Version 2.

4

Bowden Systems Inc.
Norcross, GA 30092 http://www.bsi2.com

Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

BOWDEN SYSTEMS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Bowden Systems shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Warranty
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your BSI product can be obtained from the BSI Corporate Office.

Printing History
The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between additions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive these updates or new editions, contact the BSI Corporate Office. October 2001 . . . Edition 1 February 2002 . . . Edition 2 June 2003....Editon 3 July 2004...Edition4 Feb 2008...Edition 5 March 2008...Edition 5a Bowden Systems, Inc. 3500 Parkway Lane, Suite 370 Norcross, GA 30092, USA email:sales@bsi2.com web:www.bsi2.com © 2001- 2008 Bowden Systems, Inc.
NSK-SSH, sftp-server-guardian, scmd is a trademark of Bowden Systems Inc. Nonstop, TEDIT, TACL, Guardian 90, 6530, PATHWAY are trademarks of HP. Mr-win6530 is a trademark of Conforte. Cail6530 is a trademark of Cail.

Preface
This manual explains how to install, configure, and use NSK-SSH software for the HP NonStop server. This includes setting up the components of the software which are the ipssh, sshd, and prngd.

Audience and Prerequisites
This manual is intended for system managers and assumes that the user has experience with OSS, GUARDIAN, TCPIP, PTCPIP and SCF.

Prerequisite Equipment
This manual also assumes that the user’s host is S-Series running GUARDIAN G06.22 or higher, GUARDIAN H-Series running H06.05 or higher, or GUARDIAN J-Series J06.02 or higher. This software works with TCPIP V4 and TCPIP V6 tcpip stacks.

iii

. . . . . . . 17 6. . . . 103 ipztc00a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 sshd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ssh-add. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 APPENDIX D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ssh-keyscan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 prngd. . . . . . . . . . 63 sftp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KNOWN PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC SETUP OF SSH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN PAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KERNEL SUBSYSEM. . . . . . . . . . . TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 sshd_config FILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TELNET ISOLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ssh_config FILE. . . . . . . . 19 7. . . . . . 27 ssh-keygen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 b. . . . . . . . . .SSHD using two IP stacks. . . . . . . . . . 37 sftp-server. . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . .REQUIRED FILES. . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ssh-agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . 13 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 start_ipssh_ztc0a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ipssh. . . . . 21 8. . . . . . . OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 APPENDIX C . . . . . 61 scmd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ZZKRN FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 sftp-server-guardian. . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 scp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 start_sshd_ztc00b. . 107 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 sdztc00a -SSHD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 1. . . . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 start_random_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . 107 start_sshd_ztc00a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ipztc00b . . . .IPSSH ON CPU 1. . 104 ranztc0a -PRNGD ON CPU 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 . . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 start_random_ztc0b. . . . . . .PRNGD ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SSHD ON CPU 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 start_ipssh_ztc0b. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 that is based on OpenSSH 2.4. You no longer need to have the OSS local socket program running.05/J06.com). Barrett & Richard E. Silverman. The random number generator does not require any external programs or files for generating its random numbers. This release has also been verified to work with Mr-Win6530.9.9p2 with 3. Now you can have up to 4 random number generators per TCPIP V4 OR V6 stack or up to 64 with PTCPIP using the round-robin method of access . In this release.SUPER or root user id.22/H06. This provides compatibility with programs such as FileZilla.15 for the G06. we also added a new command to address problem with executing remote commands from the system. You should install this software using the SUPER.OVERVIEW This is a release of the NSK-SSH V2. We now also have the ability to set up all the components of this release in the KERNEL (ZZKRN) subsystem for full fault resilance. This release will allow you to access the NonStop system in a secure manor for session and ftp access. This also include the ability to access an isolated TCPIP stack which has telnet running on it for the telnet requirment of SSH. This document will tell you how to install and configure NSK-SSH software for access to the system and provide a reference for the MAN pages included with the NSK-SSH software. We also have added an sftp-server for the guardian file system.4 Page 1 March 31. This installation document assumes that you have OSS.02 operating system. This was created do to the need of users that have PCI requirments of not having TELNET running on the system or FTP. 2008 . If you require more detailed information on SSH. you should consult “SSH The Secure Shell” by Daniel J. NSK-SSH V2. The NSK-SSH has been updated to fix various problem the the random number generator and has move to using TCPIP for the communications between the random number generator and the SSH process. This can be purchased from the Oreilly web site (www. This allows you to access the guardian file system just like the unix file system. This new command is called scmd and allows you to execute remote commands from the NonStop system.oreilly.x security enhancements and PRNGD 0.9. and TCP/IP installed and configured on your system. This software works with alias and standard GUARDIAN users.

NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.4 Page 2 March 31.

Note that the above tar file may have a version indicator on it.Z | pax -rvf - Note that zcat is in the /bin/unsupported directory. do the following: For the S-Series: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_GO622_V24.super to install this software.4 Page 3 March 31. 2008 . IPSSH. To install the software that was downloaded from the web site.tar.Z | pax -rvf - For the H-Series and J-Series operating system: export PATH=$PATH:/bin/unsupported:/bin zcat SSH_H0605_V24.tar.INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE You must be the root user or super. NSK-SSH V2. SSH and PRNGD software. This will install the software into the following directories: /etc/ /etc/ssh /usr/local/ssh /usr/local/random Now you are ready to set up the.

2008 . NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.4 Page 4 March 31.

f.bsi to protocols. you should do the following: 1. The ip address and stack process name you will use for SSH access.bsi protocols Note that the service that the sshd program is looking for is the telent service. c. TELNET servr running on the TCPIP stack LOCAL LOOP BACK STARTED for TCPIP stack REMOVE ANY OPENSSH ssh software on your system as this will cause problems with installing and startup up the Bowden Systems version of SSH. g. If you do not have these files. Know how to use the text editor “vi”. Putty. IMPORTANT FOR TELNET ACCESS cd /etc cp services.bsi services cp protocols. SSH Client Software ( Mr-Win6530. Cail6530. TCPIP V4 or V6 Installed and Configured OSS Sockets Started on each processor. Unix SSH) 2. d. then you need to make sure that has the following line: telnet 23/tcp NSK-SSH V2. If you alreay have a services file. b. e. 2008 . then you can copy the files services. c.BASIC SETUP OF SSH To set up your system so that you use the SSH software.4 Page 5 March 31. TCPIP configure for OSS.bsi to services and protocols. OSS Installed and Configured. Verify that you have the services and protocols file in the /etc directory. You should have the following products installed on your system: a. b. You will need the following information: a.

3. But if you are using some other tcpip process name. do the following: add_define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME file=\$ZTC1 Note that this is an example. export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/install export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/ssh/man export MANPATH=$MANPATH:/usr/local/random/man Note that these can be place in /etc/profile or in your private home directory file “. 4. NSK-SSH V2. Execute a script to change the file setting sh -v . do the following: info_define all To add the define. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. THE TELNET ACCESS TO SSH WILL NOT WORK. a. or that you want to random number generator to use.sh 5.profile”. If you are using the default tcpip process name $ZTC0. Set the correct file settings on the installed files. You should use what ever tcpip process name is defined on your system. 2008 . then you need to add it using vi./ssh_install_chmod. then it is not necessary to do this step. Verify that the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME is already set.4 Page 6 March 31. Set your PATH and MANPATH variables.If the services program does not have this line. NOTE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A /etc/services FILE.

0. Note if you are using TCPIP V4 then you should set this to 127.4 Page 7 March 31.pub ./start_random.DSA Private Key ssh_host_dsa_key. sh -v . do the following: vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Find the line: ListenAddress 0./ssh_install_makekeys.RSA Private Key ssh_host_rsa_key.0. 2008 .sh This will generate the following files in the /etc/ssh/ directory: ssh_host_key .1 port 790. Note that this may take a while.Host Public Key ssh_host_rsa_key . Generate the system keys.1 for the two cpu or greater configuraiton. Execute a script to startup the random number generator.0 and change the 0. NSK-SSH V2.0 to the ipaddress of your system and save the file.RSA Public Key ssh_host_dsa_key .pub .0. Move to the install directory cd /usr/local/ssh/install b. To make this change.pub . Start up the Random number generator (PRNG).sh This will start the random number generator on local sockets connection 127.0.0. !!!! IMPORTANT STEP NOT TO FORGET !!!! a. This must be started before any SSH software can be used.DSA Public Key 8. Execute a script to generate the system wide keys. This is only needed if you ssh to listen again a specific address. The script executes the following: run cpu=0 -gpri= 144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 7.0. sh -v . This step is optional. Modify the system wide configuration to the specify the IP address that the SSHD program will use.0.Host Private Key ssh_host_key.6.0.

If there is more than one address associated with the stack then.0 If you want to start the program in the debug mode to see what it is doing. then you should not change the ListenAddress to 127.0. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2. If you are starting the Bowden NSK-SSH software on a system that has the Comforte SSH software on it and configured to use the port 22 on $ztc0.0. scf> assume process $zzkrn scf>names You should look for #ssh-ztc0. then continue reading. If you want to start SSHD on two cpu’s scipt to step 10.9. If you only run one SSHD server. If this is running. scf> abort #ssh-ztc0 This will abort the process and then you can start up the NSK-SSH software.0.4 Page 8 March 31. scp. To start the sshd program do the following: run -cpu=0 -gpri=125 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd This will start the sshd server and it will listen on port 22 for any connection. do the following: /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -d -d -d This will allow one session to be processed and then the program will exit when the request is finished. The sshd program will process all request (session. 10.1 and change it to the real address of the stack. then you need to stop it. you should leave it set to 0. If you want to start ssh on one cpu.0. before you can startup the NSK-SSH software. ssh and sftp). then you need to stop this software.

a. the TCPIP V6 software is configured in fail-over mode and not configurated for round-robin. Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu./start_ssh_2_cpu.10. run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh -wait 0 11.sh 2. Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process. run -cpu=0 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 -gpri=120 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd -p 701 b.sh or do the following: 1. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/ipssh sleep 5 c.sh 2.sh or do the following: 1. Start the SSHD processes on port 22. Starting it manually. Start the SSHD process on port 700 and 701. run -cpu=0 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd run -cpu=1 /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd NSK-SSH V2. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using P/TCPIP with round-robin configuration./start_ssh_ptcpip_2cpu. a. 2008 . Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s. Starting it manually. we put this startup file in as example of how to run the SSHD server on a system that is uses that configuration.4 Page 9 March 31. Using the startup file: cd /usr/local/ssh/install sh -v . Note that on most systems. You can execute the file start_ssh_2_cpu. Starting SSH on two cpu’s using regular TCPIP or P/TCPIP in Failover mode If you want to distribute the load of your SSH process over two cpu’s.

4 Page 10 March 31. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .Note that you can use this configuraiton on TCPIP V4 if there is more than one IP addres define to the TCPIP stack and it is not in the FAIL-OVER configuraiton.

sh.CPU 0. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. ipaddress 127. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port. Start up the TCPIP V4 stack at tacl: TCPIP/name $ZTC99. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. scf> assume process $ztc99 scf> aler subnet #loop0. With this configuration. we will talk about advanced set up of the SSH software including the KERNEL subsystem and TELNET isolation. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 To do this do the following (Note this works on all release of the Guardian OS including H-series and J-series: 1.ADVANCED SETUP OF SSH In this section.4 Page 11 March 31. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system.TERM $ZHOME/0 2.PRI 190. To use this feature.1 scf> start subnet * scf> exit NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . Start the #LOOP0 port on the stack.

1 23 WELCOME TO test.4 Page 12 March 31. to your SSHD start file and restart the SSHD servers NSK-SSH V2.CPU 0.(IPMADG) Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice> If this works.PRI 170/23 Note that the 23 on the TELSERV command is the port to listen to. 2008 .(15SEP2000) .T9553D40 . you should be able to access the TELNET server locally: TELNET 127. Start up the TELSRV process add define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME.FILE $ZTC99 param TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME $ZTC99 param ZTNT^TRANSPORT^NAME $ZTC99 TELSERV/NAME $ZTN99.0.#PTYAAAA] TELSERV .3.bsi1.0. now you are ready to add the TCPIP_TELNET_STACK. Now at this point.NOWAIT.com [PORT $ZTC99 #23 WINDOW $ZTN99.

you only need Note that you need you need to change 127.*.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.1. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. This is to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. What you need to do this. to be root or super.#RANDOM-ZTC00B NSK-SSH V2.super to do this and your /etc/sshd. prngd.config file to listen on port the ListenAddress configuration line.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system. In the zzkrn subsystem.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.code 100 run zzkrnsd. Now.*.4 Page 13 March 31.super volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl>logon super. $*.0.KERNEL SUBSYSTEM We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh.0.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running. 2008 .zzkrnsd on your system.

