $ZTC99. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. ipaddress 127. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated.ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH In this section.4 Page 11 March 31. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. To use this feature. 2008 .sh. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process.1 scf> start subnet * scf> exit NSK-SSH V2. we will talk about advanced set up of the SSH software including the KERNEL subsystem and TELNET isolation.

you should be able to access the TELNET server locally: TELNET 127. now you are ready to add the TCPIP_TELNET_STACK. 2008 .NOWAIT. Start up the TELSRV process add define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.com [PORT $ZTC99 #23 WINDOW $ZTN99.#PTYAAAA] TELSERV .PRI 170/23 Note that the 23 on the TELSERV command is the port to listen to. Now at this point.(IPMADG) Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice> If this works.T9553D40 .bsi1.0.0. to your SSHD start file and restart the SSHD servers NSK-SSH V2.(15SEP2000) .4 Page 12 March 31.3.1 23 WELCOME TO test.FILE $ZTC99 param TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME $ZTC99 param ZTNT^TRANSPORT^NAME $ZTC99 TELSERV/NAME $ZTN99.CPU 0.

Now. you only need Note that you need you need to change 127. prngd.*. What you need to do this. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. In the zzkrn subsystem. This is to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. 2008 . $*.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system. to be root or super.super to do this and your /etc/sshd.code 100 run zzkrnsd.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.super volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.4 Page 13 March 31.*. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.KERNEL SUBSYSTEM We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh.0.#RANDOM-ZTC00B NSK-SSH V2.zzkrnsd on your system.0.1.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl>logon super.config file to listen on port the ListenAddress configuration line. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.

the process running in the script does not stop.process name $RD001 #SSHD-ZTC00A .process name $sd000 #SSHD-ZTC00B .script name $ob11 . you must have a script to start up the SSH software in the correct order or it will not start at system startup.4 Page 14 March 31.$ZZKRN.script name $ob020 . It is only when you restart the software. This script is the following: assume process $zzkrn start #RANDOM-ZTC00A start #RANDOM-ZTC00B start #SSHD-ZTC00A start #SSHD-ZTC00B start #IPSSH-ZTC00A start #IPSSH-ZTC00B For each startup script. When your system is started up.script name $ob001 . these names are the following: #RANDOM-ZTC00 . 2008 .process name $RD000 #RANDOM-ZTC01 .process name $ip001 NSK-SSH V2. that process will be restarted.process name $ip000 #IPSSH-ZTC00B .#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service. Note that when you abort the software. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.script name $ob10 .process name $sd001 #IPSSH-ZTC00A .script name $ob000 . there are two process names used.script name $ob021 .

0. Which in the case for all commands on SSH. 2008 .0. This also reduces connect time when performning any action that requires a random number.1 port 23. and support for the guardian file system via sftp. When NSK-SSH request a pty. We added a new command to handle remote command execution. This allows all TELSRV services to be stop.Porting Differences This section will talk very briefly about the differences between this port of NSKSSH and what you get would from Open Source. NSK-SSH V2. This port of SSH understands about ALIAS users and does it password authentication against the safeguard database. we request access on the 127. We also have the ability to make this request to another TCPIP stack that is not attached to any Ethernet hardware and is only running TELSRV. This port of SSH uses the tcpip access to random number generator to increase performance. The major difference of this port from the standard SSH and Prngd port is how sessions are accessed and how we access the random number generator. all sessions are accessed using the master/slave pty configurations. and scalability. This is not a part of the standard. because of problem with the select function not support the tty device. Under the standard model of SSH. the sshd program will access the user’s default shell script as the standard SSH port does. reliablity. The standard SSH software does not know any thing about this. We added a distributor to the release so that it is possible to support round-robin access using the standard TCPIP software and scale the ssh software and random number generator software across multiple cpus. This was not a problem in standard SSH. Since the OSS environment does not support pty’s. If you request that a pty is not allocated.4 Page 15 March 31. we use the telnet subsystem as the pty generator. We also increase the capacity of the random number generator to handle large request loads. This port of SSH and PRNGD has been fault tested to make sure that it works when a CPU fails.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT
At this point, you have done the basic setup for the SSH software. In this section, we will be discussing how to access your system to establish session. You will need an SSH client for your PC, Mac, or Unix system to start a session. In this example we are using, MacSSH, but this will apply to Windows software too. 1. Select your host and select Secure Shell

2. Enter your user name and password:

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3. Get the system access prompt. Note that depending on what type of system, you are executing the sshd software on, it may take a while for the session to connect. This has to do with the encryption of the session.

At this point, you can access the NonStop as you always have. Just login in an start working.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT
If you have other unix system’s, that have SSH installed, you can access the HP NonStop using ssh. To start a session remotely on the HP NonSTop do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com joshua’s password:
WELCOME TO test.bsi1.com [PORT $ZTC0 #23 WINDOW $ZTN0.#PTYW1DX] TELSERV - T9553D40 - (15SEP2000) - (IPMADG)

Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice>

If you want to execute a remote commad, do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com /bin/ls joshua’s password: test.pl test1.pl test2.pl test3.pl test5.pl test_message $ If you want to copy a file from the unix system to the NSK, do the following: $scp test.pl joshua@test.bsi1.com:test.pl joshua’s password:

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NSK-SSH V2.com /bin/gtacl joshua’s password: TACL 1> Note that you wil not beable to execute any oss commands with this tacl session because you are not using the standard telnet tty session attributes. do the following: $ssh joshua@test. 2008 .bsi1.4 Page 20 March 31.If you want to logon directly to TACL.

4 Page 21 March 31. This will be fixed in next release. NSK-SSH V2. you should send an email message to support@bsi2. This currently only supports commands that do not require any interaction with the user.com.KNOWN PROBLEMS We added the scmd program to allow remote command access to a system. Should you find any problems with this software. 2008 .

4 Page 22 March 31. 3500 Parkway Lane. Suite 370 Norcross. Any correspondence regarding this software can be sent to the following address: Bowden Systems.bsi2.com email:sales@bsi2. All Rights Reserved NSK-SSH V2. Inc.com.INFORMATION If you need any help with this. Inc. 2008 . please send an email message to support@bsi2.com Copyright (c) 2001-2008 Bowden Systems. GA 30092 USA +1 866-901-9450 toll free +1 770-441-9450 direct +1 770-441-9449 fax web: www.

.0. keep pool in memory only -m or --mode mode use mode for sockets [0777] -k or --kill kill daemon on other side -v or --version print version and exit DESCRIPTION prngd is a daemon that provides the random number functionality on the NonStop system using either using local sockets or a tcpip port connection. OPTIONS -f or -fg do not fork -d or --debug debugging on -c or --cmdfile cmdpath use cmdpath for entropy commands [/etc/prngd.conf] -s or --seedfile seedpath use seedpath as seedfile [/etc/prngd-seed] -n or --no-seedfile no seedfile.random number generator daemon SYNOPSIS prngd [options] (/path/to/socket1 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port) [(/path/to/socket2 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port)] . The default port that SSH uses for port access is 790 to 793 and the default local socket is /dev/egd-pool.0. The option tcp/ip:addr:port allows the random number generator to liston on specified address instead of the loopback address.APPENDIX A .1) and will use the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME to get the currently defined TCPIP process stack name..4 Page 23 March 31.MAN PAGES prngd PRNGD(8) NAME prngd . System Reference Manual PRNGD(8) NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . The ports 790 to 793 are against the localhost (127.

If you are using using regular TCPIP. if there is not a random number generator available. you will still have a random number generator available on the system.210:790 To start the prngd program using the local socket /dev/egd-pool prngd -gpri=170 /dev/egd-pool The SSH program will attempt to use the localhost ports first and then try the local socket next.1. If any one of the CPU's fail. As a note. 2008 . prngd tcp/localhost:790 prngd tcp/localhost:791 NSK-SSH V2. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 or run -cpu=1 -gpri=170 prngd /dev/egd-pool You could run the TCPIP random number generator port 790 on cpu 0 and port 791 or the Local Socket random number generator on cpu 1.STARTING DAEMON To start the prngd program using localhost port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/localhost:790 To start the prngd program using tcp/ip option port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/ip:192. If you are using Parallel TCPIP with round robin.168. If you are running P/TCPIP then you can have more than one random number generator using only port 790. You can configure one prngd program to service both tcp and local socket if you like: prngd /dev/egd-pool tcp/localhost:790 tcp/localhost:791 But you may want to configure the localhost port 790 as the primary and 791 or /dev/egd-pool as the backup. then you can start up multiple random number generators using the same port number to spead the laod to multiple CPU's.4 Page 24 March 31. most of SSH functions will not work. then a primary and back is good choice. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 This will CPU 1 and CPU 0 the load of the random number generator.

This can result in system performance problems and cause the random number generator to take excessive cpu time. NSK-SSH V2. In the directory /usr/local/random/etc there is a file call prngd-seed. The program also produces an EMS message when closing a connection. To use this seed file: cp /usr/local/random/etc/prngd-seed /etc/prngd-seed and restart the program. This file is 1 megabyte random number that can be used a the first seed when starting prngd for the first time. 2008 .STOPPING DAEMON You can stop the prngd daemon with the following command: If TCPIP: prngd --kill tcp/localhost:790 If Local Socket prngd --kill /dev/egd-pool Or just use the kill command. If this fails the program executing will abend.4 Page 25 March 31. it will stop generating random numbers. but has been written over by the prngd program. Do not use /G/ directories for entropy generation. It has been found that if prngd is not properly seed. SEEDING DAEMON The random number generator software is locate in the /usr/local/random directory. NOTES prngd runs as a named process. prngd will not return any random information if it runs out of entropy. SSH has been program to try 5 times and then will go to the next generator viable and try 5 times also. The current seed in the /etc directory is base on this file. PERFORMANCE We have notice that the random number generator using TCPIP requires less cpu overhead than one using the local sockets interface. This will result in processes waiting on this information.

