Version 2.

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Bowden Systems Inc.
Norcross, GA 30092 http://www.bsi2.com

Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

BOWDEN SYSTEMS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Bowden Systems shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Warranty
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your BSI product can be obtained from the BSI Corporate Office.

Printing History
The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between additions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive these updates or new editions, contact the BSI Corporate Office. October 2001 . . . Edition 1 February 2002 . . . Edition 2 June 2003....Editon 3 July 2004...Edition4 Feb 2008...Edition 5 March 2008...Edition 5a Bowden Systems, Inc. 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 370 Norcross, GA 30092, USA email:sales@bsi2.com web:www.bsi2.com © 2001- 2008 Bowden Systems, Inc.
NSK-SSH, sftp-server-guardian, scmd is a trademark of Bowden Systems Inc. Nonstop, TEDIT, TACL, Guardian 90, 6530, PATHWAY are trademarks of HP. Mr-win6530 is a trademark of Conforte. Cail6530 is a trademark of Cail.

Preface
This manual explains how to install, configure, and use NSK-SSH software for the HP NonStop server. This includes setting up the components of the software which are the ipssh, sshd, and prngd.

Audience and Prerequisites
This manual is intended for system managers and assumes that the user has experience with OSS, GUARDIAN, TCPIP, PTCPIP and SCF.

Prerequisite Equipment
This manual also assumes that the user’s host is S-Series running GUARDIAN G06.22 or higher, GUARDIAN H-Series running H06.05 or higher, or GUARDIAN J-Series J06.02 or higher. This software works with TCPIP V4 and TCPIP V6 tcpip stacks.

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. . 11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. . . 69 ssh-add. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 scp. . . 103 . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. . . . .ZZKRN FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 APPENDIX D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .REQUIRED FILES. INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE. . . . . KNOWN PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KERNEL SUBSYSEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN PAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 scmd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ipssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ipztc00a . . . 29 ssh-keyscan. . . . . . 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ssh-keygen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ssh_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 prngd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 sftp-server-guardian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 sshd_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 APPENDIX C . . .TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 sftp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . 73 ssh. . . . . . 71 ssh-agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 sshd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8. . . . . . 22 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD using two IP stacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 start_ipssh_ztc0a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 sftp-server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 106 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 0. 107 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ipztc00b . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 start_random_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 0 . . 107 start_sshd_ztc00a. . . . . . 104 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . 108 start_sshd_ztc00b. . . 106 start_random_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 0 . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 01. . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. 105 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 1.sh . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 start_ipssh_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

x security enhancements and PRNGD 0. we also added a new command to address problem with executing remote commands from the system. The NSK-SSH has been updated to fix various problem the the random number generator and has move to using TCPIP for the communications between the random number generator and the SSH process. This installation document assumes that you have OSS. The random number generator does not require any external programs or files for generating its random numbers. Silverman. NSK-SSH V2. This new command is called scmd and allows you to execute remote commands from the NonStop system. This can be purchased from the Oreilly web site (www. This release will allow you to access the NonStop system in a secure manor for session and ftp access. and TCP/IP installed and configured on your system. This release has also been verified to work with Mr-Win6530.4 Page 1 March 31.15 for the G06. This software works with alias and standard GUARDIAN users. We now also have the ability to set up all the components of this release in the KERNEL (ZZKRN) subsystem for full fault resilance.9.9p2 with 3. 2008 .SUPER or root user id. If you require more detailed information on SSH. This provides compatibility with programs such as FileZilla. This document will tell you how to install and configure NSK-SSH software for access to the system and provide a reference for the MAN pages included with the NSK-SSH software.4.02 operating system. This allows you to access the guardian file system just like the unix file system. This was created do to the need of users that have PCI requirments of not having TELNET running on the system or FTP. Barrett & Richard E.OVERVIEW This is a release of the NSK-SSH V2. You no longer need to have the OSS local socket program running. We also have added an sftp-server for the guardian file system. This also include the ability to access an isolated TCPIP stack which has telnet running on it for the telnet requirment of SSH. you should consult “SSH The Secure Shell” by Daniel J.4 that is based on OpenSSH 2. Now you can have up to 4 random number generators per TCPIP V4 OR V6 stack or up to 64 with PTCPIP using the round-robin method of access .oreilly.9.05/J06.com). You should install this software using the SUPER.22/H06. In this release.

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do the following: For the S-Series: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_GO622_V24. IPSSH. 2008 .tar.Z | pax -rvf - For the H-Series and J-Series operating system: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_H0605_V24.tar.4 Page 3 March 31. To install the software that was downloaded from the web site. Note that the above tar file may have a version indicator on it. SSH and PRNGD software.INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE You must be the root user or super.super to install this software. This will install the software into the following directories: /etc/ /etc/ssh /usr/local/ssh /usr/local/random Now you are ready to set up the.Z | pax -rvf - Note that zcat is in the /bin/unsupported directory. NSK-SSH V2.

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bsi services cp protocols.bsi to protocols. OSS Installed and Configured. Verify that you have the services and protocols file in the /etc directory. TCPIP configure for OSS.bsi protocols Note that the service that the sshd program is looking for is the telent service. e. If you do not have these files. b. then you can copy the files services.bsi to services and protocols. f. The ip address and stack process name you will use for SSH access. c. b. SSH Client Software ( Mr-Win6530.4 Page 5 March 31. d. you should do the following: 1. TCPIP V4 or V6 Installed and Configured OSS Sockets Started on each processor. 2008 . You should have the following products installed on your system: a. TELNET servr running on the TCPIP stack LOCAL LOOP BACK STARTED for TCPIP stack REMOVE ANY OPENSSH ssh software on your system as this will cause problems with installing and startup up the Bowden Systems version of SSH. Unix SSH) 2. Know how to use the text editor “vi”. If you alreay have a services file.BASIC SETUP OF SSH To set up your system so that you use the SSH software. IMPORTANT FOR TELNET ACCESS cd /etc cp services. Putty. g. c. then you need to make sure that has the following line: telnet 23/tcp NSK-SSH V2. Cail6530. You will need the following information: a.

3. 4.profile”. or that you want to random number generator to use. do the following: info_define all To add the define. Verify that the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME is already set.4 Page 6 March 31. Set your PATH and MANPATH variables. a. export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/install export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/ssh/man export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/random/man Note that these can be place in /etc/profile or in your private home directory file “. Execute a script to change the file setting sh -v . then it is not necessary to do this step./ssh_install_chmod. Set the correct file settings on the installed files. NSK-SSH V2. then you need to add it using vi.sh 5. THE TELNET ACCESS TO SSH WILL NOT WORK. You should use what ever tcpip process name is defined on your system. If you are using the default tcpip process name $ZTC0.If the services program does not have this line. 2008 . NOTE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A /etc/services FILE. do the following: add_define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME file=\$ZTC1 Note that this is an example. But if you are using some other tcpip process name. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b.

0. NSK-SSH V2. Note if you are using TCPIP V4 then you should set this to 127.1 for the two cpu or greater configuraiton.0.pub .0. To make this change.DSA Public Key 8. Note that this may take a while. The script executes the following: run cpu=0 -gpri= 144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 7. Generate the system keys.0.RSA Private Key ssh_host_rsa_key. !!!! IMPORTANT STEP NOT TO FORGET !!!! a.pub .0.pub .0. 2008 .0.1 port 790. This step is optional. Start up the Random number generator (PRNG).Host Private Key ssh_host_key.0 and change the 0.RSA Public Key ssh_host_dsa_key ./ssh_install_makekeys. Execute a script to generate the system wide keys./start_random. sh -v . sh -v . Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b.0 to the ipaddress of your system and save the file.Host Public Key ssh_host_rsa_key .4 Page 7 March 31.0. This is only needed if you ssh to listen again a specific address.DSA Private Key ssh_host_dsa_key.sh This will start the random number generator on local sockets connection 127. do the following: vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the line: ListenAddress 0.sh This will generate the following files in the /etc/ssh/ directory: ssh_host_key . Execute a script to startup the random number generator. Modify the system wide configuration to the specify the IP address that the SSHD program will use. This must be started before any SSH software can be used.6.

then you should not change the ListenAddress to 127.0. do the following: /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -d -d -d This will allow one session to be processed and then the program will exit when the request is finished. scf> assume process $zzkrn scf>names You should look for #ssh-ztc0.0 If you want to start the program in the debug mode to see what it is doing. ssh and sftp). before you can startup the NSK-SSH software. If you only run one SSHD server. To start the sshd program do the following: run -cpu=0 -gpri=125 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd This will start the sshd server and it will listen on port 22 for any connection. then you need to stop it. If this is running.4 Page 8 March 31.1 and change it to the real address of the stack.9. If you want to start SSHD on two cpu’s scipt to step 10. If you are starting the Bowden NSK-SSH software on a system that has the Comforte SSH software on it and configured to use the port 22 on $ztc0. NSK-SSH V2. The sshd program will process all request (session. If you want to start ssh on one cpu. you should leave it set to 0. 2008 . scf> abort #ssh-ztc0 This will abort the process and then you can start up the NSK-SSH software. then you need to stop this software. If there is more than one address associated with the stack then.0. 10.0. scp.0. then continue reading.

/start_ssh_2_cpu.10. Start the SSHD processes on port 22. 2008 . we put this startup file in as example of how to run the SSHD server on a system that is uses that configuration. run -cpu=0 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 701 b.sh or do the following: 1. Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process. Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. Starting it manually. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh sleep 5 c. Start the SSHD process on port 700 and 701.4 Page 9 March 31. the TCPIP V6 software is configured in fail-over mode and not configurated for round-robin. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v ./start_ssh_ptcpip_2cpu.sh 2.sh 2.sh or do the following: 1. Note that on most systems. a. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using regular TCPIP or P/TCPIP in Failover mode If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using P/TCPIP with round-robin configuration. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd NSK-SSH V2. a. Starting it manually. run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh -wait 0 11. If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s.

NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 10 March 31. 2008 .Note that you can use this configuraiton on TCPIP V4 if there is more than one IP addres define to the TCPIP stack and it is not in the FAIL-OVER configuraiton.

Start up the TCPIP V4 stack at tacl: TCPIP/name $ZTC99. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. 2008 .4 Page 11 March 31. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 To do this do the following (Note this works on all release of the Guardian OS including H-series and J-series: 1.CPU 0. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. scf> assume process $ztc99 scf> aler subnet #loop0.TERM $ZHOME/0 2. Start the #LOOP0 port on the stack. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. With this configuration. ipaddress 127. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. we will talk about advanced set up of the SSH software including the KERNEL subsystem and TELNET isolation.1 scf> start subnet * scf> exit NSK-SSH V2.sh.ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH In this section. To use this feature.PRI 190.

(IPMADG) Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice> If this works.#PTYAAAA] TELSERV .3.0.(15SEP2000) .bsi1. Start up the TELSRV process add define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.PRI 170/23 Note that the 23 on the TELSERV command is the port to listen to. to your SSHD start file and restart the SSHD servers NSK-SSH V2.T9553D40 . 2008 .1 23 WELCOME TO test. Now at this point.CPU 0.com [PORT $ZTC99 #23 WINDOW $ZTN99. now you are ready to add the TCPIP_TELNET_STACK.FILE $ZTC99 param TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME $ZTC99 param ZTNT^TRANSPORT^NAME $ZTC99 TELSERV/NAME $ZTN99.NOWAIT.4 Page 12 March 31.0. you should be able to access the TELNET server locally: TELNET 127.

0. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file.*.4 Page 13 March 31.1. This is to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. $*. In the zzkrn subsystem.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system.#RANDOM-ZTC00B NSK-SSH V2.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system.code 100 run zzkrnsd. prngd. 2008 .#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. Now.zzkrnsd on your system.KERNEL SUBSYSTEM We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh.0.config file to listen on port the ListenAddress configuration line.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl>logon super.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service. you only need Note that you need you need to change 127.*. to be root or super. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. What you need to do this.super volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.super to do this and your /etc/sshd. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.

Note that when you abort the software.script name $ob11 .process name $RD001 #SSHD-ZTC00A .#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.process name $ip001 NSK-SSH V2.script name $ob020 .script name $ob021 . there are two process names used.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.script name $ob10 . you must have a script to start up the SSH software in the correct order or it will not start at system startup.process name $ip000 #IPSSH-ZTC00B .script name $ob001 . When your system is started up.process name $sd000 #SSHD-ZTC00B .$ZZKRN. 2008 .4 Page 14 March 31.process name $sd001 #IPSSH-ZTC00A . that process will be restarted. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies. It is only when you restart the software. This script is the following: assume process $zzkrn start #RANDOM-ZTC00A start #RANDOM-ZTC00B start #SSHD-ZTC00A start #SSHD-ZTC00B start #IPSSH-ZTC00A start #IPSSH-ZTC00B For each startup script. the process running in the script does not stop.script name $ob000 . these names are the following: #RANDOM-ZTC00 .process name $RD000 #RANDOM-ZTC01 .

all sessions are accessed using the master/slave pty configurations. The standard SSH software does not know any thing about this.1 port 23. because of problem with the select function not support the tty device. This port of SSH and PRNGD has been fault tested to make sure that it works when a CPU fails. We also increase the capacity of the random number generator to handle large request loads.0. we request access on the 127.0. This was not a problem in standard SSH. If you request that a pty is not allocated. Since the OSS environment does not support pty’s. NSK-SSH V2. we use the telnet subsystem as the pty generator. This port of SSH understands about ALIAS users and does it password authentication against the safeguard database. We also have the ability to make this request to another TCPIP stack that is not attached to any Ethernet hardware and is only running TELSRV. Which in the case for all commands on SSH. 2008 . Under the standard model of SSH.4 Page 15 March 31. reliablity. This allows all TELSRV services to be stop.Porting Differences This section will talk very briefly about the differences between this port of NSKSSH and what you get would from Open Source. We added a new command to handle remote command execution. and scalability. This also reduces connect time when performning any action that requires a random number. The major difference of this port from the standard SSH and Prngd port is how sessions are accessed and how we access the random number generator. This port of SSH uses the tcpip access to random number generator to increase performance. and support for the guardian file system via sftp. This is not a part of the standard. the sshd program will access the user’s default shell script as the standard SSH port does. When NSK-SSH request a pty. We added a distributor to the release so that it is possible to support round-robin access using the standard TCPIP software and scale the ssh software and random number generator software across multiple cpus.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT
At this point, you have done the basic setup for the SSH software. In this section, we will be discussing how to access your system to establish session. You will need an SSH client for your PC, Mac, or Unix system to start a session. In this example we are using, MacSSH, but this will apply to Windows software too. 1. Select your host and select Secure Shell

2. Enter your user name and password:

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3. Get the system access prompt. Note that depending on what type of system, you are executing the sshd software on, it may take a while for the session to connect. This has to do with the encryption of the session.

At this point, you can access the NonStop as you always have. Just login in an start working.

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CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT
If you have other unix system’s, that have SSH installed, you can access the HP NonStop using ssh. To start a session remotely on the HP NonSTop do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com joshua’s password:
WELCOME TO test.bsi1.com [PORT $ZTC0 #23 WINDOW $ZTN0.#PTYW1DX] TELSERV - T9553D40 - (15SEP2000) - (IPMADG)

Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice>

If you want to execute a remote commad, do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com /bin/ls joshua’s password: test.pl test1.pl test2.pl test3.pl test5.pl test_message $ If you want to copy a file from the unix system to the NSK, do the following: $scp test.pl joshua@test.bsi1.com:test.pl joshua’s password:

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If you want to logon directly to TACL. do the following: $ssh joshua@test. NSK-SSH V2.bsi1.4 Page 20 March 31. 2008 .com /bin/gtacl joshua’s password: TACL 1> Note that you wil not beable to execute any oss commands with this tacl session because you are not using the standard telnet tty session attributes.

4 Page 21 March 31. Should you find any problems with this software. 2008 . This will be fixed in next release.KNOWN PROBLEMS We added the scmd program to allow remote command access to a system. you should send an email message to support@bsi2. This currently only supports commands that do not require any interaction with the user.com. NSK-SSH V2.

INFORMATION If you need any help with this. Suite 370 Norcross.com Copyright (c) 2001-2008 Bowden Systems. All Rights Reserved NSK-SSH V2. GA 30092 USA +1 866-901-9450 toll free +1 770-441-9450 direct +1 770-441-9449 fax web: www. Inc. Any correspondence regarding this software can be sent to the following address: Bowden Systems. please send an email message to support@bsi2.4 Page 22 March 31. Inc. 2008 .com email:sales@bsi2. 3500 Parkway Lane.com.bsi2.

4 Page 23 March 31. OPTIONS -f or -fg do not fork -d or --debug debugging on -c or --cmdfile cmdpath use cmdpath for entropy commands [/etc/prngd. The default port that SSH uses for port access is 790 to 793 and the default local socket is /dev/egd-pool. keep pool in memory only -m or --mode mode use mode for sockets [0777] -k or --kill kill daemon on other side -v or --version print version and exit DESCRIPTION prngd is a daemon that provides the random number functionality on the NonStop system using either using local sockets or a tcpip port connection. 2008 . System Reference Manual PRNGD(8) NSK-SSH V2.APPENDIX A .random number generator daemon SYNOPSIS prngd [options] (/path/to/socket1 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port) [(/path/to/socket2 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port)] .1) and will use the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME to get the currently defined TCPIP process stack name..MAN PAGES prngd PRNGD(8) NAME prngd ..0. The ports 790 to 793 are against the localhost (127.conf] -s or --seedfile seedpath use seedpath as seedfile [/etc/prngd-seed] -n or --no-seedfile no seedfile.0. The option tcp/ip:addr:port allows the random number generator to liston on specified address instead of the loopback address.

If you are using Parallel TCPIP with round robin. If any one of the CPU's fail.STARTING DAEMON To start the prngd program using localhost port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/localhost:790 To start the prngd program using tcp/ip option port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/ip:192. As a note.210:790 To start the prngd program using the local socket /dev/egd-pool prngd -gpri=170 /dev/egd-pool The SSH program will attempt to use the localhost ports first and then try the local socket next. You can configure one prngd program to service both tcp and local socket if you like: prngd /dev/egd-pool tcp/localhost:790 tcp/localhost:791 But you may want to configure the localhost port 790 as the primary and 791 or /dev/egd-pool as the backup. you will still have a random number generator available on the system. then you can start up multiple random number generators using the same port number to spead the laod to multiple CPU's. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 This will CPU 1 and CPU 0 the load of the random number generator. prngd tcp/localhost:790 prngd tcp/localhost:791 NSK-SSH V2.168.4 Page 24 March 31.1. 2008 . If you are running P/TCPIP then you can have more than one random number generator using only port 790. most of SSH functions will not work. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 or run -cpu=1 -gpri=170 prngd /dev/egd-pool You could run the TCPIP random number generator port 790 on cpu 0 and port 791 or the Local Socket random number generator on cpu 1. If you are using using regular TCPIP. if there is not a random number generator available. then a primary and back is good choice.

prngd will not return any random information if it runs out of entropy. 2008 . If this fails the program executing will abend. It has been found that if prngd is not properly seed. This will result in processes waiting on this information. SEEDING DAEMON The random number generator software is locate in the /usr/local/random directory. but has been written over by the prngd program. Do not use /G/ directories for entropy generation. NOTES prngd runs as a named process. This can result in system performance problems and cause the random number generator to take excessive cpu time. it will stop generating random numbers.4 Page 25 March 31. The current seed in the /etc directory is base on this file. The program also produces an EMS message when closing a connection.STOPPING DAEMON You can stop the prngd daemon with the following command: If TCPIP: prngd --kill tcp/localhost:790 If Local Socket prngd --kill /dev/egd-pool Or just use the kill command. To use this seed file: cp /usr/local/random/etc/prngd-seed /etc/prngd-seed and restart the program. SSH has been program to try 5 times and then will go to the next generator viable and try 5 times also. PERFORMANCE We have notice that the random number generator using TCPIP requires less cpu overhead than one using the local sockets interface. This file is 1 megabyte random number that can be used a the first seed when starting prngd for the first time. In the directory /usr/local/random/etc there is a file call prngd-seed. NSK-SSH V2.

NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 .4 Page 26 March 31.

. When this maximum reach all. The default is 5.4 Page 27 March 31. This defaults to 700. displays debuging information. Ipssh only forwards to the local 127. -ports number is the number of ports to connect to.701.01 seconds) The default is 100 or 1 sec.ipssh IPSSH(1) NAME IPSSH SYNOPSIS ipssh . (1 = . If you enter 0. The default is 2. the time is set to 1 second -maxload no -debug -wait no NSK-SSH V2.etc).0. the main ipssh process wait until a child completes before continuing. Ipssh listens on port 22 and distributes its ip load to port 700 and 701. you need to set this to number. -burst rate -interval rate interval in milliseconds.TCPIP Multiplexer for SSH IPSSH IPSSH(1) [-remote port] [-ports no] [-burst rate] [-interval rate] [-debug] [-wait no] [-D] DESCRIPTION The ipssh programs allows you to distribute ip traffic to multiple ports on a system. The default is zero. The default is 30 seconds. The options are as follows: -remote port is the remote port to forward the connection. port 700.0.g.. (e.1 interface. it is possible to distribute load to those also. If you have more one ipssh process on the system. -instance no the instance of ipssh processes. time to wait before checking if you can bind to the port. connection rate for burst conditions. This is the number of connections that can be accepted during the interval. If you have more than two cpu’s. The default is 25..702. 2008 . Each port is of set by one. This much like the parrallel tcpip product execpt that it will exeucte on any Nonstop system. this is maximumu number of ipssh processes that will be allowed exist at one time.

so it will not fork and create a process name -D To change the default TCPIP process from $ZTC0.The primary process name is /G/ISX ($ISX) and the backup process name is /G/ISY ($ISY). you must change the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME. NSK-SSH V2.-qlen no number of connection to listen for on the port. The default is 5. indicates that ipssh is to be run waited.4 Page 28 March 31. 2008 .