#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service. you must have a script to start up the SSH software in the correct order or it will not start at system startup.script name $ob020 . there are two process names used. these names are the following: #RANDOM-ZTC00 . that process will be restarted.process name $sd000 #SSHD-ZTC00B .4 Page 14 March 31. When your system is started up. 2008 .script name $ob10 .process name $sd001 #IPSSH-ZTC00A . This script is the following: assume process $zzkrn start #RANDOM-ZTC00A start #RANDOM-ZTC00B start #SSHD-ZTC00A start #SSHD-ZTC00B start #IPSSH-ZTC00A start #IPSSH-ZTC00B For each startup script.script name $ob000 . all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.script name $ob11 .process name $RD001 #SSHD-ZTC00A .process name $RD000 #RANDOM-ZTC01 .process name $ip000 #IPSSH-ZTC00B . Note that when you abort the software. the process running in the script does not stop.#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.script name $ob001 .process name $ip001 NSK-SSH V2.$ZZKRN.script name $ob021 . It is only when you restart the software.

Since the OSS environment does not support pty’s. This port of SSH uses the tcpip access to random number generator to increase performance. we request access on the 127. We added a distributor to the release so that it is possible to support round-robin access using the standard TCPIP software and scale the ssh software and random number generator software across multiple cpus. If you request that a pty is not allocated. because of problem with the select function not support the tty device. We added a new command to handle remote command execution. We also increase the capacity of the random number generator to handle large request loads. This port of SSH and PRNGD has been fault tested to make sure that it works when a CPU fails. The major difference of this port from the standard SSH and Prngd port is how sessions are accessed and how we access the random number generator. we use the telnet subsystem as the pty generator.4 Page 15 March 31. This also reduces connect time when performning any action that requires a random number. Under the standard model of SSH. Which in the case for all commands on SSH. 2008 .Porting Differences This section will talk very briefly about the differences between this port of NSKSSH and what you get would from Open Source. This allows all TELSRV services to be stop.0. This is not a part of the standard. all sessions are accessed using the master/slave pty configurations. the sshd program will access the user’s default shell script as the standard SSH port does. When NSK-SSH request a pty.0.1 port 23. We also have the ability to make this request to another TCPIP stack that is not attached to any Ethernet hardware and is only running TELSRV. and scalability. The standard SSH software does not know any thing about this. This was not a problem in standard SSH. NSK-SSH V2. and support for the guardian file system via sftp. reliablity. This port of SSH understands about ALIAS users and does it password authentication against the safeguard database.

2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 16 March 31.

CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA PC CLIENT
At this point, you have done the basic setup for the SSH software. In this section, we will be discussing how to access your system to establish session. You will need an SSH client for your PC, Mac, or Unix system to start a session. In this example we are using, MacSSH, but this will apply to Windows software too. 1. Select your host and select Secure Shell

2. Enter your user name and password:

NSK-SSH V2.4

Page 17

March 31, 2008

3. Get the system access prompt. Note that depending on what type of system, you are executing the sshd software on, it may take a while for the session to connect. This has to do with the encryption of the session.

At this point, you can access the NonStop as you always have. Just login in an start working.

NSK-SSH V2.4

Page 18

March 31, 2008

CHECKING YOUR SESSION ACCESS VIA UNIX CLIENT
If you have other unix system’s, that have SSH installed, you can access the HP NonStop using ssh. To start a session remotely on the HP NonSTop do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com joshua’s password:
WELCOME TO test.bsi1.com [PORT $ZTC0 #23 WINDOW $ZTN0.#PTYW1DX] TELSERV - T9553D40 - (15SEP2000) - (IPMADG)

Available Services: TACL EXIT Enter Choice>

If you want to execute a remote commad, do the following: $ssh joshua@test.bsi1.com /bin/ls joshua’s password: test.pl test1.pl test2.pl test3.pl test5.pl test_message $ If you want to copy a file from the unix system to the NSK, do the following: $scp test.pl joshua@test.bsi1.com:test.pl joshua’s password:

NSK-SSH V2.4

Page 19

March 31, 2008

do the following: $ssh joshua@test.If you want to logon directly to TACL. NSK-SSH V2.com /bin/gtacl joshua’s password: TACL 1> Note that you wil not beable to execute any oss commands with this tacl session because you are not using the standard telnet tty session attributes.bsi1.4 Page 20 March 31. 2008 .

you should send an email message to support@bsi2.KNOWN PROBLEMS We added the scmd program to allow remote command access to a system.com. This will be fixed in next release. This currently only supports commands that do not require any interaction with the user. Should you find any problems with this software. 2008 .4 Page 21 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.

2008 .INFORMATION If you need any help with this. All Rights Reserved NSK-SSH V2.bsi2.com.com email:sales@bsi2. Inc.com Copyright (c) 2001-2008 Bowden Systems. 3500 Parkway Lane.4 Page 22 March 31. Suite 370 Norcross. Inc. Any correspondence regarding this software can be sent to the following address: Bowden Systems. please send an email message to support@bsi2. GA 30092 USA +1 866-901-9450 toll free +1 770-441-9450 direct +1 770-441-9449 fax web: www.

System Reference Manual PRNGD(8) NSK-SSH V2.MAN PAGES prngd PRNGD(8) NAME prngd .0. The default port that SSH uses for port access is 790 to 793 and the default local socket is /dev/egd-pool. 2008 . OPTIONS -f or -fg do not fork -d or --debug debugging on -c or --cmdfile cmdpath use cmdpath for entropy commands [/etc/prngd.conf] -s or --seedfile seedpath use seedpath as seedfile [/etc/prngd-seed] -n or --no-seedfile no seedfile. The ports 790 to 793 are against the localhost (127.. keep pool in memory only -m or --mode mode use mode for sockets [0777] -k or --kill kill daemon on other side -v or --version print version and exit DESCRIPTION prngd is a daemon that provides the random number functionality on the NonStop system using either using local sockets or a tcpip port connection.random number generator daemon SYNOPSIS prngd [options] (/path/to/socket1 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port) [(/path/to/socket2 | tcp/localhost:port | tcp/ip:addr:port)] .1) and will use the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME to get the currently defined TCPIP process stack name.. The option tcp/ip:addr:port allows the random number generator to liston on specified address instead of the loopback address.0.APPENDIX A .4 Page 23 March 31.

most of SSH functions will not work. you will still have a random number generator available on the system. then you can start up multiple random number generators using the same port number to spead the laod to multiple CPU's.STARTING DAEMON To start the prngd program using localhost port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/localhost:790 To start the prngd program using tcp/ip option port 708: prngd -gpri=144 tcp/ip:192.210:790 To start the prngd program using the local socket /dev/egd-pool prngd -gpri=170 /dev/egd-pool The SSH program will attempt to use the localhost ports first and then try the local socket next. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 or run -cpu=1 -gpri=170 prngd /dev/egd-pool You could run the TCPIP random number generator port 790 on cpu 0 and port 791 or the Local Socket random number generator on cpu 1. If any one of the CPU's fail. then a primary and back is good choice.4 Page 24 March 31. If you are using using regular TCPIP. run -cpu=0 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 run -cpu=1 -gpri=144 prngd tcp/localhost:790 This will CPU 1 and CPU 0 the load of the random number generator. If you are using Parallel TCPIP with round robin. If you are running P/TCPIP then you can have more than one random number generator using only port 790. if there is not a random number generator available.1. You can configure one prngd program to service both tcp and local socket if you like: prngd /dev/egd-pool tcp/localhost:790 tcp/localhost:791 But you may want to configure the localhost port 790 as the primary and 791 or /dev/egd-pool as the backup. As a note. 2008 . prngd tcp/localhost:790 prngd tcp/localhost:791 NSK-SSH V2.168.

It has been found that if prngd is not properly seed. it will stop generating random numbers.4 Page 25 March 31. Do not use /G/ directories for entropy generation. This will result in processes waiting on this information. prngd will not return any random information if it runs out of entropy. SSH has been program to try 5 times and then will go to the next generator viable and try 5 times also. In the directory /usr/local/random/etc there is a file call prngd-seed.STOPPING DAEMON You can stop the prngd daemon with the following command: If TCPIP: prngd --kill tcp/localhost:790 If Local Socket prngd --kill /dev/egd-pool Or just use the kill command. If this fails the program executing will abend. To use this seed file: cp /usr/local/random/etc/prngd-seed /etc/prngd-seed and restart the program. NSK-SSH V2. but has been written over by the prngd program. SEEDING DAEMON The random number generator software is locate in the /usr/local/random directory. NOTES prngd runs as a named process. PERFORMANCE We have notice that the random number generator using TCPIP requires less cpu overhead than one using the local sockets interface. This can result in system performance problems and cause the random number generator to take excessive cpu time. The program also produces an EMS message when closing a connection. 2008 . This file is 1 megabyte random number that can be used a the first seed when starting prngd for the first time. The current seed in the /etc directory is base on this file.

NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.4 Page 26 March 31.

connection rate for burst conditions. (e. 2008 . The options are as follows: -remote port is the remote port to forward the connection.TCPIP Multiplexer for SSH IPSSH IPSSH(1) [-remote port] [-ports no] [-burst rate] [-interval rate] [-debug] [-wait no] [-D] DESCRIPTION The ipssh programs allows you to distribute ip traffic to multiple ports on a system. time to wait before checking if you can bind to the port. If you have more one ipssh process on the system. The default is zero.4 Page 27 March 31. When this maximum reach all. If you enter 0. -instance no the instance of ipssh processes.. (1 = . The default is 25. The default is 30 seconds. the time is set to 1 second -maxload no -debug -wait no NSK-SSH V2.g.0.ipssh IPSSH(1) NAME IPSSH SYNOPSIS ipssh . -ports number is the number of ports to connect to. Ipssh only forwards to the local 127.. This defaults to 700. the main ipssh process wait until a child completes before continuing. This is the number of connections that can be accepted during the interval.0.701.etc). you need to set this to number. this is maximumu number of ipssh processes that will be allowed exist at one time. This much like the parrallel tcpip product execpt that it will exeucte on any Nonstop system. it is possible to distribute load to those also.702. port 700.01 seconds) The default is 100 or 1 sec. The default is 2. Ipssh listens on port 22 and distributes its ip load to port 700 and 701. The default is 5. -burst rate -interval rate interval in milliseconds. If you have more than two cpu’s. Each port is of set by one.. displays debuging information.1 interface.

indicates that ipssh is to be run waited. 2008 . The default is 5.4 Page 28 March 31. you must change the define =TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME. NSK-SSH V2. so it will not fork and create a process name -D To change the default TCPIP process from $ZTC0.-qlen no number of connection to listen for on the port.The primary process name is /G/ISX ($ISX) and the backup process name is /G/ISY ($ISY).

ssh-keygen defaults to generating a RSA1 key for use by SSH prottocol version 1. For RSA1 keys.authentication key generation. and provides very bad passphrases). Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long and are not simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only 1-2 bits of entropy per character.4 Page 29 March 31. manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1). Specifying the -t option instead creates a key for use by SSH protocol version 2. or it may be a string of arbitrary length. If the passphrase is lost or forgotten. the system administrator may use this to generate host keys. management and conversion SYNOPSIS ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] [-t type] [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment] [-f output_keyfile] ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile] ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile] ssh-keygen -D reader ssh-keygen -U reader [-f input_keyfile] DESCRIPTION ssh-keygen generates. as seen in /etc/rc.ssh-keygen SSH-KEYGEN(1) NAME ssh-keygen . Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to store the private key. a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding public key to other machines. 2008 .pub'' appended. Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in $HOME/. $HOME/. The passphrase can be changed later by using the -p option.ssh/id_rsa. The passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an empty passphrase). There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/. The public key is stored in a file with the same name but ``.ssh/identity. The program also asks for a passphrase. there is also a comment field in the key file that is only System Reference Manual SSH-KEYGEN(1) NSK-SSH V2. Additionally.

Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of creating a new private key. This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout. The program will prompt for the file containing the private keys. for the passphrase if the key has one. but can be changed using the -c option. This option allows importing keys from several commercial SSH implementations. and twice for the new passphrase. Silence ssh-keygen. Minimum is 512 bits. -e This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and print the key in a `SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout. Show fingerprint of specified private or public key file. Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key. This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial SSH implementations. After a key is generated. 2008 . The default is 1024 bits. -i This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private (or public) key to stdout.for convenience to the user to help identify the key. The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create.4 Page 30 March 31. -l -p -q -y -t type NSK-SSH V2. The program will prompt for the file containing the private key. Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient. The comment can tell what the key is for. and key sizes above that no longer improve security but make things slower. for the old passphrase. or whatever is useful. -c Requests changing the comment in the private and public key files. ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH Public Key File Format'. and for the new comment. The comment is initialized to ``user@host'' when the key is created. -f filename Specifies the filename of the key file. instructions below detail where the keys should be placed to be activated.

Specifies the type of the key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. The default is ``rsa1''. -B Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key file.

-C comment Provides the new comment. -D reader Download the RSA public key stored in the smartcard in reader. -N new_passphrase Provides the new passphrase. -P passphrase Provides the (old) passphrase. -U reader Upload an existing RSA private key into the smartcard in reader. FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public tion. The contents of this file should be $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines to log in using RSA authentication. There contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

key for authenticaadded to where the user wishes is no need to keep the

NSK-SSH V2.4

Page 31

March 31, 2008

$HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file using 3DES. This file is not automatically accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for the private key. ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made. $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentication. The contents of this file should be added to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using public key authentication. There is no need to keep the contents of this file secret. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).

SEE ALSO ssh(1),

ssh-add(1),

ssh-agent(1),

sshd(8)

J. Galbraith, and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietfsecsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

NSK-SSH V2.4

Page 32

March 31, 2008

ssh-keyscan
SSH-KEYSCAN(1) NAME ssh-keyscan - gather ssh public keys SYNOPSIS ssh-keyscan [-v46] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [-f file] [host | addrlist namelist] [...] DESCRIPTION ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public ssh host keys of a number of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files. ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as possible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run ssh. For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scanning process involve any encryption. The options are as follows: -p port Port to connect to on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, then the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. Default is 5 seconds. -t type Specifies the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for protocol version 2. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is ``rsa1''. -f filename Read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from this file, one per line. If - is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read hosts or addrlist namelist pairs from the standard input. System Reference Manual SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

NSK-SSH V2.4

Page 33

March 31, 2008

my.2. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts NSK-SSH V2. Causes ssh-keyscan to print debugging messages about its progress.1.ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts FILES Input format: 1. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only.dsa -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u .4 Output format for rsa1 keys: host-or-namelist bits exponent modulus Output format for rsa and dsa keys: host-or-namelist keytype base64-encoded-key Where keytype is either ``ssh-rsa'' or ``ssh-dsa''.4.2.2. On the other hand. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). EXAMPLES Print the rsa1 host key for machine hostname: ssh-keyscan hostname Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: ssh-keyscan -t rsa.4 name. 2008 .4 Page 34 March 31.1.n. Forces ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only.domain.my.3. if the security model allows such a risk. SECURITY If a ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without verifying the keys.2.name. users will be vulnerable to attacks.n.4.4.3.domain.1. -4 -6 DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define.-v Verbose mode.4. ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created.

BUGS It generates "Connection closed by remote host" messages on the consoles of all the machines it scans if the server is older than version 2. sshd(8) AUTHORS David Mazieres <dm@lcs. This is because it opens a connection to the ssh port.9. and Wayne Davison <wayned@users.edu> wrote the initial version.sourceforge.mit. SEE ALSO ssh(1). NSK-SSH V2. and drops the connection as soon as it gets the key. reads the public key. 2008 .net> added support for protocol version 2.4 Page 35 March 31.

NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 36 March 31. 2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

rhosts authentication. when the daemon starts. It is normally started at load time from /usr/local/ssh/. and sends the encrypted number to the server. It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection.NSK-SSH SSH daemon SYNOPSIS sshd [-deiqtD46] [-b bits] [-f config_file] [-g login_grace_time] [-h host_key_file] [-k key_gen_time] [-p port] [-u len] DESCRIPTION sshd (SSH Daemon) is the daemon program for ssh(1). This key is normally regenerated every hour if it has been used. command execution. Next. Both sides then use this random number as a session key which is used to encrypt all further communications in the session. encryption. sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients. It encrypts this random number using both the host key and the server key. The client tries to authenticate itself using . with 3DES being used by default. The forked daemons handle key exchange. 2008 . The client compares the RSA host key against its own database to verify that it has not changed. or password based authentication. and is never stored on disk. SSH protocol version 1 Each host has a host-specific RSA key (normally 1024 bits) used to identify the host. The client then generates a 256 bit random number. sshd works as follows. Additionally. System Manager's Manual SSHD(8) NSK-SSH V2. the server and the client enter an authentication dialog. . it generates a server RSA key (normally 768 bits). This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously. currently Blowfish or 3DES. RSA challenge-response authentication.rhosts authentication combined with RSA host authentication. authentication. The rest of the session is encrypted using a conventional cipher. Whenever a client connects the daemon responds with its public host and server keys. The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server. and data exchange. Together these programs replace rlogin and rsh. The programs are intended to be as easy to install and use as possible. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network.4 Page 37 March 31.sshd SSHD(8) NAME sshd .

Finally. the server sends command exit status to the client.Rhosts authentication is normally disabled because it is fundamentally insecure. session integrity is provided through a cryptographic message authentication code (hmac-sha1 or hmac-md5). currently 128 bit AES. 3DES. and both sides exit. Protocol version 2 provides a public key based user (PubkeyAuthentication) or client host (HostbasedAuthentication) authentication method. However. Arcfour. and the user terminal in the client side. 2008 . Command execution and data forwarding If the client successfully authenticates itself. by executing itself with the name it was started as. CAST128. The sides then enter session mode. Blowfish. it does not generate a server key. forwarding TCP/IP connections. rlogind(8). and such data is forwarded to/from the shell or command on the server side. i. Command-line options override values specified in the configuration file. NSK-SSH V2. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal. sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file. SSH protocol version 2 Version 2 works similarly: Each host has a host-specific key (RSA or DSA) used to identify the host. The rest of the session is encrypted using a symmetric cipher. conventional password authentication and challenge response based methods. At this time the client may request things like allocating a pseudo-tty. the client either requests a shell or execution of a command. or forwarding the authentication agent connection over the secure channel. when the daemon starts. In this mode. and rexecd(8) are disabled (thus completely disabling rlogin(1) and rsh(1) into the machine). Additionally. or 256 bit AES. forwarding X11 connections. SIGHUP. but can be enabled in the server configuration file if desired. a dialog for preparing the session is entered. 192 bit AES. This key agreement results in a shared session key..e. System security is not improved unless rshd(8). The client selects the encryption algorithm to use from those offered by the server.4 Page 38 March 31. /usr/local/ssh/sbin/sshd. When the user program terminates and all forwarded X11 and other connections have been closed. either side may send data at any time. Forward security is provided through a DiffieHellman key agreement.

-i Specifies that sshd is being run from inetd.g.4 Page 39 March 31. The server also will not fork and will only process one connection. The motivation for regenerating the key fairly often is that the key is not stored anywhere.. -h host_key_file Specifies the file from which the host key is read (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key). it becomes impossible to recover the key for decrypting intercepted communications even if the machine is cracked into or physically seized. 512) using sshd from inetd may be feasible. Multiple -d options increase the debugging level. or one hour). The default is /etc/ssh/sshd_config. and does not put itself in the background. It is possible to have multiple host key files for the different protocol versions and host key algorithms. -g login_grace_time Gives the grace time for clients to authenticate themselves (default 600 seconds). and this may take tens of seconds. When this option is specified. A value of zero indicates no limit. -k key_gen_time Specifies how often the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key is regenerated (default 3600 seconds. However. The server sends verbose debug output to the system log. sshd is normally not run from inetd because it needs to generate the server key before it can respond to the client. sshd refuses to start if there is no configuration file. sshd will send the output to the standard error instead of the system log. -d Debug mode. This option must be given if sshd is not run as root (as the normal host file is normally not readable by any one but root). A value of NSK-SSH V2. 2008 . Clients would have to wait too long if the key was regenerated every time. This option is only intended for debugging for the server. Maximum is 3. and after about an hour. the server disconnects and exits. If the client fails to authenticate the user within this many seconds. -e -f configuration_file Specifies the name of the configuration file.The options are as follows: -b bits Specifies the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key (default 768). with small key sizes (e.

4 Page 40 March 31. If it does not find that.0. authentication. RhostsRSAAuthentication. Specifying -u0 indicates that only dotted decimal addresses should be put into the utmp file. Authentication mechanisms that may require DNS include RhostsAuthentication. -t -u len -D -4 -6 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR SSHD requires the use of a random number generator for its operation. 2008 . -p port Specifies the port on which the server listens for connections (default 22). This option is used to specify the size of the field in the utmp structure that holds the remote host name. it fails the random number request. it then looks for the name pipe /dev/egd-pool. TCP_RND_ADDR TCP_RND_PORT0 TCP_RND_PORT1 These environment variables allow you to change the starting and ending port and the default IP address to access for the random number generator request. Forces sshd to use IPv6 addresses only. If it does not find this. HostbasedAuthentication and using a from="pattern-list" option in a key file.0.zero indicates that the key will never be regenerated.1 for a random number generator. -q Quiet mode. -u0 is also be used to prevent sshd from making DNS requests unless the authentication mechanism or configuration requires it. Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys. Forces sshd to use IPv4 addresses only. When this option is specified sshd will not detach and does not become a daemon. Normally the beginning. This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change. and termination of each connection is logged. This allows hosts with very long host names that overflow this field to still be uniquely identified. It currently looks on the ports of 790 to 793 of address 127. Test mode. This allows easy monitoring of sshd. In general. the dotted decimal value will be used instead. If the resolved host name is longer than len. you need at least one NSK-SSH V2. Nothing is sent to the system log.

sh.4 Page 41 March 31. This #LOOP0 is started and a TELSRV process is started against this and no listner process. so this variable is set to: export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 ZZKRN PERSISTANT PROCESS SETUP We have included in this setup the install directory the scripts for setting up the SSHD software using the standard TCPIP V4 or V6 software using the ipssh.100 /G/system/nosubvol/ZZKRNSD gtacl> <logon tacl> volume /G/system/nosubvol fup alter zzkrnsd. prngd. and sshd process running as persistant processes in the ZZKRN file. we have a solution that allows you to do this execpt for an isolated TCPIP stack with telnet running on the loop back port.super to do this and NSK-SSH V2. you only need to install the files in the zzkrn subsystem. What you need to do this. we use the TCPIP process name $ztc99.vol $system This will install the subvolume $system.generator for each TCPIP stack that SSHD is running on. is the following: cd /usr/local/ssh/install/zzkrn cp ZZKRNSD.zzkrnsd on your system. you need specify the following environment variable before starting the SSHD process: TCPIP_TELNET_STACK This is equal to the process name of the TCPIP stack that is isolated. Note that you need to be root or super.*. To use this feature. In our script call start_sshd_2cpu_2stack. If your system is heavly used for SSH request.*. The idea is the run the TCPIP process on your systems that is not attached to any hardware and only use the loop back port. then you might need more than one and you can assign the extra ones to port 791 to 793. With this configuration. $*.code 100 run zzkrnsd. our SSHD process can use this isolated stack for telnet access. Now. 2008 . TELNET ISOLATION For those of you that want to stop all of your telnet and ftp processes on the system.