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Ipssh only forwards to the local 127. you need to set this to number.1 interface.. connection rate for burst conditions.ipssh IPSSH(1) NAME IPSSH SYNOPSIS ipssh .. If you have more one ipssh process on the system. If you have more than two cpu’s. If you enter 0. The default is 30 seconds. The default is 2. port 700. displays debuging information.01 seconds) The default is 100 or 1 sec. -ports number is the number of ports to connect to. The options are as follows: -remote port is the remote port to forward the connection. -instance no the instance of ipssh processes..4 Page 27 March 31. it is possible to distribute load to those also. (e.TCPIP Multiplexer for SSH IPSSH IPSSH(1) [-remote port] [-ports no] [-burst rate] [-interval rate] [-debug] [-wait no] [-D] DESCRIPTION The ipssh programs allows you to distribute ip traffic to multiple ports on a system.701.702. The default is 25. This much like the parrallel tcpip product execpt that it will exeucte on any Nonstop system. the main ipssh process wait until a child completes before continuing. Each port is of set by one.etc). the time is set to 1 second -maxload no -debug -wait no NSK-SSH V2. This is the number of connections that can be accepted during the interval. time to wait before checking if you can bind to the port. -burst rate -interval rate interval in milliseconds.g. this is maximumu number of ipssh processes that will be allowed exist at one time. This defaults to 700. 2008 . The default is zero. The default is 5. Ipssh listens on port 22 and distributes its ip load to port 700 and 701. When this maximum reach all.0. (1 = .0.

-qlen no number of connection to listen for on the port. indicates that ipssh is to be run waited. NSK-SSH V2. so it will not fork and create a process name -D To change the default TCPIP process from $ZTC0. 2008 . The default is 5.4 Page 28 March 31. you must change the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.The primary process name is /G/ISX ($ISX) and the backup process name is /G/ISY ($ISY).

Specifying the -t option instead creates a key for use by SSH protocol version 2. the system administrator may use this to generate host keys.4 Page 29 March 31. For RSA1 keys. The program also asks for a passphrase.authentication key generation.ssh/identity. management and conversion SYNOPSIS ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t type] [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile] ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -D reader ssh-keygen -U reader [-f input_keyfile] DESCRIPTION ssh-keygen generates. Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to store the private key. and provides very bad passphrases). $HOME/. as seen in /etc/rc. there is also a comment field in the key file that is only System Reference Manual SSH-KEYGEN(1) NSK-SSH V2. ssh-keygen defaults to generating a RSA1 key for use by SSH prottocol version 1. The passphrase can be changed later by using the -p option. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.ssh/id_rsa.pub'' appended. or it may be a string of arbitrary length. Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in $HOME/. manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1). 2008 .ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/.ssh-keygen SSH-KEYGEN(1) NAME ssh-keygen . Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long and are not simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only 1-2 bits of entropy per character. If the passphrase is lost or forgotten. a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding public key to other machines. The passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an empty passphrase). The public key is stored in a file with the same name but ``. Additionally.

The comment can tell what the key is for. After a key is generated. 2008 . Silence ssh-keygen. Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of creating a new private key. -e This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and print the key in a `SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout. ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH Public Key File Format'. The program will prompt for the file containing the private keys. This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial SSH implementations. and for the new comment. for the old passphrase. Minimum is 512 bits. Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key. Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient.for convenience to the user to help identify the key. This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout. and key sizes above that no longer improve security but make things slower. Show fingerprint of specified private or public key file. and twice for the new passphrase. -l -p -q -y -t type NSK-SSH V2. This option allows importing keys from several commercial SSH implementations. -c Requests changing the comment in the private and public key files. The program will prompt for the file containing the private key. instructions below detail where the keys should be placed to be activated.4 Page 30 March 31. The comment is initialized to ``user@host'' when the key is created. The default is 1024 bits. or whatever is useful. but can be changed using the -c option. for the passphrase if the key has one. -f filename Specifies the filename of the key file. -i This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private (or public) key to stdout. The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create.

Specifies the type of the key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. The default is ``rsa1''. -B Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key file.

-C comment Provides the new comment. -D reader Download the RSA public key stored in the smartcard in reader. -N new_passphrase Provides the new passphrase. -P passphrase Provides the (old) passphrase. -U reader Upload an existing RSA private key into the smartcard in reader. FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public tion. The contents of this file should be $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines to log in using RSA authentication. There contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

key for authenticaadded to where the user wishes is no need to keep the

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$HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

SEE ALSO ssh(1),

ssh-add(1),

ssh-agent(1),

sshd(8)

J. Galbraith, and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietfsecsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

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ssh-keyscan
SSH-KEYSCAN(1) NAME ssh-keyscan - gather ssh public keys SYNOPSIS ssh-keyscan [-v46] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [-f file] [host | addrlist namelist] [...] DESCRIPTION ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public ssh host keys of a number of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files. ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as possible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run ssh. For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scanning process involve any encryption. The options are as follows: -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, then the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. Default is 5 seconds. -t type Specifies the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is ``rsa1''. -f filename Read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from this file, one per line. If - is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from the standard input. System Reference Manual SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

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2008 . users will be vulnerable to attacks.1.2.2.4. if the security model allows such a risk.n.3. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only.4 Output format for rsa1 keys: host-or-namelist bits exponent modulus Output format for rsa and dsa keys: host-or-namelist keytype base64-encoded-key Where keytype is either ``ssh-rsa'' or ``ssh-dsa''.3.4.domain.domain. -4 -6 DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.my. EXAMPLES Print the rsa1 host key for machine hostname: ssh-keyscan hostname Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: ssh-keyscan -t rsa. On the other hand.4 Page 34 March 31. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only.name.2. ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created.4 name.2.ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts FILES Input format: 1.dsa -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u .4.my.1. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts NSK-SSH V2. Causes ssh-keyscan to print debugging messages about its progress. SECURITY If a ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without verifying the keys.-v Verbose mode.1.4. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).n.

BUGS It generates "Connection closed by remote host" messages on the consoles of all the machines it scans if the server is older than version 2.mit.net> added support for protocol version 2. SEE ALSO ssh(1).4 Page 35 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .edu> wrote the initial version. and Wayne Davison <wayned@users. This is because it opens a connection to the ssh port. reads the public key.9.sourceforge. and drops the connection as soon as it gets the key. sshd(8) AUTHORS David Mazieres <dm@lcs.

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NSK-SSH SSH daemon SYNOPSIS sshd [-deiqtD46] [-b bits] [-f config_file] [-g login_grace_time] [-h host_key_file] [-k key_gen_time] [-p port] [-u len] DESCRIPTION sshd (SSH Daemon) is the daemon program for ssh(1). the server and the client enter an authentication dialog. It encrypts this random number using both the host key and the server key.rhosts authentication. authentication. and sends the encrypted number to the server. Next. The rest of the session is encrypted using a conventional cipher. Both sides then use this random number as a session key which is used to encrypt all further communications in the session. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. encryption. Together these programs replace rlogin and rsh. This key is normally regenerated every hour if it has been used. The programs are intended to be as easy to install and use as possible.rhosts authentication combined with RSA host authentication. This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously. and data exchange. command execution. sshd works as follows. SSH protocol version 1 Each host has a host-specific RSA key (normally 1024 bits) used to identify the host. it generates a server RSA key (normally 768 bits). with 3DES being used by default. or password based authentication. currently Blowfish or 3DES. Whenever a client connects the daemon responds with its public host and server keys. It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection.sshd SSHD(8) NAME sshd . The client tries to authenticate itself using . The forked daemons handle key exchange. System Manager's Manual SSHD(8) NSK-SSH V2. Additionally. 2008 . The client compares the RSA host key against its own database to verify that it has not changed. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. when the daemon starts. . and is never stored on disk. It is normally started at load time from /usr/local/ssh/. The client then generates a 256 bit random number.4 Page 37 March 31. RSA challenge-response authentication. sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients.

sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file.. Command execution and data forwarding If the client successfully authenticates itself. and such data is forwarded to/from the shell or command on the server side. and the user terminal in the client side. Finally. or 256 bit AES. i. conventional password authentication and challenge response based methods. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal. a dialog for preparing the session is entered.e. Arcfour. the client either requests a shell or execution of a command. The rest of the session is encrypted using a symmetric cipher. 192 bit AES.4 Page 38 March 31. Protocol version 2 provides a public key based user (PubkeyAuthentication) or client host (HostbasedAuthentication) authentication method. CAST128. SIGHUP. currently 128 bit AES. /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd. but can be enabled in the server configuration file if desired. when the daemon starts. and both sides exit. SSH protocol version 2 Version 2 works similarly: Each host has a host-specific key (RSA or DSA) used to identify the host. This key agreement results in a shared session key. Blowfish. forwarding X11 connections. Command-line options override values specified in the configuration file. However. 3DES.Rhosts authentication is normally disabled because it is fundamentally insecure. or forwarding the authentication agent connection over the secure channel. forwarding TCP/IP connections. Additionally. and rexecd(8) are disabled (thus completely disabling rlogin(1) and rsh(1) into the machine). In this mode. by executing itself with the name it was started as. it does not generate a server key. System security is not improved unless rshd(8). either side may send data at any time. 2008 . The sides then enter session mode. the server sends command exit status to the client. Forward security is provided through a DiffieHellman key agreement. session integrity is provided through a cryptographic message authentication code (hmac-sha1 or hmac-md5). When the user program terminates and all forwarded X11 and other connections have been closed. NSK-SSH V2. rlogind(8). At this time the client may request things like allocating a pseudo-tty. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server.