ssh/identity. ssh-keygen defaults to generating a RSA1 key for use by SSH prottocol version 1.ssh-keygen SSH-KEYGEN(1) NAME ssh-keygen . The passphrase can be changed later by using the -p option. Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in $HOME/. For RSA1 keys.ssh/id_rsa.authentication key generation. there is also a comment field in the key file that is only System Reference Manual SSH-KEYGEN(1) NSK-SSH V2. $HOME/. management and conversion SYNOPSIS ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t type] [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile] ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -D reader ssh-keygen -U reader [-f input_keyfile] DESCRIPTION ssh-keygen generates. or it may be a string of arbitrary length. Additionally. Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to store the private key.pub'' appended. The passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an empty passphrase).ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/.4 Page 29 March 31. 2008 . Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long and are not simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only 1-2 bits of entropy per character. If the passphrase is lost or forgotten. as seen in /etc/rc. The program also asks for a passphrase. a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding public key to other machines. manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1). The public key is stored in a file with the same name but ``. Specifying the -t option instead creates a key for use by SSH protocol version 2. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. and provides very bad passphrases). the system administrator may use this to generate host keys.

for convenience to the user to help identify the key. The comment can tell what the key is for. -e This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and print the key in a `SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout. The program will prompt for the file containing the private keys. After a key is generated. Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient. -i This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private (or public) key to stdout. for the passphrase if the key has one. Show fingerprint of specified private or public key file. The default is 1024 bits. or whatever is useful. The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create. for the old passphrase. Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key. Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of creating a new private key. Silence ssh-keygen. 2008 . This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial SSH implementations. Minimum is 512 bits. and key sizes above that no longer improve security but make things slower. -l -p -q -y -t type NSK-SSH V2. This option allows importing keys from several commercial SSH implementations. The comment is initialized to ``user@host'' when the key is created. and twice for the new passphrase. The program will prompt for the file containing the private key. -f filename Specifies the filename of the key file. and for the new comment.4 Page 30 March 31. instructions below detail where the keys should be placed to be activated. but can be changed using the -c option. This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout. -c Requests changing the comment in the private and public key files. ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH Public Key File Format'.

Specifies the type of the key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. The default is ``rsa1''. -B Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key file.

-C comment Provides the new comment. -D reader Download the RSA public key stored in the smartcard in reader. -N new_passphrase Provides the new passphrase. -P passphrase Provides the (old) passphrase. -U reader Upload an existing RSA private key into the smartcard in reader. FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public tion. The contents of this file should be $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines to log in using RSA authentication. There contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

key for authenticaadded to where the user wishes is no need to keep the

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$HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

SEE ALSO ssh(1),

ssh-add(1),

ssh-agent(1),

sshd(8)

J. Galbraith, and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietfsecsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

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ssh-keyscan
SSH-KEYSCAN(1) NAME ssh-keyscan - gather ssh public keys SYNOPSIS ssh-keyscan [-v46] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [-f file] [host | addrlist namelist] [...] DESCRIPTION ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public ssh host keys of a number of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files. ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as possible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run ssh. For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scanning process involve any encryption. The options are as follows: -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, then the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. Default is 5 seconds. -t type Specifies the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is ``rsa1''. -f filename Read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from this file, one per line. If - is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from the standard input. System Reference Manual SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

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2008 . On the other hand.3.1.ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts FILES Input format: 1.my. EXAMPLES Print the rsa1 host key for machine hostname: ssh-keyscan hostname Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: ssh-keyscan -t rsa. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only.2. -4 -6 DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.name.2.4 Page 34 March 31.1.4 name. Causes ssh-keyscan to print debugging messages about its progress.2.4.domain.my.4. ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created.1. SECURITY If a ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without verifying the keys.-v Verbose mode.2.3. users will be vulnerable to attacks. if the security model allows such a risk.dsa -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u . /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts NSK-SSH V2.4. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).4.4 Output format for rsa1 keys: host-or-namelist bits exponent modulus Output format for rsa and dsa keys: host-or-namelist keytype base64-encoded-key Where keytype is either ``ssh-rsa'' or ``ssh-dsa''.n.n.domain.

mit.sourceforge.BUGS It generates "Connection closed by remote host" messages on the consoles of all the machines it scans if the server is older than version 2. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 35 March 31. reads the public key.net> added support for protocol version 2. SEE ALSO ssh(1). sshd(8) AUTHORS David Mazieres <dm@lcs. and drops the connection as soon as it gets the key. This is because it opens a connection to the ssh port.edu> wrote the initial version. and Wayne Davison <wayned@users.9.

2008 .4 Page 36 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. Additionally. when the daemon starts. The client then generates a 256 bit random number.sshd SSHD(8) NAME sshd . It encrypts this random number using both the host key and the server key. Together these programs replace rlogin and rsh. Whenever a client connects the daemon responds with its public host and server keys. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. Both sides then use this random number as a session key which is used to encrypt all further communications in the session. This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously. The rest of the session is encrypted using a conventional cipher.4 Page 37 March 31.NSK-SSH SSH daemon SYNOPSIS sshd [-deiqtD46] [-b bits] [-f config_file] [-g login_grace_time] [-h host_key_file] [-k key_gen_time] [-p port] [-u len] DESCRIPTION sshd (SSH Daemon) is the daemon program for ssh(1). RSA challenge-response authentication. Next.rhosts authentication combined with RSA host authentication.rhosts authentication. it generates a server RSA key (normally 768 bits). encryption. The forked daemons handle key exchange. 2008 . currently Blowfish or 3DES. It is normally started at load time from /usr/local/ssh/. and data exchange. and sends the encrypted number to the server. System Manager's Manual SSHD(8) NSK-SSH V2. . sshd works as follows. The client compares the RSA host key against its own database to verify that it has not changed. the server and the client enter an authentication dialog. and is never stored on disk. The programs are intended to be as easy to install and use as possible. command execution. or password based authentication. The client tries to authenticate itself using . sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients. It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection. with 3DES being used by default. This key is normally regenerated every hour if it has been used. SSH protocol version 1 Each host has a host-specific RSA key (normally 1024 bits) used to identify the host. authentication.

and both sides exit. Arcfour. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. Command-line options override values specified in the configuration file. and the user terminal in the client side. Blowfish. SSH protocol version 2 Version 2 works similarly: Each host has a host-specific key (RSA or DSA) used to identify the host. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal. a dialog for preparing the session is entered. the client either requests a shell or execution of a command. This key agreement results in a shared session key. and rexecd(8) are disabled (thus completely disabling rlogin(1) and rsh(1) into the machine). 3DES. either side may send data at any time. it does not generate a server key. or forwarding the authentication agent connection over the secure channel. and such data is forwarded to/from the shell or command on the server side. The sides then enter session mode. when the daemon starts.Rhosts authentication is normally disabled because it is fundamentally insecure. i. CAST128. 2008 . the server sends command exit status to the client. 192 bit AES. forwarding TCP/IP connections.. Additionally.4 Page 38 March 31. In this mode. When the user program terminates and all forwarded X11 and other connections have been closed. session integrity is provided through a cryptographic message authentication code (hmac-sha1 or hmac-md5). conventional password authentication and challenge response based methods. rlogind(8). The rest of the session is encrypted using a symmetric cipher. At this time the client may request things like allocating a pseudo-tty. NSK-SSH V2. or 256 bit AES. by executing itself with the name it was started as. currently 128 bit AES. /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd. System security is not improved unless rshd(8). but can be enabled in the server configuration file if desired. Forward security is provided through a DiffieHellman key agreement. Command execution and data forwarding If the client successfully authenticates itself. Finally.e. However. forwarding X11 connections. SIGHUP. Protocol version 2 provides a public key based user (PubkeyAuthentication) or client host (HostbasedAuthentication) authentication method. sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file.

and this may take tens of seconds. Multiple -d options increase the debugging level. and does not put itself in the background. sshd is normally not run from inetd because it needs to generate the server key before it can respond to the client. -h host_key_file Specifies the file from which the host key is read (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key).. -d Debug mode. A value of NSK-SSH V2. -g login_grace_time Gives the grace time for clients to authenticate themselves (default 600 seconds). 512) using sshd from inetd may be feasible. Maximum is 3. This option must be given if sshd is not run as root (as the normal host file is normally not readable by any one but root). When this option is specified. If the client fails to authenticate the user within this many seconds. sshd refuses to start if there is no configuration file. 2008 . -k key_gen_time Specifies how often the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key is regenerated (default 3600 seconds. with small key sizes (e. the server disconnects and exits. -e -f configuration_file Specifies the name of the configuration file. This option is only intended for debugging for the server.4 Page 39 March 31. or one hour). The server also will not fork and will only process one connection. However. sshd will send the output to the standard error instead of the system log. it becomes impossible to recover the key for decrypting intercepted communications even if the machine is cracked into or physically seized. and after about an hour. The server sends verbose debug output to the system log. Clients would have to wait too long if the key was regenerated every time.The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key (default 768). It is possible to have multiple host key files for the different protocol versions and host key algorithms. A value of zero indicates no limit.g. The motivation for regenerating the key fairly often is that the key is not stored anywhere. -i Specifies that sshd is being run from inetd. The default is /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

RhostsRSAAuthentication. Test mode. Normally the beginning. 2008 . it then looks for the name pipe /dev/egd-pool. This allows hosts with very long host names that overflow this field to still be uniquely identified. If it does not find this.zero indicates that the key will never be regenerated. Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys. it fails the random number request.4 Page 40 March 31. TCP_RND_ADDR TCP_RND_PORT0 TCP_RND_PORT1 These environment variables allow you to change the starting and ending port and the default IP address to access for the random number generator request. and termination of each connection is logged. When this option is specified sshd will not detach and does not become a daemon. Forces sshd to use IPv4 addresses only. Forces sshd to use IPv6 addresses only. -q Quiet mode. Authentication mechanisms that may require DNS include RhostsAuthentication. In general. -u0 is also be used to prevent sshd from making DNS requests unless the authentication mechanism or configuration requires it. you need at least one NSK-SSH V2.0. HostbasedAuthentication and using a from="pattern-list" option in a key file. -t -u len -D -4 -6 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR SSHD requires the use of a random number generator for its operation. This option is used to specify the size of the field in the utmp structure that holds the remote host name. -p port Specifies the port on which the server listens for connections (default 22).0. This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change. If the resolved host name is longer than len. This allows easy monitoring of sshd. It currently looks on the ports of 790 to 793 of address 127. the dotted decimal value will be used instead.1 for a random number generator. authentication. Specifying -u0 indicates that only dotted decimal addresses should be put into the utmp file. If it does not find that. Nothing is sent to the system log.

sh. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated.*. To use this feature.code 100 run zzkrnsd. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack.zzkrnsd on your system. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 ZZKRN PERSISTANT PROCESS SETUP We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh. $*. then you might need more than one and you can assign the extra ones to port 791 to 793. Now.super to do this and NSK-SSH V2. Note that you need to be root or super. prngd. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. you only need to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. If your system is heavly used for SSH request. With this configuration. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. 2008 .*. What you need to do this. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl> <logon tacl> volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd.4 Page 41 March 31.generator for each TCPIP stack that SSHD is running on.

#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.4 Page 42 March 31.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service. In the zzkrn subsystem. NSK-SSH V2.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.0. 2008 . CONFIGURATION FILE sshd reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line).0. This is the ListenAddress configuration line.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.you need to change your /etc/sshd. The file contains keywordargument pairs.config file to listen on port 127.#RANDOM-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments.1. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running. one per line.

