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# Underground Space – the 4th Dimension of Metropolises – Barták, Hrdina, Romancov & Zlámal (eds) © 2007 Taylor & Francis Group

, London, ISBN 978-0-415-40807-3

Estimation of rock load for the design of 2-arch tunnel lining
Kwangho You
University of Suwon, Hwasung-Si, Kyeonggi-Do, Korea

Myung Sagong, Jun S. Lee
Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang-Si, Kyeonggi-Do, Korea

ABSTRACT: In this study, the existing methods proposed to estimate relaxed rock load due to a tunnel excavation are compared and analyzed. Also a new approach, by which the stress relaxed zone around an excavated tunnel periphery can be systematically estimated, was suggested for the design of 2 – arch tunnel lining. To this end, local factors of safety are calculated from the redistributed stresses after the excavation of a tunnel. The height of the relaxed rock load is inferred based on the assumption that the stress relaxed zone might coincide with the region corresponding to the local safety factor of 2.0 or 3.0. The new approach proposed in this study has the advantage of estimating the height of rock load regardless of the shape of a tunnel and the ground conditions. Since the height of the relaxed rock load is estimated from the local factor of safety, which is a relatively clear criterion, the designer’s subjectivity involved in the design of concrete tunnel lining might be reduced.

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INTRODUCTION

2 THE ESTIMATION OF TUNNEL ROCK LOAD 2.1 Terzaghi’s equation Terzaghi(1946) applied the failure mechanism shown in Figure 1 to calculate rock load which a tunnel lining should support when the tunnel was excavated in cohesionless dry coarse soil. Vertical rock load (Proof ) was suggested by Equation (1) for shallow tunnels.

The estimation of rock load is very important for the design of tunnel lining. Terzaghi’s rock load method, Bierbäumer’s equation, empirical methods based on RMR and Q system, and numerical approaches have been mainly used for the estimation of rock load. To estimate rock load of a tunnel excavated in rock mass, Terzaghi’s rock load classification table, RMR index, or Q value can be used but these methods are merely empirical. The Terzaghi’s and Bierbäumer’s proposed equations are also applied. However, these equations were derived based on the limit equilibrium theory with the assumption that the rock mass was continuous. In numerical approaches, on the other hand, rock load is inferred from the stresses behind shotcrete or plastic zones occurred due to tunnel excavation during the stability analysis of tunnels. Nevertheless, these approaches are so ad hoc that the estimated rock load may be different designer by designer. In this study, therefore, the existing methods are compared and analyzed, and a new systematic way is demonstrated to estimate the stress relaxed zone of a tunnel due to excavation. Also, the proposed method is applied for the design of 2-arch tunnel lining.

where B is the relaxed range (= 2[ b/2 + m tan(45 − φ/2)]), v is the unit weight of rock mass, K is coefficient of lateral earth pressure, φ is friction angle, b, m, and H are the width, height, and depth of a tunnel respectively. For deep tunnels, the vertical rock load was also suggested as follows;

2.2 Bierbäumer’s equation Bierbäumer (1913) assumed that the shape of stress relaxed zone occurred due to tunnel excavation might

785

Figure 2.3. They assumed that concrete 786 . And the reduction factor can be obtained as follows.where. The assumed relaxed zone of Bierbäumer. be a parabola as shown in Figure 2 (Part. However it is very subjective and can be applicable only for the horseshoe shaped tunnels. As can be seen in Figure 2. and B is the width of the relaxed zone.3 Approach based on the Q system Barton et al. Also.2 Approach based on the RMR classification system Unal(1983) proposed the following empirical equation for the estimation of vertical rock load (Proof ) based upon RMR values which a tunnel should be supported: Figure 1. • • when H ≥ 5B. • when H is very small. The assumed failure mechanism for Terzaghi’s rock load. 2. 2. Jn is the number of joint sets. where Q is Q value. horizontal rock load (Pwall ) can be calculated from the same equations applied for Proof with the transformed Q value (Q ) according to Table 2. m is the tunnel height.3 Empirical approaches 2. 2.4 Numerical approach Chun and Shin (2001) investigated a methodology to estimate rock load numerically for the design of concrete lining of a tunnel. where v is the unit weight of rock mass and b is tunnel width. (1974) proposed an empirical equation for the estimation of vertical rock load (Proof ) based on Q values as follows. v is the unit weight of rock mass. The height of the relaxed zone (h) is assumed to be proportional to the depth of the tunnel (H ). rock load conditions are divided into 9 categories. 2. if the number of joint sets ≥3.1 Terzaghi’s rock load classification Terzaghi (1946) proposed rock load classification for steel rib support and then Rose modified it as shown in Table 1 in 1982. b is the internal friction angle of rock mass. At tunnel crown. if the number of joint sets <3 . 2003). when H ≤ 5B. h = αH (α is reduction factor). and Jr is the joint roughness coefficient. the vertical relaxed load (Proof ) can be given as follows.3. the upper relaxed zone acts on the tunnel along 45 + φ/2 inclined plane as a vertical load.3. In the system. In Figure 2.