The default is /etc/ssh/sshd_config. If the client fails to authenticate the user within this many seconds. The motivation for regenerating the key fairly often is that the key is not stored anywhere. A value of NSK-SSH V2. This option is only intended for debugging for the server. 512) using sshd from inetd may be feasible. When this option is specified. and does not put itself in the background. sshd is normally not run from inetd because it needs to generate the server key before it can respond to the client. -e -f configuration_file Specifies the name of the configuration file. Clients would have to wait too long if the key was regenerated every time. it becomes impossible to recover the key for decrypting intercepted communications even if the machine is cracked into or physically seized. -g login_grace_time Gives the grace time for clients to authenticate themselves (default 600 seconds). The server also will not fork and will only process one connection. and this may take tens of seconds. the server disconnects and exits. It is possible to have multiple host key files for the different protocol versions and host key algorithms. Maximum is 3. 2008 . -h host_key_file Specifies the file from which the host key is read (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key).The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key (default 768).g. -d Debug mode.4 Page 39 March 31. with small key sizes (e. This option must be given if sshd is not run as root (as the normal host file is normally not readable by any one but root). -k key_gen_time Specifies how often the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key is regenerated (default 3600 seconds. sshd will send the output to the standard error instead of the system log. -i Specifies that sshd is being run from inetd.. and after about an hour. A value of zero indicates no limit. sshd refuses to start if there is no configuration file. or one hour). The server sends verbose debug output to the system log. Multiple -d options increase the debugging level. However.

This allows hosts with very long host names that overflow this field to still be uniquely identified. it fails the random number request. Forces sshd to use IPv4 addresses only. Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys. Nothing is sent to the system log. If the resolved host name is longer than len. HostbasedAuthentication and using a from="pattern-list" option in a key file. -u0 is also be used to prevent sshd from making DNS requests unless the authentication mechanism or configuration requires it. -q Quiet mode.zero indicates that the key will never be regenerated. you need at least one NSK-SSH V2.1 for a random number generator. 2008 . TCP_RND_ADDR TCP_RND_PORT0 TCP_RND_PORT1 These environment variables allow you to change the starting and ending port and the default IP address to access for the random number generator request. When this option is specified sshd will not detach and does not become a daemon. Normally the beginning. it then looks for the name pipe /dev/egd-pool. If it does not find this. Specifying -u0 indicates that only dotted decimal addresses should be put into the utmp file. If it does not find that. and termination of each connection is logged.0. RhostsRSAAuthentication. This option is used to specify the size of the field in the utmp structure that holds the remote host name. the dotted decimal value will be used instead. authentication. Authentication mechanisms that may require DNS include RhostsAuthentication. It currently looks on the ports of 790 to 793 of address 127. Forces sshd to use IPv6 addresses only. This allows easy monitoring of sshd. In general. -p port Specifies the port on which the server listens for connections (default 22). This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change. Test mode. -t -u len -D -4 -6 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR SSHD requires the use of a random number generator for its operation.4 Page 40 March 31.0.

prngd. Note that you need to be root or super. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port.*. To use this feature. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. If your system is heavly used for SSH request.generator for each TCPIP stack that SSHD is running on. then you might need more than one and you can assign the extra ones to port 791 to 793. With this configuration. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD. What you need to do this.*. $*. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated.code 100 run zzkrnsd.sh. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl> <logon tacl> volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.4 Page 41 March 31. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. 2008 .zzkrnsd on your system. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 ZZKRN PERSISTANT PROCESS SETUP We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh. you only need to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. Now.super to do this and NSK-SSH V2.

0.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. This is the ListenAddress configuration line. In the zzkrn subsystem.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service. NSK-SSH V2. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.0. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system. The file contains keywordargument pairs. CONFIGURATION FILE sshd reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line).config file to listen on port 127. 2008 .you need to change your /etc/sshd. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. one per line.1.4 Page 42 March 31.#RANDOM-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.

login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. This option is only available for protocol version 2.The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether an AFS token may be forwarded to the server. %h is replaced by the home directory of the user being authenticated and %u is replaced by the username of that user. AllowUsers This keyword can be followed by a list of user names. The default is ``yes''.ssh/authorized_keys'' Banner In some jurisdictions. login is allowed only for users names that match one of the patterns. a numerical group ID is not recognized. By default login is allowed regardless of the user name. as they can always install their own forwarders. 2008 . restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. AllowTcpForwarding Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted. separated by spaces. sending a warning message before authentication may be relevant for getting legal protection. The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%'. After expansion. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. If specified. AuthorizedKeysFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection set-up. The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. a numerical user ID is not recognized. Only group names are valid. Default is ``yes''. separated by spaces. The default is ``. Only user names are valid.4 Page 43 March 31. If specified. AuthorizedKeysFile Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication. AllowGroups This keyword can be followed by a list of group names. Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. NSK-SSH V2.

If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent.conf(5) are supported. sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. Users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns aren't allowed to log in. separated by spaces. terminating the session.4 Page 44 March 31. The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive. a numerical user ID is not recognized. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. By default login is allowed regardless of the user NSK-SSH V2. The default value is 3. This option applies to protocol version 2 only.'' ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. All authentication styles from login. and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default. The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. 2008 . If ClientAliveInterval (above) is set to 15. separated by spaces. DenyGroups This keyword can be followed by a number of group names.ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether challenge response authentication is allowed.blowfish-cbc. DenyUsers This keyword can be followed by a number of user names. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from Keepalive (below). Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. sshd will disconnect the client. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns. Only user names are valid. The default is ``aes128-cbc.arcfour. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. a numerical group ID is not recognized. indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. The default is ``yes''. Only group names are valid. The default is 0.cast128-cbc. unresponsive ssh clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds. ClientAliveCountMax Sets the number of client alive messages (see above) which may be sent without sshd receiving any messages back from the client. The TCP keepalive option enabled by Keepalive is spoofable.3des-cbc.

/etc/hosts. If they are sent. NSK-SSH V2. The default is ``yes''. The default is ``no''.equiv are still used. RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. IgnoreRhosts Specifies that .4 Page 45 March 31. The default is ``no''. On the other hand. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. This option is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side.shosts files will not be used in RhostsAuthentication. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client.ssh/known_hosts during RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. if keepalives are not sent. leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources. Note that sshd will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should bind remote port forwardings to the wildcard address. HostKey Specifies the file containing the private host keys (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key) used by SSH protocol versions 1 and 2. IgnoreUserKnownHosts Specifies whether sshd should ignore the user's $HOME/.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (hostbased authentication).rhosts and .equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. ``rsa1''keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'' or ``rsa'' are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol. and some people find it annoying. sshd binds remote port forwardings to the loopback addresss. 2008 . The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. However. By default. It is possible to have multiple host key files. sessions may hang indefinitely on the server. The default is ``no''.name.

ing forms may be used: ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port If port is not specified. This can be in the form of a Kerberos ticket. the value should be set to ``no'' in both the server and the client configuration files. sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified. The key is never stored anywhere. Default is ``yes''. Default is ``yes''. KerberosOrLocalPasswd If set then if password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd. To disable keepalives. KeyRegenerationInterval In protocol version 1. Default is ``yes''. KerberosTicketCleanup Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication is allowed.The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). Default is ``no''. If the value is 0.4 Page 46 March 31. This avoids infinitely hanging sessions. Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted. Ad- The follow- NSK-SSH V2. as this only works when the Kerberos KDC is actually an AFS kaserver. KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT may be forwarded to the server. The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys. ListenAddress Specifies the local addresses sshd should listen on. the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many seconds (if it has been used). The default is 3600 (seconds). 2008 . To use this option. the password provided by the user will be validated through the Kerberos KDC. the key is never regenerated. The default is to listen on all local addresses. the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity. and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host reboots. or if PasswordAuthentication is yes.

2008 . "10:30:60"). it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings. The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60). If the value is 0. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. The possible values are: QUIET. NSK-SSH V2. ERROR. The default is 600 (seconds). The default is INFO. random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values ``start:rate:full'' (e. but it will allow password authentication regardless of whether PasswordAuthentication is disabled. Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection. Alternatively. The default is 10. any Port options must precede this option for non port qualified addresses.hmac-sha1. fault is ``yes''. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. sshd will refuse connection attempts with a probability of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections. LoginGraceTime The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd. MaxStartups Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the sshd daemon. The default is ``no''. VERBOSE and DEBUG. The default is ``no''.ditionally.hmac-md5-96''. The de- PermitEmptyPasswords When password authentication is allowed.hmacsha1-96. PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt Specifies whether PAM challenge response authentication is allowed. INFO. there is no time limit. FATAL. This allows the use of most PAM challenge response authentication modules. Logging with level DEBUG violates the privacy of users and is not recommended.. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether password authentication is allowed.g.hmac-ripemd160. The default is ``hmac-md5.4 Page 47 March 31.

Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. The default is ``yes''. Multiple versions must be commaseparated. but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed). PidFile Specifies the file that contains the process identifier of the sshd daemon. or equivalent. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed. ReverseMappingCheck Specifies whether sshd should try to verify the remote host name and check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address NSK-SSH V2. The argument must be ``yes''. All other authentication methods are disabled for root.PermitRootLogin Specifies whether root can login using ssh(1). (On some systems it is also printed by the shell. See also ListenAddress. The default is ``2. Multiple options of this type are permitted. The default is 22.pid. The default is /var/run/sshd. 2008 .) Protocol The default is ``yes''. The default is ``yes''. Port Specifies the port number that sshd listens on. ``without-password''. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. Specifies the protocol versions sshd should support. PrintMotd Specifies whether sshd should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively. /etc/profile. If this option is set to ``without-password'' password authentication is disabled for root.4 Page 48 March 31.1''. The default is ``yes''. If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'' root login with public key authentication will be allowed. If this option is set to ``no'' root is not allowed to login. PrintLastLog Specifies whether sshd should print the date and time when the user last logged in. ``forced-commands-only'' or ``no''.

file transfer daemon). this method should not be permitted because it is insecure. AUTH. RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. The minimum value is 512. The default is ``yes''. ServerKeyBits Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key. The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed. The default is ``yes''.equiv files is sufficient. LOCAL4.g. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is AUTH. USER.4 Page 49 March 31. LOCAL3. LOCAL7. LOCAL5. LOCAL2.equiv authentication. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``no''. because it performs RSA-based host authentication in addition to normal rhosts or /etc/hosts.maps back to the very same IP address. By default no subsystems are defined. Note that login(1) is never used NSK-SSH V2. LOCAL1. The possible values are: DAEMON. Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command to execute upon subsystem request.equiv authentication together with successful RSA host authentication is allowed. Normally. RhostsRSAAuthentication should be used instead. This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd. Subsystem Configures an external subsystem (e. The default is ``no''. LOCAL0. LOCAL6. StrictModes Specifies whether sshd should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. 2008 . The default is ``no''. UseLogin Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions. and the default is 768. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether authentication using rhosts or /etc/hosts.. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``no''.