NSK-SSH V2. The file contains keywordargument pairs.1. all you need do is the following: scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> assume process $zzkrn abort #IPSSH-ZTC00A abort #IPSSH-ZTC00B abort #SSHD-ZTC00A abort #SSHD-ZTC00B abort #RANDOM-ZTC00A abort #RANDOM-ZTC00B The purpose of putting the files under this subsystem is to restart the process if one every stops or a CPU dies.config file to listen on port 127.#IPSSH-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.0. This is the ListenAddress configuration line.#RANDOM-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.you need to change your /etc/sshd. In the zzkrn subsystem. one per line. CONFIGURATION FILE sshd reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line). 2008 .#SSHD-ZTC00A $ZZKRN.#RANDOM-ZTC00B $ZZKRN. scf> assume proces $zzkrn scf> volume $system.0.#IPSSH-ZTC00B $ZZKRN.zzkrnsd The obey files adds the process service and starts up the service.4 Page 42 March 31. scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> scf> obey obey obey obey obey obey ranztc0a ranztc0b sdztc0a sdztc0b ipztc00a ipztc00b start start start start start start up up up up up up cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu cpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 random generator port 790 random generator port 791 sshd process port 700 sshd process port 701 ipssh1 process port 22 ipssh1 process port 22 Now check the status of the serivces scf> status They should all be running. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments. you have added the following servies: $ZZKRN.#SSHD-ZTC00B if you want to stop a service.

restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. separated by spaces. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. Only group names are valid. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. If specified. Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access. This option is only available for protocol version 2. login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. login is allowed only for users names that match one of the patterns. The default is ``yes''. separated by spaces. Only user names are valid. AllowUsers This keyword can be followed by a list of user names. The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%'. By default login is allowed regardless of the user name.The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether an AFS token may be forwarded to the server. After expansion. The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. If specified. Default is ``yes''. AllowTcpForwarding Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted. as they can always install their own forwarders. %h is replaced by the home directory of the user being authenticated and %u is replaced by the username of that user. AuthorizedKeysFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection set-up. AuthorizedKeysFile Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. 2008 .ssh/authorized_keys'' Banner In some jurisdictions. a numerical group ID is not recognized. AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked. AllowGroups This keyword can be followed by a list of group names. The default is ``. NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 43 March 31. a numerical user ID is not recognized. sending a warning message before authentication may be relevant for getting legal protection.

2008 . separated by spaces. Only group names are valid. a numerical user ID is not recognized. unresponsive ssh clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds. Only user names are valid. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive. By default login is allowed regardless of the user NSK-SSH V2. The default is ``yes''.cast128-cbc. indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns. separated by spaces. and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default. DenyUsers This keyword can be followed by a number of user names. sshd will disconnect the client. DenyGroups This keyword can be followed by a number of group names. The TCP keepalive option enabled by Keepalive is spoofable. Users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns aren't allowed to log in. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from Keepalive (below).ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether challenge response authentication is allowed. By default login is allowed regardless of the group list. terminating the session. a numerical group ID is not recognized. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns. If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent. This option applies to protocol version 2 only.3des-cbc.arcfour. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2.'' ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client.4 Page 44 March 31. sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. The default is 0. The default is ``aes128-cbc. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. ClientAliveCountMax Sets the number of client alive messages (see above) which may be sent without sshd receiving any messages back from the client.blowfish-cbc. If ClientAliveInterval (above) is set to 15. The default value is 3.conf(5) are supported. All authentication styles from login. The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable.

The default is ``no''. leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources. NSK-SSH V2. HostKey Specifies the file containing the private host keys (default /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key) used by SSH protocol versions 1 and 2. sessions may hang indefinitely on the server. if keepalives are not sent.equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. /etc/hosts. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. 2008 .rhosts and . On the other hand.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (hostbased authentication). Note that sshd will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible. KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed.equiv are still used. IgnoreRhosts Specifies that . sshd binds remote port forwardings to the loopback addresss. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client. However. IgnoreUserKnownHosts Specifies whether sshd should ignore the user's $HOME/. ``rsa1''keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'' or ``rsa'' are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should bind remote port forwardings to the wildcard address. This option is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only. If they are sent.shosts files will not be used in RhostsAuthentication. By default.4 Page 45 March 31. RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication. The default is ``no''. and some people find it annoying.name. It is possible to have multiple host key files. The default is ``yes''. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports.ssh/known_hosts during RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication.

KeyRegenerationInterval In protocol version 1. This avoids infinitely hanging sessions. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication is allowed. If the value is 0. the password provided by the user will be validated through the Kerberos KDC. ing forms may be used: ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port If port is not specified. Ad- The follow- NSK-SSH V2. Default is ``no''. and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host reboots. The default is to listen on all local addresses. KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT may be forwarded to the server. the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity. To use this option. The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys. the value should be set to ``no'' in both the server and the client configuration files. The default is 3600 (seconds). Default is ``yes''. This can be in the form of a Kerberos ticket. the key is never regenerated. 2008 . KerberosOrLocalPasswd If set then if password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd. ListenAddress Specifies the local addresses sshd should listen on.4 Page 46 March 31. or if PasswordAuthentication is yes. The key is never stored anywhere. Default is ``yes''. KerberosTicketCleanup Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout. the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many seconds (if it has been used). Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted. as this only works when the Kerberos KDC is actually an AFS kaserver. sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified. To disable keepalives.The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). Default is ``yes''.

but it will allow password authentication regardless of whether PasswordAuthentication is disabled.. there is no time limit.g. Alternatively.ditionally. sshd will refuse connection attempts with a probability of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections.hmac-md5-96''.hmac-sha1. VERBOSE and DEBUG. any Port options must precede this option for non port qualified addresses. The possible values are: QUIET. The default is ``hmac-md5. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether password authentication is allowed. INFO. ERROR. random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values ``start:rate:full'' (e. The default is ``no''.4 Page 47 March 31. FATAL. The default is 10. "10:30:60"). This allows the use of most PAM challenge response authentication modules. Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection. The default is INFO. The default is 600 (seconds). MaxStartups Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the sshd daemon. Logging with level DEBUG violates the privacy of users and is not recommended. LoginGraceTime The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. NSK-SSH V2. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd. MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms. If the value is 0. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated.hmacsha1-96.hmac-ripemd160. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. The de- PermitEmptyPasswords When password authentication is allowed. PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt Specifies whether PAM challenge response authentication is allowed. The default is ``no''. it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings. The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60). fault is ``yes''. 2008 .

``forced-commands-only'' or ``no''. Port Specifies the port number that sshd listens on. All other authentication methods are disabled for root.pid. The default is ``yes''. The argument must be ``yes''.4 Page 48 March 31. 2008 . The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed. Specifies the protocol versions sshd should support.1''. PrintMotd Specifies whether sshd should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively. Multiple options of this type are permitted. The default is ``yes''. If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'' root login with public key authentication will be allowed. If this option is set to ``without-password'' password authentication is disabled for root. The default is ``yes''. The default is 22. (On some systems it is also printed by the shell. ``without-password''. ReverseMappingCheck Specifies whether sshd should try to verify the remote host name and check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address NSK-SSH V2.) Protocol The default is ``yes''. /etc/profile. See also ListenAddress. PidFile Specifies the file that contains the process identifier of the sshd daemon. If this option is set to ``no'' root is not allowed to login. but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed). The default is /var/run/sshd. The default is ``2. or equivalent. Multiple versions must be commaseparated. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. PrintLastLog Specifies whether sshd should print the date and time when the user last logged in.PermitRootLogin Specifies whether root can login using ssh(1).

this method should not be permitted because it is insecure. LOCAL3. UseLogin Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions. SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd. Normally. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed. Subsystem Configures an external subsystem (e. The default is ``no''.equiv authentication. The default is ``no''. This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. StrictModes Specifies whether sshd should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command to execute upon subsystem request. LOCAL0.4 Page 49 March 31. LOCAL6. This option applies to protocol version 1 only.equiv authentication together with successful RSA host authentication is allowed. AUTH.. The minimum value is 512. Note that login(1) is never used NSK-SSH V2. Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only. LOCAL1. file transfer daemon). This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``no''. and the default is 768.equiv files is sufficient. LOCAL4. LOCAL2. The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem. The default is ``no''. ServerKeyBits Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key. By default no subsystems are defined. The possible values are: DAEMON. The default is ``yes''. This option applies to protocol version 1 only.maps back to the very same IP address. LOCAL7.g. USER. because it performs RSA-based host authentication in addition to normal rhosts or /etc/hosts. LOCAL5. RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts. 2008 . RhostsRSAAuthentication should be used instead. The default is AUTH. The default is ``yes''. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether authentication using rhosts or /etc/hosts.

/usr/bin/X11/xauth. X11Forwarding Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. The default is ``no''. X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin is enabled. Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not improve security in any way. Time format examples: 600 10m 1h30m 600 seconds (10 minutes) 10 minutes 1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes) NSK-SSH V2. where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following: <none> s | S m | M h | H d | D w | W seconds seconds minutes hours days weeks The default is Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value. 2008 . that if this is enabled. Time Formats sshd command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time[qualifier].for remote command execution. X11DisplayOffset Specifies the first display number available for sshd's X11 forwarding. The default is 10. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers.4 Page 50 March 31. as users can always install their own forwarders. X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1) cookies. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. Note also.

2008 . Each line of the file contains one key (empty lines and lines starting with a `#' are ignored as comments).ssh/authorized_keys is the default file that lists the public keys that are permitted for RSA authentication in protocol version 1 and for public key authentication (PubkeyAuthentication) in protocol version 2.pub or the id_rsa. The bits. its presence is determined by whether the line starts with a number or not (the option field never starts with a number). the comment field is not used for anything (but may be convenient for the user to identify the key). id_dsa. if it exists. Changes to user's home directory. If the login is on a tty. Changes to run with normal user privileges. modulus and comment fields give the RSA key for protocol version 1. AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT $HOME/.ssh/environment if it exists.ssh/rc exists. comment. Note that lines in this file are usually several hundred bytes long (because of the size of the RSA key modulus). comment. Sets up basic environment. 4. prints contents and quits (unless root). AuthorizedKeysFile may be used to specify an alternative file. Checks /etc/nologin. separated by spaces: options. The options fields are optional. keytype. copy the identity. bits. Each RSA public key consists of the following fields. For protocol version 2 the keytype is ``ssh-dss'' or ``ssh-rsa''. 8. 9. runs it. You don't want to type them in. Runs user's shell or command.pub. and no command has been specified.hushlogin.LOGIN PROCESS When a user successfully logs in. 5. 3. records login time. see the FILES section).4 Page 51 March 31. modulus. The ``rc'' files are given the X11 authentication protocol and cookie in standard input. otherwise runs xauth. If the login is on a tty. exponent. If $HOME/. runs it. sshd does the following: 1. 6.pub file and NSK-SSH V2. 2. Reads $HOME/. base64 encoded key. 7. else if /etc/ssh/sshrc exists. instead. Each protocol version 2 public key consists of: options. exponent. prints last login time and /etc/motd (unless prevented in the configuration file or by $HOME/.