4 Page 43 March 31. If specified. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access. The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%'. AllowUsers This keyword can be followed by a list of user names. separated by spaces. a numerical group ID is not recognized. %h is replaced by the home directory of the user being authenticated and %u is replaced by the username of that user. sending a warning message before authentication may be relevant for getting legal protection. login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. Default is ``yes''. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. AllowGroups This keyword can be followed by a list of group names. The default is ``. AllowTcpForwarding Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted. This option is only available for protocol version 2. If specified. separated by spaces. restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts.ssh/authorized_keys'' Banner In some jurisdictions. login is allowed only for users names that match one of the patterns. AuthorizedKeysFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection set-up. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked. Only group names are valid. The default is ``yes''. Only user names are valid. AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. a numerical user ID is not recognized. as they can always install their own forwarders. 2008 . AuthorizedKeysFile Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication. By default login is allowed regardless of the user name. After expansion. NSK-SSH V2.The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether an AFS token may be forwarded to the server.

ClientAliveCountMax Sets the number of client alive messages (see above) which may be sent without sshd receiving any messages back from the client. The default is 0. terminating the session. separated by spaces. sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. sshd will disconnect the client. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns. The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive. and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The default is ``aes128-cbc. The default value is 3.'' ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client. All authentication styles from login.blowfish-cbc. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from Keepalive (below). Only user names are valid. DenyGroups This keyword can be followed by a number of group names. This option applies to protocol version 2 only.arcfour. If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. The default is ``yes''. a numerical user ID is not recognized.conf(5) are supported. By default login is allowed regardless of the user NSK-SSH V2.3des-cbc. The TCP keepalive option enabled by Keepalive is spoofable. 2008 . indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. DenyUsers This keyword can be followed by a number of user names. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns.cast128-cbc. separated by spaces. a numerical group ID is not recognized. Only group names are valid.4 Page 44 March 31. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. unresponsive ssh clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds. Users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns aren't allowed to log in. If ClientAliveInterval (above) is set to 15.ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether challenge response authentication is allowed.

GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should bind remote port forwardings to the wildcard address. This option is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only.4 Page 45 March 31. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.ssh/known_hosts during RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. If they are sent. By default. It is possible to have multiple host key files. The default is ``yes''.equiv are still used. /etc/hosts. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (hostbased authentication). HostKey Specifies the file containing the private host keys (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key) used by SSH protocol versions 1 and 2. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. sessions may hang indefinitely on the server.rhosts and . 2008 . The default is ``no''. IgnoreRhosts Specifies that . sshd binds remote port forwardings to the loopback addresss. RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. NSK-SSH V2. and some people find it annoying. Note that sshd will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible. leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources. IgnoreUserKnownHosts Specifies whether sshd should ignore the user's $HOME/. if keepalives are not sent.name. On the other hand.shosts files will not be used in RhostsAuthentication. ``rsa1''keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'' or ``rsa'' are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol. The default is ``no''. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. The default is ``no''. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side.equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts. However.

This avoids infinitely hanging sessions. and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host reboots. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication is allowed. Default is ``yes''. Default is ``yes''. The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys. The default is 3600 (seconds). The key is never stored anywhere. sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified. To use this option. ListenAddress Specifies the local addresses sshd should listen on. the value should be set to ``no'' in both the server and the client configuration files. To disable keepalives. the key is never regenerated. as this only works when the Kerberos KDC is actually an AFS kaserver. Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted.4 Page 46 March 31. Default is ``no''. This can be in the form of a Kerberos ticket. The default is to listen on all local addresses. KerberosTicketCleanup Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout. ing forms may be used: ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port If port is not specified. KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT may be forwarded to the server. KeyRegenerationInterval In protocol version 1. the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many seconds (if it has been used). or if PasswordAuthentication is yes. the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity. the password provided by the user will be validated through the Kerberos KDC. 2008 . If the value is 0. Default is ``yes''. Ad- The follow- NSK-SSH V2. KerberosOrLocalPasswd If set then if password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd.The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives).

The default is 10. The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60). If the value is 0. there is no time limit. fault is ``yes''. Alternatively.g. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. The default is 600 (seconds). LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd. Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection. 2008 . ERROR.4 Page 47 March 31. it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings. The possible values are: QUIET. This allows the use of most PAM challenge response authentication modules. MaxStartups Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the sshd daemon. INFO. The default is ``no''. any Port options must precede this option for non port qualified addresses. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether password authentication is allowed. The default is INFO.hmacsha1-96. sshd will refuse connection attempts with a probability of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections. but it will allow password authentication regardless of whether PasswordAuthentication is disabled. VERBOSE and DEBUG. MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms.hmac-md5-96''. The default is ``no''. LoginGraceTime The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. Logging with level DEBUG violates the privacy of users and is not recommended.hmac-ripemd160.ditionally.hmac-sha1. The default is ``hmac-md5. PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt Specifies whether PAM challenge response authentication is allowed. "10:30:60"). The de- PermitEmptyPasswords When password authentication is allowed. FATAL. random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values ``start:rate:full'' (e.. NSK-SSH V2.

The default is ``yes''. but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed).PermitRootLogin Specifies whether root can login using ssh(1).pid. ReverseMappingCheck Specifies whether sshd should try to verify the remote host name and check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address NSK-SSH V2. (On some systems it is also printed by the shell. Port Specifies the port number that sshd listens on. The default is ``2. Multiple versions must be commaseparated. The default is /var/run/sshd. The default is ``yes''. If this option is set to ``no'' root is not allowed to login. PrintMotd Specifies whether sshd should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively.) Protocol The default is ``yes''. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. ``without-password''. Specifies the protocol versions sshd should support.1''. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. See also ListenAddress. Multiple options of this type are permitted. The default is ``yes''.4 Page 48 March 31. If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'' root login with public key authentication will be allowed. The default is 22. or equivalent. /etc/profile. If this option is set to ``without-password'' password authentication is disabled for root. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed. All other authentication methods are disabled for root. PrintLastLog Specifies whether sshd should print the date and time when the user last logged in. 2008 . PidFile Specifies the file that contains the process identifier of the sshd daemon. ``forced-commands-only'' or ``no''. The argument must be ``yes''.

file transfer daemon).4 Page 49 March 31. The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. RhostsRSAAuthentication should be used instead. Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command to execute upon subsystem request. The minimum value is 512. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. Note that login(1) is never used NSK-SSH V2. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``no''. LOCAL2. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed. LOCAL7. The possible values are: DAEMON.equiv authentication together with successful RSA host authentication is allowed. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether authentication using rhosts or /etc/hosts. The default is ``no''. LOCAL5. and the default is 768. LOCAL1. The default is ``yes''. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. By default no subsystems are defined.equiv files is sufficient. This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. AUTH. LOCAL0. Subsystem Configures an external subsystem (e. USER.. Normally. RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. LOCAL3. The default is ``yes''. LOCAL6. The default is ``no''. LOCAL4. UseLogin Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions. 2008 .g. StrictModes Specifies whether sshd should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. because it performs RSA-based host authentication in addition to normal rhosts or /etc/hosts. The default is ``no''. The default is AUTH.maps back to the very same IP address.equiv authentication. SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd. this method should not be permitted because it is insecure. ServerKeyBits Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key.

2008 . Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not improve security in any way. X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1) cookies. Time Formats sshd command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time[qualifier]. X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin is enabled. Time format examples: 600 10m 1h30m 600 seconds (10 minutes) 10 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes) NSK-SSH V2.for remote command execution. as users can always install their own forwarders. X11Forwarding Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. The default is 10. Note also. where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following: <none> s | S m | M h | H d | D w | W seconds seconds minutes hours days weeks The default is Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. The default is ``no''.4 Page 50 March 31. that if this is enabled. X11DisplayOffset Specifies the first display number available for sshd's X11 forwarding.

comment. Note that lines in this file are usually several hundred bytes long (because of the size of the RSA key modulus). modulus. 2. comment. records login time. If the login is on a tty.ssh/environment if it exists. 6. otherwise runs xauth. prints last login time and /etc/motd (unless prevented in the configuration file or by $HOME/. prints contents and quits (unless root). runs it. For protocol version 2 the keytype is ``ssh-dss'' or ``ssh-rsa''. Sets up basic environment. bits. 2008 . AuthorizedKeysFile may be used to specify an alternative file. 9.pub file and NSK-SSH V2. 3.pub or the id_rsa. if it exists.pub. Checks /etc/nologin. 7. Each RSA public key consists of the following fields. base64 encoded key. exponent. If the login is on a tty. Reads $HOME/. its presence is determined by whether the line starts with a number or not (the option field never starts with a number). The ``rc'' files are given the X11 authentication protocol and cookie in standard input. runs it. AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT $HOME/. Each line of the file contains one key (empty lines and lines starting with a `#' are ignored as comments). Changes to user's home directory. The bits.hushlogin. exponent. modulus and comment fields give the RSA key for protocol version 1. the comment field is not used for anything (but may be convenient for the user to identify the key). see the FILES section). Each protocol version 2 public key consists of: options. keytype.ssh/authorized_keys is the default file that lists the public keys that are permitted for RSA authentication in protocol version 1 and for public key authentication (PubkeyAuthentication) in protocol version 2.ssh/rc exists. 5. The options fields are optional. 8. 4.4 Page 51 March 31. and no command has been specified. If $HOME/. else if /etc/ssh/sshrc exists. separated by spaces: options. sshd does the following: 1. Changes to run with normal user privileges. copy the identity. Runs user's shell or command. instead. You don't want to type them in.LOGIN PROCESS When a user successfully logs in. id_dsa.

otherwise it is run without a tty. if the canonical host name matches a negated pattern. NSK-SSH V2. if somebody somehow steals the key. the canonical name of the remote host must be present in the comma-separated list of patterns (`*' and `?' serve as wildcards). No spaces are permitted. The list may also contain patterns negated by prefixing them with `!'.edit it. no-port-forwarding Forbids TCP/IP forwarding when this key is used for authentication..g. This might be used. e. A quote may be included in the command by quoting it with a backslash. Note that the client may specify TCP/IP and/or X11 forwarding unless they are explicitly prohibited. the key permits an intruder to log in from anywhere in the world. Multiple options of this type are permitted. The purpose of this option is to optionally increase security: RSA authentication by itself does not trust the network or name servers or anything (but the key). command or subsystem execution. 2008 . environment="NAME=value" Specifies that the string is to be added to the environment when logging in using this key. Environment variables set this way override other default environment values. except within double quotes.4 Page 52 March 31. The following option specifications are supported (note that option keywords are case-insensitive): from="pattern-list" Specifies that in addition to RSA authentication. Any port forward requests by the client will return an error. If a 8-bit clean channel is required. Note that this option applies to shell. the key is not accepted. An example might be a key that permits remote backups but nothing else. The command is run on a pty if the client requests a pty. This option might be useful to restrict certain RSA keys to perform just a specific operation. command="command" Specifies that the command is executed whenever this key is used for authentication. The options (if present) consist of comma-separated option specifications. one must not request a pty or should specify no-pty. however. The command supplied by the user (if any) is ignored. This additional option makes using a stolen key more difficult (name servers and/or routers would have to be compromised in addition to just the key). in connection with the command option.