The default is ``no''. X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin is enabled. X11Forwarding Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. 2008 . The default is 10. Note also. where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following: <none> s | S m | M h | H d | D w | W seconds seconds minutes hours days weeks The default is Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value. Time Formats sshd command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time[qualifier]. Time format examples: 600 10m 1h30m 600 seconds (10 minutes) 10 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes) NSK-SSH V2. as users can always install their own forwarders. that if this is enabled. X11DisplayOffset Specifies the first display number available for sshd's X11 forwarding. Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not improve security in any way. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1) cookies.4 Page 50 March 31. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers.for remote command execution.

Each protocol version 2 public key consists of: options. 9.pub file and NSK-SSH V2.LOGIN PROCESS When a user successfully logs in. Checks /etc/nologin. runs it. 5. If the login is on a tty. comment. prints last login time and /etc/motd (unless prevented in the configuration file or by $HOME/. the comment field is not used for anything (but may be convenient for the user to identify the key).ssh/environment if it exists.4 Page 51 March 31. If $HOME/. comment.pub. 2008 . instead.ssh/authorized_keys is the default file that lists the public keys that are permitted for RSA authentication in protocol version 1 and for public key authentication (PubkeyAuthentication) in protocol version 2. its presence is determined by whether the line starts with a number or not (the option field never starts with a number). Runs user's shell or command. if it exists. Each line of the file contains one key (empty lines and lines starting with a `#' are ignored as comments). Each RSA public key consists of the following fields. Note that lines in this file are usually several hundred bytes long (because of the size of the RSA key modulus). For protocol version 2 the keytype is ``ssh-dss'' or ``ssh-rsa''. exponent. id_dsa. base64 encoded key. runs it. 4. sshd does the following: 1. bits. modulus and comment fields give the RSA key for protocol version 1. 2. keytype. Changes to run with normal user privileges. Changes to user's home directory. and no command has been specified. 8. copy the identity. The bits.pub or the id_rsa. 3. exponent. separated by spaces: options. The options fields are optional. 7.ssh/rc exists. records login time.hushlogin. If the login is on a tty. Reads $HOME/. AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT $HOME/. prints contents and quits (unless root). The ``rc'' files are given the X11 authentication protocol and cookie in standard input. otherwise runs xauth. AuthorizedKeysFile may be used to specify an alternative file. else if /etc/ssh/sshrc exists. see the FILES section). modulus. 6. You don't want to type them in. Sets up basic environment.

g. 2008 . command="command" Specifies that the command is executed whenever this key is used for authentication. The command is run on a pty if the client requests a pty. The purpose of this option is to optionally increase security: RSA authentication by itself does not trust the network or name servers or anything (but the key). An example might be a key that permits remote backups but nothing else.4 Page 52 March 31. one must not request a pty or should specify no-pty. if the canonical host name matches a negated pattern. The options (if present) consist of comma-separated option specifications. environment="NAME=value" Specifies that the string is to be added to the environment when logging in using this key.edit it. A quote may be included in the command by quoting it with a backslash. the canonical name of the remote host must be present in the comma-separated list of patterns (`*' and `?' serve as wildcards). The command supplied by the user (if any) is ignored. Note that the client may specify TCP/IP and/or X11 forwarding unless they are explicitly prohibited. Any port forward requests by the client will return an error. the key permits an intruder to log in from anywhere in the world.. except within double quotes. otherwise it is run without a tty. This additional option makes using a stolen key more difficult (name servers and/or routers would have to be compromised in addition to just the key). Multiple options of this type are permitted. in connection with the command option. the key is not accepted. if somebody somehow steals the key. No spaces are permitted. e. command or subsystem execution. This option might be useful to restrict certain RSA keys to perform just a specific operation. The following option specifications are supported (note that option keywords are case-insensitive): from="pattern-list" Specifies that in addition to RSA authentication. If a 8-bit clean channel is required. however. Note that this option applies to shell. Environment variables set this way override other default environment values. no-port-forwarding Forbids TCP/IP forwarding when this key is used for authentication. This might be used. The list may also contain patterns negated by prefixing them with `!'. NSK-SSH V2.

bar from="*. from /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.niksula. 2008 ..no-X11-forwarding Forbids X11 forwarding when this key is used for authentication.. Examples 1024 33 12121.hut.312314325 ylo@foo. Multiple permitopen options may be applied separated by commas..hut.hut.. The optional comment field continues to the end of the line. and is not used. they must be literal domains or addresses.2323 backup. they can be obtained.4 Page 53 March 31. The global file should be prepared by the administrator (optional).2334 ylo@niksula command="dump /home". no-agent-forwarding Forbids authentication agent forwarding when this key is used for authentication.fi..g.2323 SSH_KNOWN_HOSTS FILE FORMAT The /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.pub. and modulus are taken directly from the RSA host key. Each line in these files contains the following fields: hostnames.fi permitopen="10. permitopen="host:port" Limit local ``ssh -L'' port forwarding such that it may only connect to the specified host and port..niksula. Hostnames is a comma-separated list of patterns ('*' and '?' act as wildcards).permitopen="10. it is not accepted (by that line) even if it matched another pattern on the line. modulus. and $HOME/.2. No pattern matching is performed on the specified hostnames.56:25" 1024 33 23. comment. NSK-SSH V2. Any X11 forward requests by the client will return an error.1. exponent. each pattern in turn is matched against the canonical host name (when authenticating a client) or against the user-supplied name (when authenticating a server). no-pty Prevents tty allocation (a request to allocate a pty will fail).. The fields are separated by spaces. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port.. bits.no-pty..1. A pattern may also be preceded by `!' to indicate negation: if the host name matches a negated pattern.!pc.2. e. and the per-user file is maintained automatically: whenever the user connects from an unknown host its key is added to the per-user file. exponent.no-port-forwarding 1024 33 23. Bits.fi" 1024 35 23.55:80".ssh/known_hosts files contain host public keys for all known hosts.

233. authentication is accepted if any matching line has the proper key. Their contents should match the respective private parts. These files are created using ssh-keygen(1).fi cvs.208.130..185...pub and adding the host names at the front.. readable only by root.41 1024 37 159. It is possible that the files contain conflicting information.. /var/run/sshd. they are provided for the convenience of the user so their contents can be copied to known hosts files.pub.93 closenet.137. Note that sshd does not start if this file is group/world-accessible.pid Contains the process ID of the sshd listening for connections (if NSK-SSH V2. 2008 ..pub These three files contain the public parts of the host keys. Note that the lines in these files are typically hundreds of characters long.openbsd.= FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd.199. Rather. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. generate them by a script or by taking /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. This file should be writable by root only. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key. These files should be world-readable but writable only by root.pub. These files should only be owned by root. When performing host authentication. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key These three files contain the private parts of the host keys.org. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.3 ssh-rsa AAAA1234. and you definitely don't want to type in the host keys by hand..hut. and not accessible to others. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. /etc/ssh/moduli Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the "Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange". It is thus permissible (but not recommended) to have several lines or different host keys for the same names. This will inevitably happen when short forms of host names from different domains are put in the file..Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are ignored as comments. Examples closenet. but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable.4 Page 54 March 31. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.. authentication is accepted if valid information can be found from either file. These files are not really used for anything..

The key must be listed in one of these files to be accepted.4 Page 55 March 31. If is also possible to use netgroups in the file.pub files into this file. /etc/nologin If this file exists.ssh/known_hosts These files are consulted when using rhosts with RSA host authentication or protocol version 2 hostbased authentication to check the public key of the host. /etc/hosts. sshd refuses to let anyone except root log in. it can be world-readable. It is recommended that it not be accessible by others. separated by a space.deny If compiled with LIBWRAP support. The client uses the same files to verify that it is connecting to the correct remote host. Users will place the contents of their identity. $HOME/.there are several daemons running concurrently for different ports. it is recomby others. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts should be world-readable. as described in ssh-keygen(1). one corresponding host is permitted same file is used by rlogind and only by the user. The content of this file is not sensitive. The file should be world-readable. This file must be readable by root (which may on some machines imply it being world-readable if the user's home directory resides on an NFS volume).allow.rhosts This file contains host-username per line. These files should be writable only by root/the owner. $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.rhosts.ssh/known_hosts can but need not be world-readable. The given user on the to log in without password. Either host or user name may be of the form +@groupname to specify all hosts or all users in the group. /etc/hosts.pub. tcp-wrappers access controls may be defined here as described in hosts_access(5). The contents of the file are displayed to anyone trying to log in. The file must be writable mended that it not be accessible pairs. The rshd. this contains the pid of the one started last). this file is not used by rlogin and rshd. this file is exactly the same as for .ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA or DSA) that can be used to log into the user's account. id_dsa.pub and/or id_rsa.shosts For ssh. and $HOME/. $HOME/. and non-root connections are refused. However. 2008 . The format of this file is described above. so using this permits NSK-SSH V2.

it is recommended that it be world-readable. Using a user name practically grants the user root access. It can only contain empty lines. comment lines (that start with `#').equiv This is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. AFS is a particular example of such an environ- NSK-SSH V2. this will receive the "proto cookie" pair in standard input (and DISPLAY in environment).4 Page 56 March 31. $HOME/. The host name may also be followed by a user name.access using SSH only. Warning: It is almost never a good idea to use user names in hosts. The only valid use for user names that I can think of is in negative entries. In the simplest form.ssh/rc If this file exists. and other accounts that own critical binaries and directories. daemon. 2008 .rhosts authentication. Users on those hosts are permitted to log in without a password. this file may be useful in environments that want to run both rsh/rlogin and ssh. Negated entries start with `-'.equiv This file is used during . If the client host/user is successfully matched in this file. such users are permitted to log in as any user on this machine (except root). and assignment lines of the form name=value. If X11 spoofing is in use. However. This file must be writable only by root. /etc/hosts. Note that this warning also applies to rsh/rlogin. /etc/ssh/shosts. provided they have the same user name on both machines. The file should be writable only by the user. Additionally. The primary purpose of this file is to run any initialization routines which may be needed before the user's home directory becomes accessible.equiv.ssh/environment This file is read into the environment at login (if it exists). adm.equiv. Additionally. it is run with /bin/sh after reading the environment files but before starting the user's shell or command. $HOME/. login is automatically permitted provided the client and server user names are the same. the syntax ``+@group'' can be used to specify netgroups. which includes bin. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. it need not be readable by anyone else. one per line. This must call xauth(1) in that case. this file contains host names. Beware that it really means that the named user(s) can log in as anybody.