Note that this option applies to shell. except within double quotes. 2008 . Note that the client may specify TCP/IP and/or X11 forwarding unless they are explicitly prohibited. This might be used. command or subsystem execution. The following option specifications are supported (note that option keywords are case-insensitive): from="pattern-list" Specifies that in addition to RSA authentication.. if the canonical host name matches a negated pattern. This additional option makes using a stolen key more difficult (name servers and/or routers would have to be compromised in addition to just the key). however. If a 8-bit clean channel is required. e. Environment variables set this way override other default environment values. environment="NAME=value" Specifies that the string is to be added to the environment when logging in using this key. the canonical name of the remote host must be present in the comma-separated list of patterns (`*' and `?' serve as wildcards). the key permits an intruder to log in from anywhere in the world. Any port forward requests by the client will return an error.edit it. The command supplied by the user (if any) is ignored.4 Page 52 March 31. the key is not accepted. The list may also contain patterns negated by prefixing them with `!'.g. NSK-SSH V2. otherwise it is run without a tty. An example might be a key that permits remote backups but nothing else. This option might be useful to restrict certain RSA keys to perform just a specific operation. A quote may be included in the command by quoting it with a backslash. The options (if present) consist of comma-separated option specifications. The command is run on a pty if the client requests a pty. command="command" Specifies that the command is executed whenever this key is used for authentication. Multiple options of this type are permitted. if somebody somehow steals the key. The purpose of this option is to optionally increase security: RSA authentication by itself does not trust the network or name servers or anything (but the key). no-port-forwarding Forbids TCP/IP forwarding when this key is used for authentication. in connection with the command option. No spaces are permitted. one must not request a pty or should specify no-pty.

permitopen="host:port" Limit local ``ssh -L'' port forwarding such that it may only connect to the specified host and port. NSK-SSH V2. The fields are separated by spaces.niksula.2323 SSH_KNOWN_HOSTS FILE FORMAT The /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. The global file should be prepared by the administrator (optional).hut. Any X11 forward requests by the client will return an error. Multiple permitopen options may be applied separated by commas...2323 backup.. they can be obtained.fi.pub.. no-agent-forwarding Forbids authentication agent forwarding when this key is used for authentication.fi" 1024 35 23.niksula. it is not accepted (by that line) even if it matched another pattern on the line.4 Page 53 March 31.2.hut.bar from="*. Examples 1024 33 12121.!pc. bits.no-port-forwarding 1024 33 23.no-pty. each pattern in turn is matched against the canonical host name (when authenticating a client) or against the user-supplied name (when authenticating a server).g. Hostnames is a comma-separated list of patterns ('*' and '?' act as wildcards).1.permitopen="10.fi permitopen="10. 2008 .. and $HOME/.2334 ylo@niksula command="dump /home"..hut. no-pty Prevents tty allocation (a request to allocate a pty will fail). they must be literal domains or addresses.56:25" 1024 33 23. e... comment. exponent. and the per-user file is maintained automatically: whenever the user connects from an unknown host its key is added to the per-user file. Bits. No pattern matching is performed on the specified hostnames. and modulus are taken directly from the RSA host key. modulus. A pattern may also be preceded by `!' to indicate negation: if the host name matches a negated pattern.no-X11-forwarding Forbids X11 forwarding when this key is used for authentication. The optional comment field continues to the end of the line.. from /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.312314325 ylo@foo. exponent. Each line in these files contains the following fields: hostnames. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port.ssh/known_hosts files contain host public keys for all known hosts.2. and is not used.1.55:80".

generate them by a script or by taking /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.. These files should only be owned by root. /etc/ssh/moduli Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the "Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange".. These files are created using ssh-keygen(1). These files should be world-readable but writable only by root.208. Examples closenet.41 1024 37 159. Note that the lines in these files are typically hundreds of characters long. This file should be writable by root only.185.= FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.233..199..pid Contains the process ID of the sshd listening for connections (if NSK-SSH V2. When performing host authentication. authentication is accepted if any matching line has the proper key.4 Page 54 March 31... /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.fi cvs. they are provided for the convenience of the user so their contents can be copied to known hosts files. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key These three files contain the private parts of the host keys.3 ssh-rsa AAAA1234. 2008 . Rather.pub and adding the host names at the front.pub These three files contain the public parts of the host keys. and you definitely don't want to type in the host keys by hand.137. Their contents should match the respective private parts.Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are ignored as comments. Note that sshd does not start if this file is group/world-accessible. It is thus permissible (but not recommended) to have several lines or different host keys for the same names. This will inevitably happen when short forms of host names from different domains are put in the file.openbsd. but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable. and not accessible to others..org. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. authentication is accepted if valid information can be found from either file.hut.pub.93 closenet. readable only by root. It is possible that the files contain conflicting information.130. /var/run/sshd. These files are not really used for anything. /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key..pub...

It is recommended that it not be accessible by others. it is recomby others.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA or DSA) that can be used to log into the user's account. Either host or user name may be of the form +@groupname to specify all hosts or all users in the group. separated by a space.pub files into this file. /etc/hosts. id_dsa. If is also possible to use netgroups in the file. and $HOME/. The rshd. sshd refuses to let anyone except root log in.there are several daemons running concurrently for different ports. The file must be writable mended that it not be accessible pairs. so using this permits NSK-SSH V2. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/. These files should be writable only by root/the owner.ssh/known_hosts can but need not be world-readable. The client uses the same files to verify that it is connecting to the correct remote host. this contains the pid of the one started last).4 Page 55 March 31. The contents of the file are displayed to anyone trying to log in. one corresponding host is permitted same file is used by rlogind and only by the user. The key must be listed in one of these files to be accepted. and non-root connections are refused.pub and/or id_rsa. tcp-wrappers access controls may be defined here as described in hosts_access(5).allow.shosts For ssh. /etc/nologin If this file exists. $HOME/. The file should be world-readable. However. this file is not used by rlogin and rshd. this file is exactly the same as for .pub. The content of this file is not sensitive. /etc/hosts. 2008 . it can be world-readable. This file must be readable by root (which may on some machines imply it being world-readable if the user's home directory resides on an NFS volume). $HOME/. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts should be world-readable. The given user on the to log in without password. Users will place the contents of their identity.rhosts This file contains host-username per line.ssh/known_hosts These files are consulted when using rhosts with RSA host authentication or protocol version 2 hostbased authentication to check the public key of the host. $HOME/. The format of this file is described above. as described in ssh-keygen(1).rhosts.deny If compiled with LIBWRAP support.

it is run with /bin/sh after reading the environment files but before starting the user's shell or command. $HOME/. Users on those hosts are permitted to log in without a password. the syntax ``+@group'' can be used to specify netgroups. provided they have the same user name on both machines. If X11 spoofing is in use. this file contains host names. In the simplest form.ssh/environment This file is read into the environment at login (if it exists). Additionally. and assignment lines of the form name=value.equiv This file is used during . /etc/hosts. $HOME/. This file must be writable only by root.equiv. The only valid use for user names that I can think of is in negative entries. this will receive the "proto cookie" pair in standard input (and DISPLAY in environment).equiv. daemon. The host name may also be followed by a user name. login is automatically permitted provided the client and server user names are the same. It can only contain empty lines.ssh/rc If this file exists. However. If the client host/user is successfully matched in this file. /etc/ssh/shosts. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. Using a user name practically grants the user root access. Warning: It is almost never a good idea to use user names in hosts.rhosts authentication. AFS is a particular example of such an environ- NSK-SSH V2. Note that this warning also applies to rsh/rlogin. Beware that it really means that the named user(s) can log in as anybody. adm.access using SSH only. Negated entries start with `-'. one per line. comment lines (that start with `#').4 Page 56 March 31. it need not be readable by anyone else. which includes bin.equiv This is processed exactly as /etc/hosts. This must call xauth(1) in that case. The file should be writable only by the user. Additionally. this file may be useful in environments that want to run both rsh/rlogin and ssh. and other accounts that own critical binaries and directories. The primary purpose of this file is to run any initialization routines which may be needed before the user's home directory becomes accessible. it is recommended that it be world-readable. 2008 . such users are permitted to log in as any user on this machine (except root).

ssh(1). NSK-SSH V2. This file should be writable only by root. login.ssh/rc. then echo add $DISPLAY $proto $cookie | xauth -q fi If this file does not exist. SEE ALSO scp(1). ssh-agent(1). sftp(1). /etc/ssh/sshrc Like $HOME/. xauth is used to store the cookie. and if that does not exist either. This can be used to specify machine-specific login-time initializations globally. sftp-server(8) ssh-keygen(1). 2008 . This file will probably contain some initialization code followed by something similar to: if read proto cookie. moduli(5). ssh-add(1). and should be world-readable. This file should be writable only by the user. and need not be readable by anyone else.ment.4 Page 57 March 31. /etc/ssh/sshrc is run.conf(5).

NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.4 Page 58 March 31.

draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. January 2001. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). SSH File Transfer Protocol.org> HISTORY sftp-server first appeared in OpenBSD 2. and S. NSK-SSH V2.8 .4 Page 59 March 31. sftp-server is not intended to be called directly. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. 2008 . See sshd(8) for more information. AUTHORS Markus Friedl <markus@openbsd.txt. work in progress material. Lehtinen.SFTP server subsystem SYNOPSIS sftp-server DESCRIPTION sftp-server is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).sftp-server SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server . DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. sshd(8) T. SEE ALSO sftp(1). Ylonen.

4 Page 60 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.

sftp-server-guardian is not intended to be called directly. If the filename is too long you will get an error.system file system. If the filename has a . you must limit your filenames to 8 characters. NSK-SSH V2. For example. January 2001. using the sftp-server-guardian you would use the /system/system option. if you wish to access the $system. This make the sftp-server-guardian subsystem compatible with graphical user interfaces such as FileZilla. Lehtinen. This subsystem does not have access to files residing on another node.txt.txt file on it. there was no way to allow this via a graphical interface and unix filesystem syntax. SSH File Transfer Protocol. and S. As with all guardian filenames. AUTHORS Bowden Systems Inc <sales@bsi2. it will be stored as an edit file.com> HISTORY sftp-server-guardian first appeared in 2005.SFTP server subsystem for guardian access SYNOPSIS sftp-server-guardian DESCRIPTION sftp-server-guardian is a program that speaks the server side of SFTP protocol to stdout and expects client requests from stdin. but from sshd(8) using the Subsystem option. 2008 . work in progress material.sftp-server-guardian SFTP-SERVER(8) NAME sftp-server-guardian . Eventhough this feature was designed into the subsystem. Ylonen. sshd(8) T. SEE ALSO sftp(1).4 Page 61 March 31. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. System Manager's Manual SFTP-SERVER(8) ssh(1). See sshd(8) for more information. The sftp-server-guardian support reading and writing files directly to the guardian filesystem using the standard unix syntax.

NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 62 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 .

-v used for displaying detail ssh information on stderr. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCMD program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. If cmd is more than one command.4 Page 63 March 31. 2008 . GNOTTY 1 .Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . it should be enclosed in double or single quotes.secure command (remote command execution) SYNOPSIS scmd [-v] user@host cmd DESCRIPTION scmd is a command front-end for ssh. SEE ALSO ssh(1) NSK-SSH V2.Set this to the password for the public key or user id HISTORY This program was written to solve the select problem for ssh in OSS.scmd SCMD(1) System Reference Manual SCMD(1) NAME scmd .

Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 .4 Page 64 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.

-o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. -C Enables compression (via ssh's -C flag). The options are as follows: -1 Specify the use of protocol version 1. put. System Reference Manual SFTP(1) -b batchfile Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. sftp connects and logs into the specified host. such as public key authentication and compression. The last usage format allows the sftp client to start in a remote directory. The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used. sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get.4 Page 65 March 31. similar to ftp(1). then enters an interactive command mode. otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication. which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh(1) transport. ln.Secure file transfer program SYNOPSIS sftp [-1Cv] [-b batchfile] [-F ssh_config] [-o ssh_option] [-s subsystem | sftp_server] [-S program] host sftp [[user@]host[:file [file]]] sftp [[user@]host[:dir[/]]] DESCRIPTION sftp is an interactive file transfer program. -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. 2008 . rename. It may also use many features of ssh.sftp SFTP(1) NAME sftp . This option is directly passed to ssh(1). This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag. For exam- NSK-SSH V2. rm and lmkdir. Since it lacks user interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication.

A path is useful for using sftp over protocol version 1. sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1). chmod mode path Change permissions of file path to mode. This option is also passed to ssh. -s subsystem | sftp_server Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host.Set this to the password for the public key or user id INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Once in interactive mode. to specify an alternate port use: sftp -oPort=24.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password . Quit sftp. chown own path Change owner of file path to own. exit Quit sftp. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. own must be a numeric UID. NSK-SSH V2. or when the remote sshd does not have an sftp subsystem configured. program must understand ssh(1) options. chgrp grp path Change group of file path to grp.4 Page 66 March 31.ple. Commands are case insensitive and pathnames may be enclosed in quotes if they contain spaces. GNOTTY 1 . bye cd path Change remote directory to path. grp must be a numeric GID. lcd path Change local directory to path. -S program Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection. The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SFTP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. 2008 . -v Raise logging level.

If the -P flag is specified.get [flags] remote-path [local-path] Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. rename oldpath newpath Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath.4 Page 67 March 31. lls [ls-options [path]] Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. If the remote path name is not specified. 2008 . lmkdir path Create local directory specified by path. then the file's full permission and access time are copied too. it is given the same name it has on the remote machine. rm path NSK-SSH V2. rmdir path Remove remote directory specified by path. If the -P flag is specified. lumask umask Set local umask to umask. Quit sftp. ln oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. ls [path] Display remote directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified. put [flags] local-path [local-path] Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine. mkdir path Create remote directory specified by path. lpwd Print local working directory. help Display help text. pwd quit Display remote working directory. If the local path name is not specified. it is given the same name it has on the local machine.