.no-pty. no-pty Prevents tty allocation (a request to allocate a pty will fail).pub. Each line in these files contains the following fields: hostnames.bar from="*.55:80". Examples 1024 33 12121. no-agent-forwarding Forbids authentication agent forwarding when this key is used for authentication. bits. The global file should be prepared by the administrator (optional).fi" 1024 35 23. NSK-SSH V2.2.1.hut.niksula. exponent. exponent. The fields are separated by spaces.. and modulus are taken directly from the RSA host key.g.permitopen="10.no-X11-forwarding Forbids X11 forwarding when this key is used for authentication. they must be literal domains or addresses. each pattern in turn is matched against the canonical host name (when authenticating a client) or against the user-supplied name (when authenticating a server)... e. A pattern may also be preceded by `!' to indicate negation: if the host name matches a negated pattern. 2008 . and the per-user file is maintained automatically: whenever the user connects from an unknown host its key is added to the per-user file. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port.niksula.. Bits.312314325 ylo@foo. they can be obtained. it is not accepted (by that line) even if it matched another pattern on the line. Any X11 forward requests by the client will return an error.1.2323 backup. and is not used. comment. The optional comment field continues to the end of the line.fi... from /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.hut. No pattern matching is performed on the specified hostnames.2323 SSH_KNOWN_HOSTS FILE FORMAT The /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. Multiple permitopen options may be applied separated by commas.hut.. modulus..4 Page 53 March 31. and $HOME/.2334 ylo@niksula command="dump /home".2.fi permitopen="10.56:25" 1024 33 23.no-port-forwarding 1024 33 23.ssh/known_hosts files contain host public keys for all known hosts.!pc. permitopen="host:port" Limit local ``ssh -L'' port forwarding such that it may only connect to the specified host and port. Hostnames is a comma-separated list of patterns ('*' and '?' act as wildcards).

. and you definitely don't want to type in the host keys by hand. /var/run/sshd. When performing host authentication. These files should only be owned by root. This will inevitably happen when short forms of host names from different domains are put in the file. they are provided for the convenience of the user so their contents can be copied to known hosts files. and not accessible to others. These files are created using ssh-keygen(1). authentication is accepted if any matching line has the proper key. It is thus permissible (but not recommended) to have several lines or different host keys for the same names.hut.233. generate them by a script or by taking /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub and adding the host names at the front.199.185. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. /etc/ssh/moduli Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the "Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange".org. Note that sshd does not start if this file is group/world-accessible. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub.openbsd... These files should be world-readable but writable only by root. This file should be writable by root only.. It is possible that the files contain conflicting information.. Note that the lines in these files are typically hundreds of characters long.fi cvs..pub These three files contain the public parts of the host keys... /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.41 1024 37 159.208. 2008 .137.4 Page 54 March 31. readable only by root. Rather.pid Contains the process ID of the sshd listening for connections (if NSK-SSH V2.93 closenet. authentication is accepted if valid information can be found from either file..pub. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key These three files contain the private parts of the host keys.3 ssh-rsa AAAA1234.130. but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable.. These files are not really used for anything. Examples closenet.Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are ignored as comments.= FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd. Their contents should match the respective private parts.

However. The given user on the to log in without password. tcp-wrappers access controls may be defined here as described in hosts_access(5).ssh/known_hosts These files are consulted when using rhosts with RSA host authentication or protocol version 2 hostbased authentication to check the public key of the host. and $HOME/. so using this permits NSK-SSH V2. Either host or user name may be of the form +@groupname to specify all hosts or all users in the group. sshd refuses to let anyone except root log in. 2008 . /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/. this file is not used by rlogin and rshd. /etc/hosts. one corresponding host is permitted same file is used by rlogind and only by the user.pub files into this file. This file must be readable by root (which may on some machines imply it being world-readable if the user's home directory resides on an NFS volume).pub and/or id_rsa.4 Page 55 March 31.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA or DSA) that can be used to log into the user's account.deny If compiled with LIBWRAP support. The content of this file is not sensitive. The format of this file is described above. and non-root connections are refused. it can be world-readable. The client uses the same files to verify that it is connecting to the correct remote host.there are several daemons running concurrently for different ports. The file should be world-readable.shosts For ssh. These files should be writable only by root/the owner. /etc/hosts. Users will place the contents of their identity.pub. $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts should be world-readable. as described in ssh-keygen(1). it is recomby others.ssh/known_hosts can but need not be world-readable. The key must be listed in one of these files to be accepted. this contains the pid of the one started last). The rshd. $HOME/.rhosts. The contents of the file are displayed to anyone trying to log in. /etc/nologin If this file exists. $HOME/.rhosts This file contains host-username per line. id_dsa. this file is exactly the same as for . separated by a space. If is also possible to use netgroups in the file.allow. The file must be writable mended that it not be accessible pairs. It is recommended that it not be accessible by others.

Using a user name practically grants the user root access. In the simplest form. daemon. /etc/ssh/shosts. It can only contain empty lines. /etc/hosts.ssh/environment This file is read into the environment at login (if it exists). Warning: It is almost never a good idea to use user names in hosts. Users on those hosts are permitted to log in without a password. it is recommended that it be world-readable. $HOME/. it is run with /bin/sh after reading the environment files but before starting the user's shell or command. one per line. AFS is a particular example of such an environ- NSK-SSH V2.equiv This is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. The only valid use for user names that I can think of is in negative entries. this will receive the "proto cookie" pair in standard input (and DISPLAY in environment). Negated entries start with `-'. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. adm. this file may be useful in environments that want to run both rsh/rlogin and ssh. However.equiv.rhosts authentication. comment lines (that start with `#').equiv. This file must be writable only by root. such users are permitted to log in as any user on this machine (except root). The host name may also be followed by a user name.4 Page 56 March 31. this file contains host names. provided they have the same user name on both machines. and other accounts that own critical binaries and directories. Additionally. The file should be writable only by the user. and assignment lines of the form name=value. Additionally. The primary purpose of this file is to run any initialization routines which may be needed before the user's home directory becomes accessible. login is automatically permitted provided the client and server user names are the same. Beware that it really means that the named user(s) can log in as anybody.ssh/rc If this file exists.access using SSH only. $HOME/. it need not be readable by anyone else. which includes bin. the syntax ``+@group'' can be used to specify netgroups. Note that this warning also applies to rsh/rlogin. 2008 . If X11 spoofing is in use. This must call xauth(1) in that case.equiv This file is used during . If the client host/user is successfully matched in this file.

moduli(5). This file should be writable only by root.ment. /etc/ssh/sshrc Like $HOME/. sftp-server(8) ssh-keygen(1). 2008 . ssh(1). /etc/ssh/sshrc is run. and if that does not exist either.4 Page 57 March 31. This can be used to specify machine-specific login-time initializations globally. ssh-add(1). SEE ALSO scp(1). then echo add $DISPLAY $proto $cookie | xauth -q fi If this file does not exist.conf(5). and should be world-readable. ssh-agent(1). xauth is used to store the cookie.ssh/rc. and need not be readable by anyone else. NSK-SSH V2. login. sftp(1). This file should be writable only by the user. This file will probably contain some initialization code followed by something similar to: if read proto cookie.

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txt.org> HISTORY sftp-server first appeared in OpenBSD 2.sftp-server SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server . AUTHORS Markus Friedl <markus@openbsd.SFTP server subsystem SYNOPSIS sftp-server DESCRIPTION sftp-server is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. SEE ALSO sftp(1). System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. work in progress material. sshd(8) T. See sshd(8) for more information. SSH File Transfer Protocol.4 Page 59 March 31. Lehtinen.8 . This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). and S. January 2001. NSK-SSH V2. Ylonen. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. sftp-server is not intended to be called directly. 2008 .

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If the filename is too long you will get an error. if you wish to access the $system. you must limit your filenames to 8 characters.SFTP server subsystem for guardian access SYNOPSIS sftp-server-guardian DESCRIPTION sftp-server-guardian is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. For example. NSK-SSH V2. This make the sftp-server-guardian subsystem compatible with graphical user interfaces such as FileZilla. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. it will be stored as an edit file. AUTHORS Bowden Systems Inc <sales@bsi2.com> HISTORY sftp-server-guardian first appeared in 2005. Lehtinen. there was no way to allow this via a graphical interface and unix filesystem syntax.system file system. SSH File Transfer Protocol. As with all guardian filenames.sftp-server-guardian SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server-guardian . System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). sshd(8) T.4 Page 61 March 31. This subsystem does not have access to files residing on another node. sftp-server-guardian is not intended to be called directly. using the sftp-server-guardian you would use the /system/system option. 2008 . If the filename has a .txt file on it. SEE ALSO sftp(1). Eventhough this feature was designed into the subsystem. Ylonen. The sftp-server-guardian support reading and writing files directly to the guardian filesystem using the standard unix syntax. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. January 2001.txt. work in progress material. See sshd(8) for more information. and S.

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SEE ALSO ssh(1) NSK-SSH V2. GNOTTY 1 . there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. it should be enclosed in double or single quotes.secure command (remote command execution) SYNOPSIS scmd [-v] user@host cmd DESCRIPTION scmd is a command front-end for ssh. -v used for displaying detail ssh information on stderr.Set this to the password for the public key or user id HISTORY This program was written to solve the select problem for ssh in OSS.scmd SCMD(1) System Reference Manual SCMD(1) NAME scmd .Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCMD program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password.4 Page 63 March 31. 2008 . If cmd is more than one command.

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ln. put. 2008 . -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. rename. For exam- NSK-SSH V2. otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication.Secure file transfer program SYNOPSIS sftp [-1Cv] [-b batchfile] [-F ssh_config] [-o ssh_option] [-s subsystem | sftp_server] [-S program] host sftp [[user@]host[:file [file]]] sftp [[user@]host[:dir[/]]] DESCRIPTION sftp is an interactive file transfer program.4 Page 65 March 31. -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. -C Enables compression (via ssh's -C flag). This option is directly passed to ssh(1). which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh(1) transport. such as public key authentication and compression. similar to ftp(1). sftp connects and logs into the specified host. The options are as follows: -1 Specify the use of protocol version 1. Since it lacks user interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag. The last usage format allows the sftp client to start in a remote directory.sftp SFTP(1) NAME sftp . It may also use many features of ssh. rm and lmkdir. sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get. System Reference Manual SFTP(1) -b batchfile Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used. then enters an interactive command mode.

ple. GNOTTY 1 . chown own path Change owner of file path to own. Commands are case insensitive and pathnames may be enclosed in quotes if they contain spaces. chgrp grp path Change group of file path to grp. program must understand ssh(1) options.Set this to the password for the public key or user id INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Once in interactive mode. NSK-SSH V2. Quit sftp. sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1). This option is also passed to ssh. lcd path Change local directory to path. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. or when the remote sshd does not have an sftp subsystem configured.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SFTP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. exit Quit sftp. own must be a numeric UID. grp must be a numeric GID.4 Page 66 March 31. 2008 . chmod mode path Change permissions of file path to mode. A path is useful for using sftp over protocol version 1. -v Raise logging level. -S program Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection. bye cd path Change remote directory to path. -s subsystem | sftp_server Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host. to specify an alternate port use: sftp -oPort=24.