SEE ALSO scp(1). 2008 . This file should be writable only by the user. NSK-SSH V2. login. sftp(1). ssh-agent(1). This file should be writable only by root. ssh-add(1). xauth is used to store the cookie. sftp-server(8) ssh-keygen(1). /etc/ssh/sshrc Like $HOME/.4 Page 57 March 31. and if that does not exist either.ssh/rc. and need not be readable by anyone else. This file will probably contain some initialization code followed by something similar to: if read proto cookie. then echo add $DISPLAY $proto $cookie | xauth -q fi If this file does not exist. and should be world-readable. moduli(5). ssh(1).ment. This can be used to specify machine-specific login-time initializations globally. /etc/ssh/sshrc is run.conf(5).

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SEE ALSO sftp(1). Lehtinen. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. sshd(8) T.sftp-server SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server .org> HISTORY sftp-server first appeared in OpenBSD 2.SFTP server subsystem SYNOPSIS sftp-server DESCRIPTION sftp-server is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. 2008 . sftp-server is not intended to be called directly. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 59 March 31. work in progress material. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. AUTHORS Markus Friedl <markus@openbsd. Ylonen. January 2001. and S. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1).8 .txt. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). SSH File Transfer Protocol. See sshd(8) for more information.

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If the filename is too long you will get an error. you must limit your filenames to 8 characters. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00.com> HISTORY sftp-server-guardian first appeared in 2005. NSK-SSH V2. sshd(8) T. This subsystem does not have access to files residing on another node. 2008 . SSH File Transfer Protocol. AUTHORS Bowden Systems Inc <sales@bsi2. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. Ylonen. and S. This make the sftp-server-guardian subsystem compatible with graphical user interfaces such as FileZilla.system file system. work in progress material. If the filename has a . using the sftp-server-guardian you would use the /system/system option. SEE ALSO sftp(1).SFTP server subsystem for guardian access SYNOPSIS sftp-server-guardian DESCRIPTION sftp-server-guardian is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin.txt file on it. January 2001. Lehtinen. See sshd(8) for more information. Eventhough this feature was designed into the subsystem. As with all guardian filenames. For example. there was no way to allow this via a graphical interface and unix filesystem syntax. sftp-server-guardian is not intended to be called directly. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). The sftp-server-guardian support reading and writing files directly to the guardian filesystem using the standard unix syntax. if you wish to access the $system.txt. it will be stored as an edit file.sftp-server-guardian SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server-guardian .4 Page 61 March 31.

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SEE ALSO ssh(1) NSK-SSH V2. GNOTTY 1 .Set this to the password for the public key or user id HISTORY This program was written to solve the select problem for ssh in OSS.scmd SCMD(1) System Reference Manual SCMD(1) NAME scmd . If cmd is more than one command. -v used for displaying detail ssh information on stderr. 2008 .Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . it should be enclosed in double or single quotes. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCMD program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password.secure command (remote command execution) SYNOPSIS scmd [-v] user@host cmd DESCRIPTION scmd is a command front-end for ssh.4 Page 63 March 31.

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sftp connects and logs into the specified host. rm and lmkdir. ln. The options are as follows: -1 Specify the use of protocol version 1. The last usage format allows the sftp client to start in a remote directory. sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). rename. -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. then enters an interactive command mode. -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh(1) transport. otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag. such as public key authentication and compression. -C Enables compression (via ssh's -C flag).Secure file transfer program SYNOPSIS sftp [-1Cv] [-b batchfile] [-F ssh_config] [-o ssh_option] [-s subsystem | sftp_server] [-S program] host sftp [[user@]host[:file [file]]] sftp [[user@]host[:dir[/]]] DESCRIPTION sftp is an interactive file transfer program. For exam- NSK-SSH V2.sftp SFTP(1) NAME sftp . System Reference Manual SFTP(1) -b batchfile Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. 2008 . The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used. It may also use many features of ssh. Since it lacks user interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication.4 Page 65 March 31. similar to ftp(1). put.

4 Page 66 March 31. to specify an alternate port use: sftp -oPort=24. sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1).Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SFTP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. grp must be a numeric GID. 2008 . bye cd path Change remote directory to path. chmod mode path Change permissions of file path to mode. NSK-SSH V2. -v Raise logging level. lcd path Change local directory to path. own must be a numeric UID. GNOTTY 1 . Commands are case insensitive and pathnames may be enclosed in quotes if they contain spaces.ple. -s subsystem | sftp_server Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. -S program Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection. A path is useful for using sftp over protocol version 1. chown own path Change owner of file path to own. chgrp grp path Change group of file path to grp.Set this to the password for the public key or user id INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Once in interactive mode. program must understand ssh(1) options. or when the remote sshd does not have an sftp subsystem configured. Quit sftp. exit Quit sftp. This option is also passed to ssh.

4 Page 67 March 31. ls [path] Display remote directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. it is given the same name it has on the remote machine. 2008 . If the -P flag is specified. help Display help text. lumask umask Set local umask to umask. lls [ls-options [path]] Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. lpwd Print local working directory.get [flags] remote-path [local-path] Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. rmdir path Remove remote directory specified by path. If the local path name is not specified. lmkdir path Create local directory specified by path. Quit sftp. If the -P flag is specified. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. pwd quit Display remote working directory. put [flags] local-path [local-path] Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine. mkdir path Create remote directory specified by path. If the remote path name is not specified. rename oldpath newpath Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath. it is given the same name it has on the local machine. rm path NSK-SSH V2. ln oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath.

January 2001.txt. ssh(1). ! ? Escape to local shell.4 Page 68 March 31. and S. work in progress material. sshd(8) T. ssh-keygen(1). 2008 .Delete remote file specified by path. ssh-add(1). draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. NSK-SSH V2. Lehtinen. Synonym for help. sftp-server(8). SSH File Transfer Protocol.org> SEE ALSO scp(1). Ylonen. AUTHORS Damien Miller <djm@mindrot. ! command Execute command in local shell. symlink oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath.

access times. Copies between two remote hosts are permitted. The options are as follows: -c cipher Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer. option is directly passed to ssh(1). Verbose mode.. This is helpful in debugging connection. and modes from the original file. Any file name may contain a host and user specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from that host. scp will ask for passwords or passphrases if they are needed for authentication..secure copy (remote file copy program) SYNOPSIS scp [-pqrvBC46] [-F ssh_config] [-S program] [-P port] [-c cipher] [-i identity_file] [-o ssh_option] [[user@]host1:]file1 [. Causes scp and ssh(1) to print debugging messages about their progress. It uses ssh(1) for data transfer. Disables the progress meter. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases). -p Preserves modification times. 2008 . -r -v -B -q NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 69 March 31. Unlike rcp(1). and configuration problems. System Reference Manual SCP(1) This -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read. and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh(1).scp SCP(1) NAME scp . Recursively copy entire directories. authentication.] [[user@]host2:]file2 DESCRIPTION scp copies files between hosts on a network.

Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only. because -p is already reserved for preserving the times and modes of the file in rcp(1). For example. ssh(1). forcing the use of protocol version 1 is specified using scp -oProtocol=1. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen.4 Page 70 March 31. must understand ssh(1) options. -P port Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host.fi> HISTORY scp is based on the rcp(1) program in BSD source code from the Regents of the University of California. NSK-SSH V2. The program -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password .fi> and Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs. SEE ALSO rcp(1). Note that this option is written with a capital `P'. ssh-agent(1). ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password.Set this to the password for the public key or user id AUTHORS Timo Rinne <tri@iki. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag. -S program Name of program to use for the encrypted connection.hut. GNOTTY 1 . Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable com- -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. pression. ssh-add(1). -4 -6 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only. sshd(8) sftp(1).-C Compression enable. 2008 . ssh-keygen(1). This option is directly passed to ssh(1).

ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user. Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented by the agent.ssh/identity.] ssh-add -s reader ssh-add -e reader DESCRIPTION ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent. Deletes all identities from the agent. it adds the file $HOME/. The authentication agent must be running and must be an ancestor of the current process for ssh-add to work.adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-add [-lLdD] [file . The options are as follows: -l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent. Alternative file names can be given on the command line.4 Page 71 March 31.. When run without arguments. -e reader Remove key in smartcard reader. Instead of adding the identity. The passphrase is read from the user's tty. removes the identity from the agent. ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given. sshagent(1). System Reference Manual SSH-ADD(1) -L -d -D -s reader Add key in smartcard reader. If any file requires a passphrase..ssh-add SSH-ADD(1) NAME ssh-add . NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .

) SEE ALSO ssh(1).4 Page 72 March 31.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user.Xsession or related script. This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a . Note that ssh-add ignores this file if it is accessible by others. (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. ENVIRONMENT DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS If ssh-add needs a passphrase. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.FILES $HOME/. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). This is the default file added by ssh-add when no other files have been specified. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. $HOME/. $HOME/. 2008 . it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. ssh-agent(1). This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. ssh-keygen(1).

authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-agent [-c | -s] [-d] [command [args . When this option is specified ssh-agent will not System Reference Manual SSH-AGENT(1) -s -k -d If a commandline is given. ssh-add(1) asks for the passphrase (using a small X11 application if running under X11.ssh-agent SSH-AGENT(1) NAME ssh-agent . It then sends the identity to the agent. fork. the agent can automatically use any of these identities. If the identity has a passphrase.ssh/identity file. Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout. When the command dies. and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program. DSA).4 Page 73 March 31. Debug mode. When executed without arguments.. 2008 .. The agent initially does not have any private keys. This is the default if SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell. this is executed as a subprocess of the agent. Keys are added using ssh-add(1). or from the terminal if running without X). Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable). so does the agent. The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session. The options are as follows: -c Generate C-shell commands on stdout. Through use of environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for authentication when logging in to other machines using ssh(1). Several identities can be stored in the agent. ssh-add(1) adds the $HOME/. ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by the agent.]] ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k DESCRIPTION ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA. This is the default if SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell. NSK-SSH V2.

The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). and authentication passphrases never go over the network. the connection to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins. The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's PID.4 Page 74 March 31. This file is not used by ssh-agent but is normally added to the agent using ssh-add(1) at login time. $HOME/. $HOME/. The socket is made accessible only to the current user.<pid>). This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. There are two main ways to get an agent setup: Either the agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment variables are exported. or the agent prints the needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be generated) which can be evalled in the calling shell. or terminal. Authentication data need not be stored on any other machine. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. and the name of this socket is stored in the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. 2008 .ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. However.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. FILES $HOME/. Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection to the agent. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. laptop. This method is easily abused by root or another instance of the same user. A unix-domain socket is created (/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. The agent exits automatically when the command given on the command line terminates. NSK-SSH V2. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. and the user can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere in the network in a secure way.

/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. These sockets should only be readable by the owner.<pid> Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection to the authentication agent.4 Page 75 March 31. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. ssh-keygen(1). ssh-add(1). SEE ALSO ssh(1). The sockets should get automatically removed when the agent exits. 2008 .

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4 Page 77 March 31. or /etc/ssh/shosts. This form of authentication alone is normally not allowed by the server because it is not secure.rhosts.rhosts.ssh SSH(1) NAME ssh .ssh/known_hosts in the FILES section). /etc/hosts. the user is immediately permitted to log in.equiv.shosts exists in the user's home directory on the remote machine and contains a line containing the name of the client machine and the name of the user on that machine.shosts. the user is permitted to log in.equiv. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. and the user names are the same on both sides. and the rlogin/rsh protocol in general. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods deM-pending on the protocol version used: SSH protocol version 1 First. ssh connects and logs into the specified hostname. if the machine the user logs in from is listed in /etc/hosts.equiv method combined with RSA-based host authentication. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh. It means that if the login would be permitted by $HOME/. [Note to the administrator: /etc/hosts. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. and if additionally the server can verify the client's host key (see /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/. Second. if .equiv. The second authentication method is the rhosts or hosts. $HOME/. DNS spoofing and routing spoofing. only then login is permitted. This authentication method closes security holes due to IP spoofing. $HOME/. 2008 .rhosts or .equiv on the remote machine.NSK SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine.equiv or /etc/ssh/shosts. are inherently insecure and should be System Reference Manual SSH(1) NSK-SSH V2.

pub to $HOME/. 2008 . If other authentication methods fail. RSA is one such system. When the user logs in.ssh/authorized_keys in his/her home directory on the remote machine (the authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional $HOME/. This stores the private key in $HOME/. the client will try to authenticate first using the hostbased method. The user should then copy the identity.] As a third authentication method. The server checks if this key is permitted. The scheme is based on public-key cryptography: there are cryptosystems where encryption and decryption are done using separate keys. since all communications are encrypted. See ssh-agent(1) for more information. and only the user knows the private key. ssh supports RSA based authentication. The idea is that each user creates a public/private key pair for authentication purposes. a random number. and if so. The file $HOME/. though the lines can be very long). After this. The password is sent to the remote host for checking. The server knows the public key. The challenge can only be decrypted using the proper private key.ssh/identity and the public key in $HOME/. and it is not possible to derive the decryption key from the encryption key. if this method fails public key authentication is attempted. sends the user (actually the ssh program running on behalf of the user) a challenge. the password cannot be seen by someone listening on the network. proving that he/she knows the private key but without disclosing it to the server.ssh/identity. however. the ssh program tells the server which key pair it would like to use for authentication. SSH protocol version 2 When a user connects using the protocol version 2 different authentication methods are available. The public key method is similar to RSA authentication described in the NSK-SSH V2. RSA authentication is much more secure than rhosts authentication. and finally if this method fails keyboard-interactive and password authentication are tried. Using the default values for PreferredAuthentications. The user's client then decrypts the challenge using the private key. encrypted by the user's public key. The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may be with an authentication agent.4 Page 78 March 31.pub in the user's home directory. the user can log in without giving the password. The user creates his/her RSA key pair by running ssh-keygen(1). and has one key per line. ssh implements the RSA authentication protocol automatically.disabled if security is desired.rhosts file. ssh prompts the user for a password.ssh/authorized_keys lists the public keys that are permitted for logging in.

4 Page 79 March 31. The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh. If no pseudo tty has been allocated. Additionally. the session is transparent and can be used to reliably transfer binary data. If a pseudo-terminal has been allocated (normal login session). The session identifier is derived from a shared Diffie-Hellman value and is only known to the client and the server.previous section and allows the RSA or DSA algorithm to be used: The client uses his private key. ssh supports a number of functions through the use of an escape character. ssh supports hostbased or challenge response authentication. CAST128 or Arcfour) and integrity (hmac-md5. Login session and remote execution When the user's identity has been accepted by the server.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. The server checks whether the matching public key is listed in $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys and grants access if both the key is found and the signature is correct. the server either executes the given command. If public key authentication fails or is not available a password can be sent encrypted to the remote host for proving the user's identity. Protocol 2 provides additional mechanisms for confidentiality (the traffic is encrypted using 3DES. Blowfish. $HOME/. The escape character must always follow a newline to be interpreted as special. On most systems. the user may use the escape characters noted below. or logs into the machine and gives the user a normal shell on the remote machine. The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP connections have been closed. Escape Characters When a pseudo terminal has been requested. 2008 . The escape character can be changed in configuration files using the EscapeChar configuration directive or on the command line by the -e option. A single tilde character can be sent as ~~ or by following the tilde by a character other than those described below. Note that protocol 1 lacks a strong mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the connection. setting the escape character to ``none'' will also make the session transparent even if a tty is used.ssh/id_rsa. to sign the session identifier and sends the result to the server. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted. hmac-sha1). NSK-SSH V2.

2008 . and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine. NSK-SSH V2. For this purpose. The real authentication cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain). the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted channel. store it in Xauthority on the server. but with a display number greater than zero. Forwarding of X11 connections can be configured on the command line or in configuration files. This is normal. The user should not manually set DISPLAY. see the description of the -X and -x options described later) and the user is using X11 (the DISPLAY environment variable is set).4 Page 80 March 31. and happens because ssh creates a ``proxy'' X server on the server machine for forwarding the connections over the encrypted channel. the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the remote side unless disabled on the command line or in a configuration file. If the user is using an authentication agent.The supported escapes (assuming the default `~') are: ~. it will generate a random authorization cookie. Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file. ~^Z ~# ~& Disconnect Background ssh List forwarded connections Background ssh at logout when waiting for forwarded connection / X11 sessions to terminate (protocol version 1 only) Display a list of escape characters Request rekeying of the connection (only useful for SSH protocol version 2 and if the peer supports it) ~? ~R X11 and TCP forwarding If the ForwardX11 variable is set to ``yes'' (or. ssh will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. The DISPLAY value set by ssh will point to the server machine. One possible application of TCP/IP forwarding is a secure connection to an electronic purse. and verify that any forwarded connections carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened. another is going through firewalls.

The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line. See Ciphers for more information.Server authentication ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing identifications for all hosts it has ever been used with. the file /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts. The StrictHostKeyChecking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines whose host key is not known or has changed. 2008 . It is believed to be secure. blowfish is a fast block cipher.') closes the connection. ssh warns about this and disables password authentication to prevent a trojan horse from getting the user's password.4 Page 81 March 31. The escape character followed by a dot (`. Any new hosts are automatically added to the user's file. des is only supported in the ssh client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. 3des is used by default. 3des (triple-des) is an encrypt-decrypt-encrypt triple with three different keys. Another purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption. and followed by itself sends the escape character once. If a host's identification ever changes. it appears very secure and is much faster than 3des. The options are as follows: -a -A Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. -c cipher_spec Additionally. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection.ssh/known_hosts in the user's home directory. -e ch|^ch|none Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: `~'). -c blowfish|3des|des Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the session. -b bind_address Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. Additionally. Host keys are stored in $HOME/. Setting the NSK-SSH V2. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. followed by control-Z suspends the connection. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of ciphers can be specified in order of preference.