Synonym for help. ! ? Escape to local shell. SSH File Transfer Protocol. January 2001. sftp-server(8).txt. Ylonen.org> SEE ALSO scp(1). and S. work in progress material. 2008 .Delete remote file specified by path. ssh-keygen(1). ! command Execute command in local shell. NSK-SSH V2. Lehtinen. draft-ietf-secshfilexfer-00. sshd(8) T. ssh(1). symlink oldpath newpath Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath. AUTHORS Damien Miller <djm@mindrot.4 Page 68 March 31. ssh-add(1).

and configuration problems. It uses ssh(1) for data transfer. Copies between two remote hosts are permitted. option is directly passed to ssh(1). scp will ask for passwords or passphrases if they are needed for authentication. authentication.scp SCP(1) NAME scp . The options are as follows: -c cipher Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer. Any file name may contain a host and user specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from that host. 2008 .secure copy (remote file copy program) SYNOPSIS scp [-pqrvBC46] [-F ssh_config] [-S program] [-P port] [-c cipher] [-i identity_file] [-o ssh_option] [[user@]host1:]file1 [.] [[user@]host2:]file2 DESCRIPTION scp copies files between hosts on a network. System Reference Manual SCP(1) This -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read. -p Preserves modification times. access times. Unlike rcp(1). This option is directly passed to ssh(1). This is helpful in debugging connection. Causes scp and ssh(1) to print debugging messages about their progress. Verbose mode. Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases). Recursively copy entire directories.4 Page 69 March 31. Disables the progress meter. and modes from the original file. and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh(1). -r -v -B -q NSK-SSH V2...

hut.-C Compression enable.fi> and Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag. For example. must understand ssh(1) options. GNOTTY 1 . ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES If you need to use the SCP program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable com- -F ssh_config Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. forcing the use of protocol version 1 is specified using scp -oProtocol=1. ssh-add(1). Note that this option is written with a capital `P'. ssh-agent(1).4 Page 70 March 31. sshd(8) sftp(1). because -p is already reserved for preserving the times and modes of the file in rcp(1). The program -o ssh_option Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in the ssh(1) configuration file. This option is directly passed to ssh(1). 2008 . ssh(1). SEE ALSO rcp(1). -S program Name of program to use for the encrypted connection. Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only. ssh-keygen(1). there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen.Set this to the password for the public key or user id AUTHORS Timo Rinne <tri@iki. -4 -6 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only. pression.fi> HISTORY scp is based on the rcp(1) program in BSD source code from the Regents of the University of California. NSK-SSH V2. -P port Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password .

ssh/identity. The passphrase is read from the user's tty. -e reader Remove key in smartcard reader. Alternative file names can be given on the command line. System Reference Manual SSH-ADD(1) -L -d -D -s reader Add key in smartcard reader.. The authentication agent must be running and must be an ancestor of the current process for ssh-add to work. If any file requires a passphrase. it adds the file $HOME/. The options are as follows: -l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent. ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user.ssh-add SSH-ADD(1) NAME ssh-add . When run without arguments.. 2008 . removes the identity from the agent. Instead of adding the identity. sshagent(1). NSK-SSH V2. Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented by the agent. ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given.adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-add [-lLdD] [file .] ssh-add -s reader ssh-add -e reader DESCRIPTION ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent. Deletes all identities from the agent.4 Page 71 March 31.

ssh-agent(1). Note that ssh-add ignores this file if it is accessible by others. 2008 . (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. ENVIRONMENT DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS If ssh-add needs a passphrase. This is the default file added by ssh-add when no other files have been specified. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO).) SEE ALSO ssh(1).ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. ssh-keygen(1). This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a . $HOME/. $HOME/. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file.FILES $HOME/. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user.Xsession or related script. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user.4 Page 72 March 31.ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set.

and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program. ssh-add(1) adds the $HOME/. NSK-SSH V2.. DSA).ssh-agent SSH-AGENT(1) NAME ssh-agent . so does the agent.]] ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k DESCRIPTION ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA. The agent initially does not have any private keys. Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable).ssh/identity file. 2008 . Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout.authentication agent SYNOPSIS ssh-agent [-c | -s] [-d] [command [args .4 Page 73 March 31. When executed without arguments. Through use of environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for authentication when logging in to other machines using ssh(1). Several identities can be stored in the agent. the agent can automatically use any of these identities. ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by the agent. or from the terminal if running without X). this is executed as a subprocess of the agent. It then sends the identity to the agent. ssh-add(1) asks for the passphrase (using a small X11 application if running under X11. Debug mode. When this option is specified ssh-agent will not System Reference Manual SSH-AGENT(1) -s -k -d If a commandline is given. Keys are added using ssh-add(1). fork. The options are as follows: -c Generate C-shell commands on stdout. When the command dies. The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session. This is the default if SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell.. This is the default if SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell. If the identity has a passphrase.

There are two main ways to get an agent setup: Either the agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment variables are exported. and the name of this socket is stored in the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. $HOME/. This file is not used by ssh-agent but is normally added to the agent using ssh-add(1) at login time. It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key.ssh/identity Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of the user.ssh/id_rsa Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of the user. and authentication passphrases never go over the network.<pid>). However. Authentication data need not be stored on any other machine. Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection to the agent. The socket is made accessible only to the current user. and the user can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere in the network in a secure way.The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC. or the agent prints the needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be generated) which can be evalled in the calling shell. DEFINES SUPPORTED This program supports the TCPIP^PROCESS^NAME define. FILES $HOME/. This method is easily abused by root or another instance of the same user. that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of this file. the connection to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins. This file should not be readable by anyone but the user. A unix-domain socket is created (/tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent. or terminal. NSK-SSH V2. $HOME/. The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's PID.4 Page 74 March 31. This will allow you to execute the software against other tcpip process stacks in addition to the standard process stack($ZTCO). 2008 .ssh/id_dsa Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of the user. laptop. The agent exits automatically when the command given on the command line terminates.

sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2. These sockets should only be readable by the owner. The sockets should get automatically removed when the agent exits. SEE ALSO ssh(1).<pid> Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection to the authentication agent./tmp/ssh-XXXXXXXX/agent.4 Page 75 March 31. ssh-keygen(1). 2008 . ssh-add(1).

2008 .4 Page 76 March 31. NSK-SSH V2.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

Second. and the rlogin/rsh protocol in general. are inherently insecure and should be System Reference Manual SSH(1) NSK-SSH V2.equiv method combined with RSA-based host authentication. ssh connects and logs into the specified hostname. if the machine the user logs in from is listed in /etc/hosts.rhosts. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. This authentication method closes security holes due to IP spoofing.rhosts or .shosts.4 Page 77 March 31. [Note to the administrator: /etc/hosts. the user is permitted to log in. /etc/hosts. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods deM-pending on the protocol version used: SSH protocol version 1 First. The second authentication method is the rhosts or hosts. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh.equiv. $HOME/. 2008 .ssh SSH(1) NAME ssh .shosts exists in the user's home directory on the remote machine and contains a line containing the name of the client machine and the name of the user on that machine.rhosts. and the user names are the same on both sides. $HOME/. It means that if the login would be permitted by $HOME/.equiv on the remote machine. only then login is permitted. This form of authentication alone is normally not allowed by the server because it is not secure.ssh/known_hosts in the FILES section).equiv or /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv. or /etc/ssh/shosts. if . DNS spoofing and routing spoofing.NSK SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine. and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. and if additionally the server can verify the client's host key (see /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and $HOME/. the user is immediately permitted to log in.equiv.

ssh supports RSA based authentication. The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may be with an authentication agent. the password cannot be seen by someone listening on the network. though the lines can be very long). ssh prompts the user for a password. This stores the private key in $HOME/.pub in the user's home directory.4 Page 78 March 31. 2008 . if this method fails public key authentication is attempted. The server checks if this key is permitted.ssh/identity. The user's client then decrypts the challenge using the private key. The server knows the public key. a random number. and if so. and it is not possible to derive the decryption key from the encryption key. RSA is one such system.] As a third authentication method. RSA authentication is much more secure than rhosts authentication. The scheme is based on public-key cryptography: there are cryptosystems where encryption and decryption are done using separate keys. The user creates his/her RSA key pair by running ssh-keygen(1). the ssh program tells the server which key pair it would like to use for authentication.ssh/authorized_keys lists the public keys that are permitted for logging in. and has one key per line. and only the user knows the private key. See ssh-agent(1) for more information. After this. and finally if this method fails keyboard-interactive and password authentication are tried. The challenge can only be decrypted using the proper private key. sends the user (actually the ssh program running on behalf of the user) a challenge. When the user logs in. Using the default values for PreferredAuthentications. the client will try to authenticate first using the hostbased method. ssh implements the RSA authentication protocol automatically. proving that he/she knows the private key but without disclosing it to the server.pub to $HOME/. The public key method is similar to RSA authentication described in the NSK-SSH V2. since all communications are encrypted.disabled if security is desired.ssh/identity and the public key in $HOME/.rhosts file.ssh/authorized_keys in his/her home directory on the remote machine (the authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional $HOME/. The password is sent to the remote host for checking. The file $HOME/. the user can log in without giving the password. however. The user should then copy the identity. encrypted by the user's public key. SSH protocol version 2 When a user connects using the protocol version 2 different authentication methods are available. The idea is that each user creates a public/private key pair for authentication purposes. If other authentication methods fail.

hmac-sha1). the user may use the escape characters noted below. NSK-SSH V2. Blowfish. ssh supports a number of functions through the use of an escape character. Note that protocol 1 lacks a strong mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the connection.ssh/id_rsa.previous section and allows the RSA or DSA algorithm to be used: The client uses his private key. The session identifier is derived from a shared Diffie-Hellman value and is only known to the client and the server. Escape Characters When a pseudo terminal has been requested.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys and grants access if both the key is found and the signature is correct. The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP connections have been closed. or logs into the machine and gives the user a normal shell on the remote machine. If no pseudo tty has been allocated. The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh. setting the escape character to ``none'' will also make the session transparent even if a tty is used. CAST128 or Arcfour) and integrity (hmac-md5.4 Page 79 March 31. If a pseudo-terminal has been allocated (normal login session). On most systems. the server either executes the given command. 2008 . The escape character can be changed in configuration files using the EscapeChar configuration directive or on the command line by the -e option. $HOME/. A single tilde character can be sent as ~~ or by following the tilde by a character other than those described below. the session is transparent and can be used to reliably transfer binary data. Login session and remote execution When the user's identity has been accepted by the server. Additionally. ssh supports hostbased or challenge response authentication. Protocol 2 provides additional mechanisms for confidentiality (the traffic is encrypted using 3DES. to sign the session identifier and sends the result to the server. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted. If public key authentication fails or is not available a password can be sent encrypted to the remote host for proving the user's identity. The server checks whether the matching public key is listed in $HOME/. The escape character must always follow a newline to be interpreted as special.

store it in Xauthority on the server. and verify that any forwarded connections carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened. ~^Z ~# ~& Disconnect Background ssh List forwarded connections Background ssh at logout when waiting for forwarded connection / X11 sessions to terminate (protocol version 1 only) Display a list of escape characters Request rekeying of the connection (only useful for SSH protocol version 2 and if the peer supports it) ~? ~R X11 and TCP forwarding If the ForwardX11 variable is set to ``yes'' (or. If the user is using an authentication agent. ssh will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine. For this purpose. see the description of the -X and -x options described later) and the user is using X11 (the DISPLAY environment variable is set). This is normal. it will generate a random authorization cookie. The user should not manually set DISPLAY. another is going through firewalls. 2008 . One possible application of TCP/IP forwarding is a secure connection to an electronic purse. Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file. but with a display number greater than zero. NSK-SSH V2. The DISPLAY value set by ssh will point to the server machine.The supported escapes (assuming the default `~') are: ~. the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the remote side unless disabled on the command line or in a configuration file. the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted channel.4 Page 80 March 31. The real authentication cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain). and happens because ssh creates a ``proxy'' X server on the server machine for forwarding the connections over the encrypted channel. Forwarding of X11 connections can be configured on the command line or in configuration files.