If the -P flag is specified. lls [ls-options [path]] Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. it is given the same name it has on the local machine. ln oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. 2008 . then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. lumask umask Set local umask to umask. rename oldpath newpath Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath. it is given the same name it has on the remote machine. put [flags] local-path [local-path] Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. If the local path name is not specified. lpwd Print local working directory.4 Page 67 March 31. pwd quit Display remote working directory. If the remote path name is not specified. Quit sftp. If the -P flag is specified. rm path NSK-SSH V2. mkdir path Create remote directory specified by path.get [flags] remote-path [local-path] Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. help Display help text. lmkdir path Create local directory specified by path. ls [path] Display remote directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. rmdir path Remove remote directory specified by path.

symlink oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. ssh(1). sftp-server(8).4 Page 68 March 31. ! command Execute command in local shell.org> SEE ALSO scp(1). Ylonen. ssh-keygen(1). sshd(8) T. and S. AUTHORS Damien Miller <djm@mindrot. work in progress material. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. January 2001. Synonym for help. SSH File Transfer Protocol.Delete remote file specified by path. ssh-add(1). 2008 . NSK-SSH V2. Lehtinen.txt. ! ? Escape to local shell.

Causes scp and ssh(1) to print debugging messages about their progress. Verbose mode. Disables the progress meter. Recursively copy entire directories. The options are as follows: -c cipher Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer.4 Page 69 March 31. and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh(1).. Copies between two remote hosts are permitted. 2008 . Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases). and configuration problems. -p Preserves modification times. and modes from the original file. Unlike rcp(1). option is directly passed to ssh(1). -r -v -B -q NSK-SSH V2.scp SCP(1) NAME scp .secure copy (remote file copy program) SYNOPSIS scp [-pqrvBC46] [-F ssh_config] [-S program] [-P port] [-c cipher] [-i identity_file] [-o ssh_option] [[user@]host1:]file1 [. authentication. This is helpful in debugging connection. It uses ssh(1) for data transfer. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). Any file name may contain a host and user specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from that host. scp will ask for passwords or passphrases if they are needed for authentication. access times.. System Reference Manual SCP(1) This -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read.] [[user@]host2:]file2 DESCRIPTION scp copies files between hosts on a network.

Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . GNOTTY 1 . must understand ssh(1) options. -4 -6 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only. ssh-add(1).Set this to the password for the public key or user id AUTHORS Timo Rinne <tri@iki.-C Compression enable. SEE ALSO rcp(1). there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. because -p is already reserved for preserving the times and modes of the file in rcp(1). 2008 . -P port Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host. ssh-agent(1). The program -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. ssh(1). -S program Name of program to use for the encrypted connection. pression.4 Page 70 March 31. ssh-keygen(1). This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag. For example.fi> HISTORY scp is based on the rcp(1) program in BSD source code from the Regents of the University of California.fi> and Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs. sshd(8) sftp(1). This option is directly passed to ssh(1). Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable com- -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. forcing the use of protocol version 1 is specified using scp -oProtocol=1. NSK-SSH V2.hut. Note that this option is written with a capital `P'. Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only.

NSK-SSH V2. Deletes all identities from the agent. The options are as follows: -l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent.4 Page 71 March 31. removes the identity from the agent. -e reader Remove key in smartcard reader. When run without arguments. Alternative file names can be given on the command line.ssh/identity. ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given. sshagent(1). Instead of adding the identity.ssh-add SSH-ADD(1) NAME ssh-add . The passphrase is read from the user's tty.adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-add [-lLdD] [file . it adds the file $HOME/. System Reference Manual SSH-ADD(1) -L -d -D -s reader Add key in smartcard reader.] ssh-add -s reader ssh-add -e reader DESCRIPTION ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent. 2008 .. If any file requires a passphrase. The authentication agent must be running and must be an ancestor of the current process for ssh-add to work. ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user. Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented by the agent..

ssh-keygen(1). ENVIRONMENT DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS If ssh-add needs a passphrase. 2008 .FILES $HOME/. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This is the default file added by ssh-add when no other files have been specified.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. Note that ssh-add ignores this file if it is accessible by others. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user.) SEE ALSO ssh(1). This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a . This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). ssh-agent(1). $HOME/. $HOME/.Xsession or related script. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase.4 Page 72 March 31. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key.

. Debug mode. Several identities can be stored in the agent.4 Page 73 March 31. 2008 . and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program. If the identity has a passphrase. so does the agent. When executed without arguments. The options are as follows: -c Generate C-shell commands on stdout. DSA). fork.ssh-agent SSH-AGENT(1) NAME ssh-agent . It then sends the identity to the agent. When this option is specified ssh-agent will not System Reference Manual SSH-AGENT(1) -s -k -d If a commandline is given. The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session. The agent initially does not have any private keys. This is the default if SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell. Keys are added using ssh-add(1).. or from the terminal if running without X). NSK-SSH V2. ssh-add(1) asks for the passphrase (using a small X11 application if running under X11. ssh-add(1) adds the $HOME/. When the command dies. Through use of environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for authentication when logging in to other machines using ssh(1).authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-agent [-c | -s] [-d] [command [args . the agent can automatically use any of these identities.]] ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k DESCRIPTION ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA. ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by the agent. Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable). Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout.ssh/identity file. this is executed as a subprocess of the agent. This is the default if SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell.

ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. However. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. laptop. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. $HOME/. or terminal. This file is not used by ssh-agent but is normally added to the agent using ssh-add(1) at login time. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. The agent exits automatically when the command given on the command line terminates. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). $HOME/. and the user can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere in the network in a secure way.The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC. and authentication passphrases never go over the network. and the name of this socket is stored in the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's PID. A unix-domain socket is created (/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. NSK-SSH V2. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection to the agent.<pid>). or the agent prints the needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be generated) which can be evalled in the calling shell. The socket is made accessible only to the current user. FILES $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user.4 Page 74 March 31. This method is easily abused by root or another instance of the same user. the connection to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins. There are two main ways to get an agent setup: Either the agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment variables are exported. Authentication data need not be stored on any other machine. 2008 .

ssh-keygen(1). SEE ALSO ssh(1).4 Page 75 March 31. 2008 .<pid> Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection to the authentication agent./tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. The sockets should get automatically removed when the agent exits. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. These sockets should only be readable by the owner. ssh-add(1).

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$HOME/. This form of authentication alone is normally not allowed by the server because it is not secure. the user is immediately permitted to log in. or /etc/ssh/shosts. 2008 .equiv. This authentication method closes security holes due to IP spoofing.equiv on the remote machine. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh. [Note to the administrator: /etc/hosts. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network.4 Page 77 March 31. It means that if the login would be permitted by $HOME/.equiv. The second authentication method is the rhosts or hosts. and the rlogin/rsh protocol in general.rhosts. the user is permitted to log in. if the machine the user logs in from is listed in /etc/hosts. if .ssh/known_hosts in the FILES section).equiv.rhosts or . DNS spoofing and routing spoofing. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods deM-pending on the protocol version used: SSH protocol version 1 First. $HOME/. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel.equiv method combined with RSA-based host authentication. Second.shosts. ssh connects and logs into the specified hostname.NSK SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine.rhosts. and if additionally the server can verify the client's host key (see /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/.equiv or /etc/ssh/shosts. only then login is permitted. are inherently insecure and should be System Reference Manual SSH(1) NSK-SSH V2. and the user names are the same on both sides.ssh SSH(1) NAME ssh .shosts exists in the user's home directory on the remote machine and contains a line containing the name of the client machine and the name of the user on that machine. /etc/hosts.

RSA is one such system.pub to $HOME/. however. the user can log in without giving the password. The file $HOME/.4 Page 78 March 31. When the user logs in. since all communications are encrypted. If other authentication methods fail. ssh implements the RSA authentication protocol automatically. The user creates his/her RSA key pair by running ssh-keygen(1).disabled if security is desired. RSA authentication is much more secure than rhosts authentication. and has one key per line. a random number. the client will try to authenticate first using the hostbased method. encrypted by the user's public key. and it is not possible to derive the decryption key from the encryption key.ssh/identity and the public key in $HOME/. The server knows the public key. The idea is that each user creates a public/private key pair for authentication purposes. ssh supports RSA based authentication. The user should then copy the identity. ssh prompts the user for a password. The server checks if this key is permitted. if this method fails public key authentication is attempted. sends the user (actually the ssh program running on behalf of the user) a challenge. 2008 . though the lines can be very long). Using the default values for PreferredAuthentications. SSH protocol version 2 When a user connects using the protocol version 2 different authentication methods are available. proving that he/she knows the private key but without disclosing it to the server. The scheme is based on public-key cryptography: there are cryptosystems where encryption and decryption are done using separate keys. After this.ssh/identity. and finally if this method fails keyboard-interactive and password authentication are tried.] As a third authentication method. the ssh program tells the server which key pair it would like to use for authentication. The user's client then decrypts the challenge using the private key.rhosts file. The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may be with an authentication agent. the password cannot be seen by someone listening on the network. and only the user knows the private key. This stores the private key in $HOME/. and if so.ssh/authorized_keys in his/her home directory on the remote machine (the authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional $HOME/. The challenge can only be decrypted using the proper private key.ssh/authorized_keys lists the public keys that are permitted for logging in.pub in the user's home directory. The password is sent to the remote host for checking. See ssh-agent(1) for more information. The public key method is similar to RSA authentication described in the NSK-SSH V2.

Blowfish. hmac-sha1). Additionally. 2008 . If public key authentication fails or is not available a password can be sent encrypted to the remote host for proving the user's identity. Note that protocol 1 lacks a strong mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the connection. On most systems. $HOME/. ssh supports a number of functions through the use of an escape character. If a pseudo-terminal has been allocated (normal login session). to sign the session identifier and sends the result to the server. the server either executes the given command. If no pseudo tty has been allocated. A single tilde character can be sent as ~~ or by following the tilde by a character other than those described below. The server checks whether the matching public key is listed in $HOME/. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted.previous section and allows the RSA or DSA algorithm to be used: The client uses his private key. Login session and remote execution When the user's identity has been accepted by the server.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. setting the escape character to ``none'' will also make the session transparent even if a tty is used. Protocol 2 provides additional mechanisms for confidentiality (the traffic is encrypted using 3DES. The escape character can be changed in configuration files using the EscapeChar configuration directive or on the command line by the -e option. NSK-SSH V2. The escape character must always follow a newline to be interpreted as special. or logs into the machine and gives the user a normal shell on the remote machine. the session is transparent and can be used to reliably transfer binary data. The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP connections have been closed.ssh/authorized_keys and grants access if both the key is found and the signature is correct. Escape Characters When a pseudo terminal has been requested.4 Page 79 March 31.ssh/id_rsa. The session identifier is derived from a shared Diffie-Hellman value and is only known to the client and the server. the user may use the escape characters noted below. CAST128 or Arcfour) and integrity (hmac-md5. The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh. ssh supports hostbased or challenge response authentication.

it will generate a random authorization cookie. see the description of the -X and -x options described later) and the user is using X11 (the DISPLAY environment variable is set). another is going through firewalls. The user should not manually set DISPLAY. One possible application of TCP/IP forwarding is a secure connection to an electronic purse.4 Page 80 March 31. Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file. but with a display number greater than zero. The DISPLAY value set by ssh will point to the server machine. This is normal. Forwarding of X11 connections can be configured on the command line or in configuration files. The real authentication cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain). the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the remote side unless disabled on the command line or in a configuration file. the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted channel. and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine. and verify that any forwarded connections carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened. ssh will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. ~^Z ~# ~& Disconnect Background ssh List forwarded connections Background ssh at logout when waiting for forwarded connection / X11 sessions to terminate (protocol version 1 only) Display a list of escape characters Request rekeying of the connection (only useful for SSH protocol version 2 and if the peer supports it) ~? ~R X11 and TCP forwarding If the ForwardX11 variable is set to ``yes'' (or. NSK-SSH V2. For this purpose. 2008 .The supported escapes (assuming the default `~') are: ~. store it in Xauthority on the server. If the user is using an authentication agent. and happens because ssh creates a ``proxy'' X server on the server machine for forwarding the connections over the encrypted channel.