The argument is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. -n Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. For example. 2008 . for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms can be specified in order of preference. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm. prevents reading from stdin). This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases. -l login_name Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine. see also the -f option.cs.cs.) Do not execute a remote command. -g -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA or DSA authentication is read. Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase.hut.fi. It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. This must be used when ssh is run in the background. This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.character to ``none'' disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent.fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows.4 Page 82 March 31. -m mac_spec Additionally. This implies -n. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine. -I smartcard_device Specifies which smartcard device to use.hut. but the user wants it in the background. Default is $HOME/. ssh -n shadows. and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel. This may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.ssh/identity in the user's home directory. -k Disables forwarding of Kerberos tickets and AFS tokens. See the MACs keyword for more information. This is useful for just forwarding ports (protocol version 2 only). The ssh program will be put in the background. -N NSK-SSH V2.

g. -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin. authentication. Multiple -t options force tty allocation. Maximum is 3. Multiple -v options increases the verbosity. This is helpful in debugging connection. Verbose mode. Enables X11 forwarding. sftp). and configuration problems. Note that this option turns off RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication for older servers. stdout. Disables X11 forwarding. Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be Only fatal errors are displayed. when implementing menu services. 2008 . This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.. Quiet mode. e. This can be used to execute arbiM-trary screen-based programs on a remote machine. The subsystem is specified as the remote command. Disable pseudo-tty allocation.-o option Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. even if ssh has no local tty.4 Page 83 March 31. The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the con- NSK-SSH V2. -P Use a non-privileged port for outgoing connections. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress. suppressed. -q -s May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system. which can be very useful. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. and data for forwarded X11 and TCP/IP connections). This can also be specified on a per-host -t -T -v -x -X basis in a configuration file. and the ``level'' can be controlled by the CompressionLevel option (see below). The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1). stderr. Subsystems are a feature of the SSH2 protocol which facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (eg. Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections. but will only slow down things on fast networks. This can be used if a firewall does not permit connections from privileged ports. Force pseudo-tty allocation.

the connection is forwarded over the secure channel.ssh/config. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -R port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the remote (server) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the local side. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the local machine. Forces ssh to try protocol version 2 only. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. Only root can forward privileged ports. and whenever a connection is made to this port. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel.4 Page 84 March 31. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. Only root can forward priviM-leged ports. -L port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the local (client) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the remote side. If a configuration file is given on the command line. 2008 . -F configfile Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file. and whenever a connection is made to this port. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. -1 -2 -4 Forces ssh to try protocol version 1 only. Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the remote side. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -D port Specifies a local ``dynamic'' application-level port forwarding. see the Compression option below. the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the remote machine. The default for the per-user configuration file is $HOME/.figuration files. and whenever a connection is made to this port. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. NSK-SSH V2.

For each parameter. The configuration file has the following format: Empty lines and lines starting with `#' are comments. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used. scp and sftp -o option. the name is not converted to a canonicalized host name before matching). more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file.. and system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config).ssh/config). the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh. Configuration options may be separated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one `='. The default is ``no''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. A single `*' as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts.e.4 Page 85 March 31. 2008 . This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password. The configuration files contain sections bracketed by ``Host'' specifications. BatchMode If set to ``yes''. Otherwise a line is of the format ``keyword arguments''. The matched host name is the one given on the command line.-6 Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. CONFIGURATION FILES ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: command line options. the first obtained value will be used. and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification. passphrase/password querying will be disabled. AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether to pass AFS tokens to remote host. user's configuration file ($HOME/. NSK-SSH V2. The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword. The host is the hostname argument given on the command line (i. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. and general defaults at the end.

CompressionLevel Specifies the compression level to use if compression is enabled. Currently. which is good for most applications. The meaning of the values is the same as in gzip(1). The default is ``no''. and ``des'' are supported. the check will not be executed. This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh command line to clear port forwardings set in configuration files. ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before NSK-SSH V2. If the option is set to ``no''. Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to ``yes''. The default is ``3des''.BindAddress Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order of preference. ssh will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file. CheckHostIP If this flag is set to ``yes''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.4 Page 86 March 31. best).aes256-cbc'' ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local.blowfish-cbc. The deM-fault is ``aes128-cbc. The default is ``yes''. ``3des''. aes192-cbc. des is only supported in the ssh client for inM-teroperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. remote and dynamic port forwardings specified in the configuration files or on the command line be cleared. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. The default level is 6.cast128-cbc. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. ``blowfish''. Cipher Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in protocol version 1. and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). The default is ``no''. The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9 (slow. Compression Specifies whether to use compression.3des-cbc. 2008 . This allows ssh to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing.arcfour.

The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line.falling back to rsh or exiting. FallBackToRsh Specifies that if connecting via ssh fails due to a connection refused error (there is no sshd(8) listening on the remote host). By default. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. `^' followed by a letter. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: `~'). This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports.4 Page 87 March 31. rsh(1) should automatically be used instead (after a suitable warning about the session being unencrypted). ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine. GlobalKnownHostsFile NSK-SSH V2. or ``none'' to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data). The default is ``no''. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. The default is ``no''. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. The default is ``no''. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address. The default is 1. 2008 . The argument must be a port number. ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. Multiple forwardings may be specified. The argument should be a single character. The escape character can also be set on the command line. The argument must be an integer. ssh binds local port forwardings to the loopback addresss. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel. The default is ``no''.

Additionally. The file name may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory.Specifies a file to use for the global host key database instead of /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. The default for this option is: ``ssh-rsa. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. This option applies to protocol version 2 only and is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication. If they are sent. IdentityFile Specifies the file from which the user's RSA or DSA authentication identity is read (default $HOME/. It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files. Default is the name given on the command line.ssh/identity in the user's home directory). HostName Specifies the real host name to log into. This is important in scripts. The default is ``no''. the value should be set to ``no'' in both NSK-SSH V2. any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication.ssh-dss'' HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files. This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts. 2008 . and many users want it too. all these identities will be tried in sequence. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). To disable keepalives. and some people find it annoying.4 Page 88 March 31. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. This option is useful for tunneling ssh connections or for multiple servers running on a single host. However. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies. HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the protocol version 2 host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of preference.

The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine. The ar- KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT will be forwarded to the server. The possible values are: QUIET. Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host. INFO. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh. ERROR. This will only work if the Kerberos server is actually an AFS kaserver. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication will be used. FATAL. gument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''.hmac-sha1-96. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. The default is ``hmac-md5. The default is INFO. Default PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try protocol 2 authentication methods. 2008 .hmac-md5-96''. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. The default is ``yes''. Default is 3. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The argument to this keyword must be an integer.hmac-sha1. VERBOSE and DEBUG. The first argument must be a port number. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. Multiple forwardings may be specified.4 Page 89 March 31. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication.the server and the client configuration files. and the second must be host:port. NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. This allows a client to prefer one method NSK-SSH V2. is 22.hmacripemd160.

The command can be basically anything.1''.g. or execute sshd -i somewhere. The default is ``yes''.password'' Protocol Specifies the protocol versions ssh should support in order of preference. password) The default for this option is: ``hostbased. NSK-SSH V2.g. and the second must be host:port.publickey. It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine. and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication. The default is ``2. This means that ssh tries version 2 and falls back to version 1 if version 2 is not available. This option applies to protocol version 1 only.keyboardinteractive. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. and is executed with /bin/sh. The first argument must be a port number. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The command string extends to the end of the line. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server. The deM-fault is ``yes''.4 Page 90 March 31. Multiple versions must be comma-separated. Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication).(e. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. Note that this declaration only affects the client side and has no effect whatsoever on security. Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce authentication time on slow connections when rhosts authentication is not used. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user). The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. `%h' will be substituted by the host name to connect and `%p' by the port. Multiple forwardings may be specified. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. In the command string. 2008 . RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the local machine. Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command.

If this flag is set to ``no''. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try RSA authentication. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. The argument to this keyword is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. no device is specified and smartcard support is not activated. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. or an authentication agent is running. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge response authentication. The argument must be ``yes''. SmartcardDevice Specifies which smartcard device to use. The default is ``yes''.RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA host authentication. StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to ``yes''.ssh/known_hosts file. The default is ``no''. NSK-SSH V2. The default is ``ask''. Note that this option must be set to ``yes'' if RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication authentications are needed with older servers. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts. ``no'' or ``ask''. new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do. and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. 2008 . The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``yes''. RSA authentication will only be attempted if the identity file exists. By default. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. The host keys of known hosts will be verified automatically in all cases. The default is ``yes''. or connections to new hosts are frequently made.4 Page 91 March 31. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks. ssh will never automatically add host keys to the $HOME/. If this flag is set to ``ask''. can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained. ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. however.

This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. as that will render the X11 connection insecure (and will require the user to manually copy any required authorization cookies). Set to the path of the user's home directory. This is particularly useful when calling ssh from a . The user should normally not set DISPLAY explicitly. It is automatically set by ssh to point to a value of the form ``hostname:n'' where hostname indicates the host where the shell runs. It is possible that the host does not at all support the ssh protocol. SSH_ASKPASS If ssh needs a passphrase.User Specifies the user to log in as.4 Page 92 March 31. and n is an integer >= 1. Set to the default PATH. as specified when compiling ssh. UseRsh Specifies that rlogin/rsh should be used for this host. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ENVIRONMENT ssh will normally set the following environment variables: DISPLAY The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server. This causes ssh to immediately execute rsh(1). it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. NSK-SSH V2. set for compatibility with systems that use this variable. ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections over the secure channel. HOME LOGNAME Synonym for USER. MAIL PATH Set to the path of the user's mailbox. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. UserKnownHostsFile Specifies a file to use for the user host key database instead of $HOME/. 2008 .ssh/known_hosts. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. All other options (except HostName) are ignored if this has been specified. If ssh does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines.Xsession or related script.

this variable is not set. protocol 2 DSA.ssh/environment. 2008 .Set this to the password for the public key or user id FILES $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa. the daemon passes the value on to new connections). See sshd(8). They are for protocol 1 RSA.e.) SSH_AUTH_SOCK Identifies the path of a unix-domain socket used to communicate with the agent. NONSTOP ADDITIONAL OPTIONS If you need to use the SSH program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. respectively. NSK-SSH V2.ssh/identity. and protocol 2 RSA. $HOME/. SSH_TTY This is set to the name of the tty (path to the device) associated with the current shell or command. ssh reads $HOME/.4 Page 93 March 31. Set to the name of the user logging in. It can be used to extract the original arguments.ssh/id_rsa Contains the authentication identity of the user. TZ The timezone variable is set to indicate the present timezone if it was set when the daemon was started (i. $HOME/.(Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. USER Additionally. and adds lines of the format ``VARNAME=value'' to the environment.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password .ssh/known_hosts Records host keys for all hosts the user has logged into that are not in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. The variable contains three space-separated values: client ip-address.. client port number. and server port number. GNOTTY 1 . SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND The variable contains the original command line if a forced command is executed. If the current session has no tty. $HOME/. SSH_CLIENT Identifies the client end of the connection.