2008 . 3des is used by default. Any new hosts are automatically added to the user's file. -e ch|^ch|none Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: `~'). and followed by itself sends the escape character once. It is believed to be secure. the file /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts.Server authentication ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing identifications for all hosts it has ever been used with. Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. If a host's identification ever changes. Another purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption. Host keys are stored in $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts in the user's home directory. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of ciphers can be specified in order of preference. -c blowfish|3des|des Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the session. -c cipher_spec Additionally. -b bind_address Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. The StrictHostKeyChecking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines whose host key is not known or has changed.') closes the connection. it appears very secure and is much faster than 3des.4 Page 81 March 31. des is only supported in the ssh client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. followed by control-Z suspends the connection. The escape character followed by a dot (`. ssh warns about this and disables password authentication to prevent a trojan horse from getting the user's password. The options are as follows: -a -A Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. blowfish is a fast block cipher. See Ciphers for more information. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. Additionally. 3des (triple-des) is an encrypt-decrypt-encrypt triple with three different keys. Setting the NSK-SSH V2. The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line.

This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.cs. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase. -g -i identity_file Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA or DSA authentication is read. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. Default is $HOME/. Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. This must be used when ssh is run in the background.fi. This implies -n.hut. -I smartcard_device Specifies which smartcard device to use. For example.fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows. -n Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually. The argument is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. but the user wants it in the background.cs.) Do not execute a remote command. and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel. for protocol version 2 a comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms can be specified in order of preference. This is useful for just forwarding ports (protocol version 2 only). It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). This may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports. prevents reading from stdin). The ssh program will be put in the background.ssh/identity in the user's home directory.4 Page 82 March 31.hut. -m mac_spec Additionally. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine. See the MACs keyword for more information. -k Disables forwarding of Kerberos tickets and AFS tokens. -l login_name Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine. ssh -n shadows.character to ``none'' disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent. see also the -f option. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases. -N NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .

Multiple -v options increases the verbosity. -P Use a non-privileged port for outgoing connections. stderr. This can also be specified on a per-host -t -T -v -x -X basis in a configuration file. Enables X11 forwarding. suppressed. Maximum is 3. Disable pseudo-tty allocation. -p port Port to connect to on the remote host.4 Page 83 March 31. Disables X11 forwarding.g. which can be very useful. This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. sftp). -q -s May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system. Multiple -t options force tty allocation. and data for forwarded X11 and TCP/IP connections). and the ``level'' can be controlled by the CompressionLevel option (see below). The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1). Note that this option turns off RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication for older servers. -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin. when implementing menu services. Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections. This can be used if a firewall does not permit connections from privileged ports. Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be Only fatal errors are displayed. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. This can be used to execute arbiM-trary screen-based programs on a remote machine.. The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the con- NSK-SSH V2. The subsystem is specified as the remote command. Subsystems are a feature of the SSH2 protocol which facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (eg. e. and configuration problems. stdout. Quiet mode. but will only slow down things on fast networks. Force pseudo-tty allocation. This is helpful in debugging connection.-o option Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress. even if ssh has no local tty. authentication. 2008 . Verbose mode.

IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -D port Specifies a local ``dynamic'' application-level port forwarding. -1 -2 -4 Forces ssh to try protocol version 1 only. Only root can forward privileged ports. Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. -F configfile Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file. Forces ssh to try protocol version 2 only. and whenever a connection is made to this port. see the Compression option below. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine. the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. and whenever a connection is made to this port. 2008 .4 Page 84 March 31. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. The default for the per-user configuration file is $HOME/. -L port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the local (client) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the remote side. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file.figuration files. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the remote machine. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the local side. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. NSK-SSH V2. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server.ssh/config. If a configuration file is given on the command line. and a connection is made to host port hostport from the local machine. the connection is forwarded over the secure channel. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: port/host/hostport -R port:host:hostport Specifies that the given port on the remote (server) host is to be forwarded to the given host and port on the local side. and whenever a connection is made to this port. Only root can forward priviM-leged ports. This works by allocating a socket to listen to port on the remote side.

and system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config). The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword. more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file. and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification. The matched host name is the one given on the command line. For each parameter.. scp and sftp -o option. passphrase/password querying will be disabled.-6 Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only. The configuration file has the following format: Empty lines and lines starting with `#' are comments. user's configuration file ($HOME/. Otherwise a line is of the format ``keyword arguments''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password. The host is the hostname argument given on the command line (i. AFSTokenPassing Specifies whether to pass AFS tokens to remote host. A single `*' as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts. NSK-SSH V2. This option applies to protocol version 1 only. The default is ``no''. the first obtained value will be used. the name is not converted to a canonicalized host name before matching). `*' and `?' can be used as wildcards in the patterns.4 Page 85 March 31. the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh. and general defaults at the end. 2008 . The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used. The configuration files contain sections bracketed by ``Host'' specifications. Configuration options may be separated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one `='.ssh/config).e. BatchMode If set to ``yes''. CONFIGURATION FILES ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: command line options.

Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to ``yes''. This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh command line to clear port forwardings set in configuration files. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. CheckHostIP If this flag is set to ``yes''.arcfour. ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before NSK-SSH V2. If the option is set to ``no''. and ``des'' are supported.BindAddress Specify the interface to transmit from on machines with multiple interfaces or aliased addresses. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.cast128-cbc. Compression Specifies whether to use compression. which is good for most applications. Cipher Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in protocol version 1. The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9 (slow. the check will not be executed. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order of preference. best).3des-cbc. The default is ``yes''. The default is ``3des''. ``blowfish''. remote and dynamic port forwardings specified in the configuration files or on the command line be cleared. Its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic weaknesses. The default is ``no''. ``3des''. and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). The default is ``no''. aes192-cbc. ssh will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. Currently.4 Page 86 March 31. des is only supported in the ssh client for inM-teroperability with legacy protocol 1 implementations that do not support the 3des cipher. The deM-fault is ``aes128-cbc. CompressionLevel Specifies the compression level to use if compression is enabled. 2008 .blowfish-cbc.aes256-cbc'' ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local. The meaning of the values is the same as in gzip(1). This allows ssh to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing. The default level is 6.

The argument should be a single character.falling back to rsh or exiting. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. 2008 . FallBackToRsh Specifies that if connecting via ssh fails due to a connection refused error (there is no sshd(8) listening on the remote host). GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports. rsh(1) should automatically be used instead (after a suitable warning about the session being unencrypted). The default is 1. and ssh will act as a SOCKS4 server. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: `~'). The argument must be an integer. GlobalKnownHostsFile NSK-SSH V2. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. Multiple forwardings may be specified. The default is ``no''. DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine. The default is ``no''. thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. ssh binds local port forwardings to the loopback addresss. The escape character can also be set on the command line. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. Currently the SOCKS4 protocol is supported. and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine.4 Page 87 March 31. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``no''. The argument must be a port number. `^' followed by a letter. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. The default is ``no''. or ``none'' to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data). By default. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.

Default is the name given on the command line. HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the protocol version 2 host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of preference.4 Page 88 March 31. death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. The file name may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory. This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts.ssh-dss'' HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files. This is important in scripts. this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily. Additionally. The default is ``no''. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). This option is useful for tunneling ssh connections or for multiple servers running on a single host. HostName Specifies the real host name to log into. To disable keepalives. If they are sent. The default is ``yes'' (to send keepalives). KeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send keepalive messages to the other side.Specifies a file to use for the global host key database instead of /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. the value should be set to ``no'' in both NSK-SSH V2. The default for this option is: ``ssh-rsa. It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files. 2008 . and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies. any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication. IdentityFile Specifies the file from which the user's RSA or DSA authentication identity is read (default $HOME/. all these identities will be tried in sequence. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication. However. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This option applies to protocol version 2 only and is similar to RhostsRSAAuthentication.ssh/identity in the user's home directory). and many users want it too. and some people find it annoying.

The default is ``hmac-md5. NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine.the server and the client configuration files.hmac-md5-96''. 2008 . Multiple forwardings may be specified. KerberosAuthentication Specifies whether Kerberos authentication will be used. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. The ar- KerberosTgtPassing Specifies whether a Kerberos TGT will be forwarded to the server.hmacripemd160. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. ERROR.hmac-sha1-96. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''.4 Page 89 March 31. The default is INFO. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication. The MAC algorithm is used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection. The possible values are: QUIET. VERBOSE and DEBUG. Default is 3. This allows a client to prefer one method NSK-SSH V2. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh. INFO. The first argument must be a port number. Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host. is 22. and the second must be host:port. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port.hmac-sha1. gument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. This will only work if the Kerberos server is actually an AFS kaserver. Default PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try protocol 2 authentication methods. The default is ``yes''. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. The argument to this keyword must be an integer. FATAL.

NSK-SSH V2. IPv6 addresses can be specified with an alternative syntax: host/port. In the command string. PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. RhostsAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication. Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command. This option applies to protocol version 2 only. Note that this declaration only affects the client side and has no effect whatsoever on security. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. Multiple forwardings may be specified. Multiple versions must be comma-separated.g. and is executed with /bin/sh.4 Page 90 March 31.password'' Protocol Specifies the protocol versions ssh should support in order of preference. Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication). The command string extends to the end of the line. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. 2008 . This option applies to protocol version 1 only.1''. The default is ``2. Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce authentication time on slow connections when rhosts authentication is not used. password) The default for this option is: ``hostbased. The first argument must be a port number. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e. The command can be basically anything. and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output. and the second must be host:port. `%h' will be substituted by the host name to connect and `%p' by the port. ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server.publickey. The default is ``yes''. or execute sshd -i somewhere. This means that ssh tries version 2 and falls back to version 1 if version 2 is not available.g. It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine. and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the local machine. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The possible values are ``1'' and ``2''.(e. The deM-fault is ``yes''.keyboardinteractive. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user).

This option applies to protocol version 1 only. or connections to new hosts are frequently made. The default is ``yes''. and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. RSA authentication will only be attempted if the identity file exists.RhostsRSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA host authentication. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The host keys of known hosts will be verified automatically in all cases. The argument must be ``yes''. or an authentication agent is running. ssh will never automatically add host keys to the $HOME/. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks. NSK-SSH V2. new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do. however. ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files. can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to ``yes''. If this flag is set to ``ask''. and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.4 Page 91 March 31. RSAAuthentication Specifies whether to try RSA authentication. no device is specified and smartcard support is not activated. The argument to this keyword must be ``yes'' or ``no''. The default is ``ask''. If this flag is set to ``no''.ssh/known_hosts file. Note that this option must be set to ``yes'' if RhostsAuthentication and RhostsRSAAuthentication authentications are needed with older servers. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts. The default is ``yes''. The default is ``no''. By default. SmartcardDevice Specifies which smartcard device to use. Note that this option applies to protocol version 1 only. 2008 . ``no'' or ``ask''. The default is ``yes''. The argument to this keyword is the device ssh should use to communicate with a smartcard used for storing the user's private RSA key. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge response authentication.

and n is an integer >= 1. This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines. Set to the path of the user's home directory. This is particularly useful when calling ssh from a .ssh/known_hosts.User Specifies the user to log in as. it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. 2008 . MAIL PATH Set to the path of the user's mailbox. This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line. Set to the default PATH. XAuthLocation Specifies the location of the xauth(1) program. All other options (except HostName) are ignored if this has been specified. If ssh does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and SSH_ASKPASS are set. set for compatibility with systems that use this variable. NSK-SSH V2. The default is ENVIRONMENT ssh will normally set the following environment variables: DISPLAY The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server. UserKnownHostsFile Specifies a file to use for the user host key database instead of $HOME/. HOME LOGNAME Synonym for USER. as specified when compiling ssh.Xsession or related script.4 Page 92 March 31. It is automatically set by ssh to point to a value of the form ``hostname:n'' where hostname indicates the host where the shell runs. ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections over the secure channel. It is possible that the host does not at all support the ssh protocol. as that will render the X11 connection insecure (and will require the user to manually copy any required authorization cookies). The user should normally not set DISPLAY explicitly. UseRsh Specifies that rlogin/rsh should be used for this host. it will execute the program specified by SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. /usr/bin/X11/xauth. This causes ssh to immediately execute rsh(1). SSH_ASKPASS If ssh needs a passphrase. The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.