The options are as follows: -a -A Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. 3des is used by default. -e ch|^ch|none Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: `~'). it appears very secure and is much faster than 3des. followed by control-Z suspends the connection. The StrictHostKeyChecking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines whose host key is not known or has changed.') closes the connection. des is only supported in the ssh client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. Another purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption. the file /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts. See Ciphers for more information. Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection.4 Page 81 March 31. Setting the NSK-SSH V2. and followed by itself sends the escape character once. Any new hosts are automatically added to the user's file. -b bind_address Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. -c blowfish|3des|des Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the session.ssh/known_hosts in the user's home directory. The escape character followed by a dot (`. -c cipher_spec Additionally. Host keys are stored in $HOME/. 2008 . blowfish is a fast block cipher. If a host's identification ever changes. 3des (triple-des) is an encrypt-decrypt-encrypt triple with three different keys. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of ciphers can be specified in order of preference. The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line. It is believed to be secure. Additionally. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. ssh warns about this and disables password authentication to prevent a trojan horse from getting the user's password.Server authentication ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing identifications for all hosts it has ever been used with.

fi. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases.cs.hut. -g -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA or DSA authentication is read. -l login_name Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine.cs. -N NSK-SSH V2. prevents reading from stdin). The argument is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key.) Do not execute a remote command. Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. see also the -f option. -m mac_spec Additionally. and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase. It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine. but the user wants it in the background. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. For example. This implies -n. ssh -n shadows. This may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. See the MACs keyword for more information.ssh/identity in the user's home directory. This is useful for just forwarding ports (protocol version 2 only). for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms can be specified in order of preference. -I smartcard_device Specifies which smartcard device to use.character to ``none'' disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent. The ssh program will be put in the background.hut.fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows. Default is $HOME/. 2008 .4 Page 82 March 31. -n Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually. This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. -k Disables forwarding of Kerberos tickets and AFS tokens. This must be used when ssh is run in the background.

but will only slow down things on fast networks. when implementing menu services. Disables X11 forwarding. which can be very useful. Verbose mode. and configuration problems. Enables X11 forwarding. Force pseudo-tty allocation. and the ``level'' can be controlled by the CompressionLevel option (see below). Multiple -v options increases the verbosity. Disable pseudo-tty allocation. sftp). Quiet mode. even if ssh has no local tty. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.4 Page 83 March 31.g. This can be used if a firewall does not permit connections from privileged ports. Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be Only fatal errors are displayed. This can be used to execute arbiM-trary screen-based programs on a remote machine. suppressed. -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. This can also be specified on a per-host -t -T -v -x -X basis in a configuration file. This is helpful in debugging connection. and data for forwarded X11 and TCP/IP connections).. Note that this option turns off RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication for older servers. -P Use a non-privileged port for outgoing connections. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress. Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections. stderr.-o option Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. 2008 . authentication. -q -s May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system. -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin. The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the con- NSK-SSH V2. The subsystem is specified as the remote command. Subsystems are a feature of the SSH2 protocol which facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (eg. stdout. Multiple -t options force tty allocation. Maximum is 3. e. The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1).

The default for the per-user configuration file is $HOME/. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. Only root can forward privileged ports. the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. Forces ssh to try protocol version 2 only. and whenever a connection is made to this port. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. -1 -2 -4 Forces ssh to try protocol version 1 only. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the remote machine.ssh/config. If a configuration file is given on the command line. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. Only root can forward priviM-leged ports. NSK-SSH V2. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the local machine. 2008 . see the Compression option below. and whenever a connection is made to this port. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine.figuration files.4 Page 84 March 31. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -R port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the remote (server) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the local side. Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the remote side. -L port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the local (client) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the remote side. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. -F configfile Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -D port Specifies a local ``dynamic'' application-level port forwarding. and whenever a connection is made to this port.

`*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns.ssh/config). The default is ``no''. BatchMode If set to ``yes''. the name is not converted to a canonicalized host name before matching). more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file. 2008 . Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used. Otherwise a line is of the format ``keyword arguments''. the first obtained value will be used. The configuration files contain sections bracketed by ``Host'' specifications. A single `*' as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts.4 Page 85 March 31. the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh.. user's configuration file ($HOME/. The matched host name is the one given on the command line. The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword. scp and sftp -o option. Configuration options may be separated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one `='. and general defaults at the end. AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether to pass AFS tokens to remote host. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The host is the hostname argument given on the command line (i. For each parameter. This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password. passphrase/password querying will be disabled.e. The configuration file has the following format: Empty lines and lines starting with `#' are comments. CONFIGURATION FILES ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: command line options. NSK-SSH V2. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''.-6 Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only. and system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config).

This allows ssh to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing. which is good for most applications. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. ssh will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file. The default is ``yes''. The default is ``3des''. ``3des''.arcfour. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. des is only supported in the ssh client for inM-teroperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order of preference.BindAddress Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to ``yes''.cast128-cbc. The default is ``no''. This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh command line to clear port forwardings set in configuration files. Cipher Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in protocol version 1. aes192-cbc.aes256-cbc'' ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local. The default level is 6. The meaning of the values is the same as in gzip(1). and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). the check will not be executed. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. CompressionLevel Specifies the compression level to use if compression is enabled. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.blowfish-cbc. ``blowfish''. ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before NSK-SSH V2. best). The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9 (slow. CheckHostIP If this flag is set to ``yes''. Currently. The deM-fault is ``aes128-cbc.4 Page 86 March 31. 2008 . Compression Specifies whether to use compression. remote and dynamic port forwardings specified in the configuration files or on the command line be cleared. The default is ``no''. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. and ``des'' are supported.3des-cbc. If the option is set to ``no''.

DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. The argument must be an integer. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. GlobalKnownHostsFile NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 87 March 31. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address. The default is 1. ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. Multiple forwardings may be specified. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. 2008 . This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. The escape character can also be set on the command line. The default is ``no''. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. FallBackToRsh Specifies that if connecting via ssh fails due to a connection refused error (there is no sshd(8) listening on the remote host). The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. `^' followed by a letter. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. The default is ``no''. The argument must be a port number. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: `~'). The argument should be a single character. rsh(1) should automatically be used instead (after a suitable warning about the session being unencrypted). and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. or ``none'' to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data). The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.falling back to rsh or exiting. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports. ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. By default. ssh binds local port forwardings to the loopback addresss. The default is ``no''.

2008 . The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. all these identities will be tried in sequence. If they are sent. The default is ``no''.ssh-dss'' HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files. and many users want it too.4 Page 88 March 31. HostName Specifies the real host name to log into. Default is the name given on the command line. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication. and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies.Specifies a file to use for the global host key database instead of /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts. HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the protocol version 2 host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of preference. It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). the value should be set to ``no'' in both NSK-SSH V2. This is important in scripts. and some people find it annoying. Additionally. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. This option applies to protocol version 2 only and is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication. IdentityFile Specifies the file from which the user's RSA or DSA authentication identity is read (default $HOME/. This option is useful for tunneling ssh connections or for multiple servers running on a single host. any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication. However.ssh/identity in the user's home directory). The file name may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. The default for this option is: ``ssh-rsa. To disable keepalives.

ERROR. This will only work if the Kerberos server is actually an AFS kaserver. Default is 3.hmac-sha1-96. INFO.the server and the client configuration files. Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host. is 22. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''.hmac-md5-96''. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh. Multiple forwardings may be specified. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication.hmac-sha1. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. VERBOSE and DEBUG. FATAL. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine. The possible values are: QUIET. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. The default is INFO. and the second must be host:port. The default is ``yes''.hmacripemd160. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. gument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up. The ar- KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT will be forwarded to the server. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. The first argument must be a port number. The argument to this keyword must be an integer. 2008 . Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection.4 Page 89 March 31. Default PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try protocol 2 authentication methods. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication will be used. The default is ``hmac-md5. This allows a client to prefer one method NSK-SSH V2.

and is executed with /bin/sh. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line.4 Page 90 March 31. Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication).password'' Protocol Specifies the protocol versions ssh should support in order of preference. password) The default for this option is: ``hostbased. `%h' will be substituted by the host name to connect and `%p' by the port. The command string extends to the end of the line. ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''.(e.publickey. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. 2008 . Multiple versions must be comma-separated. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. and the second must be host:port. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user). In the command string. The deM-fault is ``yes''.keyboardinteractive. This option applies to protocol version 2 only.1''. RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the local machine. Note that this declaration only affects the client side and has no effect whatsoever on security. The default is ``2. This means that ssh tries version 2 and falls back to version 1 if version 2 is not available. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e. The first argument must be a port number. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. NSK-SSH V2. This option applies to protocol version 1 only.g. Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command. The default is ``yes''. Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce authentication time on slow connections when rhosts authentication is not used. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine. or execute sshd -i somewhere. The command can be basically anything. Multiple forwardings may be specified.g. and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output.

or an authentication agent is running. The argument to this keyword is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key.ssh/known_hosts file. no device is specified and smartcard support is not activated. new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. By default. NSK-SSH V2. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge response authentication. The default is ``yes''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to ``yes''. 2008 . If this flag is set to ``ask''.RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA host authentication. SmartcardDevice Specifies which smartcard device to use. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. Note that this option must be set to ``yes'' if RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication authentications are needed with older servers. The argument must be ``yes''. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections. and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts whose host key has changed.4 Page 91 March 31. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try RSA authentication. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``yes''. ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files. ``no'' or ``ask''. The default is ``yes''. ssh will never automatically add host keys to the $HOME/. and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. or connections to new hosts are frequently made. The default is ``no''. RSA authentication will only be attempted if the identity file exists. The host keys of known hosts will be verified automatically in all cases. however. The default is ``ask''. If this flag is set to ``no''. can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts.

MAIL PATH Set to the path of the user's mailbox. UseRsh Specifies that rlogin/rsh should be used for this host. It is automatically set by ssh to point to a value of the form ``hostname:n'' where hostname indicates the host where the shell runs. This is particularly useful when calling ssh from a . The user should normally not set DISPLAY explicitly. NSK-SSH V2.User Specifies the user to log in as.ssh/known_hosts. ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections over the secure channel. as that will render the X11 connection insecure (and will require the user to manually copy any required authorization cookies). This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines. Set to the default PATH. Set to the path of the user's home directory. UserKnownHostsFile Specifies a file to use for the user host key database instead of $HOME/. and n is an integer >= 1. HOME LOGNAME Synonym for USER. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ENVIRONMENT ssh will normally set the following environment variables: DISPLAY The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server.Xsession or related script. SSH_ASKPASS If ssh needs a passphrase. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. set for compatibility with systems that use this variable. This causes ssh to immediately execute rsh(1). 2008 . XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. as specified when compiling ssh. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. If ssh does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. It is possible that the host does not at all support the ssh protocol. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line. All other options (except HostName) are ignored if this has been specified.4 Page 92 March 31.

and server port number. USER Additionally. NONSTOP ADDITIONAL OPTIONS If you need to use the SSH program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. $HOME/.) SSH_AUTH_SOCK Identifies the path of a unix-domain socket used to communicate with the agent. SSH_CLIENT Identifies the client end of the connection.ssh/environment. respectively. 2008 . The variable contains three space-separated values: client ip-address.Set this to the password for the public key or user id FILES $HOME/.e.ssh/known_hosts Records host keys for all hosts the user has logged into that are not in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.. SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND The variable contains the original command line if a forced command is executed. $HOME/. the daemon passes the value on to new connections). there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. ssh reads $HOME/.(Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. If the current session has no tty. GNOTTY 1 . See sshd(8). They are for protocol 1 RSA.ssh/id_dsa. Set to the name of the user logging in. and adds lines of the format ``VARNAME=value'' to the environment. It can be used to extract the original arguments. client port number.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . NSK-SSH V2. $HOME/. protocol 2 DSA.4 Page 93 March 31. this variable is not set. SSH_TTY This is set to the name of the tty (path to the device) associated with the current shell or command.ssh/id_rsa Contains the authentication identity of the user.ssh/identity. TZ The timezone variable is set to indicate the present timezone if it was set when the daemon was started (i. and protocol 2 RSA.

pub and $HOME/.pub. all such names should be listed. This file is used by the ssh client.ssh/id_dsa.ssh/id_dsa. Note that ssh ignores a private key file if it is accessible by othM-ers.pub identity files. separated by commas. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. they are only provided for the convenience of the user. This file should be prepared by the system administrator to contain the public host keys of all machines in the organization. These files are never used automatically and are not necessary.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 1 RSA authentication. This file is not highly sensitive. The format of this file is described above.pub file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 2 DSA/RSA authentication.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA/DSA) that can be used for logging in as this user. This file does not usually contain any sensitive information.pub file should be added to $HOME/. the passphrase will be used to encrypt the sensitive part of this file using 3DES. public key and optional comment field. one per line. This file should be worldreadable. When different names are used for the same machine.pub.pub Contains the public key for authentication (public part of the identity file in human-readable form).4 Page 94 March 31. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. $HOME/. $HOME/.ssh/identity. The contents of the $HOME/. The format of this file is described in the sshd(8) manual page. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user.These files contain sensitive data and should be readable by the user but not accessible by others (read/write/execute). The contents of the $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts Systemwide list of known host keys. The format is described on the sshd(8) manual page. $HOME/. and not accessible by others. In the simplest form the format is the same as the . The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by sshd(8) to verify the client host when logging in.ssh/id_rsa. other names NSK-SSH V2. in the following format (fields separated by spaces): system name. $HOME/. These files are not sensitive and can (but need not) be readable by anyone. This file contains public keys. 2008 .ssh/id_rsa. $HOME/. and not accessible by others.ssh/identity.

ssh/known_hosts. login is automatically permitted provided client and server user names are the same.equiv. This file must be world-readable.equiv This file is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. It contains canonical hosts names. NSK-SSH V2. /etc/ssh/shosts. If the server machine does not have the client's host key in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. The easiest way to do this is to connect back to the client from the server machine using ssh. and not accessible by others.shosts This file is used exactly the same way as .rhosts authentication. The recommended permission for most machines is read/write for the user.rhosts. this will automatically add the host key to $HOME/. 2008 . This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file. and must not have write permissions for anyone else. because sshd(8) reads it as root. The purpose for having this file is to be able to use rhosts authentication with ssh without permitting login with rlogin(1) or rsh(1). $HOME/. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. separated by a space.equiv This file is used during .ssh/known_hosts. it can be stored in $HOME/. because someone with access to the name servers would then be able to fool host authentication. this file must be owned by the user. Note that by default sshd(8) will be installed so that it requires successful RSA host authentication before permitting . /etc/hosts. (Note that this file is also used by rlogin and rsh.rhosts authentication. Additionally.rhosts This file is used in . If the client host is found in this file. $HOME/.) Each line of the file contains a host name (in the canonical form returned by name servers). and then a user name on that host.4 Page 95 March 31. and for those users who do not have a configuration file. On some machines this file may need to be world-readable if the user's home directory is on a NFS partition. which makes using this file insecure.rhosts authentication to list the host/user pairs that are permitted to log in. This file may be useful to permit logins using ssh but not using rsh/rlogin.are needed because ssh does not convert the user-supplied name to a canonical name before checking the key. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. Additionally. one per line (the full format is described on the sshd(8) manual page). This file should only be writable by root.

4 Page 96 March 31. SSH Protocol Architecture. keygen(1). T. sshd(8) ssh-add(1). Ylonen.ssh/environment Contains additional definitions for environment variables. work in progress material. sftp(1). See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. scp(1). draft-ietf-secsh-architecture-09. M.txt. SEE ALSO rlogin(1). see section ENVIRONMENT above. NSK-SSH V2. Lehtinen. Rinne. telnet(1). rsh(1). ssh-agent(1). See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. and S. Kivinen. $HOME/. T. $HOME/.ssh/rc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started./etc/ssh/sshrc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. July 2001. ssh- T. 2008 . Saarinen.

4 Page 97 March 31.0.FILES sshd_config FILE # This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/ssh/bin # This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file.0.APPENDIX B .0 #ListenAddress :: # HostKey for protocol version 1 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key # HostKeys for protocol version 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key # Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key KeyRegenerationInterval 3600 ServerKeyBits 768 # Logging SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging # Authentication: LoginGraceTime 600 PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes RSAAuthentication yes PubkeyAuthentication yes #AuthorizedKeysFile %h/. # for more information.rhosts and ~/.1 ListenAddress 0.shosts files IgnoreRhosts yes # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts RhostsRSAAuthentication no # similar for protocol version 2 See sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. Port 22 #Protocol 2. 2008 .ssh/authorized_keys # rhosts authentication should not be used RhostsAuthentication no # Don't read the user's ~/.

change to no here! PasswordAuthentication yes PermitEmptyPasswords no # Uncomment to disable s/key passwords #ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # Uncomment to enable PAM keyboard-interactive authentication # Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication' #PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes # To change Kerberos options #KerberosAuthentication no #KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes #AFSTokenPassing no #KerberosTicketCleanup no # Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver #KerberosTgtPassing yes X11Forwarding no X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintMotd yes #PrintLastLog no KeepAlive yes #UseLogin no #MaxStartups 10:30:60 #Banner /etc/issue.4 Page 98 March 31.HostbasedAuthentication no # Uncomment if you don't trust ~/.net #ReverseMappingCheck yes Subsystem Subsystem sftp sftp-g /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server-guardian NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .ssh/known_hosts for RhostsRSAAuthentication #IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes # To disable tunneled clear text passwords.

ssh/id_rsa # Port 22 # Protocol 2.4 Page 99 March 31. This file provides defaults for users.ssh/identity # IdentityFile ~/. See ssh(1) for more # information. # # # # # # # Configuration data is parsed as follows: 1.1 # Cipher blowfish # EscapeChar ~ NSK-SSH V2. system-wide file Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set. user-specific file 3. and defaults at the end. Thus. host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the configuration file.ssh/id_dsa # IdentityFile ~/. and the values can # be changed in per-user configuration files or on the command line.ssh_config FILE # This is ssh client systemwide configuration file. # Site-wide defaults for various options # Host * # ForwardAgent no # ForwardX11 no # RhostsAuthentication no # RhostsRSAAuthentication yes # RSAAuthentication yes # PasswordAuthentication yes # FallBackToRsh no # UseRsh no # BatchMode no # CheckHostIP yes # StrictHostKeyChecking yes # IdentityFile ~/. command line options 2. 2008 .

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2008 .4 Page 101 March 31.APPENDIX C .sh FILE ############################################ # Start SSH with IPSSH across two cpus ## ## Start the SSH process on port 700 and 701 export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 run -cpu=0 sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 sshd -p 701 ## Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process run -cpu=0 ipssh sleep 5 ## Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process run -cpu=1 ipssh -wait 0 # Startup complete NSK-SSH V2.TELNET ISOLATION FILES start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack.

2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.4 Page 102 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.

4 Page 103 March 31. & name $ob010. & outfile $zhome.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00a start_ipssh_ztc0a. 2008 .& HOMETERM $zhome.APPENDIX D . & startmode manual. & AUTORESTART 10.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip000 run -name=/G/ip000 -cpu=0 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.ZZKRN FILES ipztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00a add process IPSSH-ztc00a.& program $system.sh <.& userid 255.osh.255.& primarycpu 0.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0a.system.

osh. # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip001 run -name=/G/ip001 -cpu=1 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D -wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2. & outfile $zhome.ipztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00b add process IPSSH-ztc00b.& program $system.system. If the other ipssh process # dies.4 Page 104 March 31. & name $ob011.& primarycpu 1.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00b start_ipssh_ztc0b.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # # Note that the wait 0 is used just incase the other ipssh process # has been started and is on port 22. & AUTORESTART 10. 2008 .255.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0b.& userid 255.& HOMETERM $zhome. this process will take over.sh <. & startmode manual.

4 Page 105 March 31.& userid 255. 2008 .system.& primarycpu 0.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00a.sh <. & startmode manual. & name $ob000.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00a start_random_ztc00a.255.osh.& HOMETERM $zhome. & AUTORESTART 10.ranztc0a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00a add process RANDOM-ztc00a.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 790" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb000 run -name=/G/rb000 -cpu=0 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:790 # NSK-SSH V2.& program $system. & outfile $zhome.

& AUTORESTART 10.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00b. 2008 .ranztc0b FILE llow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00b add process RANDOM-ztc00b.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00b start_random_ztc0b.& userid 255.sh <.& primarycpu 1. & startmode manual.4 Page 106 March 31.& HOMETERM $zhome.osh.& program $system.255. & outfile $zhome.system.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 791" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb001 run -name=/G/rb001 -cpu=1 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:791 # NSK-SSH V2. & name $ob001.

osh.& HOMETERM $zhome.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 700" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd000 run -name=/G/sd000 -cpu=0 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 700 # NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 107 March 31. & AUTORESTART 10.& userid 255.& program $system. & outfile $zhome. & startmode manual.sdztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00a add process SSHD-ztc00a.& primarycpu 0.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00a start_sshd_ztc00a.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00a. & name $ob020.system.255.sh <. 2008 .

& userid 255. & outfile $zhome. & startmode manual.255.system.& primarycpu 1.4 Page 108 March 31. & name $ob021.sh <.& program $system.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00b.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00b start_sshd_ztc00b. 2008 .sdztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00b add process SSHD-ztc00b.osh.& HOMETERM $zhome. & AUTORESTART 10.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 701" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd001 run -name=/G/sd001 -cpu=1 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 701 # NSK-SSH V2.

4 Page 109 March 31. 2008 .INSTALL NOTES: NSK-SSH V2.

Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 .4 Page 110 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.

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