$HOME/. The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by sshd(8) to verify the client host when logging in. This file is not highly sensitive. they are only provided for the convenience of the user. This file does not usually contain any sensitive information. and not accessible by others. The contents of the $HOME/.ssh/identity. $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 1 RSA authentication.pub file should be added to $HOME/. When different names are used for the same machine. $HOME/.pub. This file is used by the ssh client.pub file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. This file should be prepared by the system administrator to contain the public host keys of all machines in the organization. $HOME/. and not accessible by others. These files are never used automatically and are not necessary.pub and $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA/DSA) that can be used for logging in as this user.ssh/id_rsa.ssh/id_dsa. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts Systemwide list of known host keys.pub. in the following format (fields separated by spaces): system name. public key and optional comment field.These files contain sensitive data and should be readable by the user but not accessible by others (read/write/execute).ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 2 DSA/RSA authentication. other names NSK-SSH V2. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user.pub identity files. This file contains public keys. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa. The format of this file is described in the sshd(8) manual page.ssh/identity. one per line.4 Page 94 March 31. 2008 . Note that ssh ignores a private key file if it is accessible by othM-ers. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user. These files are not sensitive and can (but need not) be readable by anyone. The contents of the $HOME/. In the simplest form the format is the same as the . This file should be worldreadable. separated by commas. all such names should be listed.pub Contains the public key for authentication (public part of the identity file in human-readable form). It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. The format is described on the sshd(8) manual page. the passphrase will be used to encrypt the sensitive part of this file using 3DES. The format of this file is described above.

are needed because ssh does not convert the user-supplied name to a canonical name before checking the key. /etc/hosts.ssh/known_hosts. /etc/ssh/shosts. which makes using this file insecure. (Note that this file is also used by rlogin and rsh.rhosts authentication to list the host/user pairs that are permitted to log in. and not accessible by others. this file must be owned by the user. this will automatically add the host key to $HOME/. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . This file must be world-readable.rhosts. Note that by default sshd(8) will be installed so that it requires successful RSA host authentication before permitting . This file may be useful to permit logins using ssh but not using rsh/rlogin.equiv This file is used during . and then a user name on that host. it can be stored in $HOME/. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file.rhosts This file is used in .ssh/known_hosts.shosts This file is used exactly the same way as . On some machines this file may need to be world-readable if the user's home directory is on a NFS partition. The easiest way to do this is to connect back to the client from the server machine using ssh. because someone with access to the name servers would then be able to fool host authentication. Additionally. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. and must not have write permissions for anyone else. The recommended permission for most machines is read/write for the user. If the server machine does not have the client's host key in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. separated by a space. $HOME/. If the client host is found in this file.equiv. login is automatically permitted provided client and server user names are the same. one per line (the full format is described on the sshd(8) manual page).4 Page 95 March 31. $HOME/.rhosts authentication. The purpose for having this file is to be able to use rhosts authentication with ssh without permitting login with rlogin(1) or rsh(1). It contains canonical hosts names.) Each line of the file contains a host name (in the canonical form returned by name servers). Additionally. This file should only be writable by root. and for those users who do not have a configuration file.rhosts authentication. because sshd(8) reads it as root.equiv This file is processed exactly as /etc/hosts.

ssh/rc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. work in progress material.4 Page 96 March 31. SSH Protocol Architecture. sshd(8) ssh-add(1). and S. NSK-SSH V2. ssh- T. scp(1). July 2001. draft-ietf-secsh-architecture-09. rsh(1). T. $HOME/. 2008 .txt. See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. SEE ALSO rlogin(1). keygen(1). ssh-agent(1). M.ssh/environment Contains additional definitions for environment variables. Saarinen. $HOME/. T. Rinne. Kivinen. see section ENVIRONMENT above. Lehtinen. sftp(1). Ylonen./etc/ssh/sshrc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. telnet(1).

4 Page 97 March 31.0.APPENDIX B . 2008 .ssh/authorized_keys # rhosts authentication should not be used RhostsAuthentication no # Don't read the user's ~/.1 ListenAddress 0. # for more information. Port 22 #Protocol 2.shosts files IgnoreRhosts yes # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts RhostsRSAAuthentication no # similar for protocol version 2 See sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.0.rhosts and ~/.0 #ListenAddress :: # HostKey for protocol version 1 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key # HostKeys for protocol version 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key # Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key KeyRegenerationInterval 3600 ServerKeyBits 768 # Logging SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging # Authentication: LoginGraceTime 600 PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes RSAAuthentication yes PubkeyAuthentication yes #AuthorizedKeysFile %h/.FILES sshd_config FILE # This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/ssh/bin # This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file.

change to no here! PasswordAuthentication yes PermitEmptyPasswords no # Uncomment to disable s/key passwords #ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # Uncomment to enable PAM keyboard-interactive authentication # Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication' #PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes # To change Kerberos options #KerberosAuthentication no #KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes #AFSTokenPassing no #KerberosTicketCleanup no # Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver #KerberosTgtPassing yes X11Forwarding no X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintMotd yes #PrintLastLog no KeepAlive yes #UseLogin no #MaxStartups 10:30:60 #Banner /etc/issue.net #ReverseMappingCheck yes Subsystem Subsystem sftp sftp-g /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server-guardian NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 98 March 31.HostbasedAuthentication no # Uncomment if you don't trust ~/.ssh/known_hosts for RhostsRSAAuthentication #IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes # To disable tunneled clear text passwords.

host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the configuration file. # Site-wide defaults for various options # Host * # ForwardAgent no # ForwardX11 no # RhostsAuthentication no # RhostsRSAAuthentication yes # RSAAuthentication yes # PasswordAuthentication yes # FallBackToRsh no # UseRsh no # BatchMode no # CheckHostIP yes # StrictHostKeyChecking yes # IdentityFile ~/. user-specific file 3. system-wide file Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set. Thus. This file provides defaults for users.1 # Cipher blowfish # EscapeChar ~ NSK-SSH V2. # # # # # # # Configuration data is parsed as follows: 1. command line options 2. and the values can # be changed in per-user configuration files or on the command line.ssh/identity # IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_dsa # IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa # Port 22 # Protocol 2. See ssh(1) for more # information. and defaults at the end.4 Page 99 March 31. 2008 .ssh_config FILE # This is ssh client systemwide configuration file.

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2008 .sh FILE ############################################ # Start SSH with IPSSH across two cpus ## ## Start the SSH process on port 700 and 701 export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 run -cpu=0 sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 sshd -p 701 ## Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process run -cpu=0 ipssh sleep 5 ## Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process run -cpu=1 ipssh -wait 0 # Startup complete NSK-SSH V2.APPENDIX C .4 Page 101 March 31.TELNET ISOLATION FILES start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack.

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system.255.ZZKRN FILES ipztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00a add process IPSSH-ztc00a.osh. & AUTORESTART 10.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00a start_ipssh_ztc0a.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip000 run -name=/G/ip000 -cpu=0 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0a.sh <.& primarycpu 0.& HOMETERM $zhome. & name $ob010.& program $system.APPENDIX D . & startmode manual.& userid 255. 2008 . & outfile $zhome.4 Page 103 March 31.

& HOMETERM $zhome.system. 2008 . this process will take over.4 Page 104 March 31.255. & startmode manual. & outfile $zhome. # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip001 run -name=/G/ip001 -cpu=1 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D -wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.& primarycpu 1.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00b start_ipssh_ztc0b.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0b.& program $system.sh <. & AUTORESTART 10.& userid 255.osh.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # # Note that the wait 0 is used just incase the other ipssh process # has been started and is on port 22. If the other ipssh process # dies.ipztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00b add process IPSSH-ztc00b. & name $ob011.

& AUTORESTART 10.255.& program $system.sh <. & outfile $zhome.4 Page 105 March 31.ranztc0a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00a add process RANDOM-ztc00a.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 790" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb000 run -name=/G/rb000 -cpu=0 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:790 # NSK-SSH V2.system. & startmode manual.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00a.osh.& HOMETERM $zhome.& userid 255. & name $ob000.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00a start_random_ztc00a.& primarycpu 0. 2008 .

ranztc0b FILE llow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00b add process RANDOM-ztc00b.system.255.& HOMETERM $zhome.& program $system. & startmode manual.& userid 255. 2008 .>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00b start_random_ztc0b.& primarycpu 1.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 791" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb001 run -name=/G/rb001 -cpu=1 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:791 # NSK-SSH V2.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00b.sh <.osh.4 Page 106 March 31. & name $ob001. & outfile $zhome. & AUTORESTART 10.

osh. 2008 .& primarycpu 0.& HOMETERM $zhome.sh <. & outfile $zhome. & AUTORESTART 10. & name $ob020.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00a.& userid 255.4 Page 107 March 31.& program $system.255.system.sdztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00a add process SSHD-ztc00a.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00a start_sshd_ztc00a. & startmode manual.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 700" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd000 run -name=/G/sd000 -cpu=0 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 700 # NSK-SSH V2.

& startmode manual.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00b. 2008 .& userid 255. & outfile $zhome. & AUTORESTART 10.& primarycpu 1.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 701" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd001 run -name=/G/sd001 -cpu=1 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 701 # NSK-SSH V2.system. & name $ob021.& program $system.sh <.osh.& HOMETERM $zhome.sdztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00b add process SSHD-ztc00b.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00b start_sshd_ztc00b.4 Page 108 March 31.255.

INSTALL NOTES: NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 109 March 31. 2008 .

4 Page 110 March 31. 2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2.

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