Set to the name of the user logging in. the daemon passes the value on to new connections). $HOME/. SSH_TTY This is set to the name of the tty (path to the device) associated with the current shell or command.4 Page 93 March 31.ssh/id_dsa. It can be used to extract the original arguments. NONSTOP ADDITIONAL OPTIONS If you need to use the SSH program in a batch file and do not want to prompt for a password. client port number.ssh/environment. this variable is not set. They are for protocol 1 RSA. If the current session has no tty. there are two environment variables that may be set that will allow this to happen. protocol 2 DSA. $HOME/. and protocol 2 RSA. TZ The timezone variable is set to indicate the present timezone if it was set when the daemon was started (i. USER Additionally. SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND The variable contains the original command line if a forced command is executed. SSH_CLIENT Identifies the client end of the connection. The variable contains three space-separated values: client ip-address.Set this to indicate no password prompt GNOTTYPWD password .ssh/known_hosts Records host keys for all hosts the user has logged into that are not in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.e. and server port number. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.. See sshd(8).) SSH_AUTH_SOCK Identifies the path of a unix-domain socket used to communicate with the agent. $HOME/.Set this to the password for the public key or user id FILES $HOME/.ssh/identity.(Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work. and adds lines of the format ``VARNAME=value'' to the environment. respectively. GNOTTY 1 .ssh/id_rsa Contains the authentication identity of the user. ssh reads $HOME/.

but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user.pub. all such names should be listed.ssh/id_dsa. public key and optional comment field.pub file should be added to $HOME/. This file should be worldreadable. $HOME/. The format of this file is described in the sshd(8) manual page.ssh/id_dsa. The contents of the $HOME/. and not accessible by others. This file is used by the ssh client. These files are never used automatically and are not necessary. This file should be prepared by the system administrator to contain the public host keys of all machines in the organization. $HOME/.ssh/identity.ssh/id_rsa. $HOME/.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 2 DSA/RSA authentication. These files are not sensitive and can (but need not) be readable by anyone. The format of this file is described above. This file does not usually contain any sensitive information.pub and $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys Lists the public keys (RSA/DSA) that can be used for logging in as this user. This file is not highly sensitive. 2008 . It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the key. When different names are used for the same machine.pub Contains the public key for authentication (public part of the identity file in human-readable form). $HOME/. they are only provided for the convenience of the user. one per line.pub file should be added to $HOME/.pub identity files. the passphrase will be used to encrypt the sensitive part of this file using 3DES.4 Page 94 March 31. other names NSK-SSH V2. and not accessible by others. The format is described on the sshd(8) manual page. /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts Systemwide list of known host keys. but the recommended permissions are read/write for the user.ssh/id_rsa. In the simplest form the format is the same as the .ssh/identity.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to log in using protocol version 1 RSA authentication. The contents of the $HOME/. in the following format (fields separated by spaces): system name. The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by sshd(8) to verify the client host when logging in. $HOME/.pub.These files contain sensitive data and should be readable by the user but not accessible by others (read/write/execute). separated by commas. Note that ssh ignores a private key file if it is accessible by othM-ers. This file contains public keys.

equiv This file is used during .equiv This file is processed exactly as /etc/hosts.rhosts. (Note that this file is also used by rlogin and rsh. which makes using this file insecure. one per line (the full format is described on the sshd(8) manual page). Additionally. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. it can be stored in $HOME/. It contains canonical hosts names. because someone with access to the name servers would then be able to fool host authentication.4 Page 95 March 31.rhosts authentication. and not accessible by others. On some machines this file may need to be world-readable if the user's home directory is on a NFS partition. The purpose for having this file is to be able to use rhosts authentication with ssh without permitting login with rlogin(1) or rsh(1). Additionally.rhosts authentication. this file must be owned by the user.are needed because ssh does not convert the user-supplied name to a canonical name before checking the key.rhosts This file is used in .equiv. 2008 . If the client host is found in this file. because sshd(8) reads it as root. NSK-SSH V2.ssh/known_hosts.) Each line of the file contains a host name (in the canonical form returned by name servers). If the server machine does not have the client's host key in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts. This file must be world-readable. successful RSA host authentication is normally required. and for those users who do not have a configuration file. /etc/ssh/shosts. This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file. This file may be useful to permit logins using ssh but not using rsh/rlogin. Note that by default sshd(8) will be installed so that it requires successful RSA host authentication before permitting . /etc/hosts. This file should only be writable by root. $HOME/. and then a user name on that host. The easiest way to do this is to connect back to the client from the server machine using ssh. The recommended permission for most machines is read/write for the user.ssh/known_hosts. separated by a space. $HOME/. and must not have write permissions for anyone else. this will automatically add the host key to $HOME/. login is automatically permitted provided client and server user names are the same.rhosts authentication to list the host/user pairs that are permitted to log in.shosts This file is used exactly the same way as .

See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. work in progress material. draft-ietf-secsh-architecture-09. M. See the sshd(8) manual page for more information. Lehtinen. T. and S. keygen(1).ssh/rc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started./etc/ssh/sshrc Commands in this file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just before the user's shell (or command) is started. NSK-SSH V2. Saarinen. sftp(1).4 Page 96 March 31. July 2001. scp(1). telnet(1). T.ssh/environment Contains additional definitions for environment variables. 2008 . SSH Protocol Architecture. ssh-agent(1). $HOME/. Rinne. sshd(8) ssh-add(1). SEE ALSO rlogin(1).txt. see section ENVIRONMENT above. Kivinen. rsh(1). $HOME/. ssh- T. Ylonen.

1 ListenAddress 0.APPENDIX B .FILES sshd_config FILE # This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/ssh/bin # This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file. # for more information.rhosts and ~/.0.ssh/authorized_keys # rhosts authentication should not be used RhostsAuthentication no # Don't read the user's ~/. 2008 .shosts files IgnoreRhosts yes # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts RhostsRSAAuthentication no # similar for protocol version 2 See sshd(8) NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 97 March 31.0. Port 22 #Protocol 2.0 #ListenAddress :: # HostKey for protocol version 1 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key # HostKeys for protocol version 2 HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key # Lifetime and size of ephemeral version 1 server key KeyRegenerationInterval 3600 ServerKeyBits 768 # Logging SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel INFO #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging # Authentication: LoginGraceTime 600 PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes RSAAuthentication yes PubkeyAuthentication yes #AuthorizedKeysFile %h/.

4 Page 98 March 31. change to no here! PasswordAuthentication yes PermitEmptyPasswords no # Uncomment to disable s/key passwords #ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # Uncomment to enable PAM keyboard-interactive authentication # Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication' #PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes # To change Kerberos options #KerberosAuthentication no #KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes #AFSTokenPassing no #KerberosTicketCleanup no # Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver #KerberosTgtPassing yes X11Forwarding no X11DisplayOffset 10 PrintMotd yes #PrintLastLog no KeepAlive yes #UseLogin no #MaxStartups 10:30:60 #Banner /etc/issue.net #ReverseMappingCheck yes Subsystem Subsystem sftp sftp-g /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server /usr/local/ssh/libexec/sftp-server-guardian NSK-SSH V2.HostbasedAuthentication no # Uncomment if you don't trust ~/.ssh/known_hosts for RhostsRSAAuthentication #IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes # To disable tunneled clear text passwords. 2008 .

# Site-wide defaults for various options # Host * # ForwardAgent no # ForwardX11 no # RhostsAuthentication no # RhostsRSAAuthentication yes # RSAAuthentication yes # PasswordAuthentication yes # FallBackToRsh no # UseRsh no # BatchMode no # CheckHostIP yes # StrictHostKeyChecking yes # IdentityFile ~/.ssh/identity # IdentityFile ~/. and defaults at the end.1 # Cipher blowfish # EscapeChar ~ NSK-SSH V2. command line options 2.ssh_config FILE # This is ssh client systemwide configuration file. This file provides defaults for users. host-specific definitions should be at the beginning of the configuration file.4 Page 99 March 31.ssh/id_dsa # IdentityFile ~/. See ssh(1) for more # information. Thus. and the values can # be changed in per-user configuration files or on the command line. user-specific file 3. # # # # # # # Configuration data is parsed as follows: 1.ssh/id_rsa # Port 22 # Protocol 2. system-wide file Any configuration value is only changed the first time it is set. 2008 .

Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. 2008 . NSK-SSH V2.4 Page 100 March 31.

TELNET ISOLATION FILES start_ssh_2_cpu_2stack.sh FILE ############################################ # Start SSH with IPSSH across two cpus ## ## Start the SSH process on port 700 and 701 export TCPIP_TELNET_STACK=\$ztc99 run -cpu=0 sshd -p 700 run -cpu=1 sshd -p 701 ## Start the primary IPSSH ($ISX) process run -cpu=0 ipssh sleep 5 ## Start the backup IPSSH ($ISY) process run -cpu=1 ipssh -wait 0 # Startup complete NSK-SSH V2.APPENDIX C . 2008 .4 Page 101 March 31.

Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing. NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 102 March 31.

255.& primarycpu 0. & name $ob010.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip000 run -name=/G/ip000 -cpu=0 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0a.& userid 255.& program $system. & AUTORESTART 10. & startmode manual. & outfile $zhome.4 Page 103 March 31.& HOMETERM $zhome.system.osh.APPENDIX D .sh <.ZZKRN FILES ipztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00a add process IPSSH-ztc00a.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00a start_ipssh_ztc0a.

osh.system. & AUTORESTART 10. If the other ipssh process # dies. # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/ip001 run -name=/G/ip001 -cpu=1 -gpri=155 -term=/G/zhome ipssh1 -D -wait 0 # NSK-SSH V2.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process IPSSH-ztc00b start_ipssh_ztc0b.& userid 255.sh <. this process will take over.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the IPSSH in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting IPSSH on PORT 22" # # Note that the wait 0 is used just incase the other ipssh process # has been started and is on port 22. 2008 .4 Page 104 March 31.& HOMETERM $zhome.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_ipssh_ztc0b.255. & startmode manual.& primarycpu 1. & outfile $zhome.& program $system.ipztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process IPSSH-ztc00b add process IPSSH-ztc00b. & name $ob011.

sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 790" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb000 run -name=/G/rb000 -cpu=0 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:790 # NSK-SSH V2.& userid 255.255.system.osh. 2008 . & AUTORESTART 10. & startmode manual.& program $system.4 Page 105 March 31.sh <.& primarycpu 0.& HOMETERM $zhome.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00a.ranztc0a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00a add process RANDOM-ztc00a.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00a start_random_ztc00a. & outfile $zhome. & name $ob000.

255. & startmode manual.& primarycpu 1.system.& userid 255.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process RANDOM-ztc00b start_random_ztc0b.sh <. & AUTORESTART 10.osh.4 Page 106 March 31. 2008 .& program $system.ranztc0b FILE llow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process RANDOM-ztc00b add process RANDOM-ztc00b.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the Random Number Generater in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting Random Number Generator TCPIP 791" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/rb001 run -name=/G/rb001 -cpu=1 -gpri=144 -term=/G/zhome prngd -f tcp/localhost:791 # NSK-SSH V2.& HOMETERM $zhome. & name $ob001. & outfile $zhome.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_random_ztc00b.

& startmode manual.& primarycpu 0. & outfile $zhome.osh.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 0 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 700" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd000 run -name=/G/sd000 -cpu=0 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 700 # NSK-SSH V2.& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00a.& program $system.& HOMETERM $zhome.& userid 255.255. 2008 .>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00a start_sshd_ztc00a.sh <.sdztc00a FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00a add process SSHD-ztc00a.4 Page 107 March 31.system. & AUTORESTART 10. & name $ob020.

system. & startmode manual.& primarycpu 1.& program $system.sdztc00b FILE allow 10 errors assu process $zzkrn delete process SSHD-ztc00b add process SSHD-ztc00b. 2008 .& startupmsg & "-c /usr/local/ssh/install/start_sshd_ztc00b.255.& HOMETERM $zhome.osh. & outfile $zhome. & name $ob021.sh <.>>/dev/null 2>/dev/null" start process SSHD-ztc00b start_sshd_ztc00b. & AUTORESTART 10.4 Page 108 March 31.& userid 255.sh FILE export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/ssh/bin:/usr/local/ssh/sbin export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/random/bin add_define =tcpip^process^name class=map file=\$ztc0 # # Start the SSHD in CPU 1 using zzkrn # echo "Starting SSHD on PORT 701" # kill -s SIGGUARDIAN /G/sd001 run -name=/G/sd001 -cpu=1 -gpri=154 -term=/G/zhome sshd -D -p 701 # NSK-SSH V2.

4 Page 109 March 31.INSTALL NOTES: NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .

NSK-SSH V2. 2008 .4 Page 110 March 31.Note: This page is left blank for double sided printing.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful