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Textbook for Class XII PART I

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MATHEMATICS

Textbook for Class XII

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PART I

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**ISBN 81-7450-629-2
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First Edition November 2006 Agrahayana 1928 Reprinted October 2007 Kartika 1929 January 2009 Pausa 1930 PD 450T BS © National Council of Educational Research and Training, 2006

**ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
**

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise disposed of without the publisher ’ s consent, in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published.

The correct price of this publication is the price printed on this p age, Any revised price indicated by a rubber stamp or by a sticker or by any other means is incorrect and should be unaccept able. OFFICES OF THE PUBLICATION DEPARTMENT, NCERT NCERT Campus Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110 016

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Printed on 80 GSM paper with NCERT water mark Published at the Publication Department by the Secretary, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 and printed at.............

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108, 100 Feet Road Hosdakere Halli Extension Banashankari III Stage Bangalore 560 085 Navjivan Trust Building P.O. Navjivan Ahmedabad 380 014 CWC Campus Opp. Dhankal Bus Stop Panihati Kolkata 700 114 CWC Complex Maligaon Guwahati 781 021

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Publication Team Head, Publication Department Chief Production Officer Chief Editor

: Peyyeti Rajakumar : Shiv Kumar

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Foreword

The National Curriculum Framework, 2005, recommends that children’s life at school must be linked to their life outside the school. This principle marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape our system and causes a gap between the school, home and community. The syllabi and textbooks developed on the basis of NCF signify an attempt to implement this basic idea. They also attempt to discourage rote learning and the maintenance of sharp boundaries between different subject areas. We hope these measures will take us significantly further in the direction of a child-centred system of education outlined in the National Policy on Education (1986). The success of this effort depends on the steps that school principals and teachers will take to encourage children to reflect on their own learning and to pursue imaginative activities and questions. We must recognise that, given space, time and freedom, children generate new knowledge by engaging with the information passed on to them by adults. Treating the prescribed textbook as the sole basis of examination is one of the key reasons why other resources and sites of learning are ignored. Inculcating creativity and initiative is possible if we perceive and treat children as participants in learning, not as receivers of a fixed body of knowledge. These aims imply considerable change in school routines and mode of functioning. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigour in implementing the annual calendar so that the required number of teaching days are actually devoted to teaching. The methods used for teaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbook proves for making children’s life at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress or boredom. Syllabus designers have tried to address the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and reorienting knowledge at different stages with greater consideration for child psychology and the time available for teaching. The textbook attempts to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on experience.

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vi NCERT appreciates the hard work done by the textbook development committee responsible for this book. We wish to thank the Chairperson of the advisory group in Science and Mathematics, Professor J.V. Narlikar and the Chief Advisor for this book, Professor P.K. Jain for guiding the work of this committee. Several teachers contributed to the development of this textbook; we are grateful to their principals for making this possible. We are indebted to the institutions and organisations which have generously permitted us to draw upon their resources, material and personnel. As an organisation committed to systemic reform and continuous improvement in the quality of its products, NCERT welcomes comments and suggestions which will enable us to undertake further revision and refinement.

New Delhi 20 December 2005

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Director National Council of Educational Research and Training

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This draft of the book was exposed to a group of practicing teachers teaching mathematics at higher secondary stage in different parts of the country. The draft was refined by the development team in different meetings. Government of India have approved the draft of the textbook. In the fitness of things. The draft textbook was finalised by an editorial board constituted out of the development team. These characteristics have reflections in almost all the chapters. Each Chapter contain the followings: Introduction: Highlighting the importance of the topic. These Focus Groups made general and specific comments in their respective areas. let us cite some of the essential features dominating the textbook. Consequently. the Advisory Group in Science and Mathematics and the Monitoring Committee constituted by the HRD Ministry.2000 (NCFSE 2000) in face of new emerging challenges and transformations occurring in the fields of content and pedagogy under the contexts of National and International spectrum of school education. The textbook for Class XI is already in use. based on these reports of Focus Groups. National Curriculum Framework (NCF)-2005 was developed. Motivating and introducing the concepts/sub concepts. brief mention about the new concepts to be discussed in the chapter. The existing textbook contain 13 main chapters and two appendices. NCERT designed the new syllabi and constituted Textbook Development Teams for Classes XI and XII to prepare textbooks in mathematics under the new guidelines and new syllabi.Preface The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) had constituted 21 Focus Groups on Teaching of various subjects related to School Education. Illustrations have been provided wherever possible. experts and practicing teachers. The first draft of the present book (Class XII) was prepared by the team consisting of NCERT faculty. Organisation of chapter into sections comprising one or more concepts/sub concepts. to review the National Curriculum Framework for School Education . The teachers made useful comments and suggestions which were incorporated in the draft textbook. which was brought in 2005. in a review workshop organised by the NCERT at Delhi. o n s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d e h . connection with earlier studied topics. Finally.

also. Narlikar.viii Proofs/problem solving involving deductive or inductive reasoning. He has provided us with an enlightened perspective and a very conducive environment. for his specific suggestions and advice towards the improvement of the book from time to time. G. Director. V. miscellaneous types of examples/exercises have been provided involving two or more sub concepts at a time at the end of the chapter. thank Prof. Adequate and variety of examples/exercises have been given in each section. K. NCERT who constituted the team and invited me to join this national endeavor for the improvement of mathematics education. I would like to place on records my appreciation and thanks to all the members of the team and the teachers who have been associated with this noble cause in one or the other form. are also provided. formulas and results. Singh. This made the task of preparing the book much more enjoyable and rewarding. I express my gratitude to Professor J. Coordinator and Professor S. Chairperson of the Advisory Group in Science and Mathematics. multiplicity of approaches wherever possible have been inducted. JAIN Chief Advisor Textbook Development Committee . Also. Ravindra. Geometric viewing / visualisation of concepts have been emphasised whenever needed. I express my sincere thanks to Professor Hukum Singh. Chief Coordinator and Head DESM. for direct recapitulation of main concepts. o n s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d e h P AWAN K. P. brief historical background of topics have been provided at the end of the chapter and at the beginning of each chapter relevant quotation and photograph of eminent mathematician who have contributed significantly in the development of the topic undertaken. The scope of challenging problems to talented minority have been reflected conducive to the recommendation as reflected in NCF-2005. For more motivational purpose. Applications of mathematical concepts have also been integrated with allied subjects like science and social sciences. Singh Gautam who have been helping for the success of this project academically as well as administratively. Lastly. NCERT for his help from time to time.V. I. I am thankful to Professor Krishan Kumar. Dr. brief summary of the chapter has also been provided. Joint Director. For refocusing and strengthening the understanding and skill of problem solving and applicabilities.

NCERT. Gurgaon. Bhopal. Rajput. P. Maurya.P.K.S.G. Specialist. Gautam. Pro-Vice-Chancellor. Professor.S. P. Department of Mathematics. RIE.K. Professor and Head. Professor. NCERT. Professor (Retd. NCERT. B. Nagpur. Sr. JNV-Mungeshpur. Professor. Apeejay School Saket. Singh. Maharashtra Sunil Bajaj. Khare. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA). Delhi CHIEF COORDINATOR Hukum Singh. New Delhi M EMBERS Arun Pal Singh. Reader. DESM. Department of Mathematics. Vidarbha Buniyadi Junior College.. DESM. Jain. Indian Institute of Science. NEHU. Lecturer. Kaushik.R.COORDINATOR V. Sakkardara Chowk. DESM. Dayal Singh College.P. Tura Campus.K. University of Delhi. Reader . Nar likar. NCERT. Delhi Ram Avtar. DESM. Delhi Sangeeta Arora. Department of Mathematics. Reader .Textbook Development Committee CHAIRPERSON. Karnataka C. ADVISORY GROUP IN S CIENCE AND MATHEMATICS J.T.S. Reader. Pune CHIEF ADVISOR P.T.G. Kirori Mal College. RIE Mysore. Ganeshkhind.P.. Bangalore. University of Delhi. Raju. Pradeep. New Delhi . P.G.K. Sharma.R. Delhi A. University of Delhi. Meghalaya S. NCERT. M. New Delhi-110017 Shailja Tewari. Assistant Professor. DESM. Department of Mathematics. Sr. New Delhi R. New Delhi S. Pune University. Karnataka D. Barkakana.. Kendriya Vidyalaya.V. Haryana o n s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d e h M EMBER . Hazaribagh. SCERT. New Delhi S. Emeritus Professor .P. Jharkhand Vinayak Bujade.T.) and Consultant. Lecturer.

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Lecturer.S. Govt. Vikaspuri. Surajmal Vihar.B. Lecturer. The Council acknowledges the efforts of Deepak Kapoor.H. Vandita Kalra. NCERT.T.S.1. Delhi. Rakesh Kumar and Nargis Islam. Janardan Tripathi. P. Orissa. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya. Girls Senior Secondary School No.Copy Editor and Abhimanu Mohanty. Tewari. of Statistics. Air Force Golden Jubilee Institute. Tripathi. P. Quddus Khan. Singh. Lecturer. Bangalore. Sushma Jaireth. Operators. Mizoram and Ms. University of Delhi. Incharge . Lecturer.G.P. Bhubaneswar. Roop Nagar. D. Sarvodaya Kanya Vidyalaya.V. Mrs. Delhi.V. K. Rahul Sofat. Proof Reader. administration of DESM and Publication Department is also duly acknowledged. NAL Campus. S. Lepakshi. PGT.P. College Azamgarh (U.Acknowledgements The Council gratefully acknowledges the valuable contributions of the following participants of the Textbook Review Workshop: Jagdish Saran. Reader. Deptt. RIE. Professor.V. Lecturer.). New Delhi. New Delhi. O. Bhaskar Kumar. Sajjad Haider Ansari.K. The Contribution of APC-Office. Shibli National P. Assistant Commissioner (Retd. S. Miss Saroj. o n s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d e h .P. Computer Station. Reader. New Delhi. Anantapur. District Centre.P.). R. PGT. R. Subroto Park. DWS.N. Govt. Monika Saxena. Lecturer. Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan.). Kalpagam. (A. Aizawl.

(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so. (e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious. wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. linguistic and regional or sectional diversities.CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Part IV A (Article 51 A) Fundamental Duties – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India — (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions. lakes. as the case may be. unity and integrity of India. (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture. to provide opportunities for education to his child or. the National Flag and the National Anthem. humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform. o n s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fundamental Duties d e h . (j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement. ward between the age of six and fourteen years. (i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence. (k) who is a parent or guardian. (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom. (c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty. (h) to develop the scientific temper. to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women. (g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. rivers.

4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function 1. 3.2 Types of Relations 1.3 Types of Matrices 3.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices 3.4 Area of a Triangle 4.5 Binary Operations Inverse Trigonometric Functions 2.8 Invertible Matrices Determinants 4.5 Minors and Cofactors 4.1 Introduction 1. Relations and Functions 1.2 Determinant 4.4 Operations on Matrices 3.1 Introduction 2. o n Matrices 3.2 Basic Concepts 2.Contents P ART I Foreword Preface 1.7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d e h v vii 1 1 2 7 12 19 33 33 33 42 56 56 56 61 65 83 85 90 91 103 103 103 109 121 123 126 133 . 4.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix 4.3 Properties of Determinants 4.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions 2.1 Introduction 3.7 Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix 3.5 Transpose of a Matrix 3.2 Matrix 3.3 Types of Functions 1.1 Introduction 4.

1 Introduction A.5 Logarithmic Differentiation 5.1.7 Second Order Derivative 5. Continuity and Differentiability 5.6 Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms 5.3 Differentiability 5.xiv 5.1.2 Rate of Change of Quantities 6.2.2.2 Continuity 5.1 Introduction 6.3 Principles of Mathematical Modelling Answers o n s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d e h 247 247 247 256 256 256 257 268 . Appendix 2: Mathematical Modelling A.5 Approximations 6.4 Tangents and Normals 6.6 Maxima and Minima Appendix 1: Proofs in Mathematics A.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions 6.8 Mean Value Theorem Application of Derivatives 6.1 Introduction A.1 Introduction 5.2 What is a Proof? 147 147 147 161 170 174 179 181 184 194 194 194 199 206 213 216 6.2.4 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.2 Why Mathematical Modelling? A.

be lent. recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. re-sold. Sahibabad (U. in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published. NCERT NCERT Campus Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110 016 108. by way of trade. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted. Ltd. in any form or by any means. New Delhi 110 016 and printed at New Print India Pvt.O. hired out or otherwise disposed of without the publisher ’s consent. National Council of Educational Research and Training.Navjivan Ahmedabad 380 014 d e h CWC Campus Opp.ISBN 81-7450-629-2 First Edition November 2006 Agrahayana 1928 PD ?T BS © National Council of Educational Research and Training. Industrial Area. electronic.P. Rajakumar : Shiv Kumar : Shveta Uppal : Gautam Ganguly : Bijnan Sutar .00 Printed on 80 GSM paper with NCERT water mark Published at the Publication Department by the Secretary. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not. photocopying. 00. 100 Feet Road Hosdakere Halli Extension Banashankari III Stage Bangalore 560 085 Navjivan Trust Building P. 2006 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this publication may be reproduced. The correct price of this publication is the price printed on this page. Site IV. Any revised price indicated by a rubber stamp or by a sticker or by any other means is incorrect and should be unacceptable. Dhankal Bus Stop Panihati Kolkata 700 114 CWC Complex Maligaon Guwahati 781 021 : P.) o n s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Publication Team Head. Rs. Sri Aurobindo Marg. mechanical. 8/4-B. Publication Department Chief Production Officer Chief Editor Chief Business Manager Assistant Editor Production Assistant Cover Arvinder Chawla : OFFICES OF THE PUBLICATION DEPARTMENT.

Dhankal Bus Stop Panihati Kolkata 700 114 CWC Complex Maligaon Guwahati 781 021 : P.O. 100 Feet Road Hosdakere Halli Extension Banashankari III Stage Bangalore 560 085 Navjivan Trust Building P. photocopying.ISBN 81-7450-629-2 First Edition November 2006 Agrahayana 1928 PD ?T BS © National Council of Educational Research and Training. Rs. Rajakumar : Shiv Kumar : Shveta Uppal : Gautam Ganguly : Bijnan Sutar . re-sold. C-34. New Delhi 110 016 and printed at Kaushik Of fset Printers. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not.00 Printed on 80 GSM paper with NCERT water mark Published at the Publication Department by the Secretary. Publication Department Chief Production Officer Chief Editor Chief Business Manager Assistant Editor Production Assistant Cover Arvinder Chawla : OFFICES OF THE PUBLICATION DEPARTMENT. recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published. Sector 58. hired out or otherwise disposed of without the publisher ’ s consent.Navjivan Ahmedabad 380 014 d e h CWC Campus Opp. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted. be lent. NCERT NCERT Campus Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110 016 108. 00. electronic. by way of trade. 2006 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this publication may be reproduced. Sri Aurobindo Marg. in any form or by any means. The correct price of this publication is the price printed on this p age. mechanical. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Noida-201301 o n s T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Publication Team Head. Any revised price indicated by a rubber stamp or by a sticker or by any other means is incorrect and should be unaccept able.

domain. b) ∈ A × B: total marks obtained by a in the final examination is less than the total marks obtained by b in the final examination}. . H. we will study different types of relations and functions. abstracting from this. (iii) {(a.Chapter 1 RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS There is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics . However. HARDY 1. we say that a is related to b under the relation R and we write as a R b . (iv) {(a.. The concept of the term ‘relation’ in mathematics has been drawn from the meaning of relation in English language. functions are special kind of relations. As seen in Class XI. b) ∈ A × B: age of a is greater than age of b}. If (a . b) ∈ A × B: a is sister of b}. Then some of the examples of relations from A to B are (i) {(a. In general. b ) ∈ A × B: a lives in the same locality as b}. (a . b) ∈ R. It may be very hard to define mathematical beauty but that is just as true of beauty of any kind. In this chapter.. b) ∈ A × B: a is brother of b }. co-domain and range have been introduced in Class XI along with different types of specific real valued functions and their graphs. Let A be the set of students of Class XII of a school and B be the set of students of Class XI of the same school. we define mathematically a relation R from A to B as an arbitrary subset of A × B. we do not bother whether there is a recognisable connection or link between a and b . Lejeune Dirichlet (1805-1859) (ii) {(a. but that does not prevent us from recognising one when we read it. composition of functions. b) ∈ R. — G. (v) {(a. according to which two objects or quantities are related if there is a recognisable connection or link between the two objects or quantities. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . invertible functions and binary operations. we may not know quite what we mean by a beautiful poem.1 Introduction o n Recall that the notion of relations and functions.

b ) in A × A satisfy | a – b | ≥ 0. for all a1. symmetric and transitive. o n If (a .. for every a ∈ A. Show that the relation R in A given by R = {(a. b) : a is sister of b } is the empty relation and R′ = {(a. These two extreme examples lead us to the following definitions.e. we have seen two ways of representing a relation. a 2. b ) : | a – b | ≥ 0} is the whole set A × A. we would like to study different types of relations. For illustration. a 2 ∈ A. 2. Definition 2 A relation R in a set A is called universal relation. R = A × A. as and when convenient. i. . if no element of A is related to any element of A. Example 1 Let A be the set of all students of a boys school. as no pair ( a. if each element of A is related to every element of A. if (a . We may also use this notation. However. namely roaster method and set builder method. Both the empty relation and the universal relation are some times called trivial relations . One of the most important relation. R = φ. is an equivalence relation. as all pairs ( a. 3.2 Types of Relations In this section. 2.e. b) ∈ R. we first consider three types of relations. To study equivalence relation. consider a relation R in the set A = {1. Definition 3 A relation R in a set A is called (i) reflexive. we say that a is related to b and we denote it as a R b. Definition 1 A relation R in a set A is called empty relation. for all a 1. This shows that R′ = A × A is the universal relation. 4} defined by R = {(a . no student of the school can be sister of any student of the school. a 1) ∈ R. Hence. the empty set φ and A × A are two extreme relations. a3 ∈ A. 4} given by R = {(a. This is the empty set. We know that a relation in a set A is a subset of A × A.2 MATHEMATICS 1. a3 ) ∈ R.. (ii) symmetric. i. a 2) ∈ R and (a 2. b): a – b = 10}. b ) : b = a + 1} is also expressed as a R b if and only if b = a + 1 by many authors. showing that R is the empty relation. a 3) ∈ R implies that (a1. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e (iii) transitive. 3. R′ = {( a. Remark In Class XI. It is also obvious that the difference between heights of any two students of the school has to be less than 3 meters. b) : the difference between heights of a and b is less than 3 meters} is the universal relation. Similarly. a relation R in the set {1. namely reflexive. b ) satisfies the condition a – b = 10. Solution Since the school is boys school. if (a 1. R = φ ⊂ A × A. a 2) ∈ R implies that ( a2 . a) ∈ R. if ( a1. Thus. which plays a significant role in Mathematics.

. Solution R is reflexive. R is symmetric. 3). Also. a ) ∈ R. 3)} is reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive. Therefore. (1. So. since (1. Further. (T1. L3) ∉ R. T1 ) ∈ R. Hence. Example 3 Let L be the set of all lines in a plane and R be the relation in L defined as R = {(L1. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e Solution R is reflexive. if L1 is perpendicular to L2 and Fig 1. then a – b and b – c are divisible by 2.e. T3) ∈ R ⇒ T1 is congruent to T2 and T2 is congruent to T3 ⇒ T1 is congruent to T3 ⇒ (T 1. T2 ) : T1 is congruent to T2}. L2) ∈ R ⇒ L1 is perpendicular to L2 ⇒ ⇒ L2 is perpendicular to L1 (L2 . L1) ∉ R. 1) ∉ R. 2) and (3. L3) ∈ R but (L1. Similarly.1 L2 is perpendicular to L3 . o n Example 5 Show that the relation R in the set Z of integers given by R = {(a. (a – c) is divisible by 2. 3} given by R = {(1. R is symmetric as (L1. (2. L1 is parallel to L3 . Now. . Example 2 Let T be the set of all triangles in a plane with R a relation in T given by R = {(T1. since every triangle is congruent to itself. Example 4 Show that the relation R in the set {1. T2). This shows that R is transitive. if (a . L2) : L1 is perpendicular to L2}. c) ∈ R. (T2. R is not transitive. Indeed. which shows that R is symmetric. (b . then L1 can never be perpendicular to L3.e. (3. 2 divides b – a. Hence. (L1. (T1 . R is not symmetric. b) ∈ R and (b. then 2 divides a – b. as a line L1 can not be perpendicular to itself. Show that R is an equivalence relation. 2). 2) ∈ R and (2. b) : 2 divides a – b} is an equivalence relation. 2). Moreover. i. as 2 divides (a – a ) for all a ∈ Z. (2. Show that R is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive. R is an equivalence relation in Z . Further. 1).. 2) ∈ R but (2. 3) lie in R. T2) ∈ R ⇒ T1 is congruent to T 2 ⇒ T 2 is congruent to T1 ⇒ (T2. Therefore. Solution R is not reflexive. 3) ∉ R. as (1. b) ∈ R. 2. In fact. 3) ∈ R but (1.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 3 Definition 4 A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if R is reflexive. i. (L2 . a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) is even (Why?). (2. R is not transitive. (L1. if (a. Thus. Solution R is reflexive. symmetric and transitive. L2) ∈ R. L1) ∈ R. as (1. T3) ∈ R. Similarly. 1). R is an equivalence relation.

1. Example 6 Let R be the relation defined in the set A = {1.. 7. as (0. consider a subdivision of the set Z given by three mutually disjoint subsets A1. 3. Thus. – 2. A2 = [1] and A3 = [2]. A2 coincides with the set of all integers which are related to 1 and A3 coincides with the set of all integers in Z which are related to 2.. . The subset E is called the equivalence class containing zero and is denoted by [0]. – 3. do not lie in R. . 5. r ∈ Z . lie in R and no odd integer is related to 0. (0. A1 = [0].. Infact. Note that [0] ≠ [1]. For example... (iii) E and O are disjoint and Z = E ∪ O. – 4. 6} are related to each other. Show that R is an equivalence relation. Similarly. Also. all odd integers are related to one and no even integer is related to one. Further. A1 coincides with the set of all integers in Z which are related to zero.. A1 = [3r].. 7} is related to any element of the subset {2. b) : 3 divides a – b }.} o n Define a relation R in Z given by R = {(a.. Similarly. – 6. 2. In fact. R divides X into mutually disjoint subsets Ai called partitions or subdivisions of X satisfying: (i) all elements of Ai are related to each other. 4. b) : both a and b are either odd or even}. what we have seen above is true for an arbitrary equivalence relation R in a set X. ± 1). 6.4 MATHEMATICS In Example 5. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . Therefore.} A3 = {x ∈ Z : x – 2 is a multiple of 3} = {. 7} by R = {(a.. (0. but no element of the subset {1. 5.. i ≠ j. – 1. The interesting part of the situation is that we can go reverse also. ± 3) etc. i ≠ j.. [0] = [2 r] and [1] = [2r + 1]. 0. (iii) ∪ Aj = X and Ai ∩ Aj = φ. Following the arguments similar to those used in Example 5. show that all the elements of the subset {1. ± 2). 4. 7} are related to each other and all the elements of the subset {2. for all i.. note that all even integers are related to zero. ± 4) etc.. 3. 6}. A2 = [3r + 1] and A3 = [3 r + 2].. 8. 3. as (0.. A2 and A3 whose union is Z with A1 = {x ∈ Z : x is a multiple of 3} = {. 3. The subsets Ai are called equivalence classes.} A2 = {x ∈ Z : x – 1 is a multiple of 3} = {. (ii) no element of Ai is related to any element of Aj . 5. (ii) No element of E is related to any element of O and vice-versa. . 2.. Given an arbitrary equivalence relation R in an arbitrary set X. 6. O is the equivalence class containing 1 and is denoted by [1]. for all r ∈ Z.. we can show that R is an equivalence relation. 4. the set E of all even integers and the set O of all odd integers are subsets of Z satisfying following conditions: (i) All elements of E are related to each other and all elements of O are related to each other. 4. – 5. 5.

4. 5. 2. no element of the subset {1. 6} are even. must be either even or odd simultaneously ⇒ ( a. y) : x is wife of y} (e) R = {(x. is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. 4. Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers. 3. 1. (a . 7} are odd. 2.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 5 Solution Given any element a in A. symmetric and transitive: (i) Relation R in the set A = {1. 5. 7} are related to each other. y) : x and y work at the same place} (b) R = {(x. 14} defined as R = {(x. y) : 3x – y = 0} (ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as R = {( x. b ) : b = a + 1} is reflexive. 3. 5. symmetric or transitive. y) : x is father of y} o n 2. 3. (a. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 1. 3. 3. Further.1 h s d e . Also. c) ∈ R. all the elements of the subset {2. all the elements of {1. y) : x and y live in the same locality} (c) R = {(x. 4. b ) : a ≤ b 3} is reflexive. Check whether the relation R in R defined by R = {(a .. . R is an equivalence relation. so that ( a. b ) : a ≤ b2 } is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. Similarly. b. 4. y) : y = x + 5 and x < 4} (iii) Relation R in the set A = {1. Similarly. a ) ∈ R.. 3. Check whether the relation R defined in the set {1. c. 3. y) : y is divisible by x} (iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as R = {(x. Hence. as elements of {1. 2. as all the elements of this subset are odd. 5. symmetric or transitive. 6} are related to each other. Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive. 6} as R = {(x. as all of them are even. Show that the relation R in R defined as R = {(a . y) : x – y is an integer} (v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by (a) R = {(x. 4. defined as R = {(a . 5. 5. c) ∈ R ⇒ all elements a . while elements of {2. 6} as R = {(a .. b) : a ≤ b }. a ) ∈ R. 4. 7} can be related to any element of {2. 13. y) : x is exactly 7 cm taller than y} (d) R = {(x. 6}. both a and a must be either odd or even. b) ∈ R and (b. b ) ∈ R ⇒ both a and b must be either odd or even ⇒ (b. Further.

b ) : |a – b| is a multiple of 4} (ii) R = {(a.6 MATHEMATICS 6. b ) : |a – b| is even}. 2). 11. 5} given by R = {(a. Show that the relation R in the set A = {1. 8. Give an example of a relation. 4. 4 and 5? 14. 7. (ii) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric. 0) is the circle passing through P with origin as centre. Show that each of the relation R in the set A = {x ∈ Z : 0 ≤ x ≤ 12}. P2) : P1 and P2 have same number of sides}. What is the set of all elements in A related to the right angle triangle T with sides 3. 2. b) : a = b } is an equivalence relation. T2 ) : T1 is similar to T2}. 3. (2. Show that the relation R defined in the set A of all triangles as R = {(T1. 4} are related to each other. y) : x and y have same number of pages} is an equivalence relation. Show that all the elements of {1. L2) : L1 is parallel to L2}. Show that R is an equivalence relation. Show that the relation R defined in the set A of all polygons as R = {(P1. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . 9. 5} is related to any element of {2. is an equivalence relation. given by R = {(x. Find the set of all elements related to 1 in each case. 12. Find the set of all lines related to the line y = 2x + 4. 4}. is equivalence relation. 3} given by R = {(1. (iii) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive. 3. Show that the relation R in the set A of points in a plane given by R = {(P. 5. o n 12. 8. T2 with sides 5. (v) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive. Show that the relation R in the set {1. given by (i) R = {(a . is an equivalence relation. 10. 5} are related to each other and all the elements of {2. Consider three right angle triangles T1 with sides 3. But no element of {1. Which triangles among T1. Which is (i) Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive. 4. 3. Further. show that the set of all points related to a point P ≠ (0. Q) : distance of the point P from the origin is same as the distance of the point Q from the origin}. 2. Let L be the set of all lines in XY plane and R be the relation in L defined as R = {(L1. is an equivalence relation. Show that the relation R in the set A of all the books in a library of a college. (iv) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. 10. T2 and T3 are related? 13. 13 and T3 with sides 6. 1)} is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

Otherwise. for every y ∈ Y. 3. (1.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 7 15.2 (ii) and (iii) are many-one.2 (iii). 3). In Fig 1. we observe that the images of distinct elements of X1 under the function f1 are distinct. 2). but the image of two distinct elements 1 and 2 of X1 under f2 is same. 8) ∈ R (D) (8. for every x1. signum function etc. b > 6}. (A) R is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive. 2). f3 and f4 given by the following diagrams. there exists an element x in X such that f ( x) = y. i.3 Types of Functions The notion of a function along with some special functions like identity function. rational function. (2.2. (iv) are onto and the function f1 in Fig 1. if every element of Y is the image of some element of X under f. (1. constant function. (C) R is symmetric and transitive but not reflexive. The function f3 and f4 in Fig 1. x2 ∈ X. (3. polynomial function. (4. Let R be the relation in the set {1. 4) ∈ R 1. f is called many-one. 3). 2. we would like to extend our study about function from where we finished earlier.2 (i) is not onto as elements e. The above observations lead to the following definitions: o n Definition 5 A function f : X → Y is defined to be one-one (or injective). (D) R is an equivalence relation. while all elements of X3 are images of some elements of X1 under f3 . f2. multiplication and division of two functions have also been studied. namely b . modulus function.. Further. (A) (2. Choose the correct answer. 4} given by R = {(1. The function f1 and f4 in Fig 1. 2)}. In this section. i. Choose the correct answer. 16. As the concept of function is of paramount importance in mathematics and among other disciplines as well. (3. there are some elements like e and f in X2 which are not images of any element of X1 under f1. 7) ∈ R h s d e . Addition. if the images of distinct elements of X under f are distinct. along with their graphs have been given in Class XI. subtraction. 8) ∈ R (C) (6.e. f (x1) = f (x2) implies x1 = x2. Let R be the relation in the set N given by R = {(a .2 (i) and (iv) are one-one and the function f2 and f3 in Fig 1.. 1). we would like to study different types of functions. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (B) (3. (B) R is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. Definition 6 A function f : X → Y is said to be onto (or surjective). f in X2 are not the image of any element in X1 under f1. b) : a = b – 2.4). Consider the functions f1.e.

as for 1 ∈ N. Therefore. Example 7 Let A be the set of all 50 students of Class X in a school. The function f4 in Fig 1. We can assume without any loss of generality that roll numbers of students are from 1 to 50. Further. is one-one but not onto.2 (i) to (iv) h s d e Solution The function f is one-one. f is not onto. if f is both one-one and onto.2 (iv) is one-one and onto. f is not onto. Definition 7 A function f : X → Y is said to be one-one and onto (or bijective). This implies that 51 in N is not roll number of any student of the class.8 MATHEMATICS Remark f : X → Y is onto if and only if Range of f = Y. Let f : A → N be function defined by f ( x) = roll number of the student x. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 1. so that 51 can not be image of any element of X under f. given by f ( x) = 2x. for f (x1 ) = f ( x2) ⇒ 2x1 = 2x2 ⇒ x1 = x2. . f must be one-one. there does not exist any x in N such that f ( x) = 2x = 1. Show that f is one-one but not onto. Hence. o n Solution No two different students of the class can have same roll number. Example 8 Show that the function f : N → N.

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Example 9 Prove that the function f : R → R, given by f ( x) = 2x, is one-one and onto. Solution f is one-one, as f ( x1) = f ( x2) ⇒ 2x1 = 2x2 ⇒ x1 = x2. Also, given any real number y in R, there exists y y y in R such that f ( ) = 2 . ( ) = y. Hence, f is onto. 2 2 2

Example 10 Show that the function f : N → N, given by f (1) = f (2) = 1 and f ( x) = x – 1, for every x > 2, is onto but not one-one. Solution f is not one-one, as f (1) = f (2) = 1. But f is onto, as given any y ∈ N, y ≠ 1, we can choose x as y + 1 such that f (y + 1) = y + 1 – 1 = y. Also for 1 ∈ N, we have f (1) = 1. Example 11 Show that the function f : R → R, defined as f ( x) = x2 , is neither one-one nor onto.

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Solution Since f (– 1) = 1 = f (1), f is not oneone. Also, the element – 2 in the co-domain R is not image of any element x in the domain R (Why?). Therefore f is not onto. Example 12 Show that f : N → N, given by ⎧ x + 1, if x is odd, f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ x − 1, if x is even

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Fig 1.3 Fig 1.4

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is both one-one and onto.

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Solution Suppose f ( x1) = f ( x2). Note that if x1 is odd and x2 is even, then we will have x1 + 1 = x2 – 1, i.e., x2 – x1 = 2 which is impossible. Similarly, the possibility of x1 being even and x2 being odd can also be ruled out, using the similar argument. Therefore, both x1 and x2 must be either odd or even. Suppose both x1 and x2 are odd. Then f (x1 ) = f ( x2) ⇒ x1 + 1 = x2 + 1 ⇒ x1 = x2. Similarly, if both x1 and x2 are even, then also f (x1 ) = f (x2) ⇒ x1 – 1 = x2 – 1 ⇒ x1 = x2. Thus, f is one-one. Also, any odd number 2r + 1 in the co-domain N is the image of 2r + 2 in the domain N and any even number 2r in the co-domain N is the image of 2r – 1 in the domain N. Thus, f is onto. Example 13 Show that an onto function f : {1, 2, 3} → {1, 2, 3} is always one-one.

Solution Suppose f is not one-one. Then there exists two elements, say 1 and 2 in the domain whose image in the co-domain is same. Also, the image of 3 under f can be only one element. Therefore, the range set can have at the most two elements of the co-domain {1, 2, 3}, showing that f is not onto, a contradiction. Hence, f must be one-one. Example 14 Show that a one-one function f : {1, 2, 3} → {1, 2, 3} must be onto.

Solution Since f is one-one, three elements of {1, 2, 3} must be taken to 3 different elements of the co-domain {1, 2, 3} under f. Hence, f has to be onto. Remark The results mentioned in Examples 13 and 14 are also true for an arbitrary finite set X, i.e., a one-one function f : X → X is necessarily onto and an onto map f : X → X is necessarily one-one, for every finite set X. In contrast to this, Examples 8 and 10 show that for an infinite set, this may not be true. In fact, this is a characteristic difference between a finite and an infinite set.

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1 is one-one and onto, x where R∗ is the set of all non-zero real numbers. Is the result true, if the domain R∗ is replaced by N with co-domain being same as R∗? 2. Check the injectivity and surjectivity of the following functions: (i) f : N → N given by f (x) = x2 (ii) f : Z → Z given by f ( x) = x2 (iii) f : R → R given by f (x) = x2 (iv) f : N → N given by f (x) = x3 (v) f : Z → Z given by f ( x) = x3 3. Prove that the Greatest Integer Function f : R → R, given by f (x) = [x], is neither one-one nor onto, where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. 1. Show that the function f : R∗ → R∗ defined by f ( x) =

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4. Show that the Modulus Function f : R → R, given by f (x) = | x |, is neither oneone nor onto, where | x | is x, if x is positive or 0 and | x | is – x, if x is negative. 5. Show that the Signum Function f : R → R, given by ⎧1, if x > 0 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨0, if x = 0 ⎪ –1, if x < 0 ⎩ is neither one-one nor onto.

6. Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7} and let f = {(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)} be a function from A to B. Show that f is one-one. 7. In each of the following cases, state whether the function is one-one, onto or bijective. Justify your answer. (i) f : R → R defined by f ( x) = 3 – 4x (ii) f : R → R defined by f ( x) = 1 + x2

8. Let A and B be sets. Show that f : A × B → B × A such that f ( a, b) = (b , a ) is bijective function. ⎧ n +1 , if n is odd ⎪ ⎪ 2 9. Let f : N → N be defined by f ( n) = ⎨ for all n ∈ N. ⎪ n , if n is even ⎪ ⎩2 State whether the function f is bijective. Justify your answer.

⎛ x − 2⎞ ⎟ . Is f one-one and onto? Justify your answer. f (x) = ⎜ ⎝ x −3⎠

10. Let A = R – {3} and B = R – {1}. Consider the function f : A → B defined by

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11. Let f : R → R be defined as f( x) = x4 . Choose the correct answer. (A) f is one-one onto (B) f is many-one onto (C) f is one-one but not onto

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(D) f is neither one-one nor onto. (B) f is many-one onto (D) f is neither one-one nor onto.

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12. Let f : R → R be defined as f (x) = 3x. Choose the correct answer. (A) f is one-one onto (C) f is one-one but not onto

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**1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
**

In this section, we will study composition of functions and the inverse of a bijective function. Consider the set A of all students, who appeared in Class X of a Board Examination in 2006. Each student appearing in the Board Examination is assigned a roll number by the Board which is written by the students in the answer script at the time of examination. In order to have confidentiality, the Board arranges to deface the roll numbers of students in the answer scripts and assigns a fake code number to each roll number. Let B ⊂ N be the set of all roll numbers and C ⊂ N be the set of all code numbers. This gives rise to two functions f : A → B and g : B → C given by f (a ) = the roll number assigned to the student a and g ( b ) = the code number assigned to the roll number b. In this process each student is assigned a roll number through the function f and each roll number is assigned a code number through the function g . Thus, by the combination of these two functions, each student is eventually attached a code number. This leads to the following definition: Definition 8 Let f : A → B and g : B → C be two functions. Then the composition of f and g, denoted by gof, is defined as the function gof : A → C given by gof ( x) = g( f ( x)), ∀ x ∈ A.

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Example 15 Let f : {2, 3, 4, 5} → {3, 4, 5, 9} and g : {3, 4, 5, 9} → {7, 11, 15} be functions defined as f (2) = 3, f (3) = 4, f (4) = f (5) = 5 and g (3) = g (4) = 7 and g (5) = g (9) = 11. Find gof.

Solution We have gof (2) = g ( f (2)) = g (3) = 7, gof (3) = g ( f (3)) = g (4) = 7, gof (4) = g ( f (4)) = g (5) = 11 and gof (5) = g (5) = 11. Example 16 Find gof and fog, if f : R → R and g : R → R are given by f (x) = cos x and g ( x) = 3x2. Show that gof ≠ fog. Solution We have gof (x) = g (f ( x)) = g (cos x) = 3 (cos x) 2 = 3 cos2 x. Similarly, fog ( x) = f (g ( x)) = f (3x2 ) = cos (3x2 ). Note that 3cos2 x ≠ cos 3 x2, for x = 0. Hence, gof ≠ fog.

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3x + 4 ⎧7⎫ ⎧3 ⎫ Example 17 Show that if f : R − ⎨ ⎬ → R − ⎨ ⎬ is defined by f ( x) = and 5x − 7 ⎩5⎭ ⎩5 ⎭ 7x + 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎧7⎫ g : R − ⎨ ⎬ → R − ⎨ ⎬ is defined by g (x) = , then fog = IA and gof = IB, where, 5x − 3 ⎩ 5⎭ ⎩5⎭ ⎧3 ⎫ ⎧7 ⎫ A = R – ⎨ ⎬ , B = R – ⎨ ⎬ ; IA (x) = x, ∀ x ∈ A, IB (x) = x, ∀ x ∈ B are called identity 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩5 ⎭ functions on sets A and B, respectively. Solution We have

⎛ (3 x + 4) ⎞ +4 7⎜ 21 x + 28 + 20 x − 28 41x (5 x − 7) ⎟ ⎛ 3x + 4 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ = =x gof ( x) = g ⎜ = ⎟= 15 x + 20 − 15 x + 21 41 ⎝ 5x − 7 ⎠ ⎛ (3x + 4) ⎞ − 5⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ (5 x − 7) ⎠

⎛ (7 x + 4) ⎞ +4 3⎜ 21x + 12 + 20 x −12 41 x (5 x − 3) ⎟ ⎛ 7x + 4 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ = =x Similarly, fog ( x ) = f ⎜ = ⎟= 35 x + 20 − 35 x + 21 41 ⎝ 5x − 3 ⎠ ⎛ (7 x + 4) ⎞ 5⎜ ⎟ −7 ⎝ (5 x − 3) ⎠ Thus, gof (x) = x, ∀ x ∈ B and fog ( x) = x, ∀ x ∈ A, which implies that gof = IB and fog = IA . Example 18 Show that if f : A → B and g : B → C are one-one, then gof : A → C is also one-one.

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Solution Suppose gof (x1 ) = gof (x2) ⇒ g (f ( x1)) = g ( f ( x2)) ⇒ f ( x1) = f (x2 ), as g is one-one ⇒ x1 = x2, as f is one-one Hence, gof is one-one.

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Example 19 Show that if f : A → B and g : B → C are onto, then gof : A → C is also onto.

Solution Given an arbitrary element z ∈ C, there exists a pre-image y of z under g such that g ( y) = z, since g is onto. Further, for y ∈ B, there exists an element x in A

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with f ( x) = y, since f is onto. Therefore, gof ( x) = g ( f (x)) = g ( y) = z, showing that gof is onto. Example 20 Consider functions f and g such that composite gof is defined and is oneone. Are f and g both necessarily one-one. Solution Consider f : {1, 2, 3, 4} → {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} defined as f ( x) = x, ∀ x and g : {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} → {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as g (x) = x, for x = 1, 2, 3, 4 and g (5) = g (6) = 5. Then, gof ( x) = x ∀ x, which shows that gof is one-one. But g is clearly not one-one. Example 21 Are f and g both necessarily onto, if gof is onto?

Solution Consider f : {1, 2, 3, 4} → {1, 2, 3, 4} and g : {1, 2, 3, 4} → {1, 2, 3} defined as f (1) = 1, f (2) = 2, f (3) = f (4) = 3, g (1) = 1, g (2) = 2 and g (3) = g (4) = 3. It can be seen that gof is onto but f is not onto.

Remark It can be verified in general that gof is one-one implies that f is one-one. Similarly, gof is onto implies that g is onto. Now, we would like to have close look at the functions f and g described in the beginning of this section in reference to a Board Examination. Each student appearing in Class X Examination of the Board is assigned a roll number under the function f and each roll number is assigned a code number under g . After the answer scripts are examined, examiner enters the mark against each code number in a mark book and submits to the office of the Board. The Board officials decode by assigning roll number back to each code number through a process reverse to g and thus mark gets attached to roll number rather than code number. Further, the process reverse to f assigns a roll number to the student having that roll number. This helps in assigning mark to the student scoring that mark. We observe that while composing f and g , to get gof, first f and then g was applied, while in the reverse process of the composite gof, first the reverse process of g is applied and then the reverse process of f. Example 22 Let f : {1, 2, 3} → {a, b , c} be one-one and onto function given by f (1) = a, f (2) = b and f (3) = c. Show that there exists a function g : {a, b , c} → {1, 2, 3} such that gof = IX and fog = IY, where, X = {1, 2, 3} and Y = { a, b, c}. Solution Consider g : { a, b , c} → {1, 2, 3} as g (a ) = 1, g ( b) = 2 and g ( c) = 3. It is easy to verify that the composite gof = IX is the identity function on X and the composite fog = IY is the identity function on Y. Remark The interesting fact is that the result mentioned in the above example is true for an arbitrary one-one and onto function f : X → Y. Not only this, even the converse is also true , i.e., if f : X → Y is a function such that there exists a function g : Y → X such that gof = IX and fog = IY , then f must be one-one and onto. The above discussion, Example 22 and Remark lead to the following definition:

o n

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

h s

d e

Example 24 Let Y = { n2 : n ∈ N } ⊂ N . Now. Thus. for some x in the domain N . where. defined by g (y) = n 2 = n and fog ( y) = f o n gof ( n ) = g ( n 2) = gof = IN and fog = IY . Example 25 Let f : N → R be a function defined as f ( x) = 4x2 + 12x + 15. if there exists a function g : Y → X such that gof = IX and fog = IY. Now. Solution Let y be an arbitrary element of range f. By the definition of Y. for some n ∈ N . This fact significantly helps for proving a function f to be invertible by showing that f is one-one and onto. Consider f : N → Y as f ( n) = n 2. Find the inverse of f. which implies that y = (2 x + 3)2 + 6. gof ( x) = g ( f (x)) = g (4 x + 3) = 4 4 ⎛ ( y − 3) ⎞ 4 ( y − 3) + 3 = y – 3 + 3 = y. specially when the actual inverse of f is not to be determined. This shows that x = g ( y) = (4x + 3 − 3) ( y − 3) = x and . y = 4x + 3. Show that f : N → S. f is invertible with f –1 = g. This gives x = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ( y)=( y) 2 ( y − 3) . Show that f is invertible.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 15 Definition 9 A function f : X → Y is defined to be invertible. Then y = 4x2 + 12x + 15. This implies that n = y . if f is invertible. Solution An arbitrary element y in Y is of the form n 2. This shows that gof = IN fog (y) = f ( g ( y)) = f ⎜ ⎟= ⎝ 4 ⎠ 4 and fog = IY . where. Find the inverse. for some x in N. then f must be invertible. Show that f is invertible. The function g is called the inverse of f and is denoted by f –1 . . which implies that f is invertible and g is the inverse of f. if f is one-one and onto. Find the inverse of f . Solution Consider an arbitrary element y of Y. Hence. as y ≥ 6. then f must be one-one and onto and conversely. Define g : Y → N by 4 h s d e y . S is the range of f. Y = {y ∈ N : y = 4x + 3 for some x ∈ N }. This gives a function g : Y → N . Example 23 Let f : N → Y be a function defined as f (x) = 4x + 3. = y . is invertible. which shows that (( y −6 −3 2 ) ) .

Show that ho( gof ) = (hog ) of. Theorem 1 If f : X → Y. = (( (2 x + 3) 2 + 6 − 6 − 3 2 ) ) ( 2 x + 3 − 3) =x 2 y − 6)− 3 2 and Hence. ∀ x in X ( h og ) of ( x) = ho g ( f ( x)) = h (g (f (x))). c} and g : { a. o n and Hence. gof = I N and fog =IS. g and gof are invertible. b. This implies that f is invertible with f –1 = g . b. g –1 and (g of)–1 and show that ( go f) –1 = f –1 o g–1 . Example 27 Consider f : {1.16 MATHEMATICS Let us define g : S → N by g ( y) = Now (( y−6 −3 2 gof ( x) = g (f ( x)) = g (4 x2 + 12x + 15) = g ((2x + 3)2 + 6) = ) ) . g (a ) = apple. Example 26 Consider f : N → N. g : Y → Z and h : Z → S are functions. Proof We have T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎟ +6 ⎠ = ⎛ fog (y) = f ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ (( y − 6 ) −3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎟ ⎟= ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ) (( ) + 3⎞ ⎟ 2 (( y − 6)− 3+ 3 )) 2 + 6 = ( y − 6) 2 + 6 = y – 6 + 6 = y. ∀ x ∈ N. cat} defined as f (1) = a. f (3) = c. then ho(g of ) = ( h og ) o f . ∀ x. Solution We have ho(g of) (x) = h( g of ( x)) = h (g ( f ( x))) = h ( g (2x)) = h(3(2 x) + 4) = h(6x + 4) = sin (6x + 4) ∀ x ∈N. . y and z in N. g (y) = 3y + 4 and h (z) = sin z. ∀ x in X. c} → {apple. = h(3(2 x) + 4) = h(6x + 4) = sin (6x + 4). h s d e ((ho g) o f ) ( x) = ( ho g) ( f ( x)) = (h og ) (2x) = h ( g (2x)) ho( go f ) (x) = h( g of (x)) = h (g ( f ( x))). ball. Find out f –1. g : N → N and h : N → R defined as f ( x) = 2x. This result is true in general situation as well. f (2) = b. This shows that h o(go f) = (h og ) o f. 3} → {a . Show that f. h o( go f ) = ( ho g ) o f. Also. 2. g (b ) = ball and g ( c) = cat.

f o f –1 = I{a. D = {apple. b. g –1{ball} = b and g –1{cat} = c. c} → (1. 1)} (c) f = {(1. gof : {1. 3)} (b) f = {(1.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 17 Solution Note that by definition. f –1{b } = 2. ball. f and g are bijective functions. so that f is invertible with f –1 = {(3. 3} and ( go f) o (g of)–1 = ID. so that f is not invertible. (2. 1). if it exists. 2). 3}. (3. gof (2) = ball. by Theorem 1 = (f –1o( g–1o g)) o f. ball. It is easy to see that ( g o f) –1 o (g o f) = I{1. (2. (c) It is easy to see that f is one-one and onto. (3. cat} → {a. b . Similarly. we have seen that f. cat} is given by gof (1) = apple. Now. 2. Then go f is also invertible with (g of) –1 = f –1 og –1. cat}. b. Theorem 2 Let f : X → Y and g : Y → Z be two invertible functions. (2. 3} → {apple. 1). 1). Hence (go f)–1 = f –1o g–1. 2. f –1{ c} = 3. g –1og = I {a. so that f is invertible with the inverse f –1 of f given by f –1 = {(1. f is not one-one. (1. g and go f are invertible. 2. 3}. 3). 2). 3)} = f. (3. The above result is true in general situation also. (a) f = {(1. (3. Now. 2). 2. Find f –1 . c} be defined as f –1{ a} = 1. gof (3) = cat. (2. (g of)–1 (ball) = 2 and ( g o f)–1 (cat) = 3. 2. g –1{apple} = a. Determine whether the functions f : S → S defined as below have inverses. o n Solution Example 28 Let S = {1. c}. it is enough to show that ( f –1o g–1 )o(g of) = IX and (go f)o( f –1o g–1 ) = IZ. It is easy to verify that f –1 o f = I {1. Let f –1 : {a . 3} and g–1 : {apple. 3). ball. c} and g o g–1 = I D. by definition of g–1 = IX . Thus. ( f –1o g –1)o( g o f) = ((f –1og –1) og) of. 2. cat} → {1. 2). where. We can define (g of)–1 : {apple. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . it can be shown that (gof ) o (f –1 o g –1) = IZ. by Theorem 1 = (f –1 oI Y ) o f. (b) Since f (2) = f (3) = 1. ball. 2)}. Proof To show that g of is invertible with (g of) –1 = f –1o g–1. 1). Now. b . 1)} (a) It is easy to see that f is one-one and onto. f –1o g–1 (apple)= f –1( g–1 (apple)) = f –1( a) = 1 = (go f) –1 (apple) f –1 og –1 (ball) = f –1( g –1(ball)) = f –1( b ) = 2 = (g of)–1 (ball) and f –1o g–1 (cat) = f –1( g –1(cat)) = f –1( c) = 3 = (go f)–1 (cat). (2. 3} by (go f) –1 (apple) = 1.

4).18 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 1. 4). 3). (3. h s d e x is one-one. (5. 8} → {1. 11). 1)} and g = {(1. 2. 9. 2. ∞) given by f ( x) = x2 + 4. 10). State with reason whether following functions have inverse (i) f : {1. If f ( x) = . Find go f and fo g. Find the inverse ( x + 2) x 2y . 13)} 6. for some x in [–1.. 10). 9). (5.e. (4. g and h be functions from R to R. where R+ is the set of all non-negative real numbers. 2. 4. given by f ( x) = o n of the function f : [–1. Let f. 10). 2. Show that f : [–1.3 1. (3. g ) o h = (foh ) . (4. (Hint: For y ∈ Range f. i. 5} and g : {1. for all x ≠ . 10)} g = {(5. 4} with (iii) h : {2. 5} → {1. Write down gof. 1]. show that fo f (x) = x. Show that f is invertible with the inverse f –1 of f given by f –1 ( y) = y − 4 . 5). if (i) f (x) = | x | and g( x) = | 5x – 2 | (ii) f (x) = 8x and g (x) = 3 (4 x + 3) 2 2 4. (2. Let f : {1. 3. y = f ( x) = 7. 3. (3. 6. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 x3 . 1)}. 7. 4} → {10} with f = {(1. (8. 3). 2. (6. x = ) (1 − y) x+ 2 . 5} → {7. 8. What is the (6 x − 4) 3 3 inverse of f ? 5. 2)} (ii) g : {5. 1] → R. Show that ( f + g )o h = foh + go h ( f . x ≠ . Consider f : R+ → [4. 4} → {1. (7. 3). Find the inverse of f. 3. Consider f : R → R given by f ( x) = 4x + 3. (g oh ) 3. 2). (2. Show that f is invertible. 13} with h = {(2. 11. 7). 1] → Range f. 3. (4. 3} be given by f = {(1.

Let f : X → Y be an invertible function. 11. If f : R → R be given by f ( x) = (3 − x3 ) 3 . ( f –1) –1 = f. addition. multiplication. The main feature of these operations is that given any two numbers a and b . b ≠ 0. f (2) = b and f (3) = c. we associate another number a + b T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 h s d e (B) x 3 (C) x (D) (3 – x3). ∞) given by f ( x) = 9x2 + 6x – 5. 13. (Hint: suppose g1 and g 2 are two inverses of f. with f –1( y) = ⎜ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 10. g ( y) = g ( y) = 3y 3− 4y 4y 3− 4y (B) g ( y) = g ( y) = 4y 4 − 3y 3y 4 − 3y (D) a . fog 1(y) = 1Y( y) = fog 2(y).e. 12. Let f : X → Y be an invertible function. Find f –1 and show that ( f –1) –1 = f . then fo f ( x) is (A) x 3 1 4x ⎧ 4⎫ 14. Show that f is invertible ⎛ ( y + 6 ) − 1⎞ ⎟. b . Use one-one ness of f). subtraction. 2. c} given by f (1) = a . you must have come across four fundamental operations namely addition. Show that the inverse of f –1 is f. subtraction or a – b or ab or .. It is to be noted that only two numbers can be added or b multiplied at a time. When we need to add three numbers.5 Binary Operations Right from the school days.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 19 9. Let f : R – ⎨ − ⎬ → R be a function defined as f ( x) = . Consider f : R+ → [– 5. i. 3} → {a. Show that f has unique inverse. Thus. Then for all y ∈ Y. The inverse of 3x + 4 ⎩ 3⎭ ⎧ 4⎫ f is the map g : Range f → R – ⎨ − ⎬ given by ⎩ 3⎭ (A) (C) o n 1. multiplication and division. we first add two numbers and the result is then added to the third number. Consider f : {1.

This gives rise to a general definition as follows: Definition 10 A binary operation ∗ on a set A is a function ∗ : A × A → A. 5 Example 31 Show that ∗ : R × R → R given by (a . Similarly. as the image of (3. Solution × : R × R → R is given by (a . they are binary operations on R. ∗ is a binary operation on R. b) → a + b – : R × R → R is given by (a . subtraction and multiplication are binary operations on R. Further. b ) → a – b. Example 30 Show that subtraction and division are not binary operations on N. as the image of (3. given by (a . Example 29 Show that addition. b ) → ab Since ‘+’. show that division is a binary operation on the set R∗ of nonzero real numbers. a is not defined. b from X to another element of X. . b) to a unique element a + 4b 2 in R. as for b = 0. b ) → a + 4b 2 is a binary operation. is not binary operation. We denote ∗ ( a. b) → a – b h s d e a . But ÷: R × R → R. b However. b ) → binary operation on R∗. b) by a ∗ b. given by (a. is not a function and hence not a binary b a is a function and hence a b Solution Since ∗ carries each pair (a . 5) under ÷ is 3 ÷ 5 = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t + : R × R → R is given by (a . then the set of numbers is to be replaced by an arbitrary set X and then general binary operation is nothing but association of any pair of elements a. is not a binary operation. o n Solution – : N × N → N. b ) → operation. given by ( a. ÷ : N × N → N. b) → a ÷ b 3 ∉ N. but division is not a binary operation on R.20 MATHEMATICS and division are examples of binary operation. ÷ : R∗ × R∗ → R∗. given by (a. ‘–’ and ‘×’ are functions. 5) under ‘–’ is 3 – 5 = – 2 ∉ N. If we want to have a general definition which can cover all these four operations. as ‘binary’ means two.

b} and the ∧ : R × R → R given by (a . a n}. B) → A ∪ B and ∩ : P × P → P given by (A. ∨ is a binary operation. ∩ is a binary operation on P. Remark ∨ (4. ‘subtract 4 from 3’.. a 2. 3) = 3.. For subtraction and division we have to write ‘subtract 3 from 4’. b ) → min {a .e. i. ∨ (4. B) in P × P to a unique element A ∩ B in P. Then. 3}. B) in P × P to a unique element A ∪ B in P. an}. b } are binary operations. 7) = 4 and ∧ (4. – 7) = – 7. Show that ∪ : P × P → P given by (A.1) .. . When number of elements in a set A is small. a 2.. b) → max {a. but division of 3 and 4 in different order give different results. Then the operation table will be having n rows and n columns with (i. i. Here. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . Similarly. 3 + 4 = 4 + 3. Example 33 Show that the ∨ : R × R → R given by (a.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 21 Example 32 Let P be the set of all subsets of a given set X. If A = {a 1. 2. For example consider A = {1. the intersection operation ∩ carries each pair (A. ∨ (1..1 o n Here. ∪ is binary operation on P. Similarly. b ) in R × R to a unique element namely maximum of a and b lying in R.. Conversely. . we can define a binary operation ∗ : A × A → A given by a i ∗ aj = the entry in the ith row and jth column of the operation table. – 7) = 4. B) → A ∩ B are binary operations on the set P. we can express a binary operation ∗ on the set A through a table called the operation table for the operation ∗ .. j ) the entry of the table being maximum of ith and jth elements of the set A. One may note that 3 and 4 can be added in any order and the result is same. Using the similar argument. ∨ (2.e. This can be generalised for general operation ∗ : A × A → A.. but subtraction of 3 and 4 in different order give different results. ∧ (4. 3) = 3. in case of multiplication of 3 and 4. 2) = 2. 7) = 7. we are having 3 rows and 3 columns in the operation table with (i. Thus. ‘divide 3 by 4’ or ‘divide 4 by 3’. the operation ∨ on A defined in Example 33 can be expressed by the following operation table (Table 1. addition and multiplication of 3 and 4 are meaningful. ∨ (1. Table 1. one can say that ∧ is also a binary operation. j)th entry being ai ∗ aj. but subtraction and division of 3 and 4 are meaningless. Solution Since union operation ∪ carries each pair (A. Solution Since ∨ carries each pair ( a. order is immaterial. 3 – 4 ≠ 4 – 3. given any operation table having n rows and n columns with each entry being an element of A = {a1.

3 ÷ 4 ≠ 4 ÷ 3 shows that ‘÷’ is not commutative. 5 and 3 through the binary operation ‘subtraction’ is meaningless. Example 35 Show that ∗ : R × R → R defined by a ∗ b = a + 2b is not commutative. This leads to the following: Definition 12 A binary operation ∗ : A × A → A is said to be associative if ( a ∗ b) ∗ c = a ∗ ( b ∗ c). we encounter a natural problem. (8 – 5) – 2 ≠ 8 – (5 – 2). but – : R × R → R and ÷ : R∗ × R∗ → R∗ are not commutative. showing that the operation ∗ is not commutative.. c ∈ R. Example 36 Show that addition and multiplication are associative binary operation on R. However. the expression a 1 ∗ a 2 ∗ . Division is not associative on R∗. since (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) and ( a × b) × c = a × (b × c) ∀ a. If we want to associate three elements of a set X through a binary operation on X. ∗ an is ambiguous unless brackets are used. association of three numbers 8. Similarly. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e Remark Associative property of a binary operation is very important in the sense that with this property of a binary operation. b ∈ X. But subtraction is not associative on R. while 8 ∗ (5 ∗ 3) = 8 ∗ (5 + 6) = 8 ∗ 11 = 8 + 22 = 30. b . Thus. ‘–’ is not commutative. Example 34 Show that + : R × R → R and × : R × R → R are commutative binary operations. b . for every a. we can write a1 ∗ a2 ∗ . b ∈ R. c. Solution The operation ∗ is not associative. But in case of addition. The expression a ∗ b ∗ c may be interpreted as ( a ∗ b) ∗ c or a ∗ ( b ∗ c) and these two expressions need not be same. However.. unless bracket is used. ∀ a . 8 + 5 + 2 has the same value whether we look at it as ( 8 + 5) + 2 or as 8 + (5 + 2). But in absence of this property. subtraction and division are not associative..22 MATHEMATICS This leads to the following definition: Definition 11 A binary operation ∗ on the set X is called commutative. ∈ A. Solution Addition and multiplication are associative. Therefore. . since 3 – 4 ≠ 4 – 3. o n Example 37 Show that ∗ : R × R → R given by a ∗ b → a + 2b is not associative. Solution Since a + b = b + a and a × b = b × a . ∀ a . ‘+’ and ‘×’ are commutative binary operation. since (8 ∗ 5) ∗ 3 = (8 + 10) ∗ 3 = (8 + 10) + 6 = 24. Solution Since 3 ∗ 4 = 3 + 8 = 11 and 4 ∗ 3 = 4 + 6 = 10. association of 3 or even more than 3 numbers through addition is meaningful without using bracket.. if a ∗ b = b ∗ a. Recall that in the earlier classes brackets were used whenever subtraction or division operations or more than one operation occurred. For example. as (8 – 5) – 3 ≠ 8 – (5 – 3) and (8 ÷ 5) ÷ 3 ≠ 8 ÷ (5 ÷ 3). ∗ an which is not ambiguous.

∀ a. there is no element e in R with a – e = e – a. ‘–’ and ‘ ÷’ do not have identity element. 1 1 1 Similarly. – a is the inverse of a for addition. h s d e Solution As a + (– a ) = a – a = 0 and (– a ) + a = 0. given any a ∈ R. ∀ a ∈ R implies that 0 and 1 are identity elements for the operations ‘+’ and ‘×’ respectively. a × = 1 = × a implies that is the inverse of a for multiplication. an element a ∈ A is said to be invertible with respect to the operation ∗. One further notices that for the addition operation + : R × R → R. Further. i. Remark Zero is identity for the addition operation on R but it is not identity for the addition operation on N. In fact the addition operation on N does not have any identity. But there is no identity element for the operations Solution a + 0 = 0 + a = a and a × 1 = a = 1 × a. is called identity for the operation ∗. ∀ a in R∗. Example 39 Show that – a is the inverse of a for the addition operation ‘+’ on R and 1 is the inverse of a ≠ 0 for the multiplication operation ‘×’ on R. for the multiplication operation on R. as a × 1 = a = 1 × a. we can not find any element e in R∗ such that a ÷ e = e ÷ a. there exists – a in R such that a + (– a ) = 0 (identity for ‘+’) = (– a ) + a. we can choose in R such that a × 1 a o n 1 1 = 1(identity for ‘×’) = × a. Hence. for a ≠ 0. the interesting feature of the number zero is that a + 0 = a = 0 + a. any number remains unaltered by adding zero.. an element e ∈ A.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 23 For the binary operation ‘+’ on R. ∀ a ∈ A. if a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a. ∀ a in R. Example 38 Show that zero is the identity for addition on R and 1 is the identity for multiplication on R. given any a ≠ 0 in R. This leads to the following definition: Definition 13 Given a binary operation ∗ : A × A → A. as 0 ∉ N. the number 1 plays this role. Similarly. Similarly. This leads to the following definition: a a Definition 14 Given a binary operation ∗ : A × A → A with the identity element e in A.e. a a a . if it exists. if there exists an element b in A such that a ∗ b = e = b ∗ a and b is called the inverse of a and is denoted by a–1 . But in case of multiplication. a T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t – : R × R → R and ÷ : R∗ × R∗ → R∗.

36. For each operation ∗ defined below. (i) On Z. b}. determine whether ∗ is binary. 2. define a ∗ b = (iv) On Z+ . – a can not be inverse of a for addition operation on N. 4.4 ab 2 a b +1 h s d e (vi) On R – {– 1}. which implies that other than 1 no element of N a has inverse for multiplication operation on N.24 MATHEMATICS Example 40 Show that – a is not the inverse of a ∈ N for the addition operation + on N and 1 is not the inverse of a ∈ N for multiplication operation × on N. define a ∗ b = 3. for a ≠ 1. define a ∗ b = a b T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 1. define a ∗ b = 2ab (v) On Z+ . give justification for this. define ∗ by a ∗ b = | a – b | 2. define a ∗ b = ab + 1 o n (iii) On Q. define ∗ by a ∗ b = a – b (ii) On Z+ . In the event that ∗ is not a binary operation. (i) On Z+ . 38 and 39 show that addition on R is a commutative and associative binary operation with 0 as the identity element and – a as the inverse of a in R ∀ a. 1. for a ≠ 1 in N. 5} defined by a ∧ b = min {a . Consider the binary operation ∧ on the set {1. Write the operation table of the operation ∧ . Similarly. . a Solution Since – a ∉ N. although – a satisfies a + (– a) = 0 = (– a ) + a. 1 ∉ N. define a ∗ b = a – b (ii) On Q. Determine whether or not each of the definition of ∗ given below gives a binary operation. commutative or associative. 3. define ∗ by a ∗ b = a (iv) On Z+ . Examples 34. define ∗ by a ∗ b = ab (iii) On R. define ∗ by a ∗ b = ab2 (v) On Z+ .

d) = (a + c. 4. of a and b.F. Let ∗′ be the binary operation on the set {1. 10.C.2). 2. 3.C. 6. 8. Find (i) 5 ∗ 7. 2. Consider a binary operation ∗ on the set {1. 2. 5} given by the following multiplication table (Table 1. 3.M.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 25 4. Let ∗ be the binary operation on N given by a ∗ b = L. Is ∗ commutative? Is ∗ associative? Does there exist identity for this binary operation on N? 9. Is the operation ∗′ same as the operation ∗ defined in Exercise 4 above? Justify your answer. of a and b. 20 ∗ 16 (ii) Is ∗ commutative? (iii) Is ∗ associative? (iv) Find the identity of ∗ in N (v) Which elements of N are invertible for the operation ∗ ? 7. 4. 3. of a and b a binary operation? Justify your answer. (i) Compute (2 ∗ 3) ∗ 4 and 2 ∗ (3 ∗ 4) (ii) Is ∗ commutative? (iii) Compute (2 ∗ 3) ∗ (4 ∗ 5).M. Let ∗ be the binary operation on N defined by a ∗ b = H. 4.F. Is ∗ defined on the set {1. Let A = N × N and ∗ be the binary operation on A defined by ( a. Find which of the operations given above has identity. 5} by a ∗ b = L.C. 11. 5} defined by a ∗′ b = H. b ) ∗ (c.2 o n 5. (Hint: use the following table) Table 1. b + d) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . of a and b .C. Let ∗ be a binary operation on the set Q of rational numbers as follows: (i) a ∗ b = a – b (ii) a ∗ b = a 2 + b2 (iii) a ∗ b = a + ab (iv) a ∗ b = (a – b)2 ab (v) a ∗ b = (vi) a ∗ b = ab2 4 Find which of the binary operations are commutative and which are associative.

then a ∗ ( b ∗ c) = (c ∗ b ) ∗ a 13. 6. b ) ∈ R1 ∩ R2 and (b. Find the identity element for ∗ on A. 9}. v) if and only if xv = yu. v) ⇒ xv = yu ⇒ uy = vx and hence (u. 2. ∀ ( x. ∀ a . c) ∈ R2 ⇒ (a . ( x. This shows that R is symmetric. a ) ∈ R1 ∩ R2. b) ∈ R1 and ( a. 6. y): {x.26 MATHEMATICS Show that ∗ is commutative and associative. . 8. This shows that R1 ∩ R2 is transitive. 5. c) ∈ R1 ∩ R2 ⇒ (a . y) R (u . a ∗ a = a ∀ a ∈ N. showing R1 ∩ R2 is reflexive. (x. (ii) If ∗ is a commutative binary operation on N. Show that R1 = R2. Example 42 Let R be a relation on the set A of ordered pairs of positive integers defined by (x. 4. y). y). o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Miscellaneous Examples h s d e Example 43 Let X = {1. Similarly. (a. y) ∈ A. a) ∈ R1 ∩ R2. Choose the correct answer. b ) ⇒ xv = yu and ub = va ⇒ xv b a a a = yu ⇒ xv = yu ⇒ xb = ya and hence (x. 8} or {x. if any. y) R ( a. This shows that R is reflexive. State whether the following statements are true or false. b). Show that R is an equivalence relation. v) R (a. R1 ∩ R2 is symmetric. 5. R1 ∩ R2 is an equivalence relation. c) ∈ R 1 ∩ R2. Further. 9}}. Solution Since R1 and R2 are equivalence relations. 7}} or {x. R v u u u is transitive. y) R (u. y} ⊂ {3. c) ∈ R1 and (a. (a . Consider a binary operation ∗ on N defined as a ∗ b = a 3 + b3. 7. b) ∈ R1 ∩ R2 ⇒ (a . hence. show that R1 ∩ R2 is also an equivalence relation. Thus. Similarly. Further. 4. (i) For an arbitrary binary operation ∗ on a set N. 3. (a. y) R (x. y} ⊂ {2. since xy = yx. a) ∈ R1 . Let R 1 be a relation in X given by R1 = {(x. a) ∈ R2 ∀ a ∈ A. Justify. and (a. (x. a ) ∈ R 1 and (b. This implies that (a . a) ∈ R2 ⇒ ( b. Thus. (A) Is ∗ both associative and commutative? (B) Is ∗ commutative but not associative? (C) Is ∗ associative but not commutative? (D) Is ∗ neither commutative nor associative? Example 41 If R1 and R2 are equivalence relations in a set A. y) R (u. Solution Clearly. y) : x – y is divisible by 3} and R2 be another relation on X given by R2 = {(x. v) R (x. 12. y} ⊂ {1. Thus. v) and ( u. b ) ∈ R2 ⇒ ( b. R is an equivalence relation.

RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 27 Solution Note that the characteristic of sets {1. 6. y) ∈ R1 ⇒ x – y is a multiple of 3 ⇒ {x. since f (a ) = f ( a). 4. 2 4 4 Hence. 6. Further. ( x. Further. This shows that R2 ⊂ R1 . a) ∈ R. y} ∈ R1. c) ∈ R. 7}. 9} is that difference between any two elements of these sets is a multiple of 3. (a. y} ⊂ {2. (a) a ∗ b = 1 ∀ a . Examine whether R is an equivalence relation or not. 9} ⇒ x – y is divisible by 3 ⇒ {x. Example 45 Determine which of the following binary operations on the set R are associative and which are commutative. y) ∈ R2 . R is an equivalence relation. R1 ⊂ R2 . Hence R is both associative and commutative. y} ⊂ {1. b ∈ R. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ a + b⎞ + c ⎜ ⎟ a + b + 2c ⎝ 2 ⎠ = = . Example 44 Let f : X → Y be a function. a ) ∈ R. Hence. b): f(a ) = f(b )}. y} ∈ R2 ⇒ {x. 5. y} ⊂ {1. ( a. 5. b ∈ R Solution (b) a ∗ b = (a + b ) ∀ a. 6. R1 = R2. {2. b ) ∈ R and ( b. Also ( a ∗ b) ∗ c = (1 ∗ c) =1 and a ∗ (b ∗ c) = a ∗ (1) = 1. Hence. Hence. 8} and {3. y} ⊂ {2. c ∈ R. b) ∈ R ⇒ f ( a) = f (b ) ⇒ f ( b) = f ( a ) ⇒ (b. 4. shows that ∗ is commutative. Similarly. Therefore. (b) a ∗ b = o n But T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t a +b b +a = = b ∗ a . 9} ⇒ (x. Similarly. . b ∈ R 2 (a) Clearly. 4. ∀ a. ∀ a . by definition a ∗ b = b ∗ a = 1. Solution For every a ∈ X. 2 4 ⎛b +c⎞ a ∗ (b ∗ c) = a ∗ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ a+ = h s d e b+c 2 = 2a + b + c ≠ a + b + 2c in general. 8} or {x. 7} or {x. Define a relation R in X given by R = {(a . (a . c) ∈ R ⇒ f ( a) = f ( b) and f ( b) = f ( c) ⇒ f ( a) = f ( c) ⇒ (a. 5. b . Therefore. {x. ∗ is not associative. 2 2 ⎛a +b ⎞ (a ∗ b) ∗ c = ⎜ ⎟ ∗ c. 8} or {x. showing that R is reflexive. which implies that R is transitive. y} ⊂ {3. y} ⊂ {3. 7} or {x. R is symmetric.

2).28 MATHEMATICS Example 46 Find the number of all one-one functions from set A = {1. Example 50 Consider the identity function IN : N → N defined as I N (x) = x ∀ x ∈ N. (2. if we add the pair (2. If we add any one. 1) to R1 to get R2. 2. 3). Show that although IN is onto but IN + IN : N → N defined as (IN + IN) ( x) = IN (x) + IN (x) = x + x = 2x is not onto. then for symmetry we must add (3. the only equivalence relation bigger than R1 is the universal relation. ∗ (2. Now. 3} to itself.e. 1) = 1. 2} × {1. 2} is a function from {1. 2) = 2. (2. 1). 2}. 2}. 2} having 1 as identity and having 2 as the inverse of 2 is exactly one. 2) and (2. 3). (3. 2). 2). we can not add two pairs (2. 2) and (2. Now we are left with only 4 pairs namely (2. (3. as we can find an element 3 in the co-domain N such that there does not exist any x in the domain N with (IN + IN ) (x) = 2x = 3. 2) or single pair (3. 3} containing (1. 3) and (3. (1. Solution Clearly IN is onto. Example 48 Show that the number of equivalence relation in the set {1. 2) also and now for transitivity we are forced to add (1. (1. 2. 1) is two. 3 which is 3! = 6.. Thus. 1). ∗ (1. 2) and (2. say (2. 3) and (3. 3} to itself is simply a permutation on three symbols 1. 1).. Solution One-one function from {1. 2. 1) is two. a function from {(1. ∗ (1. 1). However. (1. ∗ (2. Solution The smallest equivalence relation R1 containing (1. 2. 1).e. Thus. Therefore. But IN + IN is not onto. transitive but not symmetric. Similarly. Since 1 is the identity for the desired binary operation ∗ . the total number of desired relations is three. we can obtain R3 by adding (3. 2. i. (3. 1)}. (1. 3). Since 2 is the inverse of 2. 1) is {(1. Example 47 Let A = {1. (2. 2) to R1 to get the desired relation. 3} to itself is same as total number of permutations on three symbols 1. 3. This shows that the total number of equivalence relations containing (1. the relation will become symmetric also which is not required. (1. 2)} → {1. (2. 2). 1). o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . i. (2. 2). Solution A binary operation ∗ on {1. 3}. 3) which is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric is {(1. 3)}. Solution The smallest relation R1 containing (1. we will be forced to add the remaining pair in order to maintain transitivity and in the process. (3. then the relation R2 will be reflexive. as by doing so. 1). 2. 2) must be equal to 1. 2). Thus. 1) to R1 at a time. 2) and (2. Example 49 Show that the number of binary operations on {1. 2) and (2. 3) to R1. (2. 2. Then show that the number of relations containing (1. the number of desired binary operation is only one. 2} to {1. 3). 1) = 2 and the only choice left is for the pair (2. 3) which are reflexive and transitive but not symmetric is three. total number of one-one maps from {1. 2).

Find the inverse of f. 2. Give examples of two functions f : N → N and g : N → N such that g o f is onto but f is not onto. 5. but f + g is not ⎢ ⎣ 2⎦ one-one. Let f : W → W be defined as f ( n) = n – 1. ⎥ . o n 6. ⎧ x − 1 if x > 1 (Hint : Consider f ( x) = x + 1 and g ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ 1 if x = 1 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 1 h s d e x . Show that the function f : R → R given by f (x) = x3 is injective. W is the set of all whole numbers. Let f : R → R be defined as f (x) = 10x + 7.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 29 π⎤ Example 51 Consider a function f : ⎡ 0. Give examples of two functions f : N → Z and g : Z → Z such that g o f is injective but g is not injective. 3. ⎥ → R given by f ( x) = sin x and ⎢ ⎣ 2⎦ π⎤ g: ⎡ 0. if n is odd and f ( n ) = n + 1. Given a non empty set X. But ( f + g) (0) = sin 0 + cos 0 = 1 and π π π⎞ (f + g ) ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ = sin 2 + cos 2 = 1 . consider P(X) which is the set of all subsets of X. 1+ | x | 8. 7. Find the function g : R → R such that g o f = f o g = 1 R. Therefore. . ⎡ π⎤ Solution Since for any two distinct elements x1 and x2 in ⎢0. Show that f is invertible. find f (f ( x)). Show that f and g are one-one. Show that the function f : R → {x ∈ R : – 1 < x < 1} defined by f ( x) = x ∈ R is one one and onto function. ⎥ → R given by g (x) = cos x. (Hint : Consider f ( x) = x and g (x) = | x |). sin x1 ≠ sin x2 and ⎣ 2⎦ cos x1 ≠ cos x2 . both f and g must be one-one. If f : R → R is defined by f( x) = x2 – 3x + 2. if n is even. Here. ⎝2 ⎠ 1. f + g is not one-one. 4.

1. a ∗ (b o c) = (a ∗ b) o (a ∗ b). we say that the operation ∗ distributes over the operation o]. Let A = {1. B ∈ P(X). ∀ a.30 MATHEMATICS 9. where P(X) is the power set of X. n } to itself. x ∈ A and g ( x) = 2 x − 1 − 1. if it exists. 2. Then number of relations containing (1. c ∈ R. 2). 10.. 2. 3). ARB if and only if A ⊂ B. show that ∀ a. 2. 13. 1. Let A = {1. 15. a∗b = ⎨ ⎩ a + b − 6 if a + b ≥ 6 Show that zero is the identity for this operation and each element a ≠ 0 of the set is invertible with 6 – a being the inverse of a. 3. 2. let ∗ : P(X) × P(X) → P(X) be defined as A * B = (A – B) ∪ (B – A). B = {– 4. Define a binary operation ∗ on the set {0. 2. Given a non-empty set X. 14. 0. g : A → B be functions defined o n by f ( x) = x2 – x. Given a non-empty set X. (c. Find F–1 of the following functions F from S to T. 2) is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . Let S = {a. Then number of equivalence relations containing (1. 3}. 16. 3) which are reflexive and symmetric but not transitive is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 17. 2). Find the number of all onto functions from the set {1. 3}. (c. 3. 1). (b . 11. 1)} (ii) F = {(a. B in P(X). 1)} Consider the binary operations ∗ : R × R → R and o : R × R → R defined as a ∗b = |a – b | and a o b = a. Does o distribute over ∗? Justify your answer. b. 2}. ∀ A. 3}. are called equal functions). b. Is R an equivalence relation on P(X)? Justify your answer. x ∈ A. 5} as if a + b < 6 ⎧ a + b. Are f and g equal? 2 Justify your answer. 4. 2) and (1. Let A = {– 1. Show that the empty set φ is the identity for the operation ∗ and all the elements A of P(X) are invertible with A–1 = A. (Hint: One may note that two functions f : A → B and g : A → B such that f ( a) = g ( a) ∀ a ∈ A. b ∈ R. . 12. 0. o is associative but not commutative. Show that X is the identity element for this operation and X is the only invertible element in P(X) with respect to the operation ∗. (i) F = {(a. [If it is so. consider the binary operation ∗ : P(X) × P(X) → P(X) given by A ∗ B = A ∩ B ∀ A.. Show that ∗ is commutative but not associative. B in P(X). c} and T = {1. 2} and f. Define the relation R in P(X) as follows: For subsets A. (b . . (Hint : (A – φ) ∪ (φ – A) = A and (A – A) ∪ (A – A) = A ∗ A = φ). – 2. Further.

Then. A function f : X → Y is onto (or surjective) if given any y ∈ Y. invertible functions and binary operations. x = 0 ⎪−1. Reflexive relation R in X is a relation with (a. Number of binary operations on the set {a . symmetric and transitive. Symmetric relation R in X is a relation satisfying (a . we studied different types of relations and equivalence relation. if f is both one-one and onto. The main features of this chapter are as follows: Empty relation is the relation R in X given by R = φ ⊂ X × X. Universal relation is the relation R in X given by R = X × X. ∃ x ∈ X such that f ( x) = y. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (B) 16 (C) 20 (D ) 8 Summary h s d e . c) ∈ R. x2 ∈ X. Equivalence class [a] containing a ∈ X for an equivalence relation R in X is the subset of X containing all elements b related to a. 1]? 19. b) ∈ R implies (b . A function f : X → Y is invertible if ∃ g : Y → X such that gof = IX and fog = IY . a ) ∈ R ∀ a ∈ X. A function f : X → Y is one-one and onto (or bijective). A function f : X → Y is invertible if and only if f is one-one and onto. where [x] is greatest integer less than or equal to x. a) ∈ R. c) ∈ R implies that (a. does fog and gof coincide in (0. The composition of functions f : A → B and g : B → C is the function gof : A → C given by gof ( x) = g( f ( x)) ∀ x ∈ A. x > 0 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ 0. A function f : X → Y is one-one (or injective) if o n f (x1) = f ( x2) ⇒ x1 = x2 ∀ x1. Equivalence relation R in X is a relation which is reflexive. b} are (A) 10 In this chapter. x < 0 ⎩ and g : R → R be the Greatest Integer Function given by g (x) = [x]. Transitive relation R in X is a relation satisfying (a. b ) ∈ R and (b. Let f : R → R be the Signum Function defined as ⎧ 1.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 31 18. composition of functions.

φ. c in X. who used the word ‘function’ in his manuscript “Geometrie” in 1637 to mean some positive integral power xn of a variable x while studying geometrical curves like hyperbola. Later G. James Gregory (1636-1675) in his work “ Vera Circuli et Hyperbolae Quadratura” (1667) considered function as a quantity obtained from other quantities by successive use of algebraic operations or by any other operations. This is not true for infinite set A binary operation ∗ on a set A is a function ∗ from A × A to A. if there exists b ∈ X such that a ∗ b = e = b ∗ a where. b in X. An operation ∗ on X is associative if (a ∗ b ) ∗ c = a ∗ (b ∗ c) ∀ a . if a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a ∀ a ∈ X. in his manuscript “Historia” (1714). parabola and ellipse. An element a ∈ X is invertible for binary operation ∗ : X × X → X. Subsequently. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Historical Note h s d e —— . He was the first to use the phrase ‘function of x’. F( x). Leibnitz used the word ‘function’ to mean quantities that depend on a variable. This is the characteristic property of a finite set. to represent functions was made by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) in 1734 in the first part of his manuscript “Analysis Infinitorium”. φ ( x) etc. Joeph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) published his manuscripts “Theorie des functions analytiques” in 1793. Leibnitz (1646-1716) in his manuscript “Methodus tangentium inversa. The element b is called inverse of a and is denoted by a–1. the slope of the curve. the tangent and the normal to the curve at a point. where he discussed about analytic function and used the notion f (x). Descartes (1596-1650).32 MATHEMATICS Given a finite set X.. F. Later on. An operation ∗ on X is commutative if a ∗ b = b ∗ a ∀ a. seu de functionibus” written in 1673 used the word ‘function’ to mean a quantity varying from point to point on a curve such as the coordinates of a point on the curve. o n The concept of function has evolved over a long period of time starting from R. The set theoretic definition of function known to us presently is simply an abstraction of the definition given by Dirichlet in a rigorous manner. b . ψ . for different function of x . However. An element e ∈ X is the identity element for binary operation ∗ : X × X → X. John Bernoulli (1667-1748) used the notation φx for the first time in 1718 to indicate a function of x. Lejeunne Dirichlet (1805-1859) gave the definition of function which was being used till the set theoretic definition of function presently used. was given after set theory was developed by Georg Cantor (1845-1918).. W. But the general adoption of symbols like f. e is the identity for the binary operation ∗. a function f : X → X is one-one (respectively onto) if and only if f is onto (respectively one-one).

. exists if f is one-one and onto.e.e. cot : R – { x : x = nπ. Besides. n ∈ Z } → R secant function.. In Class XI.. i. cosec : R – { x : x = nπ.Chapter 2 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 2. n ∈ Z } → R – (– 1. i. 2. is fundamentally the science of self-evident things. which are defined as follows: sine function. Arya Bhatta The inverse trigonometric functions play an important (476-550 A.e. n ∈ Z} → R – (– 1. denoted by f –1.e.) role in calculus for they serve to define many integrals. tan : R – { x : x = (2n + 1) π . i. some elementary properties will also be discussed. sine : R → [– 1. i. in general. D. sec : R – { x : x = (2n + 1) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Mathematics... onto or both and hence we can not talk of their inverses. 1) .2 Basic Concepts o n In Class XI.e.1 Introduction In Chapter 1. n ∈ Z} → R 2 cotangent function. we have studied trigonometric functions. we studied that trigonometric functions are not one-one and onto over their natural domains and ranges and hence their inverses do not exist. The concepts of inverse trigonometric functions is also used in science and engineering. 1] tangent function. i.. — FELIX KLEIN h s d e π . i.e. we shall study about the restrictions on domains and ranges of trigonometric functions which ensure the existence of their inverses and observe their behaviour through graphical representations. In this chapter. we have studied that the inverse of a function f. 1] cosine function. There are many functions which are not one-one. cos : R → [– 1. 1) 2 cosecant function.

1]. if (a . 2⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣2 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ therefore. We can.. Corresponding to each such interval. The function g is called the inverse of f and is denoted by f –1 . define the inverse of sine function in each of these intervals. Here. Thus. is one-one and its range is [–1. i. ⎡ −π π ⎤ . If we restrict its domain to ⎡ . that if y = f ( x) is an invertible function. ⎣ 2 2⎦ whereas other intervals as range give different branches of sin–1 . ⎥ or domain is [– 1. then it becomes one-one . then x = f –1 (y). we take it as the function whose domain is [–1. ⎥ is called the principal value branch.e. b ) is a point on the graph of sine function. When we refer to the function sin–1. Remarks (i) We know from Chapter 1. then 2 2 sin y = x. ⎢ ⎣ 2 2⎥ ⎦ and onto with range [– 1. 1]. 1] and range is ⎡ −π π ⎤ ⎡ −π π ⎤ –1 ⎢ 2 . We also have ( f –1 o f ) (x) = f –1 (f ( x)) = f –1 (y) = x and ( f o f –1) (y) = f ( f –1( y)) = f ( x) = y Since the domain of sine function is the set of all real numbers and range is the −π π ⎤ closed interval [–1. 1] → ⎢ 2 .34 MATHEMATICS We have also learnt in Chapter 1 that if f : X→Y such that f ( x) = y is one-one and onto. sin –1 is a function whose ⎡ −3π −π ⎤ ⎡ −π π ⎤ . we get a branch of the ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −π π ⎤ function sin–1. ⎢ . 2 ⎥ . g is also one-one and onto and inverse of g is f. ⎥ ⎢ 2 . the graph of sin–1 function can be obtained from the graph of original function by interchanging x and y axes. In other words. We denote the inverse of sine function by sin–1 (arc sine function). where x ∈ X and y = f ( x). 2 ⎥ ⎢ 2 . sine function restricted to any of the intervals ⎡ −3π – π ⎤ . if y = sin–1 x. 3π ⎤ etc. y ∈ Y. The branch with range ⎢ . 2 ⎥ . . the domain of g = range of f and the range of g = domain of f. g –1 = (f –1) –1 = f. then we can define a unique function g : Y→X such that g ( y) = x. ⎡ π . Actually. Thus. and so on.. then (b . 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ From the definition of the inverse functions. it follows that sin (sin–1 x) = x π π if – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 and sin–1 (sin x) = x if − ≤ x ≤ . Thus. 1]. 1] and range could be any of the intervals ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 2⎦ o n ⎡ π 3π ⎤ ⎢ 2 . We write sin : [–1. Further. a ) becomes the corresponding point on the graph of inverse T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e .

(ii).1 (ii) Like sine function. cosine function .1 (iii) h s d e Fig 2. π]. the cosine function is a function whose domain is the set of all real numbers and range is the set [–1. the graph of the function y = sin –1 x can be obtained from the graph of y = sin x by interchanging x and y axes.INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 35 of sine function. Actually. then it becomes one-one and onto with range [–1. The dark portion of the graph of y = sin–1 x represent the principal value branch. If we restrict the domain of cosine function to [0. This can be visualised by looking the graphs of y = sin x and y = sin–1 x as given in the same axes (Fig 2. 1]. (ii) It can be shown that the graph of an inverse function can be obtained from the corresponding graph of original function as a mirror image (i. (iii).1 (i). Thus.1 (i) Fig 2.. The graphs of y = sin x and y = sin–1 x are as given in Fig 2.e. 1]. reflection) along the line y = x.1 (iii)). o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 2.

1). y ≥ 1 or y ≤ –1} i. o n Let us now discuss cosec–1x and sec–1x as follows: 1 . Corresponding to each such interval. therefore. cosec x = sin x x ≠ nπ. If we restrict the domain of cosec function to ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . The graphs of y = cos x and y = cos–1 x are given in Fig 2. 1] → [0. We can. cos–1 is a function whose domain is [–1. ⎥ − {−π} . 0]. define the inverse of cosine function in each of these intervals. ⎥ – {0}. π] is called the principal value branch of the function cos–1. 1]. 1] and range could be any of the intervals [–π . 2π ] etc. we get a branch of the function cos–1. the domain of the cosec function is the set {x : x ∈ R and Since. 0]. [0. ⎢ . 2 ⎥ – {0}.π]. is bijective and its range is the set of all real numbers R – (–1. 1). We denote the inverse of the cosine function by cos–1 (arc cosine function). 2 ⎥ − {π} etc. 2π] etc. then it is one to one and onto with its range as the set R – (– 1. [ π. It means that y = cosec x assumes all real values except –1 < y < 1 and is not defined for integral multiple of π.2 (i) h s d e Fig 2. Fig 2. the set R – (–1. π ]. 1). [π. [0. is bijective with range as [–1. cosec function restricted to any of the intervals ⎢ ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎡ π 3π ⎤ ⎢ 2 . Actually.. n ∈ Z} and the range is the set {y : y ∈ R.2 (i) and (ii). Thus..e. The branch with range [0.36 MATHEMATICS restricted to any of the intervals [– π. ⎣ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t cos–1 : [–1.. We write The graph of the function given by y = cos –1 x can be drawn in the same way as discussed about the graph of y = sin –1 x.2 (ii) . π]. ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −3π −π ⎤ ⎡ −π π ⎤ .

then it is one-one and onto with 2 .INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 37 Thus cosec–1 can be defined as a function whose domain is R – (–1. ⎥ − {0} is called the principal value branch ⎣ 2 2⎦ of cosec–1. We thus have principal branch as ⎡ −π π ⎤ cosec–1 : R – (–1. It means that sec (secant function) assumes Also. o n 1 π . cos x 2 n ∈ Z} and range is the set R – (–1. ⎥ − {−π} .3 (i). ⎡ . ⎤ − {π} etc. The be any of the intervals ⎢ . π] – { π .3 (ii) h s d e all real values except –1 < y < 1 and is not defined for odd multiples of restrict the domain of secant function to [0. ⎥ − {0} ⎣ 2 2⎦ –1 The graphs of y = cosec x and y = cosec x are given in Fig 2. the domain of y = sec x is the set R – {x : x = (2n + 1) . If we 2 π }. (ii).3 (i) Fig 2. ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎣2 2 ⎦ ⎡ −π π ⎤ function corresponding to the range ⎢ . 1). since sec x = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 2. 1) → ⎢ . 1) and range could ⎡ −3π −π ⎤ ⎡ −π π ⎤ π 3π . ⎥ − {0} .

. Thus sec–1 can be defined as a function whose domain is R– (–1. we get different branches of the function sec–1. (ii). It means that tan function 2 π is not defined for odd multiples of . o n Finally. π] – { } is called the principal value branch of the 2 function sec–1.4 (i). [π. We thus have π sec–1 : R – (–1. 1). 2π] – { } etc. [π. π] – ⎨ ⎬ .38 MATHEMATICS its range as the set R – (–1. 1}. If we restrict the domain of tangent function to 2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 2. π] – { }. π The branch with range [0. [0. 2π] – { } etc.4 (i) Fig 2. n ∈ Z } and the range is R.4 (ii) h s d e .1) → [0. Actually. [0. is bijective and its range intervals [–π. π] – { } 2 The graphs of the functions y = sec x and y = sec-1 x are given in Fig 2. 1) and 3π −π π }. range could be any of the intervals [– π. we now discuss tan –1 and cot–1 We know that the domain of the tan function (tangent function) is the set π {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ (2 n +1) . 0] – { 2 2 2⎭ ⎩ is R – {–1. 0] – { 2 2 2 Corresponding to each of these intervals. secant function restricted to any of the −π 3π ⎧π ⎫ }.

2π) etc. ⎟ . It means that cotangent function is not defined for integral multiples of π. Thus tan–1 can be defined as a function whose domain is R and ⎛ −3π −π ⎞ ⎛ −π π ⎞ ⎛ π 3π ⎞ . ⎝ 2 2 o n We know that domain of the cot function (cotangent function) is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ nπ. π). The branch with range ⎜ . ⎟ ⎝ 2 2⎠ The graphs of the function y = tan x and y = tan –1x are given in Fig 2.5 (i). We thus have ⎛ −π π ⎞ tan –1 : R → ⎜ .5 (ii) h s d e . (0. then it is bijective with and its range as R. 0). ⎜ . ⎜ .INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 39 ⎞ ⎟ . Actually. restricted to any of the intervals ⎜ ⎟ etc. ⎟ . Thus cot –1 can be defined as a function whose domain is the R and range as any of the T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 2. cotangent function restricted to any of the intervals (–π. is bijective 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 and its range is R. ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ is called the principal value branch of the function tan–1 . π).. ⎟ and so on. ⎜ . n ∈ Z} and range is R. (π. tangent function ⎠ ⎛ −3 π −π ⎞ ⎛ −π π ⎞ ⎛ π 3 π ⎞ .. (ii). ⎛ −π π ⎜ . These range could be any of the intervals ⎜ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −π π ⎞ intervals give different branches of the function tan–1 . ⎟. ⎟ . then it is one-one and onto with its range as R. If we restrict the domain of cotangent function to (0. ⎜ .5 (i) Fig 2. In fact. is bijective and its range is R.

π] cosec–1 R – (–1. 0). These intervals give different branches of the function cot –1. 2 ⎥ – {0} ⎣ ⎦ sec –1 tan–1 cot–1 R – (–1.6 (ii) h s d e cos –1 [0.40 MATHEMATICS intervals (–π. 1] [–1.6 (i) Fig 2. π) is called the principal value branch of the function cot –1. 2π) etc. π). (0. 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 2.1) → ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . ⎟ ⎝ 2 2⎠ (0. The function with range (0. (ii). The following table gives the inverse trigonometric function (principal value branches) along with their domains and ranges. π) The graphs of y = cot x and y = cot–1 x are given in Fig 2.6 (i). 1) → R R → → π [0. 1] → → ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢− 2 . sin–1 : : : : [–1. π] – { } 2 ⎛ −π π ⎞ ⎜ . π) : : . (π. We thus have cot–1 : R → (0.

In fact (sin x) –1 = and sin x similarly for other trigonometric functions. cosec–1 (2) 6. Example 1 Find the principal value of sin–1 ⎜ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 Solution Let sin–1 ⎜ . 2. ⎟ and We know that the range of the principal value branch of sin–1 is ⎜ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ π ⎛π⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ = . Then.1 ⎛ 3⎞ 2. 3. principal value of cot–1 ⎜ cot ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 3⎠ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 o n Find the principal values of the following: ⎛ 1⎞ 1. we mean the principal value branch of that function. ⎝ 3⎠ ⎛ π⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ −1 ⎛π⎞ ⎟ cot y = = − cot ⎜ ⎟ = cot ⎜ π − ⎟ = cot ⎜ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 3 We know that the range of principal value branch of cot –1 is (0. sin–1x should not be confused with (sin x) –1. principal value of sin–1 ⎜ is ⎟ 2 4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎛ − 1 ⎞ Example 2 Find the principal value of cot–1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎛ −1 ⎞ Solution Let cot–1 ⎜ ⎟ = y. Whenever no branch of an inverse trigonometric functions is mentioned. tan–1 (–1) h s d e 4.INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 41 $ Note 1. cos–1 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3. We now consider some examples: ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟. tan–1 ( − 3) . sin–1 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 2. sin y = ⎝ 2⎠ 2 1 ⎛ −π π ⎞ . Then. ⎟ = y. The value of an inverse trigonometric functions which lies in the range of principal branch is called the principal value of that inverse trigonometric functions. Hence. π ) and ⎛ −1 ⎞ 2π ⎛ 2 π ⎞ −1 ⎟ is . Therefore. cos–1 ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1⎞ 5.

We will not go into the details of these values of x in the domain as this discussion goes beyond the scope of this text book. then (A) 0 ≤ y ≤ π ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ 2 12. then y = sin–1 x. 1] and sin–1 (sin x) = x. x ≥ 1 or x ≤ – 1 x (ii) cos–1 1 = sec –1x. We now prove some properties of inverse trigonometric functions. sec –1 ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ 8.42 MATHEMATICS ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎟ 7. It may be mentioned here that these results are valid within the principal value branches of the corresponding inverse trigonometric functions and wherever they are defined. then x = sin y and if x = sin y.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions In this section. we shall prove some important properties of inverse trigonometric functions. x ≥ 1 or x ≤ – 1 x T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t π π (B) − ≤ y ≤ 2 2 π π (D) − < y < 2 2 3 − sec−1 ( − 2 ) is equal to (B) − h s d e π 3 (C) π 3 (D) 2π 3 . This is equivalent to ⎡ π π⎤ sin (sin–1 x) = x. ⎥ ⎣ 2 2⎦ Same is true for other five inverse trigonometric functions as well. cot–1 ( 3) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ 9. cos–1 ⎜ ⎟ + 2 sin–1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ (C) 0 < y < π 14. In fact. (i) sin–1 = cosec–1 x . 1 1. they will be valid only for some values of x for which inverse trigonometric functions are defined. x ∈ [– 1. o n Let us recall that if y = sin–1x. x ∈ ⎢ − . Some results may not be valid for all values of the domains of inverse trigonometric functions. If sin–1 x = y. tan–1 (A) π 2. cosec–1 ( − 2 ) Find the values of the following: 11. cos–1 ⎜ − ⎝ 2⎠ 10. tan–1 (1) + cos–1 ⎜ − ⎟ + sin–1 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 13.

e..e. we can prove the other parts. Hence sin–1 x = – y = – sin–1 (–x) Therefore sin–1 (–x) = – sin–1x Similarly.x∈ R 2 π (iii) cosec–1 x + sec–1 x = . (iii) tan–1 4. i. x ∈ R Let cos–1 (– x) = y i.. i. 3. x = sin (–y). 2. we can prove the other parts. x = cosec y 1 = sin y Therefore x 1 Hence sin–1 = y x 1 or sin–1 = cosec–1 x x Similarly.e. (i) sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π .. – x = sin y so that x = – sin y.e. i. x ∈ [– 1. we can prove the other parts.INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 43 1 = cot–1 x .. we put cosec–1 x = y. 1] 2 π (ii) tan–1 x + cot–1 x = . 1] (ii) sec–1 (–x ) = π – sec–1 x. (i) sin–1 (–x) = – sin–1 x. | x | ≥ 1 2 ⎛π ⎞ Let sin–1 x = y. 1] (ii) tan–1 (–x) = – tan–1 x . – x = cos y so that x = – cos y = cos (π – y) Therefore cos–1 x = π – y = π – cos–1 (–x) Hence cos–1 (–x) = π – cos–1 x Similarly. | x | ≥ 1 (iii) cot–1 (–x) = π – cot–1 x . x ∈ [– 1. x ∈ [– 1. Then x = sin y = cos ⎜ − y ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ π π − sin –1 x −y = Therefore cos–1 x = 2 2 o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . x > 0 x To prove the first result. (i) cos–1 (–x ) = π – cos–1 x. x ∈ R (iii) cosec–1 (–x ) = – cosec–1 x. | x | ≥ 1 Let sin–1 (–x) = y.

(i) tan–1 x + tan–1 y = tan–1 x+ y .x≥ 0 1+ x2 (ii) 2tan–1 x = cos–1 o n (iii) 2 tan–1 x = tan–1 Let tan–1 x = y. we can prove the other parts. if we replace y by – y.44 MATHEMATICS Hence sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π 2 Similarly. then x = tan y. Then x = tan θ. we get the second result and by replacing y by x. 5.–1<x<1 1 – x2 2 tan y 2x –1 2 = sin 1 + tan 2 y 1+ x = sin–1 (sin 2 y) = 2 y = 2tan–1 x h s d e . Now sin–1 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x+ y θ + φ = tan–1 1− xy x+y tan–1 x + tan–1 y = tan–1 1− xy 2x . xy > – 1 1 + xy Let tan–1 x = θ and tan–1 y = φ. y = tan φ Now tan θ + tan φ x + y tan(θ +φ) = = 1 − tan θ tan φ 1 − xy This gives Hence In the above result. (i) 2tan–1 x = sin–1 2x . we get the third result. 6. |x| ≤ 1 1+ x2 1 – x2 . xy < 1 1 – xy (ii) tan–1 x – tan–1 y = tan–1 x–y .

H.H. We have (ii) Take x = cos θ. 2 Solution (i) Let x = sin θ. sin–1 ( 2 x 1 − x 2 ) = 2 cos–1 x 1 2 3 + tan–1 = tan–1 2 11 4 Solution By property 5 (i). L. then proceeding as above. = = = tan −1 4 1 2 2 11 20 1− × 2 11 o n Example 5 Express tan −1 ⎜ Solution We write T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ( ) sin–1 2x 1− x 2 = sin–1 2sin θ 1 − sin 2 θ = 2 sin–1 x ( ) ( ) ( ) h s d e = sin–1 (2sinθ cosθ) = sin–1 (sin2θ) = 2θ ⎛ cos x ⎞ π 3π . We now consider some examples.S. we get. ⎟ ⎝ 1 − sin x ⎠ 2 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ x x ⎡ cos 2 − sin 2 ⎢ cos x ⎛ ⎞ –1 2 2 tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = tan ⎢ x x x x ⎝ 1 − sin x ⎠ ⎢ cos2 + sin 2 − 2sin cos 2 2 2 2 ⎣ . Then sin–1 x = θ. − < x< in the simplest form.S. − 2 2 1 ≤ x ≤1 (ii) sin–1 2x 1 − x2 = 2 cos–1 x. we have Example 4 Show that tan–1 1 2 + −1 3 15 –1 1 –1 2 –1 2 11 tan + tan tan = tan = R. Example 3 Show that 1 1 ≤ x≤ (i) sin–1 2x 1− x 2 = 2 sin–1 x.INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 45 Also cos–1 1 − tan 2 y 1 − x2 –1 = cos = cos–1 (cos 2y) = 2 y = 2tan–1 x 1 + tan 2 y 1 + x2 (iii) Can be worked out similarly.

then x2 − 1 = sec2 θ − 1 = tan θ . | x | > 1 in the simplest form.46 MATHEMATICS ⎡⎛ x x ⎞⎛ x x ⎞⎤ ⎢ ⎜ cos 2 + sin 2 ⎟⎜ cos 2 − sin 2 ⎟ ⎥ –1 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎥ = tan ⎢ x x ⎛ ⎞2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎜ cos 2 − sin 2 ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎡ x x⎤ ⎡ x⎤ cos + sin ⎥ 1 + tan ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ –1 2 2 = tan –1 2 = tan ⎢ ⎢ x x⎥ x⎥ ⎢1 − tan ⎥ ⎢ cos − sin ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ 2 2⎦ 2⎦ ⎛ π x ⎞⎤ π x –1 ⎡ = tan ⎢ tan ⎜ + ⎟ ⎥ = + ⎣ ⎝ 4 2 ⎠⎦ 4 2 Alternatively. ⎝ x −1 ⎠ Solution Let x = sec θ. ⎡ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎢ cos x ⎛ ⎞ ⎝2 ⎠ –1 tan –1 ⎜ ⎟ = tan ⎢ π 1 sin x⎠ ⎝ − ⎢ 1 − cos ⎛ − x ⎞ ⎜2 ⎟ ⎢ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎤ ⎡ ⎛π− 2x ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ sin ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎥ = tan –1 ⎢ 2 π − x⎞⎥ ⎥ ⎢1 − cos ⎛ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎡ ⎛ π − 2x ⎞ ⎛π − 2x ⎞ ⎤ ⎢ 2 sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ cos ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎥ –1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎥ = tan ⎢ 2 x ⎛π− ⎞ ⎢ ⎥ 2 sin 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎛ π − 2 x ⎞ ⎤ = tan –1 ⎡ tan ⎛ π − π − 2 x ⎞ ⎤ –1 ⎡ ⎟ = tan ⎢cot ⎜ ⎢ ⎜2 ⎟⎥ 4 ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎛ π x ⎞⎤ π x –1 ⎡ = tan ⎢ tan ⎜ + ⎟ ⎥ = + ⎣ ⎝ 4 2 ⎠⎦ 4 2 h s d e 1 ⎞ –1 ⎛ Example 6 Write cot ⎜ 2 ⎟ .

x <π ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ cos x − sin x ⎞ 8. cot 1 x −1 2 –1 = cot–1 (cot θ) = θ = sec–1 x. tan ⎜ ⎜ 1 + cos x ⎟ ⎟.2 1 1 31 + tan −1 = tan −1 2 7 17 −1 6. 2 tan Write the following functions in the simplest form: tan −1 1+ x 2 − 1 .H. tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ . 1⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ 3. which is the simplest form. −1 4. = tan 2x = L. 2x = tan–1 1 − x2 ⎛ 3 x − x3 ⎞ 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟.S. (Why?) 1 − x2 Example 8 Find the value of cos (sec–1 x + cosec–1 x). We have R. tan 1 x −1 2 . x ∈ ⎢ – .x≠0 x T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t = tan–1 (tan3θ) = 3θ = 3tan–1 x = tan–1 x + 2 tan–1 x –1 3 ⎛ 3x − x 3 ⎞ –1 ⎛ 3tan θ − tan θ ⎞ = tan ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ 1− 3x ⎠ ⎝ 1 − 3tan θ ⎠ h s d e EXERCISE 2. |x | > 1 ⎛ 1 − cos x ⎞ −1 7. x ∈ ⎢ . 0 < x< π ⎝ cos x + sin x ⎠ .S.INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 47 –1 Therefore. | x | ≥ 1 = tan–1 x + tan –1 ⎛π⎞ Solution We have cos (sec–1 x + cosec–1 x) = cos ⎜ ⎟ = 0 ⎝2 ⎠ Prove the following: ⎡ 1 1⎤ 1. ⎥ ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎡1 ⎤ 2. tan–1 2 7 1 + tan −1 = tan −1 11 24 2 o n 5. Then θ = tan–1 x. | x|< 1 3 − x ⎠ ⎝ 3 –1 Example 7 Prove that tan x + tan Solution Let x = tan θ.H. 3cos–1 x = cos–1 (4x3 – 3x). 3sin–1 x = sin–1 (3x – 4x3).

If sin ⎜ sin 5 ⎝ ⎠ –1 15. then find the value of x x−2 x+2 4 Find the values of each of the expressions in Exercises 16 to 18. |x | < a 10. cos ⎜ cos ⎟ is equal to ⎝ 6 ⎠ o n 20.48 MATHEMATICS −1 9. If tan x −1 x +1 π + tan –1 = . tan–1 ⎜ tan ⎟ 4⎠ ⎝ 7π 6 (B) 5π 6 (C) π 3 (D) π 6 (C) 12. sin ⎜ sin ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 18. 2 1⎡ 2x –1 1 − y ⎤ tan ⎢sin –1 cos + ⎥ . then find the value of x 14. cot (tan–1a + cot–1 a) h s d e 1 4 (D) 1 tan −1 3 − cot −1 (− 3 ) is equal to (B) − (C) 0 (D) 2 3 (A) π . 3 3⎞ ⎛ tan ⎜ sin –1 + cot –1 ⎟ 5 2⎠ ⎝ 7π ⎞ −1 ⎛ 19. 2π ⎞ –1 ⎛ 16. 21. ⎛ 3a 2 x − x3 ⎞ −a a ≤x ≤ tan −1 ⎜ 3 2 ⎟ . y > 0 and xy < 1 2⎣ 1+ x 2 1 + y2 ⎦ ⎛ –1 1 ⎞ + cos–1 x ⎟ =1 . tan x a − x2 2 . 3 3 ⎝ a − 3ax ⎠ Find the values of each of the following: 11. a > 0. | x | < 1. (A) 1 ⎞ ⎛π sin ⎜ − sin −1 ( − ) ⎟ is equal to ⎝3 2 ⎠ 1 1 (A) (B) 2 3 π 2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 3π ⎞ ⎛ 17. tan –1 ⎢ 2 cos ⎜ 2sin –1 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎦ 13.

⎥ . sin (sin But However Therefore −1 Example 10 Show that sin Solution Let sin −1 Therefore Now and o n We have Hence T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t sin ( 3π 3π 2π 2π ⎡ π π ⎤ ∈ − . which is the principal branch of sin –1 x 5 ⎢ ⎣ 2 2⎦ h s d e cos y = 1 − sin 2 y = 1− 64 15 = 289 17 cos (x– y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y = 4 15 3 8 84 × + × = 5 17 5 17 85 Therefore ⎛ 84 ⎞ x − y = cos−1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 85 ⎠ sin −1 3 8 84 − sin −1 = cos−1 5 17 85 .INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 49 Miscellaneous Examples −1 Example 9 Find the value of sin (sin 3π ) 5 3π 3 π )= 5 5 −1 Solution We know that sin −1 (sin x) = x . Therefore. ⎥ ) = sin( π − ) = sin and 5 ⎢ ⎣ 2 2⎦ 5 5 5 3π 2π 2π ) = sin −1 (sin ) = 5 5 5 sin −1 (sin 3 8 84 − sin −1 = cos−1 5 17 85 3 8 = x and sin−1 = y 5 17 3 8 and sin y = 5 17 sin x = cos x = 1 − sin 2 x = 1 − 9 4 = 25 5 (Why?) 3π ⎡ π π ⎤ ∉ − .

50

MATHEMATICS

Example 11 Show that sin−1 Solution Let sin −1

12 4 63 + cos −1 + tan−1 = π 13 5 16

12 4 63 = x, cos−1 = y, tan −1 = z 13 5 16 12 4 , cos y = , 13 5 tan z = 63 16

Then

sin x =

Therefore

We have Hence i.e., Since Hence

Therefore

a –1 ⎡ a cos x − b sin x ⎤ Example 12 Simplify tan ⎢ tan x > –1 ⎥ , if b cos x a sin x b + ⎣ ⎦

o n

Solution We have,

⎡ a cos x − b sin x ⎤ ⎡ a ⎤ − tan x ⎥ ⎡ a cos x − b sin x ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ –1 –1 –1 ⎢ b b cos x tan ⎢ ⎥ = tan ⎢ b cos x + a sin x ⎥ = tan ⎢ a ⎥ ⎣ b cos x + a sin x ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 + tan x ⎥ b cos x ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ b ⎦

–1 = tan

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

cos x = 5 3 12 3 , sin y = , tan x = and tan y = 13 5 5 4 12 3 + tan x + tan y 5 4 = − 63 = tan( x + y ) = 16 1 − tan x tan y 1 − 12 × 3 5 4 tan( x + y ) = − tan z tan (x + y) = tan (–z) or tan (x + y) = tan (π – z) x + y = – z or x + y = π – z x, y and z are positive, x + y ≠ – z (Why?)

–1 x + y + z = π or sin

h s

d e

12 4 63 + cos –1 + tan –1 = π 13 5 16

a a − tan –1 (tan x) = tan –1 − x b b

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

51

Example 13 Solve tan–1 2x + tan –1 3x = Solution We have tan–1 2x + tan –1 3x = ⎛ 2x + 3x ⎞ π tan –1 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 2 3 − x × x 4 ⎝ ⎠

π 4 π 4

or

i.e.

Therefore or

which gives

1 or x = – 1. 6 Since x = – 1 does not satisfy the equation, as the L.H.S. of the equation becomes x= 1 is the only solution of the given equation. 6

negative, x =

Find the value of the following:

**⎛ 13π ⎞ cos –1 ⎜ cos ⎟ 6 ⎠ ⎝ Prove that
**

1.

o n

7.

3.

2sin –1

12 33 –1 4 + cos –1 = cos –1 5. cos 5 13 65

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

5x π =1 2 = tan 1− 6x 4 6 x2 + 5x – 1 = 0 i.e., (6x – 1) (x + 1) = 0

5x ⎞ π tan ⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎝ 1− 6x ⎠ 4

–1 ⎛

h s

d e

**Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 2
**

7π ⎞ –1 ⎛ 2. tan ⎜ tan ⎟ 6 ⎠ ⎝

3 24 = tan –1 5 7

–1 4. sin

8 3 77 + sin –1 = tan –1 17 5 36 12 3 56 + sin –1 = sin –1 13 5 65

–1 6. cos

tan–1

63 5 3 = sin –1 + cos –1 16 13 5

1 1 1 π –1 1 + tan −1 + tan −1 + tan −1 = 8. tan 5 7 3 8 4

52

MATHEMATICS

Prove that 9. 1 ⎛1 − x ⎞ tan –1 x = cos –1 ⎜ , x ∈ [0, 1] ⎝1 + x ⎟ ⎠ 2

⎛ 1 + sin x + 1 − sin x ⎞ x ⎛ π⎞ x ∈ ⎜ 0, ⎟ 10. cot –1 ⎜ ⎜ 1 + sin x − 1 − sin x ⎟ ⎟= 2 , ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 11. tan

12.

9π 9 1 9 2 2 − sin −1 = sin −1 8 4 3 4 3

Solve the following equations:

–1 13. 2tan–1 (cos x) = tan–1 (2 cosec x) 14. tan

15. sin (tan–1 x), | x | < 1 is equal to (A) x 1 − x2 (B) 1

16. sin–1 (1 – x) – 2 sin –1 x = 1 2

(A) 0,

o n

17. (A)

x− y ⎛ x⎞ tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ − tan −1 is equal to x+ y ⎝ y⎠ π 2 (B) π 3

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

–1

⎛ 1+ x − 1− x ⎜ ⎜ 1+ x + 1 − x ⎝

⎞ π 1 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 [Hint: Put x = cos 2θ] = − cos –1 x , − ⎟ ⎟ 4 2 2 ⎠

h s

d e

1− x 1 = tan –1 x, (x > 0) 1+ x 2 x

1 − x2

(C)

1

1 + x2

(D)

1 + x2

π , then x is equal to 2 1 2 (C) 0

(B) 1,

(D)

1 2

(C)

π 4

(D)

−3π 4

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

53

Summary

The domains and ranges (principal value branches) of inverse trigonometric functions are given in the following table: Functions Domain Range (Principal Value Branches)

y = sin–1 x y = cos–1 x

[–1, 1] [–1, 1]

y = cosec–1 x

y = sec–1 x y = tan–1 x y = cot–1 x

sin–1x should not be confused with (sin x) –1. In fact (sin x) –1 =

o n

similarly for other trigonometric functions. The value of an inverse trigonometric functions which lies in its principal value branch is called the principal value of that inverse trigonometric functions. For suitable values of domain, we have y = sin–1 x ⇒ x = sin y x = sin y ⇒ y = sin–1 x sin (sin–1 x) = x sin–1 (sin x) = x sin–1

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

R – (–1,1)

⎡ −π π ⎤ ⎢ 2 , 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [0, π]

⎡ −π π ⎤ ⎢ 2 , 2 ⎥ – {0} ⎣ ⎦

R – (–1, 1)

π [0, π] – { } 2

h s

d e

R R

⎛ π π⎞ ⎜− , ⎟ ⎝ 2 2⎠

(0, π)

1 and sin x

1 = cosec–1 x x 1 = sec–1x x 1 = cot–1 x x

cos–1 (– x) = π – cos–1 x cot–1 (–x) = π – cot–1 x

cos–1 tan–1

sec–1 (–x) = π – sec–1 x

54

MATHEMATICS

sin–1 (–x) = – sin–1 x tan–1 x + cot–1 x = sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π 2 π 2 x+ y tan–1 x + tan–1y = tan–1 tan–1 x – tan–1 y = tan–1 2tan–1 x = sin–1 1 − xy x−y 1 + xy

**tan–1 (–x) = – tan–1 x cosec–1 (–x) = – cosec–1 x cosec–1 x + sec–1 x = 2tan–1x = tan –1
**

2x 1 − x2

π 2

o n

The study of trigonometry was first started in India. The ancient Indian Mathematicians, Aryabhatta (476A.D.), Brahmagupta (598 A.D.), Bhaskara I (600 A.D.) and Bhaskara II (1114 A.D.) got important results of trigonometry. All this knowledge went from India to Arabia and then from there to Europe. The Greeks had also started the study of trigonometry but their approach was so clumsy that when the Indian approach became known, it was immediately adopted throughout the world. In India, the predecessor of the modern trigonometric functions, known as the sine of an angle, and the introduction of the sine function represents one of the main contribution of the siddhantas (Sanskrit astronomical works) to mathematics. Bhaskara I (about 600 A.D.) gave formulae to find the values of sine functions for angles more than 90°. A sixteenth century Malayalam work Yuktibhasa contains a proof for the expansion of sin (A + B). Exact expression for sines or cosines of 18°, 36°, 54°, 72°, etc., were given by Bhaskara II. The symbols sin–1 x, cos–1 x, etc., for arc sin x, arc cos x, etc., were suggested by the astronomer Sir John F.W. Hersehel (1813) The name of Thales (about 600 B.C.) is invariably associated with height and distance problems. He is credited with the determination of the height of a great pyramid in Egypt by measuring shadows of the pyramid and an auxiliary staff (or gnomon) of known

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

2x 1−x –1 2 = cos 1+ x 1 + x2

2

h s

d e

Historical Note

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

55

height, and comparing the ratios: H h = = tan (sun’s altitude) S s Thales is also said to have calculated the distance of a ship at sea through the proportionality of sides of similar triangles. Problems on height and distance using the similarity property are also found in ancient Indian works.

o n

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

— —

h s

d e

Matrices are not only used as a representation of the coefficients in system of linear equations. We may express it as [15] with the understanding that the number inside [ ] is the number of notebooks that Radha has. but also in genetics. rotation and reflection through a plane can be represented mathematically by matrices. we shall find it interesting to become acquainted with the fundamentals of matrix and matrix algebra. cost estimation. modern psychology and industrial management. analysing the results of an experiment etc. We may express it as [15 6] with the understanding that first number inside [ ] is the number of notebooks while the other one is the number of pens possessed by Radha. economics. Matrices are one of the most powerful tools in mathematics. sociology. many physical operations such as magnification. sales projection. Now. This mathematical tool is not only used in certain branches of sciences.1 Introduction The knowledge of matrices is necessary in various branches of mathematics. Matrices are also used in cryptography.2 Matrix Suppose we wish to express the information that Radha has 15 notebooks. which in turn is used in different areas of business and science like budgeting. Also. o n 3. The evolution of concept of matrices is the result of an attempt to obtain compact and simple methods of solving system of linear equations. if we have to express that Radha has 15 notebooks and 6 pens. Let us now suppose that we wish to express the information of possession T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . In this chapter. but utility of matrices far exceeds that use. This mathematical tool simplifies our work to a great extent when compared with other straight forward methods. Matrix notation and operations are used in electronic spreadsheet programs for personal computer. — CANTOR 3.56 MATHEMATICS Chapter 3 MATRICES The essence of Mathematics lies in its freedom.

MATRICES 57 of notebooks and pens by Radha and her two friends Fauzia and Simran which is as follows: Radha has 15 notebooks and Fauzia has 10 notebooks and Simran has 13 notebooks and Now this could be arranged in the tabular form as follows: Notebooks Pens Radha 15 6 Fauzia 10 2 Simran 13 5 and this can be expressed as 6 pens. 5 pens. or Radha Notebooks 15 Pens 6 which can be expressed as: o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fauzia 10 2 Simran 13 5 h s d e In the first arrangement the entries in the first column represent the number of note books possessed by Radha. 2 pens. Fauzia and Simran. . respectively and the entries in the second column represent the number of pens possessed by Radha. Fauzia and Simran.

. The entries in the second row represent the number of pens possessed by Radha. B = ⎢ 3. The number of elements in an m × n matrix will be equal to mn. So referring to the above examples of matrices. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1⎤ ⎡ ⎢2 + i 3 − 2 ⎥ 5 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎤ ⎡1 + x x3 ⎥ 5 ⎥ . ain. we have A as 3 × 2 matrix.. is an element lying in the ith row and jth column. j ∈ N Thus the ith row consists of the elements a i1. ai2 . an m × n matrix has the following rectangular array: o n or A = [aij] m × n. Similarly. ai3. the horizontal lines of elements are said to constitute. Fauzia and Simran. C = ⎢ ⎥ cos tan x sin x + 2 x⎦ ⎣ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 5 6 ⎦ ⎢ 3 5 ⎥ ⎣ 7⎦ h s d e .58 MATHEMATICS respectively.. In general. a 3j.. 3. B as 3 × 3 matrix and C as 2 × 3 matrix. We observe that A has 3 × 2 = 6 elements. 1≤ i ≤ m. An arrangement or display of the above kind is called a matrix. We denote matrices by capital letters. j)th element of A..2. columns of the matrix.5 –1 2 ⎥ . amj . we define matrix as: Definition 1 A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers or functions.1 Order of a matrix A matrix having m rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m × n or simply m × n matrix (read as an m by n matrix). B has 3 rows and 3 columns while C has 2 rows and 3 columns.. a 2j. respectively. The following are some examples of matrices: ⎡– 2 ⎢ A= ⎢ 0 ⎢ 3 ⎣ In the above examples. in the second arrangement. respectively. Thus A has 3 rows and 2 columns. the entries in the first row represent the number of notebooks possessed by Radha. rows of the matrix and the vertical lines of elements are said to constitute.. 1≤ j ≤ n i.. respectively. In general a ij. Fauzia and Simran. B and C have 9 and 6 elements. We can also call it as the (i. while the jth column consists of the elements a1j. The numbers or functions are called the elements or the entries of the matrix. Formally.

can be represented as A B C D ⎡1 3 1 −1 ⎤ X= ⎢ or ⎥ ⎣ 0 2 3 2 ⎦2 × 4 Thus. ⎣ 1⎦ A⎡ 1 B⎢3 Y= ⎢ C⎢1 ⎢ D⎣ −1 0⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 3⎥ ⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 ×2 h s d e II III Represent the above information in the form of a 3 × 2 matrix. let us consider some examples. 3). y]). For example point P(0. We shall follow the notation. 2. We can also represent any point (x. 1) as a matrix representation may be given as ⎣ ⎦ Observe that in this way we can also express the vertices of a closed rectilinear figure in the form of a matrix. 0). We shall consider only those matrices whose elements are real numbers or functions taking real values. For example. Now. Now. 2). D (–1. namely A = [aij]m × n to indicate that A is a matrix of order m × n. II and III Men workers 30 25 27 Women workers 25 31 26 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 0⎤ P = ⎢ ⎥ or [0 1]. quadrilateral ABCD in the matrix form. What does the entry in the third row and second column represent? .MATRICES 59 $Note In this chapter 1. consider a quadrilateral ABCD with vertices A (1. B (3. y) in a plane by a matrix (column or row) as ⎡ x⎤ ⎢ y ⎥ (or [x. o n I Example 1 Consider the following information regarding the number of men and women workers in three factories I. matrices can be used as representation of vertices of geometrical figures in a plane. 2). C (1.

Example 2 If a matrix has 8 elements. whose product is 8. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ a a ⎣ 31 32 ⎥ ⎦ 1 aij = | i − 3 j | . i = 1. 2. 4) Hence. 4 × 2. (4. to find all possible orders of a matrix with 8 elements. 2). 1). Now 2 Therefore o n ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢1 Hence the required matrix is given by A = ⎢ ⎢2 ⎢0 ⎣ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 a11 = |1 − 3× 1| = 1 2 a12 = 1 5 |1− 3 × 2 | = 2 2 1 1 a21 = | 2 − 3 ×1 | = 2 2 a31 = 1 | 3 − 3 ×1 | = 0 2 1 a22 = | 2 − 3 × 2 | = 2 2 1 3 a32 = | 3 − 3 × 2 | = 2 2 5⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 2⎥ . 8 ×1. Thus. 2. 3⎥ ⎥ 2⎦ h s d e . 2 × 4 1 Example 3 Construct a 3 × 2 matrix whose elements are given by aij = | i − 3 j | . 3 and j = 1. (8. it has mn elements. all possible ordered pairs are (1. we will find all ordered pairs of natural numbers. 8). possible orders are 1 × 8. 2 ⎡ a11 a12 ⎤ Solution In general a 3 × 2 matrix is given by A = ⎢ a21 a22 ⎥ . what are the possible orders it can have? Solution We know that if a matrix is of order m × n. (2. Thus.60 MATHEMATICS Solution The information is represented in the form of a 3 × 2 matrix as follows: ⎡ 30 25 ⎤ ⎥ A= ⎢ ⎢ 25 31 ⎥ ⎢ 27 26 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The entry in the third row and second column represents the number of women workers in factory III.

we shall discuss different types of matrices. a 11 22 ⎡ 1 −3 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ are said to constitute the diagonal. ⎢3 5 6⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Then the elements of the diagonal of A are 1. Thus an m × n matrix is said to be a square matrix if m = n and is known as a square matrix of order ‘n ’.3 Types of Matrices In this section. A = [a ij] m × m is a square matrix of order m. ⎦1×4 In general. B = ⎡ − ⎢ ⎣ 2 (iii) Square matrix ⎤ 5 2 3 ⎥ is a row matrix. ij $Note If A = [a ] is a square matrix of order n... ⎡ 3 −1 ⎢3 ⎢ A = 3 2 For example ⎢2 ⎢4 3 ⎣ 0⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎥ is a square matrix of order 3. then elements (entries) a . . ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3⎥ For example. 6. B = [bij] 1 × n is a row matrix of order 1 × n.MATRICES 61 3. a . is said to be a square matrix. A matrix in which the number of rows are equal to the number of columns. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1/2 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ In general. Thus.. of the matrix A. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e nn . 1 For example. A = ⎢ −1 ⎥ is a column matrix of order 4 × 1. if A = ⎢ 2 4 −1⎥ . A = [a ij] m × 1 is a column matrix of order m × 1. 4. (ii) Row matrix A matrix is said to be a row matrix if it has only one row. ⎥ −1⎥ ⎦ o n In general. (i) Column matrix A matrix is said to be a column matrix if it has only one column.

that is. ⎣ 0 −1⎦ h s d e ⎡ 3 ⎢ C= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 3 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 3⎦ respectively. ⎡ −1. respectively. we simply write it as I. Observe that a scalar matrix is an identity matrix when k = 1. But every identity matrix is clearly a scalar matrix. ⎩0 if i ≠ j We denote the identity matrix of order n by In . In other words. ⎢ ⎥ . When order is clear from the context. ⎢ 0 2⎥ . A = [4]. for some constant k. respectively. the square matrix A = [aij] n × n is an ⎧1 if i = j identity matrix. . when i ≠ j. For example A = [3]. 2 and 3. a square matrix B = [bij] n × n is said to be a scalar matrix if bij = 0. 2 and 3. if aij = ⎨ . ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎥ are identity matrices of order 1. ⎢ ⎥. 2. 3. For example [1]. when i = j.1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 C = 2 0⎥ B = For example. are scalar matrices of order 1. that is a matrix B = [b ij] m × m is said to be a diagonal matrix if b ij = 0. (v) Scalar matrix A diagonal matrix is said to be a scalar matrix if its diagonal elements are equal.62 MATHEMATICS (iv) Diagonal matrix A square matrix B = [bij] m × m is said to be a diagonal matrix if all its non diagonal elements are zero. (vi) Identity matrix A square matrix in which elements in the diagonal are all 1 and rest are all zero is called an identity matrix . when i ≠ j b ij = k. ⎢ ⎣ 0 1⎦ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ −1 0 ⎤ B= ⎢ ⎥. are diagonal matrices ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 0 3⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎦ of order 1.

Simplifying. we get a = – 2. c = – 1. their corresponding elements must be equal. a = 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ x + 3 z + 4 2 y − 7⎤ ⎡ 0 6 3y − 2⎤ ⎢ −6 a −1 ⎥ = ⎢− 6 0 − 3 2c + 2 ⎥ Example 4 If ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎣b − 3 − 21 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 2b + 4 − 21 ⎦ Find the values of a . 3. ⎢ ⎥. we write A = B. x.5. y = –5. [0. b = – 7. b . ⎡ x y⎤ ⎡ −1. c = 2 . that is a ij = bij for all i and j .3. if two matrices A and B are equal. 2 y – 7 = 3y – 2 a – 1 = – 3.MATRICES 63 (vii) Zero matrix A matrix is said to be zero matrix or null matrix if all its elements are zero. [0]. Comparing the corresponding elements.5 ⎢ If ⎢ z a ⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢b c ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎣3 0 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ . z + 4 = 6. 0] are all zero matrices. we get x + 3 = 0. z = 2 Example 5 Find the values of a. b = 3. and d from the following equation: ⎡ 2a + b a − 2b ⎤ ⎡ 4 −3⎤ ⎢ 5c − d 4 c + 3d ⎥ = ⎢11 24 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e 6 . therefore. 0 = 2c + 2 b – 3 = 2b + 4. b. c. z = 2. y and z. then x = – 1. o n Solution As the given matrices are equal. ⎢ are equal matrices but ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ are ⎣ 0 1⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1⎦ not equal matrices. Its order will be clear from the context. x = – 3. Symbolically. y = 0. ⎢ ⎥ . ⎡ 0 0⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0⎤ For example. ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡ 3 2⎤ ⎡ 2 3⎤ and ⎢ and ⎢ For example.1 Equality of matrices Definition 2 Two matrices A = [a ij] and B = [bij] are said to be equal if (i) they are of the same order (ii) each element of A is equal to the corresponding element of B. We denote ⎣ 0 0⎦ ⎣ 0 0 0⎦ zero matrix by O. c.

If a matrix has 18 elements. a 23. 2. what are the possible orders it can have? What.64 MATHEMATICS Solution By equality of two matrices. we get a = 1. Construct a 2 × 2 matrix. equating the corresponding elements. Find the value of a . whose elements are given by: (i) aij = ( i + j) 2 2 (ii) aij = i j (iii) aij = (i + 2 j )2 2 5. y and z from the following equations: ⎡ 4 3⎤ ⎡ y z ⎤ (i) ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ x 5⎦ ⎣ 1 5⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (ii) The number of elements. If a matrix has 24 elements. whose elements are given by: 1 (i) aij = | −3i + j | 2 (ii) aij = 2i − j o n 6. ⎡x + y (ii) ⎢ ⎣5 + z 2 ⎤ ⎡ 6 2⎤ =⎢ ⎥ (iii) xy⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 5 8⎦ ⎡ a − b 2 a + c⎤ ⎡ −1 5 ⎤ ⎢ 2a − b 3c + d ⎥ = ⎢ 0 13 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ h s d e ⎡ x + y + z ⎤ ⎡9 ⎤ ⎢ x + z ⎥ = ⎢5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ + ⎣ y z ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣7 ⎥ ⎦ 7. write: = − A 35 2 12 1. if it has 5 elements? 4. a21 . Find the values of x. Construct a 3 × 4 matrix. A = [a ij]. we get 2a + b = 4 5 c – d = 11 a – 2b = – 3 4 c + 3d = 24 Solving these equations. c and d from the equation: . b = 2. c = 3 and d = 4 EXERCISE 3. b .1 ⎡ 2 5 19 −7 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎢ ⎥ . what are the possible orders it can have? What. a 33. (iii) Write the elements a13. if it has 13 elements? 3. In the matrix ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3 1 −5 17 ⎦ (i) The order of the matrix. a24 .

1 Addition of matrices Suppose Fatima has two factories at places A and B. 65 + 55 ⎥ ⎥ 85 + 75 ⎥ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . Which of the given values of x and y make the following pair of matrices equal 5 ⎤ ⎡ 0 y − 2⎤ ⎡3 x + 7 ⎢ y + 1 2 − 3 x⎥ .4 Operations on Matrices In this section. for girls (85 + 75) ⎡80 + 90 This can be represented in the matrix form as ⎢75 + 70 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣90 + 75 60 + 50 ⎤ . addition of matrices. ⎢8 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 . A = [a ij] m × n\ is a square matrix. 2 and 3. 3. The number of all possible matrices of order 3 × 3 with each entry 0 or 1 is: (A) 27 (B) 18 (C) 81 (D) 512 (A) x = 3. Each factory produces sport shoes for boys and girls in three different price categories labelled 1. The quantities produced by each factory are represented as matrices given below: o n Suppose Fatima wants to know the total production of sport shoes in each price category.4. for girls (60 + 50) In category 2 : for boys (75 + 70). y= 7 (B) Not possible to find 3 −2 −1 −2 . y= (C) y = 7. if (A) m < n (B) m > n (C) m = n (D) None of these 9. for girls (65 + 55) In category 3 : for boys (90 + 75).MATRICES 65 8. we shall introduce certain operations on matrices. namely. x = (D) x = 3 3 3 10. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. difference and multiplication of matrices. Then the total production In category 1 : for boys (80 + 90).

say m × n. . We may observe that addition of matrices is an example of binary operation on the set of matrices of the same order. ⎡2 5 1⎤ ⎡ 3 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ . B are of the same order 2 × 3.1). if A = ⎢ ⎥ is another ⎥ ⎣b21 b22 b23 ⎦ ⎣ a21 a22 a23 ⎦ ⎡ a11 + b11 a12 + b12 a13 + b13 ⎤ 2×3 matrix. we define A + B = ⎢ ⎥. Furthermore.4. the two matrices have to be of the same order. find A + B Example 6 Given A = ⎢ and B= ⎥ 1 ⎢ −2 3 ⎥ ⎣ 2 3 0⎦ ⎢ ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ Since A. B= ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ . then A + B is not o n ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡1 2 3 ⎤ defined. For example if A = ⎢ . if A = [aij] and B = [b ij] are two matrices of the same order. addition of A and B is defined and is given by ⎡ 2 + 3 1 + 5 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 2 + 3 1 + 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ A+ B = ⎢ 1⎥ = ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢2 − 2 3+ 3 0 + 0 6 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 2⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ $ Note 1. ⎡b11 b12 b13 ⎤ ⎡ a11 a12 a13 ⎤ is a 2 × 3 matrix and B = ⎢ Thus.2 Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar Now suppose that Fatima has doubled the production at a factory A in all categories (refer to 3. Then. the sum of the two matrices A and B is defined as a matrix C = [ cij] m × n. We emphasise that if A and B are not of the same order.4. ⎣ 1 0⎦ ⎣1 0 1 ⎦ 2. then A + B is not defined. Therefore. for all possible values of i and j. where cij = aij + b ij. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e 3.66 MATHEMATICS This new matrix is the sum of the above two matrices. ⎣ a 21 + b21 a22 + b22 a23 + b23 ⎦ In general. We observe that the sum of two matrices is a matrix obtained by adding the corresponding elements of the given matrices. Then.

We observe that 170⎥ ⎦ 3 4. We define – A = (– 1) A.MATRICES 67 Previously quantities (in standard units) produced by factory A were Revised quantities produced by factory A are as given below: ⎡160 This can be represented in the matrix form as ⎢ ⎢150 ⎢ ⎣180 the new matrix is obtained by multiplying each element of the previous matrix by 2.5 ⎤ ⎡ 9 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3A = 3 ⎢ 5 7 −3 ⎥ = ⎢3 5 21 −9 ⎥ ⎢ 2 0 5⎥ ⎢ 6 0 15 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Negative of a matrix The negative of a matrix is denoted by – A. then ⎢ 2 0 5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ For example. ⎡ 3 1 1. kA = k [ aij] m × n = [k ( aij)] m × n. that is. we may define multiplication of a matrix by a scalar as follows: if A = [ aij] m × n is a matrix and k is a scalar.5 ⎤ ⎡ 3 1 1.5 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A = ⎢ 5 7 −3 ⎥ . if o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Boys Girls 1 ⎡2 × 80 2 × 60 ⎤ 2 ⎢ 2 × 75 2 × 65⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3⎢ ⎣2 × 90 2 × 85 ⎥ ⎦ h s d e 120⎤ 130⎥ ⎥ . In other words. then kA is another matrix which is obtained by multiplying each element of A by the scalar k. . (i. j) th element of kA is kaij for all possible values of i and j . In general.

o n A + B = [aij] + [bij] = [aij + bij] = [ bij + a ij] (addition of numbers is commutative) = ([b ij] + [ aij]) = B + A (ii) Associative Law For any three matrices A = [ aij]. that is sum of the matrix A and the matrix – B. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C). ⎡1 2 3 ⎤ ⎡ 3 −1 3 ⎤ Example 7 If A = ⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢−1 0 2 ⎥ . C = [cij] of the same order. B = [b ij] are two matrices of the same order.68 MATHEMATICS For example. B = [b ij] are matrices of the same order. 2 3 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Solution We have ⎡1 2 3⎤ ⎡ 3 −1 3 ⎤ 2A – B = 2 ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 3 1⎦ ⎣ −1 0 2⎦ 3. for all value of i and j. D = A – B = A + (–1) B. In other words. then find 2A – B. B = [bij]. then – A is given by ⎣ −5 x⎦ ⎡ 3 1 ⎤ ⎡−3 −1 ⎤ – A = (– 1) A = ( −1) ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣−5 x ⎦ ⎣ 5 − x⎦ Difference of matrices If A = [a ij]. say m × n. where d ij = a ij – b ij.3 Properties of matrix addition The addition of matrices satisfy the following properties: (i) Commutative Law If A = [a ij]. let ⎡ 3 1⎤ A= ⎢ ⎥ . then difference A – B is defined as a matrix D = [ dij]. Now (A + B) + C = ([a ij] + [ bij]) + [cij] = [ aij + bij] + [cij] = [(aij + bij) + cij] = [ aij + (bij + cij)] (Why?) = [ aij] + [(bij + cij)] = [aij] + ([bij] + [cij]) = A + (B + C) Now T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 2 4 6 ⎤ ⎡ −3 1 −3⎤ = ⎢ 4 6 2 ⎥ + ⎢ 1 0 −2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 2 − 3 4 + 1 6 − 3 ⎤ ⎡−1 5 3 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4 + 1 6 + 0 2 − 2⎦ ⎣ 5 6 0⎦ h s d e .4. say m × n. then A + B = B + A. say m × n.

4 Properties of scalar multiplication of a matrix If A = [a ij] and B = [b ij] be two matrices of the same order. then (i) k(A +B) = k A + kB. (ii) (k + l)A = k A + l A (ii) k (A + B) = k ([ aij] + [b ij]) (iii) ( k + l ) A = (k + l) [aij] ⎡8 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Example 8 If A = ⎢ 4 −2 ⎥ and B = ⎢ 4 2 ⎥ . Solution We have 2A + 3X = 5B or or o n or or or or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t = k [a ij + bij] = [k (a ij + b ij)] = [( k aij) + (k bij)] = [k aij] + [k bij] = k [a ij] + k [b ij] = kA + kB = [(k + l) a ij] + [k a ij] + [l aij] = k [ aij] + l [ aij] = k A + l A 2A + 3X – 2A = 5B – 2A 2A – 2A + 3X = 5B – 2A O + 3X = 5B – 2A 3X = 5B – 2A X= 1 (5B – 2A) 3 ⎛ ⎡ 10 ⎛ ⎡ 2 −2 ⎤ ⎡8 0 ⎤⎞ 1 ⎜⎢ ⎟ 1⎜ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ X = ⎜ 5 4 2 − 2 4 −2 ⎟ = ⎜ ⎢ 20 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3⎜ ⎢ 3⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎣−5 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣3 6 ⎥ ⎦⎠ ⎣ −25 ⎝ ⎢ ⎝⎢ −10 ⎤ ⎥+ 10 ⎥ 5 ⎥ ⎦ h s d e (Matrix addition is commutative) (– 2A is the additive inverse of 2A) (O is the additive identity) ⎡ −16 0 ⎤ ⎞ ⎢ −8 4 ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥⎟ ⎟ ⎢ ⎣ −6 −12 ⎥ ⎦⎠ .MATRICES 69 (iii) Existence of additive identity Let A = [a ij] be an m × n matrix and O be an m × n zero matrix. 3. (iv) The existence of additive inverse Let A = [a ij] m × n be any matrix. then A + O = O + A = A. then we have another matrix as – A = [– a ij] m × n such that A + (– A) = (– A) + A= O. and k and l are scalars. then find the matrix X. say m × n. such that ⎢ ⎢ ⎣3 6 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ −5 1 ⎥ ⎦ 2A + 3X = 5B. So – A is the additive inverse of A or negative of A. In other words.4. O is the additive identity for matrix addition.

0 9 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 0 −1⎦ ⎡5 2 ⎤ ⎡3 6 ⎤ Solution We have ( X + Y ) + ( X − Y ) = ⎢ ⎥+ ⎢ ⎥. ⎣0 9 ⎦ ⎣0 −1⎦ or or Also or or o n ⎡x 2⎢ ⎣7 Example 10 Find the values of x and y from the following equation: ⎡x 2⎢ ⎣7 5 ⎤ ⎡ 3 −4 ⎤ ⎡7 6 ⎤ +⎢ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ y − 3⎦ ⎣1 2⎦ ⎣15 14 ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡8 8 ⎤ ⎡8 8 ⎤ (X + X) + (Y – Y) = ⎢ ⇒ 2X = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ 0 8⎦ ⎣0 8⎦ h s d e X= 1 2 ⎡8 8 ⎤ ⎡4 4 ⎤ ⎢0 8 ⎥ = ⎢0 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 5 2⎤ ⎡ 3 6 ⎤ (X + Y) – (X – Y) = ⎢ ⎥ −⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 9 ⎦ ⎣ 0 −1⎦ ⎡5 − 3 2 − 6 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −4 ⎤ (X – X) + (Y + Y) = ⎢ ⎥ ⇒ 2Y = ⎢0 10 ⎥ 0 9 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Y= 1 2 ⎡2 − 4⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎢0 10 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Solution We have 5 ⎤ ⎡ 3 −4 ⎤ 10 ⎤ ⎡3 − 4 ⎤ ⎡ 7 6 ⎤ ⎡7 6⎤ ⎡ 2x +⎢ =⎢ = ⎢ ⇒ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥+⎢ ⎥ y − 3⎦ ⎣1 2 ⎦ 2⎥ ⎣15 14 ⎦ ⎣14 2 y − 6⎦ ⎣1 ⎦ ⎣15 14 ⎦ .70 MATHEMATICS −10 ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ −2 3 ⎥ ⎡ 10 − 16 −10 + 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 6 −10 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎢ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 4 14 ⎥ − + 20 8 10 4 12 14 = ⎢ ⎥ = 3⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ −25 − 6 5 − 12 ⎦ ⎣ −31 −7 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ −31 −7 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡5 2 ⎤ ⎡3 6 ⎤ Example 9 Find X and Y. if X + Y = ⎢ ⎥ and X − Y = ⎢ ⎥.

10 − 4 ⎤ ⎡ 2x + 3 ⎡ 2x + 3 6 ⎤ ⎡7 6 ⎤ ⎡7 6⎤ =⎢ ⎢ 14 + 1 2 y − 6 + 2 ⎥ = ⎢ ⇒ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 y − 4⎥ ⎣ 15 ⎦ ⎣15 14 ⎦ ⎣15 14 ⎦ 2x + 3 = 7 and 2 y – 4 = 14 (Why?) 2x = 7 – 3 and 2y = 18 4 2 x =2 x= and and y= 18 2 y = 9. compute the profit for each farmer and for each variety sold in October. Example 11 Two farmers Ramkishan and Gurcharan Singh cultivates only three varieties of rice namely Basmati.MATRICES 71 or or or or i. (ii) Find the decrease in sales from September to October. Solution (i) Combined sales in September and October for each farmer in each variety is given by T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . The sale (in Rupees) of these varieties of rice by both the farmers in the month of September and October are given by the following matrices A and B. (iii) If both farmers receive 2% profit on gross sales. o n (i) Find the combined sales in September and October for each farmer in each variety.e. Permal and Naura.

while Nadeem needs 8 pens and 10 story books. Rs 200 and Rs 120 as profit in the sale of each variety of rice. quoted as follows: pen – Rs 4 each. In terms of matrix representation. They both go to a shop to enquire about the rates which are quoted as follows: Pen – Rs 5 each. while Nadeem needs (8 × 5 + 50 × 10) Rs. Rs 200 and Rs 200 in the sale of each variety of rice. respectively. that is Rs 540. story book – Rs 50 each. respectively. Now.02 × B 100 Thus. in October Ramkishan receives Rs 100. Meera needs Rs (5 × 2 + 50 × 5) that is Rs 260.4.02 = h s d e Suppose that they enquire about the rates from another shop. Meera wants to buy 2 pens and 5 story books. and Grucharan Singh receives profit of Rs 400. 3. How much money does each need to spend? Clearly. story book – Rs 40 each. the money required by Meera and Nadeem to make purchases will be respectively Rs (4 × 2 + 40 × 5) = Rs 208 and Rs (8 × 4 + 10 × 40) = Rs 432 . we can write the above information as follows: Requirements ⎡2 5 ⎤ ⎢ 8 10 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Prices per piece (in Rupees) Money needed (in Rupees) ⎡5⎤ ⎢50 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 5 × 2 + 5 × 50 ⎤ ⎡ 260 ⎤ ⎢ 8 × 5 + 10 × 50⎥ = ⎢ 540 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t = 0.5 Multiplication of matrices Suppose Meera and Nadeem are two friends.72 MATHEMATICS (ii) Change in sales from September to October is given by (iii) 2% of B = 2 × B = 0.

the information in both the cases can be combined and expressed in terms of matrices as follows: Requirements Prices per piece (in Rupees) Money needed (in Rupees) ⎡2 5 ⎤ ⎢ 8 10 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The above is an example of multiplication of matrices. We observe that. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡5 4⎤ ⎢50 40 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 260 208⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 540 432⎦ ⎡ 5 × 2 + 5 × 50 4 × 2 + 40 × 5 ⎤ ⎢ 8 ×5 + 10 × 5 0 8 × 4 + 10 × 4 0⎥ ⎣ ⎦ h s d e aij b jk . we take the ith row of A and kth column of B. we take rows of A and columns of B. the number of columns in A should be equal to the number of rows in B. In other words. + a in bnk = ⎢ . To get the (i. Formally. if C = ⎢ ⎥ and D = ⎣0 3 4 ⎦ ⎡ 2 7⎤ ⎢ −1 1 ⎥ . multiply them element-wise and take the sum. k)th element cik of the matrix C. for multiplication of two matrices A and B. Furthermore for getting the elements of the product matrix. ain] and the kth column of ⎡ b1 k ⎤ ⎢b ⎥ ⎢ 2k ⎥ B is ⎢ .. multiply them elementwise and take the sum of all these products.. the above information can be represented as follows: Requirements Prices per piece (in Rupees) Money needed (in Rupees) ⎡2 5 ⎤ ⎢ 8 10 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡4⎤ ⎢40⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 4 × 2 + 40 × 5 ⎤ ⎡ 208 ⎤ ⎢ 8 × 4 + 10 × 4 0⎥ = ⎢ 432 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Now. then the product CD is defined ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − ⎣ 5 4⎥ ⎦ . then cik = ai1 b 1k + a i2 b2 k + a i3 b3k + . ⎥ ⎢b ⎥ ⎣ nk ⎦ The matrix C = [cik]m × p is the product of A and B. Let A = [ aij] be an m × n matrix and B = [bjk] be an n × p matrix. B = [b jk]n × p. if A = [aij]m × n. ⎥ . ∑ j =1 n ⎡1 −1 2⎤ For example.. Then the product of the matrices A and B is the matrix C of order m × p.. we define multiplication of matrices as follows: The product of two matrices A and B is defined if the number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.MATRICES 73 Again. then the ith row of A is [ai1 a i2 ..

if A = ⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢7 9 8 ⎥ . 2 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ o n Solution The matrix A has 2 columns which is equal to the number of rows of B. Now ⎡6(2) + 9(7) 6(6) + 9(9) 6(0) + 9(8) ⎤ AB = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2(2) + 3(7) 2(6) + 3(9) 2(0) + 3(8) ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e ⎡ 75 117 72 ⎤ ⎡12 + 63 36 + 81 0 + 72 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ 4 + 21 12 + 27 0 + 24 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 25 39 24 ⎦ . These four computations are ⎡13 −2 ⎤ Thus CD = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣17 −13⎦ ⎡ 6 9⎤ ⎡2 6 0 ⎤ Example 12 Find AB. Hence AB is defined. This is a 2 × 2 matrix in which each 0 3 4 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 5 − 4⎥ ⎦ entry is the sum of the products across some row of C with the corresponding entries down some column of D.74 MATHEMATICS ⎡ 2 7⎤ ⎡1 −1 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ and is given by CD = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢−1 1 ⎥ .

But it is not so. Solution Since A is a 2 × 3 matrix and B is 3 × 2 matrix. Show that − 4 2 5 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 2 1⎥ ⎦ AB ≠ BA. it is not necessary that AB = BA. respectively. ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡ 1 − 2 3⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Example 13 If A = ⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ 4 5 ⎥ . ⎣ 1 0⎦ Thus matrix multiplication is not commutative. ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎡ 0 1⎤ ⎡ 0 1⎤ Example 14 If A = ⎢ and B = ⎢ . In the above example. respectively m × n . then BA need not be defined. AB is defined but BA is not defined because B has 3 column while A has only 2 (and not 3) rows. If A. BA. Non-commutativity of multiplication of matrices Now. then AB = ⎢ ⎥. here we give an example to show that even if AB and BA are of same order they may not be same. In particular. Clearly AB ≠ BA. then find AB. . Note that ⎡ 1 −2 AB = ⎢ −4 2 ⎣ ⎡2 BA = ⎢ ⎢4 ⎢2 ⎣ ⎡ 2 3⎤ 3 −10 + 3 ⎤ ⎡ 0 − 4 ⎤ 3⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎡ 2− 8+ 6 4 5 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 5⎦ ⎢ ⎣ −8 + 8 + 10 −12 + 10 + 5 ⎦ ⎣10 3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 1⎦ and o n and Clearly AB ≠ BA In the above example both AB and BA are of different order and so AB ≠ BA. then both AB and BA are defined if and only if n = k and l = m. ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ 0 −1⎦ ⎣ 1 0⎦ ⎣ −1 0 ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e ⎡ 2 − 12 − 4 + 6 6 + 15 ⎤ ⎡−10 2 21 ⎤ 3⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ =⎢ −16 2 37 ⎥ = ⎢ 4 − 20 −8 + 10 12 + 25 ⎥ 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ −4 2 5 ⎦ ⎥⎣ ⎢ 2 − 4 −4 + 2 6 + 5 ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ 1⎦ ⎣ −2 −2 11 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 0 −1⎤ BA = ⎢ ⎥ . then both AB and BA are defined. But one may think that perhaps AB and BA could be the same if they were of the same order. we shall see by an example that even if AB and BA are both defined. k × l matrices.MATRICES 75 Remark If AB is defined. Hence AB and BA are both defined and are matrices of order 2 × 2 and 3 × 3. if both A and B are square matrices of the same order. B are.

The existence of multiplicative identity For every square matrix A. This need not be true for matrices.4. Now.6 Properties of multiplication of matrices The multiplication of matrices possesses the following properties. ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎡ 3 0⎤ ⎡ 3 0⎤ . are defined. (AB)C and show that (AB)C = A(BC). then either a = 0 or b = 0. B for which AB and BA. then AB = BA = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ 0 8⎦ ⎣ 0 2⎦ ⎣ 0 4⎦ Observe that multiplication of diagonal matrices of same order will be commutative. 3. ⎡ 3 5⎤ ⎡ 0 −1 ⎤ Example 15 Find AB. for real numbers a. we shall verify these properties by examples. b if ab = 0. 2. B= ⎢ If A = ⎢ . find 2 0 −2 1 ⎦ ⎣ ⎢ 3 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ −1 4⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ A(BC). whenever both sides of the equality are defined. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e ⎡ 1 1 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 3⎤ ⎡1 2 3 − 4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎥ . (i) A (B+C) = AB + AC (ii) (A+B) C = AC + BC. Zero matrix as the product of two non zero matrices We know that. if the product of two matrices is a zero matrix. ⎥ ⎣ 0 0⎦ ⎣ 0 2⎦ ⎡0 −1 ⎤ ⎡ 3 5⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ Solution We have AB = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥. We have (AB) C = A (BC). B and C. it is not necessary that one of the matrices is a zero matrix. if A = ⎢ and B = ⎢ ⎥. o n 3. ⎣0 2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0⎦ ⎣ 0 0 ⎦ Thus. 1. For instance. B = ⎢ 0 2 ⎥ and C = ⎢ Example 16 If A = ⎢ 2 0 ⎥ . The associative law For any three matrices A. which we state without proof. The distributive law For three matrices A. . we will observe this through an example. B and C. there exist an identity matrix of same order such that IA = AI = A. whenever both sides of equality are defined.76 MATHEMATICS $Note This does not mean that AB ≠ BA for every pair of matrices A.

(AB) C = A (BC) = ⎢ ⎢ 2 −27 11 ⎥ ⎣31 ⎦ h s d e . Clearly.MATRICES 77 ⎡1 1 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 3 ⎤ ⎡ 1 + 0 + 1 3 + 2 − 4 ⎤ ⎡ 2 1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Solution We have AB = ⎢ 2 0 3⎥ ⎢ 0 2 ⎥ = ⎢2 + 0 − 3 6 + 0 + 12 ⎥ = ⎢ −1 18⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 3 −1 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣−1 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣3 + 0 − 2 9 − 2 + 8 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 1 15⎥ ⎦ ⎡2 1⎤ ⎡ 2+ 2 4 + 0 6 − 2 − 8 +1 ⎤ ⎡1 2 3 − 4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ −1 18⎥ ⎢ 4 + 18 ⎥ (AB) (C) = ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢−1 + 36 −2 + 0 −3 − 36 ⎥ 2 0 − 2 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 15⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 1 + 30 2 + 0 3 − 30 − 4 + 15⎦ Now ⎡ 1 BC = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ −1 Therefore o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡4 4 4 −7 ⎤ ⎢35 −2 −39 22 ⎥ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ − 31 2 27 11 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1+6 2+0 3− 6 3⎤ ⎡1 2 3 −4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0+ 4 0 + 0 0− 4 2⎥ ⎢ 2 0 −2 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 + 8 −2 + 0 −3 − 8 4⎥ ⎦ ⎣ −4 + 3 ⎤ 0 + 2⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 4 + 4⎦ ⎡ 7 2 −3 −1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 4 0 −4 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 7 −2 −11 8 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 1 −1 ⎤ ⎡7 2 −3 −1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ A(BC) = ⎢ ⎢ 2 0 3 ⎥ ⎢4 0 −4 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢7 −2 −11 8 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ 3 −1 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 7 + 4 − 7 2 + 0 + 2 −3 − 4 + 11 −1 + 2 − 8 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢14 + 0 + 21 4 + 0 − 6 −6 + 0 − 33 −2 + 0 + 24 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 21 − 4 + 14 6 + 0 − 4 −9 + 4 − 22 −3 − 2 + 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡4 4 4 −7 ⎤ ⎢35 −2 −39 22 ⎥ ⎥ .

verify that (A + B)C = AC + BC ⎡ 0 7 8⎤ ⎥ Solution Now. B = ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 1 2 0⎥ ⎦ ⎣3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Calculate AC.78 MATHEMATICS ⎡ 0 6 ⎢−6 0 A = Example 17 If ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 7 −8 7⎤ ⎡ 0 1 1⎤ ⎡2 ⎢ 1 0 2 ⎥ . C = ⎢−2 8⎥ . BC and (A + B)C. Also.A = ⎢3 −2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣4 2 2 3⎤ ⎡ 1 2 ⎥⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 3 −2 1⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣4 2 3 ⎤ ⎡19 4 8 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ = ⎢1 12 8 ⎥ 1⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣14 6 15 ⎥ ⎦ . o n ⎡1 2 ⎢ Example 18 If A = ⎢ 3 −2 ⎢4 2 ⎣ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡2 ⎢ −2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣3 ⎤ ⎡ 0 − 14 + 24 ⎤ ⎡10 ⎤ ⎥ = ⎢−10 + 0 + 30 ⎥ = ⎢ 20 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + + 16 12 0 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 28 ⎥ ⎦ h s d e ⎡ 0 6 7 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎡ 0 − 12 + 21 ⎤ ⎡ 9 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −2 ⎥ = ⎢ −12 + 0 + 24 ⎥ = ⎢12 ⎥ AC = ⎢ −6 0 8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 7 − 8 0⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣3⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 14 + 16 + 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣30 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 0 1 1⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ BC = ⎢1 0 2 ⎥ ⎢−2 ⎢ ⎣1 2 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣3 ⎤ ⎡ 0 − 2 + 3⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎥ = ⎢ 2 + 0 + 6⎥ = ⎢ 8 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ − + − 2⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 2 4 0⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 9 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡10 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ AC + BC = ⎢12 ⎥ + ⎢ 8 ⎥ = ⎢20 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣30 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣−2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣28 ⎥ ⎦ (A + B) C = AC + BC 3⎤ 3 1⎥ ⎥ . A+ B = ⎢ ⎢−5 0 10 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 8 −6 0⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 0 7 ⎢ (A + B) C = ⎢−5 0 ⎢ ⎣ 8 −6 8⎤ 10⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ So Further and So Clearly. then show that A – 23A – 40 I = O ⎥ 1⎦ ⎡1 2 Solution We have A = A.

a political group hired a public relations firm to promote its candidate in three ways: telephone. 000⎥ ⎦ →Y cities X and Y. The cost per contact (in paise) is given in matrix A as ⎡ ⎢ A= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Cost per contact o n The number of contacts of each type made in two cities X and Y is given by Telephone Housecall Letter T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 63 − 23 − 40 46 − 46 + 0 69 − 69 + 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢69 − 69 + 0 −6 + 46 − 40 23 − 23 + 0 ⎥ 46 − 46 + 0 63 − 23 − 40 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 92 − 92 + 0 ⎦ ⎡ 0 0 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ = O ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 40 100 50 ⎤ Telephone ⎥ Housecall ⎥ ⎥ Letter ⎦ ⎡ 63 46 69 ⎤ ⎡ −23 −46 −69 ⎤ ⎡−40 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ 69 −6 23 ⎥ + ⎢ −69 46 −23 ⎥ + ⎢ 0 −40 0 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − − − − 92 46 63 92 46 23 0 0 40 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ h s d e ⎡1000 B= ⎢ ⎣3000 500 5000 ⎤ → X . house calls.MATRICES 79 So Now ⎡1 2 A =AA = ⎢ ⎢ 3 −2 ⎢ ⎣4 2 3 2 3 ⎤ ⎡19 4 8 ⎤ ⎡ 63 46 69 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢1 12 8 ⎥ = ⎢ 69 −6 23⎥ 1⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣14 6 15 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 92 46 63 ⎥ ⎦ 3⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥ – 40 ⎢ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎦ ⎣0 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 63 46 69 ⎤ ⎡1 2 ⎢ 69 −6 23⎥ – 23 ⎢ 3 −2 A – 23A – 40I = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 92 46 63 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣4 2 3 Example 19 In a legislative assembly election. and letters. . Find the total amount spent by the group in the two 1000 10.

Compute the following: ⎡a (i) ⎢ ⎣−b ⎡ −1 ⎢8 (iii) ⎢ ⎢ ⎣2 b⎤ ⎡ a b ⎤ +⎢ ⎥ a⎥ ⎦ ⎣b a ⎦ 4 −6⎤ ⎡12 7 6 ⎤ ⎡ cos 2 x sin 2 x ⎤ ⎡ sin 2 x cos 2 x⎤ ⎢ 8 0 5⎥ 5 16 ⎥ + (iv) ⎢ 2 ⎥+ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 sin cos cos sin x x x x ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 8 5⎦ ⎣ 3 2 4⎦ 3. Let A = ⎢ ⎥ .000 +500.2 5⎤ 4⎥ ⎦ (iii) 3A – C ⎡ a2 + b2 (ii) ⎢ 2 2 ⎢ ⎣a + c h s d e b 2 + c2 ⎤ ⎡ 2ab 2bc ⎤ ⎥ +⎢ 2 2 2 ac −2 ab ⎥ a +b ⎥ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣− ⎡2 ⎢ (v) ⎢ 3 ⎢−1 ⎣ 1⎤ ⎥ ⎡ 1 0 1⎤ 2⎥ ⎢ −1 2 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎡ 2 −3 ⎤ ⎡ 3 −1 3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ (vi) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 0⎥ − 1 0 2 ⎣ ⎦⎢ ⎣ 3 1⎥ ⎦ . ⎡a (i) ⎢ ⎣−b ⎡ 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ b ⎤ ⎡ a −b ⎤ (ii) ⎢ 2 ⎥ [2 3 4] ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ a⎦ ⎣ b a ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 3⎥ ⎦ 5⎤ 4⎥ ⎥ 5⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎡1 2 3⎤ (iii) ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 3 ⎦ ⎣2 3 1⎦ o n ⎡ 2 3 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −3 ⎥ ⎢ (iv) ⎢ ⎢ 3 4 5⎥ ⎢ 0 2 ⎢ ⎣ 4 5 6⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣3 0 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 3.e.000 paise and 720. B = ⎢−2 5⎥ .000 ⎦ → Y So the total amount spent by the group in the two cities is 340. respectively. Rs 3400 and Rs 7200.000 ⎦ → Y ⎡340. 000 + 50. i.80 MATHEMATICS Solution We have ⎡ 40.000 + 250. ⎡ 2 4⎤ ⎡ 1 3⎤ ⎡−2 1. C = ⎢ 3 3 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Find each of the following: (i) A + B (ii) A – B (iv) AB (v) BA 2. Compute the indicated products.000 +100. 000⎤ → X = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 720. 000 ⎤ → X BA = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣120..000 paise.

Find x and y. Simplify cosθ ⎢ ⎥ + sinθ ⎢ cos θ − sin θ cos θ sin θ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 7. Solve the equation for x. B = ⎢4 2 A = 4. verify that A + (B – C) = (A + B) – C. 5⎥ ⎥ 2⎥ 5⎥ ⎦ ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ ⎡ sin θ − cos θ⎤ 6. Find X. then compute 3⎥ ⎦ (A+B) and (B – C). If ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣2 0 2⎤ ⎡4 1 ⎢0 3 5⎥ and C = ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 3⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 1 −2 2⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ . If A = ⎢ ⎢3 ⎢ ⎢7 ⎢ ⎣3 1 2 3 5⎤ ⎡2 ⎥ ⎢5 3 ⎥ ⎢ 4⎥ 1 and B = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 5 ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢7 ⎢ 3⎥ ⎦ ⎣5 3 5 2 5 6 5 ⎤ 1⎥ ⎥ 4⎥ . y. ⎡2 ⎢3 ⎢ 1 5.MATRICES 81 ⎡1 2 −3 ⎤ ⎡3 −1 ⎢ 5 0 2 ⎥ . find the values of x and y. Given 3 ⎢ . z and w . Find X and Y. if Y = ⎢ ⎥ and 2X + Y = ⎣1 4 ⎦ ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎢ −3 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 3 ⎤ ⎡ y 0 ⎤ ⎡5 6⎤ 9. If x ⎢ ⎥ + y ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . y. if 2 ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 x ⎦ ⎣ 1 2⎦ ⎣1 8 ⎦ o n ⎡x 10. if ⎡ 7 0⎤ ⎡3 0 ⎤ and X – Y = ⎢ (i) X + Y = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ 2 5⎦ ⎣0 3 ⎦ ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡ 2 −2 ⎤ and 3X + 2Y = ⎢ (ii) 2X + 3Y = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ 4 0⎦ ⎣− 1 5 ⎦ ⎡3 2 ⎤ 8. Also. find the values of x. z and t. then compute 3A – 5B. ⎣ 3⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦ ⎣5 ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 2 z⎤ ⎡1 −1 ⎤ ⎡3 5 ⎤ +3⎢ ⎥ = 3 ⎢4 6 ⎥ t⎥ 0 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ h s d e x + y⎤ ⎡x y ⎤ ⎡ x 6 ⎤ ⎡ 4 =⎢ +⎢ 12. if 2 ⎢ ⎣y ⎡ 2⎤ ⎡−1 ⎤ ⎡10 ⎤ 11. ⎥ ⎥ 3 ⎥ ⎣ z w ⎦ ⎣ −1 2 w⎦ ⎣ z + w ⎦ .

If the trust fund must obtain an annual total interest of: (a) Rs 1800 (b) Rs 2000 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 0⎤ ⎡ 1 2 3⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 4⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ 1 1 0⎥ ⎦ 1⎤ 3⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎡ −1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ≠ ⎢ 0 −1 4⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 2 3 h s d e α⎤ − tan ⎥ 2 and I is the identity matrix of order 2. If A = ⎢ ⎢ 0 2 1 ⎥ . If A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ .000 among the two types of bonds. prove that A – 6A + 7A + 2I = 0 ⎢ ⎣ 2 0 3⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 3 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0⎤ 2 and I= ⎢ 17. A trust fund has Rs 30. Using matrix multiplication.000 that must be invested in two different types of bonds. determine how to divide Rs 30. If F ( x) = ⎢ sin x ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 14. If A = ⎢ ⎢ tan α ⎢ ⎣ 2 o n ⎡ cos α − sin α ⎤ I + A = (I – A) ⎢ cos α ⎥ ⎣ sin α ⎦ 19. The first bond pays 5% interest per year. cos x 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 5 −1⎤ ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 1 ⎤ ⎡ 5 −1⎤ (i) ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥≠⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 6 7 ⎦ ⎣3 4 ⎦ ⎣ 3 4 ⎦ ⎣ 6 7 ⎦ ⎡1 2 3 ⎤ ⎡−1 1 ⎢ ⎥⎢ (ii) ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎣1 1 0 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ 2 3 ⎡2 0 2 15.82 MATHEMATICS ⎡ cos x 13. Show that − sin x 0 ⎤ . show that ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . find k so that A = kA – 2I 4 − 2 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢ 0 18. show that F(x) F(y) = F(x + y). if A = ⎢ ⎢2 1 ⎢ ⎣ 1 −1 ⎡ 1 0 2⎤ ⎥ 3 2 16. and the second bond pays 7% interest per year. Find A – 5A + 6I.

The bookshop of a particular school has 10 dozen chemistry books. k and p so that PY + WY will be defined are: (A) k = 3. ⎡ 3 5⎤ ⎡3 3 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ if A = ⎢ 3 1 ⎥ . For any matrices A and B of suitable orders. 10 dozen economics books.MATRICES 83 20. Choose the correct answer in Exercises 21 and 22.5. For example. Z. Assume X. Rs 60 and Rs 40 each respectively. any constant. These may be verified by taking suitable examples. Y. then the matrix obtained by interchanging the rows and columns of A is called the transpose of A. (iii) (A + B)′ = A′ + B′ (ii) ( kA)′ = kA′ (where k is any constant) (iv) (A B)′ = B′ A′ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (B) 2 × n (C) n × 3 (D) p × n 2⎤ ⎡2 −1 2 ⎤ . then A′ = ⎢ ⎢ 5 1 −1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 ⎥ ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦2 × 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 5 ⎦3 × 2 o n 3.5. then the order of the matrix 7X – 5Z is: (A) p × 2 3. we shall learn about transpose of a matrix and special types of matrices such as symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Definition 3 If A = [aij] be an m × n matrix. p = 3 22. Find the total amount the bookshop will receive from selling all the books using matrix algebra. then A′ = [a ji] n × m . p = 2 (C) p is arbitrary. we have (i) (A′) ′ = A. k = 3 (D) k = 2. if A = [aij]m × n. If n = p . verify that ⎥ and B = ⎢ 2 4⎥ 0⎦ ⎣1 ⎦ (ii) (A + B)′ = A′ + B′. p = n (B) k is arbitrary. The restriction on n . respectively. n × 3 and p × k. 8 dozen physics books. In other words. h s d e ⎡3 3 Example 20 If A = ⎢ ⎣4 2 (i) (A′) ′ = A.1 Properties of transpose of the matrices We now state the following properties of transpose of matrices without proof. W and P are matrices of order 2 × n . Transpose of a Matrix In this section. 2 × p. (iii) (kB)′ = kB′. 3 × k. Their selling prices are Rs 80. 21. where k is . Transpose of the matrix A is denoted by A′ or (A T).

B′ = ⎢ ⎢ 2 0⎥ ⎢ 2 4⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 5 5⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A′ + B′ = ⎢ 3 −1 4 ⎥ ⎢ 4 4⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (A + B)′ = A′ + B′ ⎡ 2 −1 2⎤ ⎡ 2k kB = k ⎢ =⎢ 2 4⎥ ⎣1 ⎦ ⎣k −k 2k 2k ⎤ 4k ⎥ ⎦ Then ⎡ 2k k ⎤ ⎡ 2 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ′ ( kB)′ = ⎢ −k 2 k ⎥ = k ⎢ −1 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = kB ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 2k 4k ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 2 4⎥ ⎦ Thus ( kB)′ = k B ′ .84 MATHEMATICS Solution (i) We have ⎡ 3 4⎤ ⎡3 ⎢ ⎥ 3 2⎤ ′ ⎡ 3 3 2⎤ = A A= ⎢ ⎥ ⇒ A′ = ⎢ 3 2 ⎥ ⇒ ( A′ ) = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4 2 0⎦ ⎣4 2 0 ⎦ ⎢ 2 0⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Thus (A′)′ = A (ii) We have Therefore Now So Thus (iii) We have o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡3 3 2⎤ A= ⎢ ⎥. A′ = ⎢ 3 2 ⎥ . B = ⎣ 4 2 0⎦ ⎡5 ⎡ 2 −1 2⎤ ⇒ A +B= ⎢ ⎢1 ⎥ 2 4⎦ ⎣ ⎣5 3 − 1 4⎤ ⎥ 4 4⎦ ⎡ 5 5⎤ ⎢ ⎥ (A + B)′ = ⎢ 3 − 1 4 ⎥ ⎢ 4 4⎥ ⎣ ⎦ h s d e ⎡ 3 4⎤ ⎡ 2 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 2⎥ .

B = [1 3 − 6 ] ⎢ ⎣ 5⎥ ⎦ then Now Clearly 3. verify that (AB)′ = B′A′. that is. we have aii = – aii. B = 1 3 −6 A = Example 21 If [ ] . if we put i = j. This means that all the diagonal elements of a skew symmetric matrix are zero. .5 −1 ⎥ is a symmetric matrix as A′ = A ⎢ 3 −1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ −2 −6 12 ⎤ ⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ AB = ⎢ 4 ⎥ [1 3 −6 ] = ⎢ 4 12 −24 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 5 15 −30 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 5⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1⎤ A′ = [–2 4 5] . [ aij] = [a ji] for all possible values of i and j . B′ = ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣− 6 ⎥ ⎦ h s d e 5⎤ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ −2 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 15 ⎥ = (AB)′ B ′A′ = ⎢ 3 ⎥ [ −2 4 5] = ⎢ −6 12 ⎢− 6 ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ 12 −24 −30 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ (AB)′ = B ′A′ Definition 5 A square matrix A = [a ij] is said to be skew symmetric matrix if A′ = – A. Now. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 5⎦ Solution We have ⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A = ⎢ 4 ⎥ . o n ⎡ 3 2 3⎤ ⎢ ⎥ For example A = ⎢ 2 −1.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices Definition 4 A square matrix A = [a ij] is said to be symmetric if A′ = A. that is aji = – a ij for all possible values of i and j.MATRICES 85 ⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎢ 4 ⎥ . Therefore 2a ii = 0 or aii = 0 for all i’s.

A + A′ is a symmetric matrix and A – A′ is a skew symmetric matrix. Proof Let B = A + A′. the matrix B = ⎢ −e ⎢ ⎢ ⎣− f e 0 −g f⎤ is a skew symmetric matrix as B′= –B g⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ Now. we are going to prove some results of symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices. then we can write o n 1 1 A = (A + A′) + (A − A′) 2 2 From the Theorem 1. Since for any matrix A. (kA)′ = kA′.86 MATHEMATICS ⎡ 0 For example. it follows that (A + A′) 2 1 is symmetric matrix and (A − A′) is skew symmetric matrix. h s d e . any square 2 matrix can be expressed as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix. then Therefore Now let Therefore Theorem 2 Any square matrix can be expressed as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix. Proof Let A be a square matrix. we know that (A + A′) is a symmetric matrix and (A – A′) is 1 a skew symmetric matrix. Thus. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t B ′ = (A + A′) ′ = A′ + (A′)′ (as (A + B)′ = A′ + B′) = A′ + A (as (A′) ′ = A) = B = A + A′ (as A + B = B + A) B = A + A′ is a symmetric matrix C = A – A′ = A′ – A C ′ = (A – A′) ′ = A′ – (A′) ′ (Why?) = – (A – A′) = – C (Why?) C = A – A′ is a skew symmetric matrix. Theorem 1 For any square matrix A with real number entries.

MATRICES 87 ⎡ 2 −2 −4 ⎤ Example 22 Express the matrix B = ⎢−1 as the sum of a symmetric and a 3 4⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 1 −2 −3 ⎥ ⎦ skew symmetric matrix. ⎡ ⎢0 ⎡ 0 −1 −5⎤ ⎢ 1 1⎢ 1 ⎥ ′ Q = (B – B ) = ⎢ 1 0 6 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ 2 2 2 ⎢ 5 −6 0 ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 5 ⎢ ⎢2 ⎣ 1 5⎤ ⎡ ⎢ 0 2 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −1 ⎢ 0 −3⎥ = − Q Q′ = ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −5 3 0⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 2 0 −3 −5 ⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 3⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎦ h s d e . Solution Here ⎡ 2 −1 1 ⎤ ⎥ B′ = ⎢ ⎢− 2 3 −2⎥ ⎢ ⎣ −4 4 −3⎥ ⎦ Let Now Thus Also. ⎥ ⎥ −3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ is a symmetric matrix. let o n Then T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 4 −3 1 1⎢ P = (B + B ′) = − 3 6 2 2⎢ ⎢ ⎣ −3 2 −3 ⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥= P ⎥ ⎥ −3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ −3 ⎡ ⎢ 2 2 ⎢ −3 P′ = ⎢ 3 ⎢2 ⎢ ⎢ −3 1 ⎢2 ⎣ 1 P = (B + B ′) 2 ⎡ ⎢ 2 −3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −3 2⎥ = ⎢ 2 −6 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ −3 ⎢ ⎢2 ⎣ −3 2 3 1 −3 ⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥.

then verify that −1 2 ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎢ 1 2 3⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 1⎥ ⎦ (i) (A + B)′ = A′ + B′ (ii) (A – B)′ = A′ – B′ ⎡−2 3 ⎤ ⎡ −1 0 ⎤ and B = ⎢ 4. B = [1 5 7 ] ⎢ 2⎦ ⎥ ⎣ . then find (A + 2B)′ ⎣ 1 2⎦ ⎣ 1 2⎦ 5.3 ⎡ −1 5 6 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ (iii) ⎢ 3 5 6 ⎥ ⎢ 2 3 −1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 3⎤ ⎡ −4 1 −5 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 7 9 ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎢ 1 2 0 ⎥ .88 MATHEMATICS Thus Q= 1 (B – B ′) is a skew symmetric matrix. If A = ⎢ ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎣ −2 (i) (A + ⎡ 1 −1 ⎤ (ii) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 3⎦ o n ⎡ 3 4⎤ ⎡−1 2 1⎤ ⎥ 3. For the matrices A and B. verify that (AB)′ = B′A′. B = [ −1 2 1] ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ (ii) A = ⎢ 1 ⎥ . Find the transpose of each of the following matrices: ⎡5⎤ ⎢1⎥ (i) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢2⎥ ⎢−1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −1 2. If A′ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ . then verify that ⎢ 1 1⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 1 3 1⎥ ⎦ B)′ = A′ + B′. (ii) (A – B)′ = A′ – B′ ⎡ ⎢ 2 ⎢ −3 P +Q= ⎢ ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎢ −3 ⎢ ⎣ 2 − 2 −4 ⎤ 3 4⎥ ⎥=B − 2 − 3⎥ ⎦ h s d e ⎡1 ⎢ −4 (i) A = ⎢ ⎢3 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ . 1. If A′ = ⎢ . where T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 3. B is represented as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix. 2 −3 2 3 1 −3 ⎤ ⎡ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 ⎥+ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢2 ⎥ ⎢ 5 ⎥ −3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣2 −1 2 0 −3 −5 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎡2 ⎥ −1 3 ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣1 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ Now Thus.

when A = ⎢ −a 0 9. verify that ⎣ 6 7⎦ (i) (A + A′) is a symmetric matrix (ii) (A – A′) is a skew symmetric matrix ⎡ 0 a 1( 1 A + A′) and ( A − A′) . Express the following matrices as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix: o n ⎡3 5 ⎤ (i) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 −1⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t b⎤ c⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 6 ⎢ (ii) ⎢−2 ⎢ ⎣ 2 −2 2 ⎤ 3 −1 ⎥ ⎥ −1 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 5⎤ (iv) ⎢ −1 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 5 ⎤ 2 1⎥ ⎥ is a symmetric matrix. ⎡1 ⎢ A = −1 (i) Show that the matrix ⎢ ⎢ ⎣5 ⎡ 0 1 −1 ⎤ (ii) Show that the matrix A = ⎢ −1 0 1 ⎥ is a skew symmetric matrix. then verify that A′ A = I cos α ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ sin α cos α ⎤ (ii) If A = ⎢ ⎥ . If (i) A = ⎢ ⎣ − sin α sin α ⎤ .MATRICES 89 ⎡ cos α 6. 1 3⎥ ⎦ h s d e ⎡ 3 3 −1⎤ ⎢−2 −2 1⎥ (iii) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − − 5 2⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 5⎤ 8. Find ⎢ 2 2 ⎢ ⎣ −b −c 10. then verify that A′ A = I ⎣ − cos α sin α ⎦ 7. For the matrix A = ⎢ ⎥ .

11. where k ≠ 0 is denoted by Ri → k Ri. we get 6 7⎥ ⎦ 2 ⎡ −1 ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢5 ⎣ 2 π 6 π 3 3π (D) 2 (B) h s d e 3 1⎤ ⎥ 2 1⎥ .90 MATHEMATICS Choose the correct answer in the Exercises 11 and 12. applying C3 → C 3 . the corresponding elements of jth row multiplied by k is denoted by Ri → Ri + kRj. . to B = ⎢ 7 ⎣ −1 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1⎤ ⎥ 3 1 ⎥ . (i) The interchange of any two rows or two columns. which are known as elementary operations or transformations. ⎡1 ⎢ For example. we get ⎢ ⎢ −1 3 1⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 2 1⎤ 7⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ 3 ⎥ 7⎦ (iii) The addition to the elements of any row or column. the corresponding elements of any other row or column multiplied by any non zero number. The corresponding column operation is denoted by Ci → kCi o n ⎡ 1 1 For example. Symbolically the interchange of ith and jth rows is denoted by Ri ↔ R j and interchange of ith and jth column is denoted by Ci ↔ Cj. Symbolically. B are symmetric matrices of same order. if the value of α is cos α ⎥ ⎦ (C) π 3. the addition to the elements of ith row. applying R1 ↔ R2 to A = ⎢ −1 ⎢5 ⎣ (ii) The multiplication of the elements of any row or column by a non zero number. If A = ⎢ ⎣sin α (A) − sin α ⎤ . the multiplication of each element of the ith row by k. 6 7⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢ 1 1⎤ ⎥ .7 Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix There are six operations (transformations) on a matrix. Symbolically. If A. then A + A′ = I. then AB – BA is a (A) Skew symmetric matrix (B) Symmetric matrix (C) Zero matrix (D) Identity matrix ⎡ cos α 12. three of which are due to rows and three due to columns.

2. (2) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 2 3 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −3 ⎤ AB = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 2⎦ ⎣−1 2 ⎦ ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡ 2 −3 ⎤ and B = ⎢ A= ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ be two matrices. applying R2 → R2 – 2R1. we get ⎢ For example. For example. is unique.8 Invertible Matrices Definition 6 If A is a square matrix of order m. If B is the inverse of A. in other ⎣ 0 1⎦ words B = A– 1 and A is inverse of B. ⎣2 −1⎦ ⎣ 0 −5 ⎦ 3. it is necessary that matrices A and B should be square matrices of the same order. Thus B is the inverse of A. and if there exists another square matrix B of the same order m. Proof Let A = [a ij] be a square matrix of order m. (1) . such that AB = BA = I.. A = B–1 Also $ Note 1. to C = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥. If possible. Since B is the inverse of A AB = BA = I AC = CA = I .. then B is called the inverse matrix of A and it is denoted by A– 1. ⎣ 1 2⎦ ⎣ −1 2 ⎦ ⎡ 4 − 3 −6 + 6 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥=I ⎣ 2 − 2 −3 + 4 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ h s d e Since C is also the inverse of A Thus B = BI = B (AC) = (BA) C = IC = C Theorem 4 If A and B are invertible matrices of the same order. ⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎡1 2⎤ . o n Theorem 3 (Uniqueness of inverse) Inverse of a square matrix. then (AB)–1 = B–1 A–1. let Now ⎡1 0 ⎤ BA = ⎢ ⎥ = I . since for products BA and AB to be defined and to be equal.. let B and C be two inverses of A. i..e. In that case A is said to be invertible. A rectangular matrix does not possess inverse matrix. if it exists. . then A is also the inverse of B.. We shall show that B = C.MATRICES 91 The corresponding column operation is denoted by Ci → C i + kCj.

8. Remark In case. in order to apply a sequence of elementary column operations on the matrix equation X = AB.H.1 Inverse of a matrix by elementary operations Let X. then. we conclude that if A is a matrix such that A–1 exists. write A = AI and apply a sequence of column operations on A = AI till we get. ⎡ 1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 2⎤ ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎢ 2 −1⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ A. we have (AB) (AB)–1 = 1 or or or or or or Hence A–1 (AB) (AB)–1 = A –1I (A–1A) B (AB)–1 = A –1 IB (AB)–1 = A –1 B (AB)–1 = A –1 B–1 B (AB)–1 = B –1 A –1 (Pre multiplying both sides by A–1 ) (Since A–1 I = A–1) 3. In order to apply a sequence of elementary row operations on the matrix equation X = AB. A and B be matrices of. I = BA. The matrix B will be the inverse of A. then to find A–1 using elementary row operations. find the inverse of the matrix ⎡ 1 2⎤ A= ⎢ ⎥. then A–1 does not exist. we will apply these row operations simultaneously on X and on the first matrix A of the product AB on RHS. ⎣ 2 −1⎦ o n or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t I (AB) = B A –1 –1 –1 (AB)–1 = B –1 A –1 h s d e Solution In order to use elementary row operations we may write A = IA. I = AB. Similarly. after applying one or more elementary row (column) operations on A = IA (A = AI). we will apply. Example 23 By using elementary operations.. write A = IA and apply a sequence of row operation on A = IA till we get. if we obtain all zeros in one or more rows of the matrix A on L. Similarly.92 MATHEMATICS Proof From the definition of inverse of a matrix. if we wish to find A–1 using column operations.S. these operations simultaneously on X and on the second matrix B of the product AB on RHS. then ⎢ 0 −5⎥ = ⎢ −2 1 ⎥ A (applying R2 → R2 – 2R1) ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ . the same order such that X = AB. In view of the above discussion.

i.MATRICES 93 or ⎡1 ⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣5 ⎡1 ⎢5 ⎡1 0 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎢ 0 1⎥ ⎢2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣5 0⎤ 1 A −1 ⎥ ⎥ (applying R2 → – 5 R 2) 5⎦ 2⎤ 5⎥A ⎥ (applying R1 → R1 – 2R2) −1 ⎥ 5⎥ ⎦ or ⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎢5 5 ⎥ Thus A–1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢5 5 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ Alternatively. we obtain o n Hence T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎡1 −2 ⎤ ⎢ 2 −5⎥ = A ⎢0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎤ 5 ⎥ ⎥ −1 ⎥ 5 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 ⎢5 ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 1⎥ = A ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢5 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢5 = ⎢ ⎢2 ⎢ ⎣5 h s d e 2 ⎤ 5 ⎥ ⎥ −1 ⎥ ⎥ 5 ⎦ A–1 2⎤ 5⎥ ⎥ −1 ⎥ 5⎥ ⎦ . we have 5 ⎡ ⎢1 ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎢ 2 1⎥ = A ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ Finally. in order to use elementary column operations. we get 1 Now applying C2 → − C2 . ⎡ 1 2⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 2 −1⎥ = A ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Applying C2 → C2 – 2C1.e. applying C1 → C1 – 2C2. we write A = AI..

i.94 MATHEMATICS Example 24 Obtain the inverse of the following matrix using elementary operations ⎡ 0 1 2⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A = ⎢ 1 2 3⎥ .e.. ⎢ ⎣ 3 1 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 1 2⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 2 3 ⎥ Solution Write A = I A. ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ A ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 3 1 1⎥ ⎦ or or or or o n or or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡1 2 3 ⎤ ⎡ 0 1 0⎤ ⎢ 0 1 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢1 0 0 ⎥ A (applying R1 ↔ R2) ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 3 1 1⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 2 3 ⎤ ⎡0 1 ⎢1 0 ⎢0 1 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 −3 ⎣ 0 −5 −8 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ A (applying R3 → R3 – 3R1 ) 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 −1 ⎤ ⎡ −2 1 ⎢0 1 = ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −5 −8 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 0 −3 0⎤ (applying R1 → R1 – 2R2 ) 0⎥ ⎥A 1⎥ ⎦ h s d e ⎡1 0 −1 ⎤ ⎡ −2 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎢0 1 2 ⎥ ⎢1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 5 −3 ⎡ −2 1 ⎡1 0 −1 ⎤ ⎢1 0 ⎢0 1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 5 −3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣2 2 0⎤ (applying R3 → R 3 + 5R2) 0⎥ ⎥A 1⎥ ⎦ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ A (applying R → 1 R ) 3 2 3 1⎥ ⎥ 2⎦ ⎡ 1 −1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢1 0 0 1 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 5 −3 ⎣2 2 1⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ A (applying R 1 → R1 + R3 ) 1⎥ ⎥ 2⎦ .

MATRICES 95 or Hence Alternatively.e. or or o n or or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 0 1 2⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 2 3 ⎥ = A ⎢0 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣3 1 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 2 ⎤ ⎡0 1 0⎤ ⎢ 2 1 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = A ⎢1 0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣1 3 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣0 0 1⎥ ⎦ (C1 ↔ C2) ⎡1 0 0⎤ ⎡0 1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 2 1 −1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = A ⎢1 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣1 3 −1⎥ ⎦ ⎣0 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡0 1 1 ⎤ ⎢ 2 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = A ⎢1 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣1 3 2 ⎥ ⎦ (C3 → C3 – 2C1) (C3 → C3 + C2) ⎡ 1⎤ ⎢0 1 2 ⎥ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A ⎢1 0 −1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 1 0⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 3 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢0 0 ⎥ ⎣ 2⎦ (C3 → 1 C) 2 3 ⎡ 1 −1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢2 2 ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 3 −4 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎢ 5 −3 ⎢ ⎣2 2 ⎡ 1 −1 ⎢2 2 ⎢ –1 − 4 3 A = ⎢ ⎢ 5 −3 ⎢ ⎣2 2 1⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ −1⎥ A (applying R2 → R2 – 2R 3) 1⎥ ⎥ 2⎦ 1⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ −1 ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ 2⎦ h s d e . i. write A = AI..

given P = ⎢ ⎥.96 MATHEMATICS or 1⎤ ⎡ ⎢−2 1 2 ⎥ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ A ⎢ 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎣ −5 3 1 ⎦ ⎢0 0 ⎥ ⎣ 2⎦ (C1 → C1 – 2C2) or or Hence o n or ⎡ 10 −2 ⎤ Example 25 Find P – 1.e. i. if it exists.. ⎣ −5 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 1 ⎢ 2 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A ⎢− 4 ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎡1 ⎢2 ⎢ A–1 = ⎢ − 4 ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎣ 2 −1 1 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ 3 −1 ⎥ (C2 → C2 – 3C3 ) −3 1 ⎥ ⎥ 2 2⎦ 1⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ −1 ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ 2⎦ −1 2 3 −3 2 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ 2 1 2⎥ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A ⎢− 4 0 −1 ⎥ ⎥ (C1 → C1 + 5C3) ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 5 1⎥ ⎣ 0 3 1⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎣ 2 2⎦ h s d e −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎡1 ⎤ 0 1 ⎢1 ⎥ 5 = ⎢10 ⎥ P (applying R1 → R) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 10 1 − 5 1 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ . ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ P. ⎣ −5 1 ⎦ ⎡10 −2 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ Solution We have P = I P.

⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −4 2 ⎦ ⎡ 2 −3⎤ ⎢ −1 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 ⎢ −3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣2 13. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 7 4⎦ ⎡ 4 5⎤ 8. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3 4⎦ ⎡ 3 10 ⎤ 9. find the inverse of each of the matrices. P–1 does not exist. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −2 1 ⎦ ⎡ 2 1⎤ 14. ⎢ ⎥. ⎢ 5 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣0 1 3 ⎥ ⎦ 18. ⎢ ⎢ 2 2 3⎥ ⎢ 3 −2 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 −2 ⎤ 0 −5 ⎥ ⎥ 5 0⎥ ⎦ EXERCISE 3. Matrices A and B will be inverse of each other only if (A) AB = BA (C) AB = 0. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 −2⎦ ⎡ 6 −3⎤ 12. ⎣ 4 2⎦ ⎡ 2 −3 3 ⎤ ⎥ 15. BA = I (B) AB = BA = 0 (D) AB = BA = I . ⎡ 1 −1⎤ 1. Using elementary transformations. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣5 2 ⎦ ⎡ 3 −1⎤ 10. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 7⎦ ⎡ 2 5⎤ 6.4 h s d e ⎡ 2 0 −1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 17. Therefore.MATRICES 97 or ⎡1 ⎤ −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎢10 0 ⎥ 1 ⎢ 5⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ P (applying R 2 → R2 + 5R1) ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎣0 0 ⎦ ⎢2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ We have all zeros in the second row of the left hand side matrix of the above equation. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 3⎦ ⎡ 3 1⎤ 7. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 2 1⎤ 5. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣2 7 ⎦ ⎡ 2 −6⎤ 11. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 1⎦ ⎡ 1 3⎤ 3. if it exists in Exercises 1 to 17. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 3⎦ 4. ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎢ 5 7⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 2 1⎤ 2. o n 16.

Thus by principle of mathematical induction. So Now. Let the result be true for n = k. then An = ⎢ P(n) : If A = ⎢ ⎥. We have ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ ⎡ cos nθ sin nθ ⎤ . we prove that the result holds for n = k +1 Now o n Let Therefore. then A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ − sin kθ cos k θ⎦ ⎣ − sin θ cos θ ⎦ ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ ⎡ cos k θ sin kθ ⎤ k Ak + 1 = A ⋅ A = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ − sin θ cos θ⎦ ⎣ − sin k θ cos kθ⎦ AB be symmetric. n ∈ N. then show that AB is symmetric if and only if A and B commute. therefore A′ = A and B′ = B. the result is true for n = 1. . so A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ − sin θ cos θ⎦ ⎣ − sin θ cos θ⎦ Therefore. cos n θ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ cos n θ we have An = ⎢ ⎣− sin n θ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ cos kθ sin k θ ⎤ ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ k P(k) : A = ⎢ . Solution Since A and B are both symmetric matrices. that is AB = BA. then prove that An = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ . then (AB)′ = AB h s d e ⎡ cos θ cos kθ – sin θ sin kθ cos θ sin k θ + sin θ cos k θ ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ − sin θ cos kθ + cos θ sin k θ − sin θ sin kθ + cos θ cos kθ ⎦ ⎡ cos(θ + k θ) sin (θ + kθ ) ⎤ ⎡ cos (k + 1)θ sin (k + 1)θ ⎤ = ⎢ − sin (θ + kθ) cos (θ + kθ )⎥ = ⎢− sin ( k + 1)θ cos ( k + 1)θ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Example 27 If A and B are symmetric matrices of the same order. ⎣ − sin θ cos θ⎦ ⎣ − sin nθ cos nθ⎦ Solution We shall prove the result by using principle of mathematical induction. the result is true for n = k + 1. sin n θ ⎤ .98 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Examples ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ ⎡ cos nθ sin nθ ⎤ Example 26 If A = ⎢ . holds for all natural numbers. n ∈ N ⎥ ⎣ − sin θ cos θ ⎦ ⎣ − sin nθ cos nθ ⎦ ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ 1 P(1) : A = ⎢ .

if AB = BA. ⎡ 2 −1⎤ ⎡5 2 ⎤ ⎡ 2 5⎤ ... Then CD – AB = 0 gives ⎣c d ⎦ ⎡ 2 5 ⎤ ⎡ a b ⎤ ⎡ 2 −1⎤ ⎡5 2 ⎤ ⎢ 3 8 ⎥ ⎢ c d ⎥ − ⎢ 3 4 ⎥ ⎢7 4 ⎥ = O ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ or or or o n By equality of matrices. (4) Solving (1) and (2). Therefore ⎡ a b ⎤ ⎡−191 −110 ⎤ D= ⎢ ⎥=⎢ 44 ⎥ ⎣ c d ⎦ ⎣ 77 ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 2a + 5 c 2b + 5 d ⎤ ⎡ 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ 3a + 8c 3b + 8d ⎥ − ⎢ 43 22 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ h s d e 2b + 5d ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2a + 5c − 3 ⎢3 a + 8 c − 43 3b + 8d − 22 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ . C are all square matrices of order 2. (1) . c = 77. d = 44.B= ⎢ . and CD – AB is well defined.. D must be a square matrix of order 2. we get b = – 110.. then we shall show that AB is symmetric. we get 2 a + 5c – 3 = 0 3a + 8c – 43 = 0 . Find a matrix D such that 4⎦ ⎣3 ⎣7 4 ⎦ ⎣ 3 8⎦ CD – AB = O. Solving (3) and (4). (3) and 3 b + 8d – 22 = 0 . B. (2) 2b + 5d = 0 . Now (AB)′ = B ′A′ = B A (as A and B are symmetric) = AB Hence AB is symmetric. we get a = –191.MATRICES 99 But (AB)′ = B′A′= BA (Why?) Therefore BA = AB Conversely. Let ⎡a b ⎤ D= ⎢ ⎥ ..... C= ⎢ Example 28 Let A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ . Solution Since A.

If A = ⎢1 1 1⎥ . Let A = ⎢ ⎥ . y. 5. if [ x −5 −1] ⎢0 2 1 ⎥ ⎢ 4 ⎥ = O ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣2 0 3 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ 1⎥ ⎦ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ n −1 n −1 n −1 ⎥ ⎢1 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 3 ⎦ ⎣3 ⎡3 −4 ⎤ ⎡1 + 2 n −4 n ⎤ n 3. show that ( aI + bA) = a I + na bA. 4. Find the values of x. If A = ⎢ ⎣−1 1⎤ . ⎡0 2 y 6. prove that An = ⎢3n −1 3 n −1 3n −1 ⎥ . z⎤ − z⎥ ⎥ satisfy the equation z⎥ ⎦ o n ⎡ 1 2 0 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ 7. z if the matrix A = ⎢ ⎢x y ⎢ ⎣x −y A′A = I. If A and B are symmetric matrices. Find x. 2⎥ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e ⎡1 0 2 ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ 9. n ∈N. show that A2 – 5A + 7I = 0. Show that the matrix B′AB is symmetric or skew symmetric according as A is symmetric or skew symmetric. then prove that A = ⎢ n 1 − 1 1 − 2n⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ integer. where n is any positive ⎥ . prove that AB – BA is a skew symmetric matrix. ⎡3n −1 3 n −1 3n −1 ⎤ ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2. If A = ⎢ .100 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 3 ⎡ 0 1⎤ n n n–1 1. For what values of x : [1 2 1] ⎢ 2 0 1 ⎥ ⎢2 ⎥ = O? ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 3 8. where I is the identity ⎣ 0 0⎦ matrix of order 2 and n ∈ N.

then (A) A is a diagonal matrix (B) A is a zero matrix (C) A is a square matrix (D) None of these 2 15. z which he sells in two markets. Find the gross profit. Find the matrix X so that X ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4 5 6⎦ ⎣ 2 4 6⎦ 12.000 2. A manufacturer produces three products x. find the total revenue in each market with the help of matrix algebra. Further. An m × n matrix is a square matrix if m = n . prove that (AB)n = AnBn for all n ∈ N. then −α ⎥ ⎦ (B) 1 – α² + βγ = 0 h s d e Summary . A matrix having m rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m × n. If the matrix A is both symmetric and skew symmetric. then (I + A)³ – 7 A is equal to (A) A (B) I – A (C) I (D) 3A o n A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers or functions. If A is square matrix such that A = A. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t β ⎤ is such that A² = I. If A = ⎢ γ ⎣ (A) 1 + α² + βγ = 0 (C) 1 – α² – βγ = 0 (D) 1 + α² – βγ = 0 14. respectively.00. y and z are Rs 2. A = [aij]m × m is a diagonal matrix if aij = 0. then prove by induction that AB n = Bn A.50. Annual sales are indicated below: Market Products I 10.000 18. [ aij]1 × n is a row matrix. ⎡1 2 3⎤ ⎡−7 −8 −9 ⎤ 11.000 (a) If unit sale prices of x.50 and Rs 1.00 and 50 paise respectively.000 8.MATRICES 101 10. (b) If the unit costs of the above three commodities are Rs 2. [ aij]m × 1 is a column matrix. when i ≠ j. Choose the correct answer in the following questions: ⎡α 13. y.00.000 20.000 II 6. Rs 1. Rs 1. If A and B are square matrices of the same order such that AB = BA.

A = [aij] = [bij] = B if (i) A and B are of same order. when i = j. (ii) A(B + C) = AB + AC. k is constant. then AB = C = [cik] m × p. then A′ or AT = [ aji]n × m (i) (A′) ′ = A. A zero matrix has all its elements as zero. where A and B are of same order. ( k + l ) A = kA + lA. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t —— h s d e . where cik = ∑ aij b jk j =1 (i) A(BC) = (AB)C. k(A + B) = kA + kB. (iv) (AB)′ = B ′A′ A is a symmetric matrix if A′ = A. where k and l are constant. where A. (ii) a ij = b ij for all possible values of i and j. is unique. a ij = 0. when i = j. n If A = [a ij] m × n and B = [bjk]n × p . A is a skew symmetric matrix if A′ = – A. (k is some constant). (iii) (A + B)C = AC + BC If A = [aij] m × n. when i ≠ j. when i ≠ j. Elementary operations of a matrix are as follows: (i) Ri ↔ Rj or Ci ↔ Cj (ii) Ri → kRi or Ci → kCi o n (iii) Ri → Ri + kRj or Ci → Ci + kC j If A and B are two square matrices such that AB = BA = I.102 MATHEMATICS A = [a ij] n × n is a scalar matrix if aij = 0. Inverse of a square matrix. if aij = 1. kA = k[ aij] m × n = [k( aij)]m × n – A = (–1)A A – B = A + (–1) B A+ B = B + A (A + B) + C = A + (B + C). if it exists. B and C are of same order. a ij = k. (iii) (A + B)′ = A′ + B′. (ii) (kA)′ = kA′. then B is the inverse matrix of A and is denoted by A–1 and A is the inverse of B. Any square matrix can be represented as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix. A = [aij]n × n is an identity matrix.

The number a1 b 2 – a2 b1 o n ⎡a b ⎤ which determines uniqueness of solution is associated with the matrix A = ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ ⎣ a2 b2 ⎦ and is called the determinant of A or det A. adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. we have studied about matrices and algebra of matrices. STEINMETZ 4. Also. Social Science. Science. a system of linear equations like a1 x + b1 y = c 1 a2 x + b2 y = c 2 ⎡a b ⎤ ⎡x ⎤ ⎡c ⎤ can be represented as ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 1 ⎥ .P. consistency and inconsistency of system of linear equations and solution of linear equations in two or three variables using inverse of a matrix. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t P.2 Determinant To every square matrix A = [a ij] of order n. this ⎣ a2 b2 ⎦ ⎣ y ⎦ ⎣ c2 ⎦ system of equations has a unique solution or not. cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. etc. In this chapter.Chapter 4 DETERMINANTS All Mathematical truths are relative and conditional. we can associate a number (real or complex) called determinant of the square matrix A.1 Introduction In the previous chapter.S. j)th element of A. a 1 b 2 – a 2 b 1 ≠ 0. — C. we will study various properties of determinants. Laplace (1749-1827) h s d e 4. . where aij = (i. we shall study determinants up to order three only with real entries. is determined by the number a1 b2 – a2 b1 . Determinants have wide applications in Engineering. We have also learnt that a system of algebraic equations can be expressed in the form of matrices. (Recall that if a1 b1 or. This means. Economics. Now. then the system of linear ≠ a2 b2 equations has a unique solution). minors.

⎣ a21 a 22 ⎦ then the determinant of A is defined as: det (A) = |A| = Δ = = a 11a 22 – a 21a 12 Example 1 Evaluate Solution We have Example 2 Evaluate o n Solution We have x x +1 = x (x) – (x + 1) (x – 1) = x2 – (x2 – 1) = x2 – x2 + 1 = 1 x –1 x T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 2 4 . 4. This is known as expansion of a determinant along a row (or a column). There are six ways of expanding a determinant of order .104 MATHEMATICS This may be thought of as a function which associates each square matrix with a unique number (real or complex). a b ⎡ a b⎤ . –1 2 2 4 = 2 (2) – 4(–1) = 4 + 4 = 8.3 Determinant of a matrix of order 3 × 3 Determinant of a matrix of order three can be determined by expressing it in terms of second order determinants. If M is the set of square matrices.1 Determinant of a matrix of order one Let A = [a ] be the matrix of order 1. K is the set of numbers (real or complex) and f : M → K is defined by f (A) = k. then determinant of A is written as |A| = = det (A) If A = ⎢ ⎥ c d ⎣c d ⎦ Remarks (i) For matrix A. then determinant of A is defined to be equal to a 4. It is also denoted by |A | or det A or Δ. then f (A) is called the determinant of A.2.2 Determinant of a matrix of order two Let ⎡ a11 a12 ⎤ A= ⎢ ⎥ be a matrix of order 2 × 2. where A ∈ M and k ∈ K.2. (ii) Only square matrices have determinants.2. –1 2 x x +1 x –1 x h s d e 4. |A | is read as determinant of A and not modulus of A.

DETERMINANTS 105 3 corresponding to each of three rows (R1.. a 21 (–1)1 + 2 a 12 a 31 a23 a33 Step 3 Multiply third element a 13 of R1 by (–1) 1 + 3 [(–1)sum of suffixes in a ] and the second order determinant obtained by deleting elements of first row (R1 ) and third column (C3) of | A | as a13 lies in R1 and C 3..e. o n or Step 4 Now the expansion of determinant of A. Consider the determinant of square matrix A = [aij]3 × 3 a 11 a 12 | A | = a21 a 22 a31 a 32 a 13 a 23 a33 i. C2 and C3 ) giving the same value as shown below.e. 13 i. i. i. Expansion along first Row (R1) Step 1 Multiply first element a11 of R 1 by (–1)(1 + 1) [(–1) sum of suffixes in a11] and with the second order determinant obtained by deleting the elements of first row (R1 ) and first column (C1) of | A | as a11 lies in R 1 and C1. R2 and R3) and three columns (C 1.e..e. 2 and 3 above is given by a22 det A = |A| = (–1)1 + 1 a11 a 32 1 +3 + (–1) a13 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t a 21 (–1)1 + 3 a 13 a 31 a22 a32 a23 a + (–1) 1 + 2 a12 21 a33 a 31 a23 a33 a21 a 22 a31 a32 |A| = a 11 (a 22 a33 – a 32 a23 ) – a12 (a21 a 33 – a 31 a 23) + a 13 (a21 a32 – a 31 a 22) h s d e . | A | written as sum of all three terms obtained in steps 1.. that is. (–1)1 + 1 a11 a 22 a32 a 23 a33 Step 2 Multiply 2nd element a12 of R1 by (–1) 1 + 2 [(–1)sum of suffixes in a 12] and the second order determinant obtained by deleting elements of first row (R1 ) and 2nd column (C2) of | A | as a12 lies in R1 and C 2.

(2) Expansion along first Column (C1) a11 | A | = a 21 a 31 a12 a22 a32 a13 a23 a33 o n By expanding along C1.. we get T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t a21 a12 a32 a13 a + (–1) 2 + 2 a 22 11 a33 a 31 a12 a32 a13 a33 + (–1) 2 + 3 a23 a11 a31 h s d e a 22 1 +1 | A | = a11 (–1) a32 a23 a33 + a21 (−1)2 + 1 a12 a32 a13 a33 3 + 1 a 12 + a31 (–1) a 22 a13 a 23 = a11 (a22 a33 – a 23 a32) – a21 (a 12 a33 – a 13 a32) + a 31 (a12 a 23 – a13 a22 ) . we get | A | = (–1) 2 +1 = – a21 (a12 a 33 – a 32 a13 ) + a 22 (a 11 a33 – a31 a 13) – a23 (a 11 a 32 – a31 a 12) | A | = – a21 a 12 a 33 + a 21 a 32 a13 + a22 a11 a 33 – a 22 a 31 a13 – a23 a 11 a 32 + a23 a 31 a 12 = a 11 a 22 a 33 – a11 a23 a 32 – a 12 a 21 a33 + a12 a23 a 31 + a13 a 21 a 32 – a 13 a31 a 22 ..106 MATHEMATICS = a 11 a 22 a33 – a11 a 32 a23 – a12 a 21 a 33 + a 12 a 31 a 23 + a13 a 21 a 32 – a 13 a31 a 22 . Expansion along second row (R2 ) a11 | A | = a 21 a 31 a 12 a 22 a 32 a13 a 23 a 33 Expanding along R2. (1) $Note We shall apply all four steps together...

DETERMINANTS 107 | A | = a 11 a 22 a33 – a11 a23 a 32 – a 21 a12 a33 + a21 a13 a 32 + a31 a 12 a 23 – a 31 a13 a 22 = a 11 a 22 a33 – a11 a23 a 32 – a 12 a21 a33 + a12 a23 a 31 + a13 a 21 a 32 – a 13 a31 a 22 . 3 1 2 4 Example 3 Evaluate the determinant Δ = –1 3 0 . we shall expand the determinant along that row or column which contains maximum number of zeros. (3) Clearly. 4 1 0 o n Solution Note that in the third column. we get Δ= 4 –1 3 1 2 1 2 –0 +0 4 1 4 1 –1 3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t = 4 (–1 – 12) – 0 + 0 = – 52 – cos α sin β . expanding a determinant along any row or column gives same value. Also ⎥ ⎣2 0⎦ ⎣4 0⎦ |A | = 0 – 8 = – 8 and | B | = 0 – 2 = – 2. ⎡1 1 ⎤ ⎡2 2⎤ and B = ⎢ (iii) Let A = ⎢ ⎥ . it is easy to verify that A = 2B. Then. where n = 1. In general. two entries are zero. we can multiply by +1 or –1 according as (i + j) is even or odd. Observe that. instead of multiplying by (–1)i + j. (2) or (3). It is left as an exercise to the reader to verify that the values of |A| by expanding along R3. (2) and (3) are equal. Hence. values of |A | in (1). where n = 2 is the order of square matrices A and B. 2. (ii) While expanding.. then | A| = kn | B |. |A | = 4 (– 2) = 22 | B| or |A | = 2n | B|. Remarks (i) For easier calculations. C2 and C3 are equal to the value of |A | obtained in (1). if A = kB where A and B are square matrices of order n . So expanding along third column (C3). – sin β 0 sin α 0 h s d e 0 Example 4 Evaluate Δ = – sin α cos α ..

If o n 4. 1. Evaluate the determinants 3 –1 –2 0 –1 (i) 0 3 –5 0 3 –4 5 1 1 –2 (ii) 2 3 1 . we get Δ= 0 0 sin β –sin α sin β – sin α – sin α – cos α – sin β 0 cos α 0 cos α 0 – sin β = 0 – sin α (0 – sin β cos α) – cos α (sin α sin β – 0) = sin α sin β cos α – cos α sin α sin β = 0 Example 5 Find values of x for which 3 x 3 2 = x 1 4 1 3 x 3 2 = . i.108 MATHEMATICS Solution Expanding along R1. Hence Evaluate the determinants in Exercises 1 and 2. (i) 3.1 cos θ – sin θ sin θ cos θ (ii) x2 – x + 1 x – 1 x +1 x +1 ⎡ 1 2⎤ A= ⎢ ⎥ . then show that | 2A | = 4 | A | ⎣ 4 2⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A = ⎢ 0 1 2 ⎥ . then show that | 3 A | = 27 | A | ⎢ ⎣0 0 4 ⎥ ⎦ 5.e.e. x 1 4 1 Solution We have i. If T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 3 –x =3 – 8 x2 = 8 2 h s d e x= ±2 2 EXERCISE 4. 2 –5 4 –1 2.

we get o n = a 1 (b 2 c3 – b3 c2) – a 2 (b1 c3 – b3 c1) + a 3 (b 1 c2 – b 2 c1) By interchanging the rows and columns of Δ.3 Properties of Determinants In the previous section. we get the determinant a1 Δ1 = a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (ii) 2 3 x 3 = 4 5 2x 5 (D) 0 Δ = a1 b2 c2 b3 b b b b − a2 1 3 + a 3 1 2 c3 c1 c3 c1 c2 h s d e . we have learnt how to expand the determinants. However. Find values of x. find | A | ⎢ ⎣ 5 4 –9 ⎥ ⎦ 7. If A = ⎢ 2 1 –3 ⎥ . In this section. Property 1 The value of the determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are interchanged. If 2 4 2x 4 = 5 1 6 x x 2 6 2 = . then x is equal to 18 x 18 6 (A) 6 (B) ± 6 (C) – 6 4. we shall restrict ourselves upto determinants of order 3 only. if (i) 8. a1 Verification Let Δ = b1 c1 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 Expanding along first row. we will study some properties of determinants which simplifies its evaluation by obtaining maximum number of zeros in a row or a column. These properties are true for determinants of any order.DETERMINANTS 109 (iii) 0 1 –1 0 –2 3 2 –3 0 (iv) 2 –1 –2 0 2 –1 3 –5 0 ⎡ 1 1 –2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 6.

we get Δ1 = a1 (b 2 c3 – c2 b 3) – a2 (b 1 c3 – b 3 c1) + a3 (b1 c2 – b2 c1 ) Hence Δ = Δ1 Remark It follows from above property that if A is a square matrix. we will symbolically write C ↔ R i i i i Let us verify the above property by example. a1 Verification Let Δ = b1 c1 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (Expanding along first column) 5 6 1 6 1 – (–3) +5 –7 4 –7 0 5 h s d e . where A′ = transpose of A. then for interchange of row and $ columns. then det (A) = det (A′).110 MATHEMATICS Expanding Δ1 along first column. Property 2 If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are interchanged. we get 2 6 1 Δ1 = –3 0 5 5 4 –7 = 2 0 4 o n = 2 (0 – 20) + 3 (– 42 – 4) + 5 (30 – 0) = – 40 – 138 + 150 = – 28 Clearly Δ = Δ1 Hence. then sign of determinant changes. Note If R = ith row and C = ith column. we have Δ= 2 0 4 6 4 6 0 – (–3) +5 5 –7 1 –7 1 5 = 2 (0 – 20) + 3 (– 42 – 4) + 5 (30 – 0) = – 40 – 138 + 150 = – 28 By interchanging rows and columns. 2 –3 5 4 Example 6 Verify Property 1 for Δ = 6 0 1 5 –7 Solution Expanding the determinant along first row. Property 1 is verified.

e. we have Δ1 = 2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 2 –3 5 1 5 –7 Δ1 = 6 0 4 5 –7 1 –7 1 5 – (–3) +5 0 4 6 4 6 0 = 2 (20 – 0) + 3 (4 + 42) + 5 (0 – 30) = 40 + 138 – 150 = 28 h s d e . we have o n Expanding the determinant Δ1 along first row. 1 5 –7 2 –3 5 Solution Δ = 6 0 4 = – 28 (See Example 6) 1 5 –7 Interchanging rows R2 and R3 i. we can verify the result by interchanging any two columns. the new determinant obtained is given by c1 Δ1 = b1 a1 c2 b2 a2 c3 b3 a3 Expanding along third row. R2 ↔ R3. we get Δ1 = a 1 (c2 b 3 – b 2 c3) – a2 (c1 b3 – c3 b1) + a3 (b 2 c1 – b1 c2 ) = – [a 1 (b 2 c3 – b 3 c2) – a2 (b 1 c3 – b 3 c1) + a3 (b1 c2 – b2 c1 )] Clearly Δ1 = – Δ Similarly. we get Δ = a 1 (b 2 c3 – b 3 c2) – a2 (b 1 c3 – b3 c1 ) + a 3 (b 1 c2 – b2 c1 ) Interchanging first and third rows.. $Note We can denote the interchange of rows by R ↔ R and interchange of i j 2 –3 5 Example 7 Verify Property 2 for Δ = 6 0 4 . columns by Ci ↔ Cj.DETERMINANTS 111 Expanding along first row.

we get Δ1 = k a1 (b 2 c3 – b 3 c2) – k b1 (a 2 c3 – c2 a 3) + k c1 (a 2 b3 – b2 a3) = k [a 1 (b2 c3 – b3 c2 ) – b1 (a2 c3 – c2 a 3) + c1 (a 2 b3 – b2 a3)] . by Property 2. we get Here R1 and R3 are identical. 3 2 3 Example 8 Evaluate Δ = 2 2 3 3 2 3 Solution Expanding along first row. it follows that Δ has changed its sign Therefore or Δ=–Δ Δ=0 Let us verify the above property by an example. Δ1 = – Δ Property 3 If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are identical (all corresponding elements are same). Then o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Δ = 3 (6 – 6) – 2 (6 – 9) + 3 (4 – 6) = 0 – 2 (–3) + 3 (–2) = 6 – 6 = 0 k a1 Δ1 = a 2 a3 k b1 k c1 b2 c2 b3 c3 =k Δ h s d e Expanding along first row. However. Proof If we interchange the identical rows (or columns) of the determinant Δ. Property 2 is verified. Property 4 If each element of a row (or a column) of a determinant is multiplied by a constant k. a1 Verification Let Δ = a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 and Δ1 be the determinant obtained by multiplying the elements of the first row by k. then value of determinant is zero. then its value gets multiplied by k.112 MATHEMATICS Clearly Hence. then Δ does not change.

then its value is zero. For example 102 18 36 3 4 Example 9 Evaluate 1 17 3 6 102 18 36 6(17) 6 (3) 6(6) 17 3 6 3 4 = 1 3 4 = 6 1 3 4 =0 Solution Note that 1 17 3 6 17 3 6 17 3 6 o n Property 5 If some or all elements of a row or column of a determinant are expressed as sum of two (or more) terms. (ii) If corresponding elements of any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are proportional (in the same ratio). a1 + λ1 a 2 + λ 2 b1 b2 c1 c2 a3 + λ3 a1 b3 = b1 c3 c1 a3 + λ3 b3 c3 a2 b2 c2 a3 λ1 b3 + b1 c3 c1 λ2 b2 c2 λ3 b3 c3 For example.DETERMINANTS 113 Hence Remarks k a1 a2 a3 k b1 k c1 a1 b2 c2 = k a2 b3 c3 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 (i) By this property. then the determinant can be expressed as sum of two (or more) determinants.H.S. = c1 c2 . T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Δ= a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3 = 0 (rows R1 and R2 are proportional) k a1 k a2 k a3 h s d e (Using Properties 3 and 4) a1 + λ1 a 2 + λ 2 b1 b2 Verification L. we can take out any common factor from any one row or any one column of a given determinant.

we get Δ = ( a1 + λ1) (b 2 c3 – c2 b 3) – (a 2 + λ2) (b 1 c3 – b3 c1) + (a3 + λ3) (b 1 c2 – b2 c1) = a1 (b 2 c3 – c2 b 3) – a2 (b 1 c3 – b 3 c1) + a3 (b1 c2 – b2 c1 ) + λ1 ( b2 c3 – c2 b 3) – λ 2 (b 1 c3 – b3 c1) + λ3 (b 1 c2 – b2 c1 ) (by rearranging terms) a1 = b1 c1 a2 b2 c2 a3 λ1 λ 2 b3 + b1 b2 c3 c1 c2 λ3 b3 = R. .e.S..114 MATHEMATICS Expanding the determinants along the first row. to each element of any row or column of a determinant. Symbolically. Verification a1 a2 c1 c2 a3 c3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t a b c a b = a b c + 2x 2 y x y z x y c 2z z Δ = b1 b2 b3 a1 + k c1 a2 + k c 2 a3 + k c3 b b2 b3 and Δ1 = . the equimultiples of corresponding elements of other row (or column) are added. we have multiplied the elements of the third row (R3) by a constant k and added them to the corresponding elements of the first row (R1 ). a b Example 10 Show that a + 2 x b + 2 y x y c c + 2z = 0 z a b c Solution We have a + 2 x b + 2 y c + 2 z x y z =0+0=0 o n Let Property 6 If. Here. we write this operation as R1 → R1 + k R 3. i. we may verify Property 5 for other rows or columns.H. then value of determinant remains the same. c3 Similarly. the value of determinant remain same if we apply the operation Ri → Ri + kR j or Ci → Ci + k Cj . 1 c1 c2 c3 h s d e (by Property 5) (Using Property 3 and Property 4) where Δ1 is obtained by the operation R1 → R1 + kR3 .

care should be taken to see that a row that is affected in one operation should not be used in another operation.DETERMINANTS 115 Now. (ii) If more than one operation like Ri → Ri + kRj is done in one step. 3a 6 a + 3b 10 a + 6 b + 3 c a a+b a+b+c a 2a + b Δ= 0 a 0 0 a 2a + b +0+0 0 a = a (a2 – 0) = a (a 2) = a3 h s d e . A similar remark applies to column operations. we have a a+b a+b+c a 2a + b Δ= 0 0 3a 7 a + 3b Now applying R3 → R 3 – 3R 2 . we get o n Expanding along C1 . again a1 a2 Δ1 = b1 b2 c1 c 2 a3 k c1 b3 + b1 c3 c1 k c2 b2 c2 k c3 b3 (Using Property 5) c3 Hence =Δ+0 Δ = Δ1 (since R1 and R3 are proportional) Remarks (i) If Δ1 is the determinant obtained by applying Ri → kR i or Ci → kC i to the determinant Δ. we obtain Δ= a T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t a+b+c 4 a + 3b + 2 c = a 3 . then Δ1 = kΔ. a a+b Example 11 Prove that 2a 3a + 2b Solution Applying operations R 2 → R2 – 2R1 and R3 → R3 – 3R1 to the given determinant Δ.

Example 13 Evaluate 1 a Δ= 1 b 1 c bc ca Solution Applying R2 → R2 – R 1 and R3 → R3 – R1. we get 1 a bc Δ = 0 b − a c ( a − b) 0 c − a b ( a − c) Taking factors (b – a ) and (c – a) common from R 2 and R3.116 MATHEMATICS Example 12 Without expanding. we get x+ y+z z Δ= 1 Since the elements of R1 and R3 are proportional. respectively. we get 1 a Δ = (b − a ) ( c − a ) 0 1 0 1 bc –c o n b+c b Example 14 Prove that c b+c Solution Let Δ = b c T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ab –b = ( b – a) (c – a) [(– b + c)] (Expanding along first column) = ( a – b) (b – c) (c – a) a + c a c a b = 4 abc a+b a c+a c a b a+b h s d e . Δ = 0. prove that x+ y z Δ= 1 y+z z+x x y =0 1 1 x+y + z x + y+ z x y 1 1 Solution Applying R1 → R1 + R2 to Δ.

DETERMINANTS 117 Applying R1 → R1 – R2 – R3 to Δ. we get 0 –2c –2 b b Δ= b c+a c c a+b Expanding along R1. we obtain Δ= 0 c+a c b b b – (–2 c) a+b c a+b + (–2 b ) b c+a c c x Example 15 If x. y. z are different and Δ = y z show that 1 + xyz = 0 Solution We have x Δ= y z = y o n 2 = ( −1) 1 y T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t = 2 c (a b + b2 – bc ) – 2 b ( b c – c2 – ac) = 2 a b c + 2 cb2 – 2 bc2 – 2 b2 c + 2 bc2 + 2 abc = 4 abc x2 1 + x3 y 2 1 + y 3 = 0 . then 1+ z 3 z2 x 2 1 + x3 y 2 1 + y3 z2 1 + z3 h s d e x x2 1 z2 1 x x2 x3 y2 1 + y y2 z y 3 (Using Property 5) z z2 z3 1 x 1 z x2 x2 z 2 1 x 1 z x2 z 2 y2 + xyz 1 y y2 (Using C3 ↔ C 2 and then C1 ↔ C2) 1 x = 1 y 1 z y 2 (1 + xyz ) z2 .

H.c common from R1. we have 1+ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t z+x 1 ⎛ 1 1 1⎞ 1 = abc ⎜ 1 + + + ⎟ = abc + bc + ca + ab ⎝ a b c⎠ 1+ c Δ = abc 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + 1+ + + 1+ + + a b c a b c a b c 1 1 1 +1 b b b 1 1 1 +1 c c c h s d e . x – y ≠ 0. i. z – x ≠ 0. we get 1 1 1 +1 a a a 1 1 1 +1 L. R 2 and R3. = abc b b b 1 1 1 +1 c c c o n Applying R1→ R1 + R2 + R3 .S. y – z ≠ 0. we get 1 + xyz = 0 Example 16 Show that 1+ a 1 1 1+ b 1 1 Solution Taking out factors a .118 MATHEMATICS 1 = (1 + xyz ) 0 x y−x 2 x2 y 2 − x2 z −x 2 (Using R 2 → R 2–R1 and R3 → R 3– R1) 0 z −x Taking out common factor (y – x) from R2 and (z – x) from R3.e.. we get 1 x Δ = (1+xyz) (y – x) ( z – x) 0 1 0 1 x2 y+ x = (1 + xyz) (y – x) (z – x) ( z – y) (on expanding along C1) Since Δ = 0 and x. z are all different. y.b.

then apply EXERCISE 4.S.H. 1 1 1 1 3 Using the property of determinants and without expanding in Exercises 1 to 7.2 c 4. prove that: 1. we get Note Alternately try by applying C → C – C $ C →C –a C. C3 → C3 – C 1. 1 bc 1 ca 1 ab c ( a + b ) b+ c c+a a +b y +z a + = z x 2 b x+ y c p q r x y z . x a y b z x+ a y+b = 0 z +c 2. 2 7 65 3 8 75 = 0 5 9 86 q+ r r+p p+q T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎛ 1 1 1⎞ = abc ⎜1 + + + ⎟ ⎡ ⎣1( 1 – 0 ) ⎤ ⎦ ⎝ a b c⎠ ⎛ 1 1 1⎞ = abc ⎜1+ + + ⎟ = abc + bc + ca + ab = R. a −b b − c c − a b − c c − a a −b = 0 c−a a−b b−c a ( b + c) b(c + a) = 0 o n 3.DETERMINANTS 119 1 1 1 1 ⎛ 1 1 1⎞ 1 1 +1 = abc ⎜1+ + + ⎟ b ⎝ a b c⎠ b b 1 1 1 +1 c c c Now applying C2 → C2 – C1 . ⎝ a b c⎠ 2 1 0 0 1 1 1⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 0 Δ = ab c ⎜ 1 + + + ⎟ a b c⎠ b ⎝ 1 0 1 c h s d e and C3 → C 3 – C2. 5.

120

MATHEMATICS

6.

0 a −b −a 0 −c = 0 b c 0

−a 2 7. ba ca

ab −b

2

ac bc = 4 a 2 b 2 c2 −c2

cb

By using properties of determinants, in Exercises 8 to 14, show that:

1 a

8. (i) 1 b

a2 b2 = ( a − b )( b − c )( c − a )

2

(ii)

x x2

9.

y y z z

x+ 4 10. (i) 2 x 2x

y+ k y (ii) y

o n

a −b − c 2a 2a 3 2b b−c−a 2b = ( a + b + c ) 11. (i) 2c 2c c−a−b x + y + 2z z (ii) z x y + z + 2x x y y z + x + 2y

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

1 c c

1 a 1 b 1 c = ( a − b )( b − c )( c − a )( a + b + c ) a3 b3 c3

h s

d e

yz

2

zx = (x – y) (y – z) (z – x) (xy + yz + zx)

2

xy

2x x+ 4 2x

2x 2 2x = ( 5 x + 4 )( 4 − x )

x +4 y y

y y +k y

= k 2 ( 3y + k )

y+ k

=2 ( x + y + z )

3

DETERMINANTS

121

1 12. x2 x

x 1 x2

x2 1

x = 1 − x3

(

)

2

1+ a 2 − b2 13. 2 ab 2b

2 ab 1− a + b

2 2

−2b 2a 1− a2 − b2

= 1 + a2 + b2

(

)

3

a2 + 1

14.

ab ca

Choose the correct answer in Exercises 15 and 16. 15. Let A be a square matrix of order 3 × 3, then | kA | is equal to (C) k 3 | A | (D) 3 k | A | (A) k| A | (B) k 2 | A | 16. Which of the following is correct (A) Determinant is a square matrix. (B) Determinant is a number associated to a matrix. (C) Determinant is a number associated to a square matrix. (D) None of these

4.4 Area of a Triangle

In earlier classes, we have studied that the area of a triangle whose vertices are

o n

1 [ x (y –y ) + x2 (y3– y1) + 2 1 2 3 x3 (y1–y2 )]. Now this expression can be written in the form of a determinant as ( x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3), is given by the expression x1 1 x2 Δ= 2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1 ... (1)

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

ab ac b2 + 1 cb bc =1 + a 2 + b 2 + c2 c2 + 1

−2 a

h s

d e

Remarks (i) Since area is a positive quantity, we always take the absolute value of the determinant in (1).

122

MATHEMATICS

(ii) If area is given, use both positive and negative values of the determinant for calculation. (iii) The area of the triangle formed by three collinear points is zero. Example 17 Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (3, 8), (– 4, 2) and (5, 1). Solution The area of triangle is given by 3 8 1 1 –4 2 1 Δ= 2 5 1 1 =

Example 18 Find the equation of the line joining A(1, 3) and B (0, 0) using determinants and find k if D(k, 0) is a point such that area of triangle ABD is 3sq units. Solution Let P (x, y) be any point on AB. Then, area of triangle ABP is zero (Why?). So 0 0 1 1 1 3 1 =0 2 x y 1

1 ( y – 3 x ) = 0 or y = 3 x, 2 which is the equation of required line AB. Also, since the area of the triangle ABD is 3 sq. units, we have This gives 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 =±3 2 k 0 1

o n

This gives,

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

1 ⎡ 3 ( 2 – 1) – 8 ( – 4 – 5 ) + 1( – 4 – 10 ) ⎤ ⎦ 2⎣ 1 61 (3 + 72 – 14 ) = 2 2 = − 3k = ± 3 , i.e., k = m 2. 2

h s

d e

EXERCISE 4.3

1. Find area of the triangle with vertices at the point given in each of the following : (i) (1, 0), (6, 0), (4, 3) (ii) (2, 7), (1, 1), (10, 8) (iii) (–2, –3), (3, 2), (–1, –8)

DETERMINANTS

123

2. Show that points A (a, b + c), B (b, c + a), C (c, a + b) are collinear. 3. Find values of k if area of triangle is 4 sq. units and vertices are (i) ( k, 0), (4, 0), (0, 2) (ii) (–2, 0), (0, 4), (0, k) 4. (i) Find equation of line joining (1, 2) and (3, 6) using determinants. (ii) Find equation of line joining (3, 1) and (9, 3) using determinants. 5. If area of triangle is 35 sq units with vertices (2, – 6), (5, 4) and (k, 4). Then k is (A) 12 (B) –2 (C) –12, –2 (D) 12, –2

4.5 Minors and Cofactors

In this section, we will learn to write the expansion of a determinant in compact form using minors and cofactors.

Definition 1 Minor of an element aij of a determinant is the determinant obtained by deleting its ith row and jth column in which element aij lies. Minor of an element a ij is denoted by Mij. Remark Minor of an element of a determinant of order n( n ≥ 2) is a determinant of order n – 1. 1 2 3 Example 19 Find the minor of element 6 in the determinant Δ = 4 5 6 7 8 9

Solution Since 6 lies in the second row and third column, its minor M23 is given by M23 = 1 2 = 8 – 14 = – 6 (obtained by deleting R 2 and C3 in Δ). 7 8

o n

Definition 2 Cofactor of an element aij , denoted by Aij is defined by Aij = (–1)i + j Mij , where Mij is minor of aij.

Example 20 Find minors and cofactors of all the elements of the determinant Solution Minor of the element a ij is Mij Here a11 = 1. So M11 = Minor of a11 = 3 M12 = Minor of the element a 12 = 4 M21 = Minor of the element a21 = –2

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

h s

d e

1 –2 4 3

124

MATHEMATICS

M22 = Minor of the element a22 = 1 Now, cofactor of aij is Aij. So A11 = (–1) 1 + 1 M11 = (–1) 2 (3) = 3 A12 = (–1) 1 + 2 M12 = (–1) 3 (4) = – 4 A21 = (–1) 2 + 1 M21 = (–1)3 (–2) = 2 A22 = (–1) 2 + 2 M22 = (–1) 4 (1) = 1 Example 21 Find minors and cofactors of the elements a11 , a21 in the determinant

Solution By definition of minors and cofactors, we have Minor of a11 = M11 =

Cofactor of a 11 = A11 = (–1)1+1 M11 = a22 a33 – a 23 a 32 Minor of a21 = M21 = a12 a32 a13 = a 12 a33 – a13 a32 a33

Cofactor of a 21 = A21 = (–1)2+1 M21 = (–1) ( a12 a33 – a 13 a 32) = – a12 a33 + a13 a 32 Remark Expanding the determinant Δ, in Example 21, along R1, we have a21 a 22 a22 a23 a21 a 23 1+1 1+2 1+3 Δ = (–1) a 11 a a + (–1) a 12 a a + (–1) a 13 a31 a32

32 33 31 33

o n

= a 11 A11 + a 12 A12 + a 13 A13, where Aij is cofactor of aij

= sum of product of elements of R1 with their corresponding cofactors Similarly, Δ can be calculated by other five ways of expansion that is along R2, R3, C1 , C2 and C 3. Hence Δ = sum of the product of elements of any row (or column) with their corresponding cofactors.

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

a11 a12 Δ = a21 a 22 a31 a32 a13 a23 a33

h s

d e

a22 a32

a23 a33

= a22 a 33– a23 a 32

$Note

If elements of a row (or column) are multiplied with cofactors of any other row (or column), then their sum is zero. For example,

DETERMINANTS

125

Δ = a11 A21 + a12 A22 + a13 A23 = a 11 (–1) 1+1 a11 a12 = a11 a12 a31 a32

a12 a32

a13 a33

+ a12 (–1)1+2

a11 a13 a a + a 13 (–1)1+3 11 12 a31 a33 a31 a32

a13 a13 = 0 (since R 1 and R2 are identical) a33

Similarly, we can try for other rows and columns.

Example 22 Find minors and cofactors of the elements of the determinant 2 –3 6 0 1 5 5 4 and verify that a 11 A31 + a12 A32 + a 13 A33 = 0 –7

**0 4 Solution We have M11 = 5 –7 = 0 –20 = –20; A11 = (–1)1+1 (–20) = –20 6 4 M12 = 1 –7 = – 42 – 4 = – 46;
**

0 5 = 30 – 0 = 30;

o n

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

A12 = (–1)1+2 (– 46) = 46

6 M13 = 1

h s

d e

A13 = (–1)1+3 (30) = 30

–3 5 M21 = 5 –7 = 21 – 25 = – 4;

A21 = (–1)2+1 (– 4) = 4

2 5 M22 = 1 –7 = –14 – 5 = –19;

A22 = (–1) 2+2 (–19) = –19

2 –3 M23 = 1 5 = 10 + 3 = 13;

A23 = (–1)2+3 (13) = –13

M31 =

–3 5 = –12 – 0 = –12; 0 4

A31 = (–1) 3+1 (–12) = –12

1 z xy o n a11 a12 5.e. a 12 = –3. A32 = (–1)3+2 (–22) = 22 A33 = (–1)3+3 (18) = 18 and Now So M33 = 2 –3 = 0 + 18 = 18.126 MATHEMATICS 2 M32 = 6 5 4 = 8 – 30 = –22. A–1 we shall first define adjoint of a matrix. Using Cofactors of elements of second row. A31 = –12. If Δ = a21 a 22 a31 a32 (A) a11 A31+ a12 A32 + a 13 A33 (C) a21 A11+ a22 A12 + a 23 A13 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 4. . 1 2 3 1 x yz 4. A32 = 22. evaluate Δ = 1 y zx . A33 = 18 a11 A31 + a 12 A32 + a 13 A33 = 2 (–12) + (–3) (22) + 5 (18) = – 24 – 66 + 90 = 0 Write Minors and Cofactors of the elements of following determinants: 2 –4 1. a13 = 5.. (i) 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 3 8 3. we have studied inverse of a matrix. In this section.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix In the previous chapter.4 1 0 4 (ii) 3 5 – 1 0 1 2 (B) a11 A11+ a12 A21 + a 13 A31 (D) a11 A11+ a21 A21 + a 31 A31 h s d e a13 a23 and Aij is Cofactors of aij. 6 0 a11 = 2. i. (i) 0 3 (ii) a c b d 1 0 0 2. evaluate Δ = 2 0 1 . then value of Δ is given by a33 4. Using Cofactors of elements of third column. To find inverse of a matrix A. we shall discuss the condition for existence of inverse of a matrix.

i. Adjoint of the matrix A is denoted by adj A. ⎡ a11 A= ⎢ ⎢ a21 ⎢ ⎣ a31 a12 a22 a32 a13 ⎤ a23 ⎥ ⎥ a33 ⎥ ⎦ A12 A22 A32 A13 ⎤ ⎡ A11 ⎢ A23 ⎥ ⎥ = ⎢A12 ⎥ ⎢ A33 ⎦ ⎣A13 A 21 A22 A23 A 31 ⎤ A32 ⎥ ⎥ A33 ⎥ ⎦ Let Then ⎡ A11 ⎢A A = Transpose of adj ⎢ 21 ⎢ A31 ⎣ ⎡ 2 3⎤ Example 23 Find adj A for A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 4⎦ Solution We have A11 = 4. o n We state the following theorem without proof.. A21 = –3. given by ⎡ a11 a12 ⎤ ⎥ A = ⎢a ⎣ 21 a 22 ⎦ The adj A can also be obtained by interchanging a 11 and a 22 and by changing signs of a12 and a 21. h s d e Theorem 1 If A be any given square matrix of order n. where Aij is the cofactor of the element a ij.DETERMINANTS 127 4.6. then where I is the identity matrix of order n .e. A22 = 2 Hence ⎡ A11 A21 ⎤ ⎡ 4 –3 ⎤ adj A = ⎢ A ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 12 A 22 ⎦ ⎣ –1 2 ⎦ Remark For a square matrix of order 2. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t A( adj A) = ( adj A) A = A I .1 Adjoint of a matrix Definition 3 The adjoint of a square matrix A = [a ij] n × n is defined as the transpose of the matrix [Aij] n × n. A12 = –1.

AB = A B . Then A = 3 4 = 4 – 6 = – 2 ≠ 0. where A and B are square matrices of the same order ⎡A ⎢ Remark We know that (adj A) A = A I = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣0 0 A 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ A⎥ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ = A ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ = A I ⎢ A⎥ ⎣0 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎦ h s d e . Definition 5 A square matrix A is said to be non-singular if A ≠ 0 1 2 ⎡1 2 ⎤ A= ⎢ ⎥ . the determinant of matrix A = ⎢ 4 8 ⎥ is zero ⎣ ⎦ Hence A is a singular matrix. ⎡ 1 2⎤ For example. we have ⎡A ⎢ A (adj A) = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣0 0 A 0 ⎡ a11 a12 ⎢ A = ⎢ a21 a 22 ⎢ ⎣ a31 a32 A21 A 22 A 23 A31 ⎤ A32 ⎥ ⎥ A33 ⎥ ⎦ column) with corresponding Similarly. then AB and BA are also nonsingular matrices of the same order. 3 4 ⎣ ⎦ Hence A is a nonsingular matrix We state the following theorems without proof. Theorem 3 The determinant of the product of matrices is equal to product of their respective determinants. Let o n Theorem 2 If A and B are nonsingular matrices of the same order. we can show ( adj A) A = A I Hence A (adj A) = ( adj A) A = A I Definition 4 A square matrix A is said to be singular if A = 0. that is.128 MATHEMATICS Verification a13 ⎤ ⎡ A11 ⎥ a23 ⎥ . then adj A = ⎢ Let ⎢ A12 ⎢ a33 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A13 Since sum of product of elements of a row (or a cofactors is equal to |A | and otherwise zero.

AB = A B ) . So AB = I or A B =1 This gives Conversely. if A is a square matrix of order n . then | adj (A) | = |A |n – 1. 1 0 0 |(adj A)| |A| = A 0 1 0 3 (Why?) i. Then. 3 Theorem 4 A square matrix A is invertible if and only if A is nonsingular matrix. we have A ( adj A) A = 0 0 0 A 0 0 0 A i.e. |(adj A)| = | A |2 In general. there exists a square matrix B of order n such that AB = BA = I Now AB = I. then verify that A adj A = |A | I. ⎢ ⎣1 3 4⎥ ⎦ Solution We have A = 1 (16 – 9) –3 (4 – 3) + 3 (3 – 4) = 1 ≠ 0 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 0 0 1 A ≠ 0.e.DETERMINANTS 129 Writing determinants of matrices on both sides. let A be nonsingular.e. where B = 1 adj A |A| A is invertible and A–1 = 1 adj A |A| h s d e (since I =1. Also find A–1 . Proof Let A be invertible matrix of order n and I be the identity matrix of order n . |(adj A)| |A| = |A | (1) i. Hence A is nonsingular. (Theorem 1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ adj A ⎟ = ⎜ adj A ⎟ A = I A ⎜ | A | | A | ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = BA = I. Then A ≠ 0 Now or A (adj A) = ( adj A) A = A I or o n Thus ⎡1 3 3⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Example 24 If A = ⎢1 4 3⎥ .

⎣ 1 − 4⎦ ⎣ −1 3 ⎦ 3⎤ ⎡2 Solution We have AB = ⎢ 1 − 4⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Since. A13 = –1. A33 = 1 Therefore ⎡ 7 −3 −3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ adj A = ⎢ −1 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎣ −1 0 ⎦ ⎡1 3 3 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −3 −3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ A (adj A) = ⎢1 4 3 ⎥ ⎢ −1 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣1 3 4 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ −1 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ Now Also ⎡2 3 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ and B = ⎢ Example 25 If A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ . A = –11 ≠ 0 and B = 1 ≠ 0.I ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ Further. A32 = 0. A31 = –3. A–1 and B–1 both exist and are given by . A12 = –1. A22 = 1.130 MATHEMATICS Now A11 = 7. then verify that (AB)–1 = B–1A–1 .A23 = 0. B = ⎢1 1 ⎥ 11 ⎣ −1 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ A–1 = − h s d e ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = A . (AB)–1 exists and is given by (AB)–1 = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 7 − 3 − 3 −3 + 3 + 0 −3 + 0 + 3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 7 − 4 − 3 −3 + 4 + 0 −3 + 0 + 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 7 − 3 − 4 −3 + 3 + 0 −3 + 0 + 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ = (1) ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ A–1 ⎡ 7 −3 −3 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −3 −3 ⎤ 1⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ = a d j A = ⎢ −1 1 0 ⎥ = ⎢ −1 1 0 ⎥ 1 A ⎢ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎣ −1 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ −1 0 ⎦ 1 1 ⎡ −14 −5 ⎤ = 1 ⎡14 5⎤ adj (AB) =− ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 11 ⎣ 5 1⎦ AB 11 ⎣ −5 −1 ⎦ 1 ⎡ − 4 −3⎤ − 1 ⎡ 3 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ . Therefore. ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎡−1 5 ⎤ ⎢−1 3 ⎥ = ⎢ 5 −14 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ o n AB = –11 ≠ 0. A21 = –3.

find A–1.A = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 2 ⎦ ⎣ 4 7 ⎦ Hence Now Therefore or or or or Hence Find adjoint of each of the matrices in Exercises 1 and 2. ⎡2 3 ⎤ ⎡ 2 3 ⎤ ⎡ 7 12 ⎤ Solution We have A2 = A. ⎢ 2 3 5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ −2 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ Verify A (adj A) = (adj A) A = |A| I in Exercises 3 and 4 ⎡1 2 ⎤ 1. ⎢3 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ 3⎥ ⎣1 0 ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡7 12 ⎤ ⎡8 12 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ A2 − 4A + I = ⎢ ⎥− ⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥=O ⎣4 7 ⎦ ⎣4 8 ⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 ⎦ A2 – 4A + I = O AI – 4I = – A–1 ⎡ 4 0⎤ ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡ 2 −3 ⎤ −⎢ = ⎢ A–1 = 4I – A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣0 4 ⎦ ⎣1 2 ⎦ ⎣ −1 2 ⎦ ⎡ 2 −3 ⎤ A −1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣−1 2 ⎦ h s d e A A – 4A = – I A A (A–1 ) – 4 A A–1 = – I A–1 (Post multiplying by A–1 because |A| ≠ 0) A (A A–1 ) – 4I = – A–1 EXERCISE 4.5 . ⎢ ⎥ ⎣3 4 ⎦ 3⎤ ⎡2 ⎢ −4 −6 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 −1 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 4. o n 3. ⎡ 1 −1 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2. ⎣ ⎦ where I is 2 × 2 identity matrix and O is 2 × 2 zero matrix.DETERMINANTS 131 Therefore B− 1 A− 1 = − 1 ⎡3 2⎤ ⎡ −4 −3⎤ 1 ⎡ −14 −5⎤ 1 ⎡14 5⎤ = ⎢ ⎢1 1 ⎥ ⎢ − 1 2 ⎥ = − ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 11 ⎣ 11 ⎣ −5 −1⎦ 11 ⎣ 5 1⎦ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Hence (AB)–1 = B–1 A–1 ⎡ 2 3⎤ Example 26 Show that the matrix A = ⎢ 1 2⎥ satisfies the equation A2 – 4A + I = O. Using this equation.

⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −3 2 ⎦ 5. ⎣ 2 5⎦ ⎣ 7 9⎦ ⎡ 3 1⎤ 13. Hence. Then | adj A | is equal to (A) | A | (B) | A |2 (C) | A |3 (D) 3 | A | –1 18. ⎢ 4 −1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ −7 2 1 ⎥ ⎦ h s d e . ⎢ 0 2 4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 5⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 −1 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 10. If A is an invertible matrix of order 2. ⎢ 0 2 −3⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 3 −2 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 8. then det (A ) is equal to 1 (C) 1 (D) 0 (A) det (A) (B) det (A) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 0 ⎤ sin α ⎥ ⎥ − cos α⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 2 1 3⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 9. show that A2 – 5A + 7I = O. ⎢ 3 3 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣5 2 −1⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 ⎢ 0 cos α ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 sin α 11. If A = ⎢ −1 2 −1⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 1 −1 2 ⎥ ⎦ Verify that A3 – 6A2 + 9A – 4I = O and hence find A–1 17. If A = ⎢ ⎥ . Let A = ⎢ and B = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ . ⎣ −1 2 ⎦ ⎡3 2 ⎤ 14. ⎡1 2 3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 7. find the numbers a and b such that A2 + aA + b I = O. ⎡ 2 −2⎤ ⎢4 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −1 5 ⎤ 6. ⎣1 1 ⎦ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ 15. For the matrix A = ⎢ 1 2 −3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 2 −1 3 ⎥ ⎦ Show that A3– 6A2 + 5A + 11 I = O.132 MATHEMATICS Find the inverse of each of the matrices (if it exists) given in Exercises 5 to 11. find A–1. Let A be a nonsingular square matrix of order 3 × 3. ⎡ 3 7⎤ ⎡ 6 8⎤ –1 –1 –1 12. For the matrix A = ⎢ ⎥ . Hence find A–1. Verify that (AB) = B A . o n ⎡ 2 −1 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 16.

7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices In this section.DETERMINANTS 133 4.e.7. Inconsistent system A system of equations is said to be inconsistent if its solution does not exist.1 Solution of system of linear equations using inverse of a matrix Let us express the system of linear equations as matrix equations and solve them using inverse of the coefficient matrix. Note In this chapter. AX = B. X = ⎢ y ⎥ and B = ⎢d ⎥ Let A = ⎢ 2 2 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ a b c z ⎣ 3 3 3⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ d3 ⎥ ⎦ Then. Consider the system of equations a 1 x + b 1 y + c1 z = d 1 a 2 x + b 2 y + c2 z = d 2 a 3 x + b 3 y + c3 z = d 3 ⎡ a1 b1 c1 ⎤ ⎡ x⎤ ⎡ d1 ⎤ ⎢ a b c ⎥ . i. Consistent system A system of equations is said to be consistent if its solution (one or more) exists. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . This method of solving system of equations is known as Matrix Method. Now –1 AX = B (premultiplying by A–1) or A (AX) = A–1 B (by associative property) or (A–1A) X = A–1 B –1 or IX=A B or X = A–1 B This matrix equation provides unique solution for the given system of equations as inverse of a matrix is unique. then its inverse exists. the system of equations can be written as.. we restrict ourselves to the system of linear equations $ having unique solutions only. we shall discuss application of determinants and matrices for solving the system of linear equations in two or three variables and for checking the consistency of the system of linear equations. ⎡ a1 ⎢a ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎣ a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 ⎤ c2 ⎥ ⎥ c3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡x ⎤ ⎡ d1 ⎤ ⎢y ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ d2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣z ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ d3 ⎥ ⎦ o n Case I If A is a nonsingular matrix. 4.

If (adj A) B = O.e. y = – 1 A = 3 (2 – 3) + 2(4 + 4) + 3 (– 6 – 4) = – 17 ≠ 0 2x + 5 y = 1 3x + 2 y = 7 h s d e We see that .134 MATHEMATICS Case II If A is a singular matrix. then |A | = 0. If (adj A) B ≠ O. Hence o n Example 28 Solve the following system of equations by matrix method. A = –11 ≠ 0. Hence. we calculate (adj A) B. where ⎡ 2 5⎤ ⎡x ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ . 3 x – 2y + 3z = 8 2x + y – z = 1 4 x – 3y + 2z = 4 ⎡ 3 −2 3 ⎤ ⎡ x⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ A = ⎢ 2 1 −1⎥ . In this case. where T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t X = A–1B = – 1 ⎡ 2 −5 ⎤ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 11 ⎣ −3 2 ⎦ ⎣ 7⎦ ⎡ x⎤ 1 ⎡ −33⎤ ⎡ 3 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ y⎥ = − ⎢ 11 ⎣ 11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ −1⎦ x = 3. Example 27 Solve the system of equations Solution The system of equations can be written in the form AX = B. then system may be either consistent or inconsistent according as the system have either infinitely many solutions or no solution. A is nonsingular matrix and so has a unique solution. Note that A–1 = − 1 ⎡ 2 −5 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 11 ⎣ −3 2 ⎦ Therefore i. X = ⎢ ⎢ y⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 4 −3 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ z⎥ ⎦ ⎡8 ⎤ ⎢1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣4 ⎥ ⎦ Solution The system of equations can be written in the form AX = B. X = ⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎥ A= ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3 2⎦ ⎣ y⎦ ⎣7 ⎦ Now. then solution does not exist and the system of equations is called inconsistent. (O being zero matrix).

we get double of the second number. Now we find adj A A11 = 1 (1 + 6) = 7. Then. A12 = – 8. If we multiply third number by 3 and add second number to it. we get 11. Hence Example 29 The sum of three numbers is 6. we have x+y+z=6 y + 3z = 11 x + z = 2 y or x – 2y + z = 0 This system can be written as A X = B. A32 = – (3 – 0) = – 3. second and third numbers be denoted by x. A31 = –1. A22 = 0. Solution Let first. A22 = – 6. A32 = 9.e. By adding first and third numbers. h s d e ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A = ⎢ 0 1 3⎥ . ⎡ −1 − 5 −1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ A = − ⎢ −8 − 6 9 ⎥ 17 ⎢ ⎣ −10 1 7 ⎥ ⎦ –1 A13 = –10 A23 = 1 A33 = 7 Therefore So i. where o n Here A = 1 (1 + 6 ) – (0 – 3) + ( 0 –1) = 9 ≠ 0 . respectively. X = ⎢ ⎣1 –2 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ x⎤ ⎢ y⎥ ⎢ ⎥ and B = ⎢ ⎣z⎥ ⎦ ⎡6⎤ ⎢11⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣0⎥ ⎦ A13 = – 1 A23 = – (– 2 – 1) = 3 A33 = (1 – 0) = 1 .DETERMINANTS 135 Hence. A12 = – (0 – 3) = 3. A21 = –5. A31 = (3 – 1) = 2. Now A11 = –1. A is nonsingular and so its inverse exists. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ −1 − 5 −1⎤ ⎡ 8 ⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ X = A B = − ⎢ −8 − 6 9 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ 17 ⎢ 7⎥ ⎣ −10 1 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 4⎥ ⎦ –1 ⎡ x⎤ ⎡ −17 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎢ y⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = − 17 ⎢ −34 ⎥ = ⎢2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣z⎥ ⎦ ⎣ −51⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣3 ⎥ ⎦ x = 1. Represent it algebraically and find the numbers using matrix method. according to given conditions. y and z . A21 = – (1 + 2) = – 3. y = 2 and z = 3.

5x + 2 y = 4 8. x – y + z = 4 3 3x + 2 y = 5 x – 2y – z = 2x + y – 3z = 0 2 3y – 5z = 9 x+y+z=2 13. in Exercises 7 to 14. 5x – y + 4z = 5 2x + 3 y + 2z = 2 2y – z = –1 2x + 3 y + 5z = 2 ax + ay + 2 az = 4 3x – 5y = 3 5x – 2 y + 6z = –1 Solve system of linear equations. x + 2y = 2 2. 2x + 3 y +3 z = 5 14. 4x – 3y = 3 7x + 3 y = 5 3x + 4 y = 3 3x – 5y = 7 10. 2x – y = –2 9. using matrix method. y = 2. 7. x – y + 2z = 7 x – 2y + z = – 4 3x + 4y – 5z = – 5 3x – y – 2z = 3 2x – y + 3z = 12 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 42 − 33 + 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9 ⎤ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ x⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ y⎥ 1 18 + 0 + 0 1 ⎢18 ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ = 9 ⎢ −6 + 33 + 0 ⎥ 9 ⎢ 27 ⎥ ⎢ 3⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ z⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ x = 1. 1.136 MATHEMATICS Hence ⎡ 7 –3 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ adj A = ⎢ 3 0 –3⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎣ –1 3 ⎦ ⎡ 7 –3 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ A –1 = adj (A) = ⎢ 3 0 – 3⎥ 9 A ⎢ ⎣ –1 3 1 ⎥ ⎦ –1 X=A B ⎡ 7 –3 2 ⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎤ 1⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ X = ⎢ 3 0 – 3⎥ ⎢11⎥ 9 ⎢ ⎣ –1 3 1 ⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ 0⎥ ⎦ Thus Since or Thus o n Examine the consistency of the system of equations in Exercises 1 to 6. 2x + y + z = 1 12. x + 3y = 5 2x + 3 y = 3 x+y=4 2x + 6 y = 8 4. 2x – y = 5 3.6 . 5x + 2 y = 3 11. z = 3 h s d e EXERCISE 4. x + y + z = 1 5. 3x– y – 2z = 2 6.

3 kg wheat and 2 kg rice is Rs 60.DETERMINANTS 137 ⎡ 2 –3 5⎤ ⎢ 3 2 – 4⎥ –1 –1 15. The cost of 6 kg onion 2 kg wheat and 3 kg rice is Rs 70. The cost of 2 kg onion. show that value of the determinant a b c Δ = b c a is negative. we get a +b + c b c 1 b c Δ = a + b + c c a = (a + b + c) 1 c a a +b + c a b 1 a b o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Miscellaneous Examples = –1 (a + b + c ) (2a2 + 2b2 + 2 c2 – 2ab – 2bc – 2ca ) 2 = h s d e 1 b c = (a + b + c) 0 c – b a – c (Applying R2→ R2–R1. b. The cost of 4 kg onion. Using A solve the system of equations ⎢ ⎣ 1 1 –2 ⎥ ⎦ 2 x – 3y + 5z = 11 3 x + 2y – 4z = – 5 x + y – 2z = – 3 16. If A = ⎢ ⎥ . 4 kg wheat and 6 kg rice is Rs 90. c a b Solution Applying C1 → C1 + C 2 + C3 to the given determinant. Example 30 If a.andR3 → R3– R1) 0 a –b b– c = (a + b + c ) [(c – b) (b – c) – (a – c) (a – b)] (Expanding along C1) = (a + b + c)(– a2 – b2 – c 2 + ab + bc + ca ) –1 ( a + b + c) [(a – b) 2 + (b – c ) 2 + (c – a) 2] 2 which is negative (since a + b + c > 0 and (a – b)2 + (b – c) 2 + (c – a)2 > 0) . find A . c are positive and unequal. Find cost of each item per kg by matrix method.

R 2 → yR2 . respectively. b . y. find value of 2y + 4 5 y + 7 8y + a 3 y + 5 6 y + 8 9y + b 4 y + 6 7 y + 9 10 y + c Solution Applying R1 → R1 + R3 – 2R2 to the given determinant.138 MATHEMATICS Example 31 If a. C3 → C3– C 1. z from C1 C2 and C3. we get o n Applying C2 → C2– C 1. we obtain Example 32 Show that Solution Applying R 1 → xR1 . R3 → z R 3 to Δ and dividing by xyz.P. we have T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 4 y + 6 7 y + 9 10 y + c =0 (Since 2b = a + c) 0 0 0 3 y + 5 6 y + 8 9y + b ( y+ z ) xy xz 2 xy yz zx h s d e Δ= ( x + z) 2 yz = 2xyz (x + y + z) 3 ( x+ y ) 2 x2 y yz 2 x2 z Δ= 1 xyz y ( x+ z ) 2 y2 z z ( x+ y ) 2 ( y + z) y2 z2 2 x2 z2 x2 Δ= xyz xyz ( x + z) 2 y2 (x+ y) 2 ( y + z )2 Δ= y2 z2 x2 – ( y + z ) 2 x2 − ( y + z ) 0 2 ( x + z )2 − y 2 0 ( x + y )2 – z 2 . c. we get x ( y+ z ) xy2 xz 2 2 Taking common factors x. are in A.

we have Applying C2 → (C2 + Finally expanding along R1. we have ( y + z) Δ = ( x + y + z) 2 y 2 2 x – ( y + z) ( x + z) – y 0 x – ( y + z) 0 z2 (x + y) – z Applying R1 → R1 – (R2 + R3).DETERMINANTS 139 Taking common factor (x + y + z) from C2 and C3. we get ⎝ y z ⎠ 2 yz y2 z2 0 0 Δ = ( x + y + z) 2 x+ z z2 y y2 z x+ y 2 ⎤ –3⎥ ⎥ 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ –2 ⎢ 9 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 6 0 2 1 1 ⎤ –3 ⎥ ⎥ –2 ⎥ ⎦ 2 yz y2 – 2z x− y + z –2 y 0 h s d e ⎡1 Solution Consider the product ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣3 . we have Δ = (x + y + z)2 (2yz) [(x + z) (x + y) – yz] = (x + y + z) 2 (2yz ) (x2 + xy + xz) = ( x + y + z)3 (2xyz) ⎡1 – 1 2 ⎤ ⎡ –2 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Example 33 Use product ⎢ 0 2 – 3⎥ ⎢ 9 2 –3 ⎥ to solve the system of equations ⎢ ⎣ 3 –2 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 6 1 –2⎥ ⎦ x – y + 2z = 1 2y – 3z = 1 3 x – 2y + 4z = 2 –1 2 –2 o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Δ = ( x + y + z) 2 z2 0 x + y –z 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ C 1) and C3 → ⎜ C3 + C1 ⎟ .

we get Δ= a (1 − x 2 ) c (1 − x 2 ) ax + b cx + d u v T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡1 –1 2 ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎢ 0 2 –3⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 3 –2 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣z⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 2⎥ ⎦ −1 ⎡ x⎤ ⎡1 −1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ – 2 0 1 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎢ y⎥ ⎢ 0 2 −3 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 9 2 – 3 ⎥ ⎢1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ z − ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3 2 4⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 2⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 6 1 –2⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ −2 + 0 + 2 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 9 + 2 − 6 ⎥ = ⎢ 5⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 6 +1 − 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 3⎥ ⎦ x = 0. y = 5 and z = 3 h s d e a + bx c + dx p + qx a c p 2 Δ = ax + b cx + d px + q = (1 − x ) b d q u v w u v w p (1 − x2 ) px + q w a c = (1 − x ) ax + b cx + d u v 2 p px + q w .140 MATHEMATICS ⎡ − 2 − 9 + 12 0 − 2 + 2 1 + 3 − 4⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 + 18 − 18 0 + 4 − 3 0 − 6 + 6⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ − 6 − 18 + 24 0 − 4 + 4 3 + 6 − 8⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 – 1 2 ⎤ ⎡ –2 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ 0 2 – 3⎥ = ⎢ 9 2 – 3⎥ Hence ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 3 –2 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 6 1 –2 ⎥ ⎦ Now. in matrix form. as follows –1 or Hence Example 34 Prove that o n Solution Applying R1 → R 1 – x R 2 to Δ. given system of equations can be written.

c3 h s d e ⎡ 3 –1 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 – 2⎤ –1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 7. Prove that a + ab ab b 2 + bc c2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x x = 0. a + b b + c c+ a Show that either a + b + c = 0 or a = b = c. b and c are real numbers. prove that b b 2 c c2 1 a2 bc ca = 1 b 2 ab 1 c2 cos α cos β cos α sin β – sin α – sin β cos β 0 . If a . we get a c 2 p Δ = (1 − x ) b d q u v w Miscellaneous Exercises on Chapter 4 x sin θ cos θ θ –x 1 is independent of θ. Prove that the determinant – sin cos θ 1 x a a2 2.DETERMINANTS 141 Applying R2 → R 2 – x R1. x+ a x 5. a ≠ 0 x x x+ a a3 b3 . find ( AB ) ⎢ 5 ⎢ 0 –2 1 ⎦ ⎥ –2 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ . Without expanding the determinant. 3. and b + c c+ a a + b Δ = c + a a + b b + c = 0. Evaluate sin α cos β sin α sin β cos α 4. If A–1 = ⎢ – 15 6 –5 ⎥ and B = ⎢ –1 3 0 ⎥ . 1. Solve the equation x x+ a o n a2 bc ac+ c 2 2 b2 ac = 4a 2b2c2 6.

12. 3a –b+ a – c+ a o n 14. 16. Evaluate 1 x Using properties of determinants in Exercises 11 to 15. Evaluate y x+ y x 1 x 1 x+ y 10. prove that: α α2 β β2 γ x y z γ2 β+γ γ + α = (β – γ ) (γ – α) (α – β) (α + β + γ) 11. Let A = ⎢ – 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎣1 (i) [ adj A]–1 = x y x+ y 1⎤ 1⎥ . 13. where p is any scalar. Solve the system of equations 2 3 10 + + =4 x y z . 1 1+ p 2 3+ 2 p 1+ p+ q 4+ 3 p+ 2q = 1 3 6 + 3 p 10 + 6 p + 3 q T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t y y x+ y α+β z2 1 + pz 3 – a+ b – a+ c 3b – b + c = 3(a + b + c) (ab + bc + ca) – c +b 3c 15. sin α cos α cos ( α + δ ) sin β cos β cos ( β + δ ) = 0 sin γ cos γ cos ( γ + δ ) h s d e x 2 1 + px3 y 2 1 + py3 = (1 + pxyz) (x – y) (y – z) (z – x).142 MATHEMATICS ⎡ 1 –2 ⎢ 8. Verify that ⎥ 5⎥ ⎦ adj (A–1 ) x+ y x y (ii) (A–1) –1 = A 9.

b . then the inverse of matrix A = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 ⎡ x −1 ⎢ (A) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ z −1 ⎦ ⎡ x−1 ⎢ (B) xyz ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ z −1 ⎦ o n ⎡ x 0 0⎤ 1 ⎢ 0 y 0⎥ (C) ⎥ xyz ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ z 0 0 ⎣ ⎦ sin θ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 sin θ⎥ . If x. 4] . are in A. 17. y . where 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. ∞) (D) Det (A) ∈ [2. then the determinant x + 2 x + 3 x + 2a x + 3 x + 4 x + 2 b is x + 4 x + 5 x + 2c (A) 0 ⎡x 18. If a . 4) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (B) 1 (C) x (D) 2 x y −1 h s d e 0 0⎤ y 0⎥ ⎥ is 0 z⎥ ⎦ y −1 0 0 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ 1 ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ (D) ⎥ xyz ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ (B) Det (A) ∈ (2. c.P.DETERMINANTS 143 4 6 5 – + =1 x y z 6 9 20 + – =2 x y z Choose the correct answer in Exercise 17 to 19. z are nonzero real numbers. Then 19. Let A = ⎢ − sin θ ⎢ ⎣ −1 − sin θ 1 ⎥ ⎦ (A) Det (A) = 0 (C) Det (A) ∈ (2.

where A′ = transpose of A.144 MATHEMATICS Summary Determinant of a matrix A = [a 11]1 × 1 is given by | a 11| = a 11 ⎡a Determinant of a matrix A = ⎢ 11 ⎣ a 21 A= a11 a21 a12 ⎤ is given by a22 ⎥ ⎦ a12 a22 = a 11 a 22 – a 12 a21 b1 b2 b3 ⎡ a1 Determinant of a matrix A = ⎢ ⎢ a2 ⎢ ⎣ a3 a1 b1 A = a 2 b2 a3 b3 For any square matrix A. then value of determinant remains same. |A′| = |A|. then value of determinant is multiplied by k. If A = [ a ij ] 3×3 . If we multiply each element of a row or a column of a determinant by constant k. then the given determinant can be expressed as sum of two or more determinants. then value of determinant is zero. If we interchange any two rows (or columns). then sign of determinant changes. the |A| satisfy following properties. then k . T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t c1 b c2 = a1 2 b3 c3 c2 a c a − b1 2 2 + c1 2 c3 a 3 c3 a3 b2 b3 c1 ⎤ c2 ⎥ ⎥ is given by (expanding along R1) c3 ⎥ ⎦ h s d e . Multiplying a determinant by k means multiply elements of only one row (or one column) by k. A = k 3 A o n If elements of a row or a column in a determinant can be expressed as sum of two or more elements. If to each element of a row or a column of a determinant the equimultiples of corresponding elements of other rows or columns are added. If any two rows or any two columns are identical or proportional.

Cofactor of a ij of given by Aij = (– 1)i + j Mij Value of determinant of a matrix A is obtained by sum of product of elements of a row (or a column) with corresponding cofactors. where B is square matrix. If elements of one row (or column) are multiplied with cofactors of elements of any other row (or column). A square matrix A is said to be singular or non-singular according as |A | = 0 or |A | ≠ 0. If AB = BA = I. where A –1 = ⎡ a1 ⎢a A=⎢ 2 ⎢ a ⎣ 3 b1 b2 b3 ⎡x ⎤ ⎡ d1 ⎤ c1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢d ⎥ c2 ⎥ . a11 A21 + a12 A22 + a13 A23 = 0 ⎡ a11 a12 a13 ⎤ ⎡ A11 A 21 A 31 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ If A = ⎢ a21 a 22 a 23 ⎥ . y3) is given by x1 1 Δ= x2 2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1 Minor of an element a ij of the determinant of matrix A is the determinant obtained by deleting ith row and jth column and denoted by Mij. (x2.DETERMINANTS 145 Area of a triangle with vertices (x1. h s d e . X= ⎢ y⎥ and B= ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ c3 ⎥ z d ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎥ ⎦ o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t A = a11 A11 + a12 A12 + a13 A13. y1). For example. then these equations can be written as A X = B. A square matrix A has inverse if and only if A is non-singular. where Aij is ⎢ a31 a 32 a33 ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎣A13 A23 A33 ⎥ ⎦ cofactor of a ij A (adj A) = (adj A) A = |A | I. where A is square matrix of order n. For example. then B is called inverse of A. 1 (adj A) A If a 1 x + b 1 y + c1 z = d1 a 2 x + b 2 y + c2 z = d2 a 3 x + b 3 y + c3 z = d 3. Also A–1 = B or B–1 = A and hence (A–1 )–1 = A. then adj A = ⎢ ⎢A12 A22 A32 ⎥ . y2) and (x3. then their sum is zero.

pp 30. of the Tokyo Math. where A ≠ 0 . 93. Laplace (1772). But he used this device only in eliminating a quantity from two equations and not directly in the solution of a set of simultaneous linear equations. Vendermonde was the first to recognise determinants as independent functions. The greatest contributor to the theory was Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi. He used the word ‘determinant’ in its present sense.” in the proc. then system may or may not be consistent. The Chinese.. gave general method of expanding a determinant in terms of its complementary minors. He may be called the formal founder. Seki Kowa. o n Also on the same day. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Historical Note h s d e . He gave the proof of multiplication theorem more satisfactory than Binet’s. Gauss used determinants in his theory of numbers. after this the word determinant received its final acceptance. ‘T. therefore. there exists unique solution (ii) |A | = 0 and (adj A) B ≠ 0. Cauchy (1812) presented one on the same subject. which for the special case of m = n reduces to the multiplication theorem. China. Soc. For a square matrix A in matrix equation AX = B (i) |A | ≠ 0. then there exists no solution (iii) |A | = 0 and (adj A) B = 0. Hayashi. The Chinese method of representing the coefficients of the unknowns of several linear equations by using rods on a calculating board naturally led to the discovery of simple method of elimination. A system of equation is consistent or inconsistent according as its solution exists or not. the greatest of the Japanese Mathematicians of seventeenth century in his work ‘Kai Fukudai no Ho ’ in 1683 showed that he had the idea of determinants and of their expansion.146 MATHEMATICS Unique solution of equation AX = B is given by X = A–1 B. In 1801. V. The next great contributor was Jacques . The arrangement of rods was precisely that of the numbers in a determinant.Marie Binet. In 1773 Lagrange treated determinants of the second and third orders and used them for purpose other than the solution of equations. “The Fakudoi and Determinants in Japanese Mathematics. early developed the idea of subtracting columns and rows as in simplification of a determinant ‘ Mikami.Philippe . (1812) who stated the theorem relating to the product of two matrices of m-columns and nrows.

01. In this chapter.1 Introduction This chapter is essentially a continuation of our study of differentiation of functions in Class XI. the value of the function is 1. we will learn some fundamental theorems in this area. at points like 0. Consider the function ⎧1.01. if x > 0 This function is of course defined at every point of the real line. differentiability and relations between them.e. We illustrate certain geometrically obvious conditions through differential calculus...1 The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of everyday thinking.Chapter 5 CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 5.1. At the points near and to the left of 0. 0. 5.e.” — ALBERT EINSTEIN h s d e Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727) .1. We will also learn differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions. we introduce a new class of functions called exponential and logarithmic functions. i. Graph of this function is given in the Fig 5. – 0. if x ≤ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ 2. i. we introduce the very important concepts of continuity.1. One can deduce from the graph that the value of the function at nearby points on x-axis remain close to each other except at x = 0. We had learnt to differentiate certain functions like polynomial functions and trigonometric functions. These functions lead to powerful techniques of differentiation.2 Continuity We start the section with two informal examples to get a feel of continuity. Further.001. at points like – 0. – 0. At the points near and to the right of 0. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 5. In the process.

Again. Note that when we try to draw the graph. without lifting pen from the plane of the paper. In particular the left and right hand limits do not coincide. Left and the right hand limits at x = 0 are both equal to 1. right hand limit and the value of the function at x = c exist and equal to each other. We also observe that the value of the function at x = 0 concides with the left hand limit. consider the function defined as This function is also defined at every point.148 MATHEMATICS 0. then we say that the common value is the limit of the function at x = c. we can not draw the graph of this function. we note that we cannot draw the graph of the function without lifting the pen. we may say that the left (respectively right) hand limit of f at 0 is 1 (respectively 2). This is yet another instance of a function being not continuous at x = 0. we cannot draw it in one stroke. then f is said to be continuous at x = c. we need to lift the pen when we come to 0 from left.e. Mathematically. Recall that if the right hand and left hand limits at x = c coincide. Using the language of left and right hand limits.2 lifting the pen from the plane of the paper. we say f is discontinuous at c and c is called a point of discontinuity of f . if x ≠ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩2. This is one instance of function being not continuous at x = 0. Hence we may also rephrase the definition of continuity as follows: a function is continuous at x = c if the function is defined at x = c and if the value of the function at x = c equals the limit of the function at x = c. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t lim f ( x ) = f ( c ) x →c ⎧1. i. if the left hand limit. Naively. But the value of the function at x = 0 equals 2 which does not coincide with the common value of the left and right hand limits. the value of the function is 2. we may say that a function is continuous at a fixed point if we can draw the graph of the function around that point without Fig 5. if x = 0 h s d e . Now.. it may be phrased precisely as follows: Definition 1 Suppose f is a real function on a subset of the real numbers and let c be a point in the domain of f. In fact. If f is not continuous at c.001. Then f is continuous at c if o n More elaborately.

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 149 Example 1 Check the continuity of the function f given by f (x) = 2x + 3 at x = 1. right hand limit and the value of the function coincide at x = 0. Hence. Then find the limit of the function at x = 1. Example 3 Discuss the continuity of the function f given by f (x) = | x | at x = 0. if x ≥ 0 Clearly the function is defined at 0 and f (0) = 0. if x < 0 f (x) = ⎨ ⎩ x. if x ≠ 0 ⎨ f (x) = if x = 0 ⎪ ⎩1. f is continuous at x = 0. . Left hand limit of f at 0 is x →0 − Similarly. the right hand limit of f at 0 is o n Thus. Example 4 Show that the function f given by T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x→ 0 h s d e lim f ( x ) = 0 = f (0) lim f (x) = lim− (– x) = 0 x→ 0 x →0 + lim f ( x) = lim+ x = 0 x→ 0 3 ⎧ ⎪ x + 3. the left hand limit. f is continuous at x = 0. Clearly lim f ( x) = lim x2 = 0 2 = 0 x →0 x →0 Thus Hence. Solution First note that the function is defined at the given point x = 0 and its value is 0. Example 2 Examine whether the function f given by f ( x) = x2 is continuous at x = 0. f is continuous at x = 1. Clearly lim f ( x) = lim (2 x + 3) = 2 (1) + 3 = 5 x→1 x→1 Thus lim f ( x ) = 5 = f (1) x→ 1 Hence. Solution By definition ⎧ − x. Then find the limit of the function at x = 0. Solution First note that the function is defined at the given point x = 1 and its value is 5. is not continuous at x = 0.

As a consequence x→a of this definition. now we make a natural extension of this definition to discuss continuity of a function. Solution The function is clearly defined at every point and f ( c) = c for every real number c. its value at any real number equals k. it needs to be continuous at every point in [a. Suppose f is a function defined on a closed interval [a. Example 6 Prove that the identity function on real numbers given by f (x) = x is continuous at every real number. Hence. Example 5 Check the points where the constant function f ( x) = k is continuous. This definition requires a bit of elaboration. x→ c o n Having defined continuity of a function at a given point. lim f ( x ) = lim ( x3 + 3) = 0 3 + 3 = 3 x →0 x →0 Since the limit of f at x = 0 does not coincide with f (0). Let c be any real number. Continuity of f at a means x → a+ and continuity of f at b means T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t lim f (x) = lim k = k x →c x →c x →c h s d e lim f ( x) = f ( a ) x →b – lim f ( x) = f( b ) x →b Observe that lim− f ( x ) and lim+ f (x) do not make sense. b] including the end points a and b . b ]. i. Solution The function is defined at all real numbers and by definition. f is a continuous function. it is continuous there. . It may be noted that x = 0 is the only point of discontinuity for this function. Then Since f ( c) = k = lim x →c f ( x) for any real number c. Definition 2 A real function f is said to be continuous if it is continuous at every point in the domain of f. the function is given by a polynomial.150 MATHEMATICS Solution The function is defined at x = 0 and its value at x = 0 is 1.. the function is not continuous at x = 0. lim f (x) = c = f ( c) and hence the function is continuous at every real number. if f is defined only at one point. the function f is continuous at every real number.e. Also. When x ≠ 0. if the domain of f is a singleton. then for f to be continuous. lim f ( x ) = lim x = c x →c Thus.

Thus f is a continuous function. o n Example 9 Discuss the continuity of the function f defined by f (x) = Solution Fix any non zero real number c. f (c ) = . f is continuous x →c c at every point in the domain of f. Also lim f (x) = lim ( − x) = – c x →c x →c Since lim f ( x ) = f ( c ) . we know that f is continuous at x = 0.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 151 Example 7 Is the function defined by f (x) = | x |. we have lim f ( x) = f ( c) and hence. since for c ≠ 0. if x < 0 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ x. Let c be a real number such that c < 0. Also lim f ( x ) = lim x = c x →c x →c Since lim f ( x) = f ( c) . . f is continuous at all negative real numbers. we have lim f (x) = lim x →c x→c T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (Why?) 1 1 = x c (Why?) h s d e 1 . Then f ( c) = c. f is continuous at all positive real numbers. We also know that lim f (x) = lim ( x 3 + x2 − 1) = c3 + c2 − 1 x →c x →c Thus lim f ( x ) = f ( c ) . if x ≥ 0 By Example 3. This means x →c f is a continuous function. f x →c is continuous at all points. let c be a real number such that c > 0. x ≠ 0. x →c Now. Then f (c) = – c. Solution Clearly f is defined at every real number c and its value at c is c3 + c2 – 1. and hence f is continuous at every real number. Hence. Example 8 Discuss the continuity of the function f given by f ( x) = x3 + x2 – 1. a continuous function? Solution We may rewrite f as ⎧ − x. x 1 Also.

In symbols.152 MATHEMATICS We take this opportunity to explain the concept of infinity. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t lim f ( x) = + ∞ –1 – 0.001 = 10–3 1000 = 103 10– n 10n We observe that as x gets closer to 0 from the right.. h s d e – 10–n – 10n lim f (x) = − ∞ Fig 5. We wish to emphasise that + ∞ is NOT a real number and hence the right hand limit of f at 0 does not exist (as a real number).2 5 0.2 x f ( x) From the Table 5. the value of f ( x) shoots up higher. The following table is self explanatory.2.2 –5 – 10–1 – 10 – 10–2 – 102 – 10–3 – 103 – 1 – 3.1 = 10–1 10 0..3 0. we write x →0 + (to be read as: the right hand limit of f ( x) at 0 is plus infinity).1). The graph of the reciprocal function given in Fig 5.. the left hand limit of f at 0 may be found.3 is a geometric representation of the above mentioned facts. Table 5. In symbols. Table 5.3 – 0. This we do by analysing 1 the function f (x) = near x = 0.. Essentially we are trying to find the right hand limit of f at 0. To carry out this analysis we follow the usual trick of x finding the value of the function at real numbers close to 0.3 .333. we deduce that the value of f ( x) may be made smaller than any given number by choosing a negative real number very close to 0. x →0 − 1 3.01 = 10–2 100 = 102 0.333. we wish to emphasise that – ∞ is NOT a real number and hence the left hand limit of f at 0 does not exist (as a real number). Similarly. Again. This may be rephrased as: the value of f ( x) may be made larger than any given number by choosing a positive real number very close to 0. we write o n (to be read as: the left hand limit of f (x) at 0 is minus infinity).1 x f ( x) 1 0. We tabulate this in the following (Table 5.

5. if x > 1 ⎩ Solution As in the previous example we find that f is continuous at all real numbers x ≠ 1. The graph of the function is given in Fig 5. if x < 1 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ 0. f is not continuous at x = 1.4 do not coincide. if x > 1 Solution The function f is defined at all points of the real line. Hence x = 1 is the only point of discontinuity of f. the left and right hand limits of f at x = 1 do not coincide. if x ≤ 1 f (x) = ⎨ ⎩ x − 2. Hence x = 1 is the only point of discontinuity of f. The graph of the function is given in the Fig 5. if x = 1 ⎪ x − 2. Therefore.5 h s d e Since. then f ( c) = c + 2. f is not continuous at x = 1. then f ( c) = c – 2. f is continuous at all points x > 1. Therefore. lim f ( x) = lim ( x – 2) = c – 2 = f (c) x →c x →c Thus.4. . lim f ( x) = lim f ( x + 2) = c + 2 x →c x →c Thus. then the left hand limit of f at x = 1 is x →1 – lim f ( x) = lim– ( x + 2) = 1 + 2 = 3 x→1 The right hand limit of f at x = 1 is x →1 + x →1 lim f ( x) = lim ( x − 2) = 1 − 2 = −1 + Since the left and right hand limits of f at x = 1 Fig 5. f is continuous at all real numbers less than 1. Case 1 If c < 1. Case 3 If c = 1.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 153 Example 10 Discuss the continuity of the function f defined by ⎧ x + 2. The left hand limit of f at x = 1 is lim f ( x) = lim– ( x + 2) = 1 + 2 = 3 − x →1 x→1 o n The right hand limit of f at x = 1 is lim+ f ( x) = lim ( x − 2) = 1 − 2 = −1 + x →1 x →1 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 5. Case 2 If c > 1. Example 11 Find all the points of discontinuity of the function f defined by ⎧ x + 2.

. then lim f ( x) = lim (– x + 2) = – c + 2 = f (c) and hence f is continuous in D2 .7 h s d e Case 1 At any point in D1 . if x < 0 f (x) = ⎨ ⎩ − x + 2. then lim f ( x) = lim ( x + 2) = c + 2 = f (c) and hence f is continuous in D1.154 MATHEMATICS Example 12 Discuss the continuity of the function defined by ⎧ x + 2. if x > 0 Solution Observe that the function is defined at all real numbers except at 0. Graph of the function is given in Fig 5. Example 13 Discuss the continuity of the function f given by ⎧ ⎪ x. if x < 0 o n Let Solution Clearly the function is defined at every real number. it seems prudent to partition the domain of definition of f into three disjoint subsets of the real line. Graph of this function is given in the Fig 5.6 this function we need to lift the pen from the plane of the paper. we have f ( x) = x and it is easy to see that it is continuous there (see Example 6). D2 = {0} and D3 = {x ∈ R : x > 0} T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 5. x →c x →c Case 2 If c ∈ D2. By inspection. Case 2 At any point in D3. Note that to graph Fig 5.6. we have f ( x) = x2 and it is easy to see that it is continuous there (see Example 2). we deduce that f is continuous.7. if x ≥ 0 f (x) = ⎨ 2 ⎪ ⎩ x . Domain of definition of this function is D1 ∪ D2 where D 1 = {x ∈ R : x < 0} and D2 = {x ∈ R : x > 0} x →c x →c Case 1 If c ∈ D1 . but we need to do that only for those points where the function is not defined. Since f is continuous at all points in the domain of f. D1 = {x ∈ R : x < 0}.

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

155

**Case 3 Now we analyse the function at x = 0. The value of the function at 0 is f (0) = 0. The left hand limit of f at 0 is
**

x →0 –

lim f ( x) = lim− x2 = 02 = 0

x→ 0

**The right hand limit of f at 0 is
**

x →0 + x →0

lim f ( x) = lim+ x = 0

x→ 0

Thus lim f (x) = 0 = f (0) and hence f is continuous at 0. This means that f is continuous at every point in its domain and hence, f is a continuous function. Example 14 Show that every polynomial function is continuous.

Solution Recall that a function p is a polynomial function if it is defined by p (x) = a 0 + a 1 x + ... + an xn for some natural number n, an ≠ 0 and a i ∈ R. Clearly this function is defined for every real number. For a fixed real number c, we have lim p (x ) = p ( c)

x →c

By definition, p is continuous at c. Since c is any real number, p is continuous at every real number and hence p is a continuous function. Example 15 Find all the points of discontinuity of the greatest integer function defined by f ( x) = [x], where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Solution First observe that f is defined for all real numbers. Graph of the function is given in Fig 5.8. From the graph it looks like that f is discontinuous at every integral point. Below we explore, if this is true.

o n

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

Fig 5.8

h s

d e

156

MATHEMATICS

Case 1 Let c be a real number which is not equal to any integer. It is evident from the graph that for all real numbers close to c the value of the function is equal to [ c]; i.e., lim f ( x) = lim [ x] = [ c] . Also f (c) = [c] and hence the function is continuous at all real

x →c x →c

numbers not equal to integers. Case 2 Let c be an integer. Then we can find a sufficiently small real number r > 0 such that [c – r ] = c – 1 whereas [ c + r] = c. This, in terms of limits mean that

Since these limits cannot be equal to each other for any c, the function is discontinuous at every integral point.

5.2.1 Algebra of continuous functions In the previous class, after having understood the concept of limits, we learnt some algebra of limits. Analogously, now we will study some algebra of continuous functions. Since continuity of a function at a point is entirely dictated by the limit of the function at that point, it is reasonable to expect results analogous to the case of limits. Theorem 1 Suppose f and g be two real functions continuous at a real number c. Then (1) f + g is continuous at x = c. (2) f – g is continuous at x = c. (3) f . g is continuous at x = c. (4)

⎛ f ⎞ is continuous at x = c, (provided g (c) ≠ 0). ⎜g⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Proof We are investigating continuity of (f + g ) at x = c. Clearly it is defined at x = c. We have

o n

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

x →c x →c

lim f (x) = c – 1, lim f (x) = c + −

h s

d e

lim( f + g ) ( x) = lim [ f ( x) + g ( x)] x →c x →c

x →c x→c

(by definition of f + g ) (by the theorem on limits)

= lim f ( x) + lim g ( x )

= f (c) + g (c) = ( f + g ) (c) Hence, f + g is continuous at x = c.

(as f and g are continuous) (by definition of f + g )

Proofs for the remaining parts are similar and left as an exercise to the reader.

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157

Remarks (i) As a special case of (3) above, if f is a constant function, i.e., f ( x) = λ for some real number λ, then the function ( λ . g ) defined by (λ . g) ( x) = λ . g (x) is also continuous. In particular if λ = – 1, the continuity of f implies continuity of – f . (ii) As a special case of (4) above, if f is the constant function f (x) = λ, then the

λ λ λ defined by (x) = is also continuous wherever g (x) ≠ 0. In g g g( x) 1 particular, the continuity of g implies continuity of . g The above theorem can be exploited to generate many continuous functions. They also aid in deciding if certain functions are continuous or not. The following examples illustrate this:

function Example 16 Prove that every rational function is continuous. Solution Recall that every rational function f is given by

p( x) , q( x) ≠ 0 q(x) where p and q are polynomial functions. The domain of f is all real numbers except points at which q is zero. Since polynomial functions are continuous (Example 14), f is continuous by (4) of Theorem 1. f (x) =

Example 17 Discuss the continuity of sine function. Solution To see this we use the following facts

x →0

We have not proved it, but is intuitively clear from the graph of sin x near 0. Now, observe that f ( x) = sin x is defined for every real number. Let c be a real number. Put x = c + h . If x → c we know that h → 0. Therefore

o n

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

lim sin x = 0 lim f ( x) = lim sin x x →c x →c sin(c + h) = lim h →0 [sin c cos h + cos c sin h] = lim h →0 [sin c cos h ] + lim [cos c sin h ] = lim h →0 h→ 0 = sin c + 0 = sin c = f (c)

x →c

h s

d e

Thus lim f (x) = f (c) and hence f is a continuous function.

158

MATHEMATICS

Remark A similar proof may be given for the continuity of cosine function. Example 18 Prove that the function defined by f (x) = tan x is a continuous function. Solution The function f (x) = tan x = that cos x ≠ 0, i.e., x ≠ (2n +1)

sin x . This is defined for all real numbers such cos x

π . We have just proved that both sine and cosine 2 functions are continuous. Thus tan x being a quotient of two continuous functions is continuous wherever it is defined. An interesting fact is the behaviour of continuous functions with respect to composition of functions. Recall that if f and g are two real functions, then ( f o g) (x) = f ( g (x))

is defined whenever the range of g is a subset of domain of f. The following theorem (stated without proof) captures the continuity of composite functions. Theorem 2 Suppose f and g are real valued functions such that (f o g) is defined at c. If g is continuous at c and if f is continuous at g (c), then (f o g) is continuous at c. The following examples illustrate this theorem. Example 19 Show that the function defined by f ( x) = sin (x2) is a continuous function. Solution Observe that the function is defined for every real number. The function f may be thought of as a composition g o h of the two functions g and h, where g ( x) = sin x and h (x) = x2. Since both g and h are continuous functions, by Theorem 2, it can be deduced that f is a continuous function. Example 20 Show that the function f defined by

where x is any real number, is a continuous function.

o n

Solution Define g by g ( x) = 1 – x + | x | and h by h ( x) = | x | for all real x. Then ( h o g) (x) = h ( g ( x))

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

f (x) = |1 – x + | x | |, = h (1– x + | x |) = | 1– x + | x | | = f (x)

h s

d e

In Example 7, we have seen that h is a continuous function. Hence g being a sum of a polynomial function and the modulus function is continuous. But then f being a composite of two continuous functions is continuous.

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

159

EXERCISE 5.1

1. Prove that the function f ( x) = 5x – 3 is continuous at x = 0, at x = – 3 and at x = 5. 2. Examine the continuity of the function f ( x) = 2x2 – 1 at x = 3. 3. Examine the following functions for continuity. (a) f (x) = x – 5 (c) f (x) = (b) f (x) = 1 ,x≠5 x−5

x 2 − 25 , x ≠ –5 (d) f (x) = | x – 5 | x+5 4. Prove that the function f ( x) = xn is continuous at x = n, where n is a positive integer. 5. Is the function f defined by ⎧ x, if x ≤ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ 5, if x > 1 continuous at x = 0? At x = 1? At x = 2? Find all points of discontinuity of f, where f is defined by ⎧ 2 x + 3, if x ≤ 2 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ 2 x − 3, if x > 2

6.

8.

⎧| x | ⎪ , if x ≠ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ x ⎪ 0, if x = 0 ⎩

o n

12.

10.

⎧ ⎪ x + 1, if x ≥ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ 2 ⎪ ⎩ x + 1, if x < 1

10 ⎧ ⎪ x − 1, if x ≤ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ 2 if x > 1 ⎪ ⎩x , 13. Is the function defined by

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

7. ⎧| x | +3, if x ≤ − 3 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ −2 x, if − 3 < x < 3 ⎪ 6 x + 2, if x ≥ 3 ⎩ 9.

⎧ x ⎪ , if x < 0 f ( x) = ⎨ | x | ⎪ −1, if x ≥ 0 ⎩

h s

d e

11.

3 ⎧ ⎪ x − 3, if x ≤ 2 f ( x) = ⎨ 2 ⎪ ⎩ x + 1, if x > 2

⎧ x + 5, if x ≤ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ x − 5, if x > 1

a continuous function?

160

MATHEMATICS

Discuss the continuity of the function f , where f is defined by 14. ⎧3, if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ 4, if 1 < x < 3 ⎪5, if 3 ≤ x ≤ 10 ⎩ ⎧ −2, if x ≤ − 1 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ 2 x, if − 1 < x ≤ 1 ⎪ 2, if x > 1 ⎩ 15. ⎧ 2 x, if x < 0 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨0, if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 ⎪ 4 x, if x > 1 ⎩

16.

17. Find the relationship between a and b so that the function f defined by ⎧ ax + 1, if x ≤ 3 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩bx + 3, if x > 3

is continuous at x = 3. 18. For what value of λ is the function defined by

19. 20. 21.

22. 23.

⎧ λ ( x2 − 2 x ), if x ≤ 0 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ if x > 0 ⎪ ⎩ 4 x + 1, continuous at x = 0? What about continuity at x = 1? Show that the function defined by g ( x) = x – [x] is discontinuous at all integral points. Here [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Is the function defined by f ( x) = x2 – sin x + 5 continuous at x = π? Discuss the continuity of the following functions: (a) f (x) = sin x + cos x (b) f (x) = sin x – cos x (c) f (x) = sin x . cos x Discuss the continuity of the cosine, cosecant, secant and cotangent functions. Find all points of discontinuity of f, where

o n

⎧ sin x , if x < 0 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ x ⎪ x + 1, if x ≥ 0 ⎩ 24. Determine if f defined by

T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t

h s

d e

1 ⎧ 2 ⎪ x sin , if x ≠ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ x ⎪ 0, if x = 0 ⎩ is a continuous function?

if x > 5 30. if x = ⎪ ⎩ 2 2 ⎧ ⎪ kx . Show that the function defined by f ( x) = | cos x | is a continuous function. 5. 34. 26. if x ≤ 5 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩3 x − 5. Show that the function defined by f (x) = cos ( x2 ) is a continuous function. if x ≠ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ if x = 0 ⎩ −1. if x ≤ 2 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ ax + b. where f is defined by ⎧sin x − cos x. if 2 < x < 10 ⎪ 21. ⎧ kx + 1. The derivative of f at c is defined by h →0 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t at x = 2 at x = π at x = 5 π 2 h s d e lim f (c + h) − f (c) h . ⎧ 5. if x ≥ 10 ⎩ is a continuous function. if x ≤ 2 f ( x) = ⎨ if x > 2 ⎪ ⎩3. ⎧ kx + 1. if x > π 29. We had defined the derivative of a real function as follows: Suppose f is a real function and c is a point in its domain.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 161 25. 32. at x = 27. Find the values of a and b such that the function defined by o n 31. Examine the continuity of f. 28.3. Find all the points of discontinuity of f defined by f (x) = | x | – | x + 1 |. 33. Differentiability Recall the following facts from previous class. Examine that sin | x | is a continuous function. Find the values of k so that the function f is continuous at the indicated point in Exercises 26 to 29. if x ≠ ⎪ ⎪ π − 2x 2 f ( x) = ⎨ π ⎪3. if x ≤ π f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩cos x. π ⎧ k cos x .

Similarly. we say that f is not differentiable at c. b] if it is differentiable at every point of [ a. a function is said to be differentiable in an interval ( a. The process of finding dx dx derivative of a function is called differentiation. A function is said h →0 h →0 h h to be differentiable in an interval [a . wherever v ≠ 0 (Quotient rule). we had put a caution provided the limit exists. As in case of continuity. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t f (x ) x n h s d e sin x cos x tan x f ′(x ) nx n – 1 cos x – sin x sec2 x . Now the natural question is. at the end points a and b. we take the right hand limit and left hand limit. h In other words. (3) ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝v ⎠ v2 The following table gives a list of derivatives of certain standard functions: Table 5. b) if it is differentiable at every point of (a . The following rules were established as a part of algebra of derivatives: (1) ( u ± v)′ = u ′ ± v′ (2) ( uv) ′ = u′v + uv′ (Leibnitz or product rule) u ⎞′ u ′v − uv′ .162 MATHEMATICS provided this limit exists. b ]. b ). We also use the phrase differentiate f (x) with respect to x to mean find f ′(x).3 Whenever we defined derivative. If lim f (c + h) − f ( c) does not exist. what if it doesn’t? The question is quite pertinent and so is its answer. we say that a function f is differentiable at a point c in its domain if both h →0 o n lim– f (c + h) − f (c ) f (c + h) − f (c) and lim+ are finite and equal. Derivative of f at c is denoted by f ′( c) or function defined by d ( f ( x )) | c . The dx f (x + h) − f ( x) h →0 h wherever the limit exists is defined to be the derivative of f. The derivative of f is f ′( x) = lim denoted by f ′ ( x) or dy d ( f ( x )) or if y = f ( x) by or y ′. which are nothing but left hand derivative and right hand derivative of the function at a and b respectively.

3. Since the above left and right hand limits at 0 are not equal. then it is also continuous at that point. Thus f is not a differentiable function. Consider the left hand limit h →0 The right hand limit o n f (0 + h ) − f (0) h does not exist and hence f is not differentiable at 0.1 Derivatives of composite functions To study derivative of composite functions. we want to find the derivative of f. we have lim x →c f ( x) − f (c ) = f ′ ( c) x−c f ( x) − f (c ) . we have f (x) – f (c) = Therefore or or Hence f is continuous at x = c. lim h →0 5. ( x − c) ⎥ lim [ f ( x) − f ( c)] = lim ⎢ x →c x →c ⎣ ⎦ x−c f ( x) − f ( c) ⎤ lim [ f ( x)] − lim [ f ( c)] = lim ⎡ . 0 = 0 lim f ( x) = f ( c) x →c h s d e lim– f (0 + h ) − f (0) −h = = −1 h h f (0 + h ) − f (0) h = =1 h h h →0 + lim . where f (x) = (2x + 1)3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ f ( x) − f ( c) ⎤ . lim [(x − c)] x →c x→c x →c ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ x→c x−c ⎥ = f ′( c) .CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 163 Theorem 3 If a function f is differentiable at a point c. Say. we start with an illustrative example. ( x − c) x−c But for x ≠ c. Proof Since f is differentiable at c. We remark that the converse of the above statement is not true. Corollary 1 Every differentiable function is continuous. Indeed we have seen that the function defined by f ( x) = | x | is a continuous function.

Theorem 4 (Chain Rule) Let f be a real valued function which is a composite of two functions u and v . Suppose f is a real valued function which is a composite of three functions u. Suppose t = u ( x) and if both df dv dt = ⋅ dx dt dx We skip the proof of this theorem. Chain rule may be extended as follows. Example 21 Find the derivative of the function given by f (x) = sin (x2).164 MATHEMATICS One way is to expand (2x + 1)3 using binomial theorem and find the derivative as a polynomial function as illustrated below. say. i. Thus df dh dt ⋅ = 6 (2x + 1) 2 = 3(2x + 1)2 . Then f (x) = h( t) = t3.. then f ( x) = (v o u) (x) = v( u( x)) = v(x2) = sin x2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t df d ( w o u ) dt dw ds dt = ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ dx dt dx ds dt dx h s d e dt dv and exist. 2 = dx dt dx The advantage with such observation is that it simplifies the calculation in finding the derivative of. If t = v ( x) and s = u ( t).e. Indeed. d d 3 ⎡ f ( x) = ⎣(2 x + 1) ⎤ ⎦ dx dx d (8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1) dx = 24x2 + 24x + 6 = 6 (2x + 1)2 f (x) = ( h o g) (x) = Now. observe that where g( x) = 2x + 1 and h( x) = x3. we have dx dt . then o n provided all the derivatives in the statement exist. Reader is invited to formulate chain rule for composite of more functions. (2x + 1)100.e. Solution Observe that the given function is a composite of two functions.. f = (w o u) o v. We may formalise this observation in the following theorem called the chain rule. v and w . Put t = g (x) = 2 x + 1. i. 2 = 3t2 . if t = u (x) = x2 and v( t) = sin t. f = v o u.

v and w . by chain rule dt dx df dv dt ⋅ = cos t ⋅ 2 x = dx dt dx It is normal practice to express the final result only in terms of x. (– sin t) . Put t = u (x) = 2x + 3. Put dw ds dt = cos s . u ( x) = 2x + 3 and v( t) = tan t.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 165 Put t = u (x) = x2. by chain rule dx Example 23 Differentiate sin (cos ( x2 )) with respect to x. Then dt = 2 exist. Thus df = cos t ⋅ 2 x = 2 x cos x2 dx Alternatively. Solution Let f (x) = tan (2x + 3). Observe that dv dt = cos t and = 2 x exist. Hence by a generalisation of chain rule. o n Solution The function f ( x) = sin (cos (x2)) is a composition f (x) = (w o v o u) (x) of the three functions u . cos (cos x2 ) dx ds dt dx T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dy d = (sin x2) dx dx d 2 (x ) = 2x cos x2 = cos x dx df dv dt = ⋅ = 2sec 2 (2 x + 3) dx dt dx h s d e dv = sec2 t and dt . Observe that df dw ds dt = ⋅ ⋅ = (cos s) . (2x) = – 2 x sin x2 . where u ( x) = x2. Then ( v o u) (x) = v(u ( x)) = v(2x + 3) = tan (2x + 3) = f (x) Thus f is a composite of two functions. We can also directly proceed as follows: y = sin (x2) ⇒ 2 Example 22 Find the derivative of tan (2 x + 3). we have t = u ( x) = x2 and s = v (t) = cos t. Hence. Hence. = − sin t and = 2x ds dt dx exist for all real x. v( t) = cos t and w( s ) = sin s .

sin (ax + b) = – sin x2 cos (cos x2 ) (2x) = – 2x sin x2 cos (cos x2) h s d e sin (ax + b) 5. we can solve for y and rewrite the relationship as y = x – π. 0 < x < 3 is not differentiable at x = 1 and x = 2.2 3. o n 5. Prove that the function f given by f (x) = | x – 1|. Nevertheless. For example. consider one of the following relationships between x and y: x–y–π=0 x + sin xy – y = 0 In the first case. When a relationship between x and y is expressed in a way that it is easy to solve for y and write y = f (x). we say that y is given as an explicit function of x. cos x3 . x ∈ R is not differentiable at x = 1. it does not seem that there is an easy way to solve for y. cos (sin x) 4.3. In the second case. But it is not necessary that functions are always expressed in this form. In the latter case it T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 5. we can proceed as follows: y = sin (cos x2) Therefore dy d d = sin (cos x2) = cos (cos x2) (cos x2) dx dx dx = cos (cos x2) (– sin x2) d (x2 ) dx Differentiate the functions with respect to x in Exercises 1 to 8. sin (x2 + 5) 2. sin2 (x5 ) . cos (cx + d) 6. 10. Prove that the greatest integer function defined by f (x) = [ x].166 MATHEMATICS Alternatively. 1.2 Derivatives of implicit functions Until now we have been differentiating various functions given in the form y = f ( x). 2 cot ( x2 ) 8. cos ( x ) 9. there is no doubt about the dependence of y on x in either of the cases. sec (tan ( x )) 7.

o n where dy d d + (sin y) = (cos x ) dx dx dx which implies using chain rule dy dy + cos y ⋅ = – sin x dx dx T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dπ d ( x − y) = dx dx dy dx =1 = dx dx h s d e dy . we have dπ means to differentiate the constant function taking value π dx everywhere w.t.r.. we learn to differentiate implicit functions. Thus Recall that d d ( x) − ( y ) = 0 dx dx which implies that Example 25 Find Solution We differentiate the relationship directly with respect to x. In this subsection. dx This gives dy sin x = − dx 1 + cos y y ≠ (2n + 1) π . directly differentiating the relationship w. Example 24 Find dy if x – y = π. i. gives function implicitly.e.t. if y + sin y = cos x. dx Solution One way is to solve for y and rewrite the above as y=x –π dy =1 But then dx Alternatively.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 167 is implicit that y is a function of x and we say that the relationship of the second type. x.. above.r. x..

x. we get T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dy 1 1 = = cos y cos(sin−1 x) dx dy 1 1 = = dx cos y 1 − x2 1 = sec2 y 1 = cos y dy dx h s d e dy dx which implies that dy 1 1 1 1 = = = = dx sec2 y 1 + tan 2 y 1 + (tan (tan −1 x))2 1 + x 2 . To make this result a bit more attractive. Example 26 Find the derivative of f given by f ( x) = sin–1 x assuming it exists. i. x ∈ (– 1. x = sin y. Then. ⎟ .. Recall that for x ∈ (– 1.168 MATHEMATICS 5. 2 2 i.t.e. sin–1 x ≠ − .3 Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions We remark that inverse trigonometric functions are continuous functions.e. 1).t. o n Solution Let y = tan–1 x. Example 27 Find the derivative of f given by f (x) = tan–1 x assuming it exists.. x.e. but we will not prove this. we get which implies that π π Observe that this is defined only for cos y ≠ 0. Then. Solution Let y = sin–1 x. 1). for x ∈ (– 1. sin (sin–1 x) = x and hence cos2 y = 1 – (sin y)2 = 1 – (sin (sin–1 x))2 = 1 – x2 ⎛ π π⎞ Also. since y ∈ ⎜ − . we carry out the following manipulation. 1. 1). i. Now we use chain rule to find derivatives of these functions. Differentiating both sides w. x ≠ – 1. x = tan y.r.3.r. Differentiating both sides w.. cos y is positive and hence cos y = 1 − x 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Thus. .

∞) Find dy in the following: dx 1. − < x< 2 2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (–∞. 0 < x <1 ⎠ 12. y = sin–1 ⎜ ⎝1 + x 2 ⎠ ( ) 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞. ∞) EXERCISE 5. y = tan–1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 3 3 ⎝ 1− 3x ⎠ 11. 2 x + 3y = sin y 5. ⎛ 1− x 2 ⎞ y = sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ . x3 + x2y + xy2 + y3 = 81 ⎛ 2x ⎞ ⎟ 9.0 < x < 1 ⎝ 1+ x 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2x ⎞ . o n 13. sin2 x + cos2 y = 1 3. ⎛ 1 − x2 y = cos −1 ⎜ ⎝ 1 + x2 ⎞ ⎟. 2 x + 3y = sin x 4. –1) ∪ (1. 14. xy + y2 = tan x + y 7. 1) cot–1x −1 1 + x2 R sec –1x 1 x x2 − 1 cosec–1x −1 x x2 − 1 (–∞. x2 + xy + y2 = 100 8. − 10.4): Table 5.3 h s d e 2.4 f ( x) f ′ ( x) Domain of f ′ cos–1x −1 1 − x2 (–1. y = sec−1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 0< x < 2 ⎝ 2x − 1 ⎠ . 15.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 169 Finding of the derivatives of other inverse trigonometric functions is left as exercise. ax + by2 = cos y 6. The following table gives the derivatives of the remaining inverse trigonometric functions (Table 5. sin2 y + cos xy = π ⎛ 3x − x 3 ⎞ 1 1 <x< . –1) ∪ (1. y = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ −1 < x <1 ⎝ 1 + x2 ⎠ 1 1 y = sin −1 2 x 1 − x2 .

faster is the rate of growth. The answer is in affirmative and an example of such a function is o n Our claim is that this function f grows faster than fn (x) = xn for any positive integer n. one can verify that f ( x) grows faster than fn ( x) for any positive integer n. y = f3( x) = x3 and y = f4( x) = x4. f15 grow faster than f10. rational functions and trigonometric functions. Observe that the curves get steeper as the power of x increases. For example. we can prove that 10x grows faster than f100 ( x) = x100. where fn ( x) = xn. Steeper the curve. Clearly f ( x) is much greater than f100 ( x). If x increases from 1 to 2.9 increment in the value of x (> 1). 3. It needs to be emphasized that many statements made in this section are motivational and precise proofs of these are well beyond the scope of this text. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t y = f ( x) = 10x.9 gives a sketch of y = f1 (x) = x. It is not difficult to prove that for all x > 103 . we shall learn about a new class of (related) functions called exponential functions and logarithmic functions.170 MATHEMATICS 5.4 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Till now we have learnt some aspects of different classes of functions like polynomial functions. y = f 2(x) = x2 . f ( x) > f100 (x). h s d e . consider f10( x) = x10 and f15 ( x) = x15. greater is the growth. f10 increases from 1 to 210 whereas f15 increases from 1 to 215. For example. this means that the graph of y = fn ( x) leans more towards the y-axis as n increases. In this section. What this means is that for a fixed Fig 5. It is conceivable that such a statement is true for all positive values of n . The next natural question is: Is there a function which grows faster than any polynomial function. the increment in the value of y = fn ( x) increases as n increases for n = 1. by choosing large values of x. for the same increment in x. 4. Thus. Similarly. 2. For large values of x like x = 10 3. But we will not attempt to give a proof of this here. The Fig 5. Upshot of the above discussion is that the growth of polynomial functions is dependent on the degree of the polynomial function – higher the degree. note that f100 ( x) = (103) 100 = 10300 whereas f (103) = 10 10 3 = 101000. Essentially.

Logarithm of a to base b is denoted by logb a. it was observed that the sum of the series 1 1 + + .. as we move from left to right. In the Appendix A. the set of all real numbers. 3 and 4. On a slightly more mature note.. Let us work with a few explicit examples to get a feel for this. Similarly. Following are some of the salient features of the exponential functions: (1) Domain of the exponential function is R. we may look at logarithm as a function from positive real numbers to all real numbers. Thus logb a = x if bx = a.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 171 Definition 3 The exponential function with positive base b > 1 is the function y = f (x) = bx The graph of y = 10x is given in the Fig 5. fixing a base b > 1.9. This search motivates the following definition. (4) Exponential function is ever increasing. We know 23 = 8. In terms of logarithms. called the logarithmic function.. (3) The point (0.e. Using this e as the base we obtain an extremely important exponential function y = ex. 1) is always on the graph of the exponential function (this is a restatement of the fact that b 0 = 1 for any real b > 1). 104 = 10000 is equivalent to saying log10 10000 = 4. in the second quadrant. This is called natural exponential function. we may rewrite this as log2 8 = 3. is defined by logb : R+ → R x → logb x = y if by = x o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e .4 of Class XI. It is advised that the reader plots this graph for particular values of b like 2.1. Exponential function with base 10 is called the common exponential function. 1+ Definition 4 Let b > 1 be a real number. Then we say logarithm of a to base b is x if b x = a. This function. 625 = 54 = 252 is equivalent to saying log5 625 = 4 or log25 625 = 2. It would be interesting to know if the inverse of the exponential function exists and has nice interpretation. (2) Range of the exponential function is the set of all positive real numbers. 1! 2! is a number between 2 and 3 and is denoted by e. the graph approaches x-axis (but never meets it). i. Also. (5) For very large negative values of x. In other words. the exponential function is very close to 0. the graph rises above.

Some of the important observations about the logarithm function to any base b > 1 are listed below: (1) We cannot make a meaningful definition of logarithm of non-positive numbers and hence the domain of log function is R+ .10 Fig 5.11 h s d e . b β = p and b γ = a.. This means a α = p . Often natural logarithm is denoted by ln. we get b β = p = b γα T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 5. e and 10.11 gives the plot of y = ex and y = ln x. (5) For x very near to zero. the value of log x can be made lesser than any given real number. Let loga p = α. (3) The point (1. then we say it is natural logarithms .e.. i. 0) is always on the graph of the log function. The Fig 5.172 MATHEMATICS As before if the base b = 10. (4) The log function is ever increasing. logb p = β and logb a = γ . we have ( bγ ) α = bγα = p Using this in the second equation. o n Two properties of ‘log’ functions are proved below: (1) There is a standard change of base rule to obtain loga p in terms of log b p . In this chapter . It is of interest to observe that the two curves are the mirror images of each other reflected in the line y = x. In other words in the fourth quadrant the graph approaches y-axis (but never meets it). as we move from left to right the graph rises above. we say it is common logarithms and if b = e. log x denotes the logarithm function to base e. ln x will be written as simply log x. (6) Fig 5. i. (2) The range of log function is the set of all real numbers.e. Substituting the third equation in the first one.10 gives the plots of logarithm function to base 2.

This is captured in the following theorem whose proof we skip. dx T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t logb pq = logb p + logb q h s d e logb x = logb x – logb y y (1) The derivative of ex w.. i.. But then bα = pq = bβ bγ = b β + γ which implies α = β + γ .r. In this case the above may be rewritten as logb p2 = logb p + logb p = 2 log p logb pn = n log p An easy generalisation of this (left as an exercise!) is for any positive integer n. (2) The derivative of log x w. In fact this is true for any real number n. Let logb pq = α.. Theorem 5 d x ( e ) = ex.r. but we will not attempt to prove this.e. x is d 1 1 . let y = elog x. A particularly interesting and important consequence of this is when p = q.. dx x x . Then bα = pq. (log x) = .e.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 173 which implies β = αγ or α = loga p = β . On the similar lines the reader is invited to verify Example 28 Is it true that x = elog x for all real x? Solution First.t. Now. log e = log x. If y > 0. x is ex.t. i.e.. i. o n One of the striking properties of the natural exponential function in differential calculus is that it doesn’t change during the process of differentiation. observe that the domain of log function is set of all positive real numbers. So the above equation is not true for non-positive real numbers. we may take logarithm which gives us log y = log (elog x) = log x . But then γ logb p logba (2) Another interesting property of the log function is its effect on products. then bβ = p and b γ = q. Thus y = x. If logb p = β and logb q = γ . Hence x = elog x is true only for positive values of x.

cos (log x + ex).. x > 1 .r.4 2. log (cos ex) 6.r. Using chain rule. x >0 8. + e x 9. Logarithmic Differentiation In this section. Using chain rule. log (log x). we have (iv) ecos x dy d cos (log x) = cos (log x) ⋅ (log x) = dx dx x (iii) Let y = cos–1 (ex). x >0 log x 2 5 . x > 0 5. ex 3 5.5. we will learn to differentiate certain special class of functions given in the form y = f (x) = [ u( x)]v (x) By taking logarithm (to base e) the above may be rewritten as log y = v( x) log [ u( x)] T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dy = ecos x ⋅ ( − sin x) = − (sin x ) ecos x dx h s d e EXERCISE 5. sin (tan–1 e–x) 7. we have dy = dx −1 1 − (e x ) 2 ⋅ d x −ex (e ) = dx 1 − e2 x (iv) Let y = ecos x. esin −1 x 3. Using chain rule. we have dy −x d = e ⋅ (– x) = – e– x dx dx (ii) Let y = sin (log x).t. e x o n 10. Using chain rule. ex sin x 4. x: 1. x > 0 (iii) cos–1 (ex) Solution (i) Let y = e– x. we have Differentiate the following w. x: (i) e –x (ii) sin (log x).t.174 MATHEMATICS Example 29 Differentiate the following w. ex + e x + . cos x ..

Solution Let y = a x. where a is a positive constant. u′( x) + v′( x) .t. log [u (x)] ⋅ = v(x) ⋅ y dx u( x) which implies that dy ⎡ v( x ) ⎤ = y⎢ ⋅ u′( x ) + v′( x) ⋅ log [ u ( x) ] ⎥ dx ⎣ u ( x) ⎦ The main point to be noted in this method is that f (x) and u( x) must always be positive as otherwise their logarithms are not defined.r. x. 3 x2 + 4 x + 5 ( x − 3) ( x2 + 4) (3 x2 + 4 x + 5) h s d e 2x 6x + 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ ( x − 3) + x 2 + 4 − 3 x2 + 4 x + 5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ log y = x log a Differentiating both sides w. we get 1⎡ 1 2x 6x +4 ⎤ 1 dy + 2 − 2 ⋅ = ⎢ 2 ( x − 3) x + 4 3 x + 4x + 5 ⎥ y dx ⎣ ⎦ y⎡ 1 2x 6x + 4 ⎤ dy + 2 − 2 = ⎢ 2 ⎣ ( x − 3) x + 4 3 x + 4 x + 5 ⎥ ⎦ dx 1 = 2 ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4) 3 x2 + 4 x + 5 or o n Example 31 Differentiate a x w. Then T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ( x − 3) ( x2 + 4) w. x.r.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 175 Using chain rule we may differentiate this to get 1 dy 1 .t.r. differentiating both sides w. we have log y = 1 [log (x – 3) + log (x2 + 4) – log (3x2 + 4x + 5)] 2 Now. we have 1 dy y dx = log a .t. x. This process of differentiation is known as logarithms differentiation and is illustrated by the following examples: Example 30 Differentiate Solution Let y = Taking logarithm on both sides.t. x.r.

if yx + xy + xx = ab. Putting u = yx. we have . we get u + v + w = a b Therefore du dv dw + + =0 dx dx dx T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 dy d d . x. dx .176 MATHEMATICS or Thus Alternatively dy = y log a dx d x ( a ) = ax log a dx d x d x loga d (a ) = (e ) = e x log a ( x log a) dx dx dx = ex log a ... v = xy and w = xx. Example 32 Differentiate xsin x.t. (1) Now. = sin x (log x) + log x (sin x) y dx dx dx h s d e 1 dy 1 (sin x ) + log x cos x y dx = x dy ⎡ sin x ⎤ + cos x log x ⎥ = y⎢ ⎣ x ⎦ dx ⎤ sin x ⎡ sin x + cos x log x ⎥ = x ⎢ ⎣ x ⎦ = x sin x −1 ⋅ sin x + xsin x ⋅ cos x log x dy . x. Solution Let y = xsin x.r.t. we have log u = x log y Differentiating both sides w. Taking logarithm on both sides. u = yx. Taking logarithm on both sides. we have log y = sin x log x Therefore or or Example 33 Find o n Solution Given that yx + xy + xx = ab.r. x > 0 w. log a = a x log a.

.... we have o n i. we have log v = y log x Differentiating both sides w. (4) . Differentiating both sides w.t. (2) Taking logarithm on both sides. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 dv d dy ⋅ = y (log x ) + log x v dx dx dx 1 dy = y ⋅ + log x ⋅ x dx dv dy ⎤ ⎡y = v ⎢ + log x ⎥ ⎣x dx dx ⎦ 1 dw d d ⋅ = x (log x) + log x ⋅ ( x ) w dx dx dx = x⋅ 1 + log x ⋅1 x dw = w (1 + log x) dx = xx (1 + log x) h s .. x..CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 177 1 du d d ⋅ = x (log y ) + log y ( x) u dx dx dx 1 dy = x ⋅ + log y ⋅ 1 y dx So Also v = xy ⎛ x dy ⎞ ⎡ x dy ⎤ du + log y ⎟ = y x ⎢ + log y ⎥ = u⎜ y dx y dx ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ dx .t. x. we have So dy ⎤ y ⎡y = x ⎢ + log x ⎥ ⎣x dx ⎦ x Again w=x Taking logarithm on both sides.r.e. (3) d e .r. we have log w = x log x.

xx – 2sin x 6. cos 3x 3. o n dy of the functions given in Exercises 12 to 15. ( x cos x)x + ( x sin x) x Find 12. Do they all give the same answer? T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 5. (sin x) x + sin–1 x x cos x + 10. ( x + 3) . cos 2x . (x + 4) . 16. (iii) by logarithmic differentiation. (x + 5) 3 7. xy = e(x – y) Find the derivative of the function given by f ( x) = (1 + x) (1 + x2) (1 + x4 ) (1 + x8) and hence find f ′(1). Differentiate (x2 – 5x + 8) (x3 + 7x + 9) in three ways mentioned below: (i) by using product rule (ii) by expanding the product to obtain a single polynomial. (log x)x + xlog x 9. x x2 + 1 x2 − 1 1 . (3). (2).178 MATHEMATICS From (1). y x −1 + x y log x dx Differentiate the functions given in Exercises 1 to 11 w. 1.t.r. we have dy ⎞ ⎛ x dy ⎞ ⎛y + log y ⎟ + x y ⎜ + log x ⎟ + xx (1 + log x) = 0 yx ⎜ ⎝x dx ⎠ ⎝ y dx ⎠ or Therefore ( x . (log x)cos x 2 5. yx = xy y x (cos x) = (cos y) 15. (x − 1) ( x − 2) ( x − 3) ( x − 4) (x − 5) x ⎛ 1⎞ h s d e 4. dx xy + yx = 1 13. yx – 1 + xy . x. log x) dy = – xx (1 + log x) – y . xy–1 – yx log y dx − [ y x log y + y . x y −1 + x x (1 + log x)] dy = x .5 2. 17. 14. cos x . 4 ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ x + ⎟ + x⎝ x ⎠ ⎝ x⎠ 8. (4). xsin x + (sin x)cos x 11.

dx x = a cos θ. y = a sin θ h s d e g ′( t ) ⎛ dy dx dy ⎞ = g ′( t ) and = f ′(t ) ⎟ [provided f ′( t) ≠ 0] = ⎜ as f ′(t ) ⎝ dt dt ⎠ dx dx dy = – a sin θ. then show that d du dv dw (u . In order to find derivative of function in such form. = a cos θ dθ dθ dy dy d θ a cos θ = − cot θ = dx = − a sin θ dx dθ . separately. but some link of a third variable with each of the two variables. . w +u . y = a sin θ. w) = v. w + u .first by repeated application of product rule. establishes a relation between the first two variables. v dx dx dx dx in two ways . v. In such a situation. 5. or Thus Example 34 Find o n Hence Solution Given that Therefore T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dy dy dx ⋅ = dx dt dt dy dy dx ⎛ ⎞ ≠ 0⎟ = dt ⎜ whenever dx ⎝ dx ⎠ dt dt dy . a relation expressed between two variables x and y in the form x = f ( t). second by logarithmic differentiation. More precisely. we say that the relation between them is expressed via a third variable. y = g ( t) is said to be parametric form with t as a parameter.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 179 18. v and w are functions of x.6 Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms Sometimes the relation between two variables is neither explicit nor implicit. if x = a cos θ. The third variable is called the parameter. we have by chain rule. If u .

if x = at2. if x = a (θ + sin θ). y = a sin θ is parametric equation of 3 3 + 2 y3 2 = a3 dx dy = – 3a cos2 θ sin θ and = 3a sin2 θ cos θ dθ dθ . y = a (1 – cos θ).180 MATHEMATICS dy . dx Solution Given that x = at2. Then 2 2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dy . y = a sin3 θ. if x 3 + y 3 = a 3 . dx dy dy dt = 2a = 1 = dx 2 at t dx dt dx dy = a(1 + cos θ). x = a cos θ. y = 2at Example 35 Find So dx = 2at and dt dy = 2a dt Therefore Example 36 Find Solution We have Therefore dy is expressed in terms of parameter only dx without directly involving the main variables x and y. y = 2at. dx Solution Let x = a cos3 θ. = a (sin θ) dθ dθ h s d e dy dy d θ = a sin θ = tan θ = dx a (1 + cos θ) dx 2 dθ 2 2 2 x 3 + y 3 = (a cos3 θ)3 + (asin3 θ) 3 2 2 2 2 = a 3 (cos θ + (sin θ) = a 3 2 x3 Hence. $Note It may be noted here that 2 2 o n Now Example 37 Find dy .

x = t⎞ ⎛ 8.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 181 Therefore dy dy 3a sin 2 θ cos θ y = − tan θ = − 3 = dθ = 2 dx dx x − 3 a cos θ sin θ dθ $Note Had we proceeded in implicit way.r. we may differentiate (1) again w. y = a (1 + cos θ) 7. x = cos θ – cos 2θ. x = a cos θ..7 Second Order Derivative o n Let dy = f ′ ( x) . x = a (θ – sin θ). x = a (cos θ + θ sin θ). x = 4t. the left hand d ⎛ dy ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ which is called the second order derivative of y w. If x = a sin t . y= cos3 t cos2 t dy y =− dx x y = f (x). y = ac os t .t. (1) dx If f ′( x) is differentiable. x = 2at2. x = sin t . y = b cos θ 4. y = at4 dy . y = b tan θ ⎝ 2⎠ 10. x = a sec θ. Then.r. y = sin θ – sin 2θ 6. dx 2.6 If x and y are connected parametrically by the equations given in Exercises 1 to 10. y = a (sin θ – θ cos θ) 11. Find 1. Then h s d e side becomes is denoted by d2 y . x = a ⎜ cos t + log tan ⎟ y = a sin t 9. y = cos 2t 5.. it would have been quite tedious. x and dx ⎝ dx ⎠ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t sin 3 t cos 2t . y = 4 t 3. x. The second order derivative of f ( x) is denoted by f ″( x). EXERCISE 5. without eliminating the parameter. It is also dx2 .t. show that −1 −1 5.

prove that Solution Given that y = 3e2x + 2e3 x. 2 dx dx dy = 6e2 x + 6e3x = 6 (e2 x + e3x) dx d y d ( 2 3 x + sec 2 x ) 2 = dx dx = 6x + 2 sec x . if y = x3 + tan x. dx 2 Solution Given that y = x3 + tan x. Then Example 38 Find dy = 3x2 + sec2 x dx Therefore Example 39 If y = A sin x + B cos x.182 MATHEMATICS denoted by D2 y or y″ or y2 if y = f (x). Then o n Hence Therefore T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d2y + y =0. We remark that higher order derivatives may be defined similarly. d2y . then prove that Solution We have and Hence Example 40 If y = 3e2x + 2 e3 x. sec x tan x = 6x + 2 sec2 x tan x 2 h s d e d2y = 12e2x + 18e3x = 6 (2e2x + 3 e3x) dx 2 d2y dy −5 + 6y = 6 (2e2x + 3e3x) dx 2 dx – 30 (e2x + e3x) + 6 (3e2 x + 2 e3x) = 0 . dx 2 dy = A cos x – B sin x dx d2y d = (A cos x – B sin x) dx 2 dx = – A sin x – B cos x = – y d2 y +y=0 dx2 d2y dy − 5 + 6y = 0 .

x2 + 3x + 2 4. prove that dx 2 . (1 − x 2 ) y2 = 1 1 2 (1 − x2 ) . ex sin 5x 5. 1. x log x 7. e6x cos 3x 8. sin (log x) d2y + y =0 11. tan–1 x 9.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 183 Example 41 If y = sin–1 x.e. Given that y = sin–1 x. x . i. Then dy = dx or d2y dy − x =0. 2 y1 y2 + y1 (0 − 2 x) = 0 2 (1 – x ) y2 – xy1 = 0 EXERCISE 5. ⎟ = 0 dx ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 d 2 y dy d (1 − x ) ⋅ 2 + ⋅ dx dx dx ( (1 − x ) = 0 2 ) h s d e (1 − x 2 ) ⋅ d 2 y dy 2x − ⋅ =0 2 dx dx 2 1 − x 2 (1 − x2 ) y1 = 1 1− x 2 .7 3. log x 2. If y = 5 cos x – 3 sin x. cos x 6. show that (1 – x2) Solution We have y = sin– 1 x. dx 2 dx 1 (1 − x2 ) dy =1 dx (1 − x 2 ) So or or d2y dy − x =0 2 dx dx Alternatively. we have Hence So Hence o n Find the second order derivatives of the functions given in Exercises 1 to 10. x 20 3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d ⎛ dy ⎞ 2 ⎜ (1 − x ) .. log (log x) 10.

. b ] and differentiable on (a . In Fig 5. Theorem 6 (Rolle’s Theorem) Let f : [ a. If y = (tan–1 x)2. If y = cos–1 x. If y = 500e + 600e . b ) such that f ′(c) = 0. where a and b are some real numbers. Find d2y in terms of y alone.13 Observe what happens to the slope of the tangent to the curve at various points between a and b. In each of the graphs. show that (x2 + 1)2 y2 + 2x (x2 + 1) y1 = 2 5. If y = Aemx + Benx. show that dx 2 7x – 7x d 2 y ⎛ dy ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ 16.13. graphs of a few typical differentiable functions satisfying the hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem are given. show that x2 y2 + xy1 + y = 0 14. show that d2y dy − (m + n) + mny = 0 2 dx dx d2y = 49 y 15. b).8 Mean Value Theorem In this section. such that f (a ) = f ( b). If y = 3 cos (log x) + 4 sin (log x). That is precisely the claim of the Rolle’s theorem as the slope of the tangent at any point on the graph of y = f ( x) is nothing but the derivative of f ( x) at that point. dx 2 13. show that dx 2 ⎝ dx ⎠ y 17. b] → R be continuous on [a . we will state two fundamental results in Calculus without proof.12 and 5. Then there exists some c in (a.184 MATHEMATICS 12. the slope becomes zero at least at one point. If e (x + 1) = 1.12 Fig 5. We shall also learn the geometric interpretation of these theorems. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 2 h s d e Fig 5.

In other words. b) such that the slope of the tangent at (c. The graph of a function y = f (x) is given in the Fig 5. Let us now understand a geometric interpretation of the MVT. 4] and differentiable in (2. b). f(c)) is same as the slope of the secant between (a. Example 43 Verify Mean Value Theorem for the function f (x) = x2 in the interval [2. Solution The function y = x2 + 2 is continuous in [– 2. where f ′ (c) = 0. Rolle’s theorem states that there is a point c ∈ (– 2. f ( a )) and ( b. 4) as its derivative f ′( x) = 2x is defined in (2.14. Also f (– 2) = f ( 2) = 6 and hence the value of f ( x) at – 2 and 2 coincide.14 it is clear that f (b ) − f (a ) b−a is the slope of the secant drawn between (a . 4). The MVT states that there is a point c in ( a. f ( b)). 2). 4]. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 5. we have f′ (c) = 0 and c = 0 ∈ (– 2. o n Example 42 Verify Rolle’s theorem for the function y = x2 + 2.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 185 Theorem 7 (Mean Value Theorem) Let f : [a. 2). 2] and differentiable in (– 2. f ( b )). b ) such that the tangent at (c. f (a )) and (b . . f ( b)).14 h s d e Solution The function f ( x) = x2 is continuous in [2. a = – 2 and b = 2. b] and differentiable on ( a. we get c = 0. b) such that f (b ) − f (a ) b− a Observe that the Mean Value Theorem (MVT) is an extension of Rolle’s theorem. 2). f (a )) and (b. Then there exists some c in (a. From the Fig 5. b] → R be a continuous function on [ a. f ( c)) is parallel to the secant between (a. Since f′ (x) = 2 x. f (c)). We have already interpreted f ′( c) as the slope of the f ′(c ) = tangent to the curve y = f (x) at (c. there is a point c in ( a. Thus at c = 0.

the following function: (i) 3x + 2 + 1 2x 2 + 4 (ii) esec x + 3cos –1 x 2 o n Solution (i) Let y = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Miscellaneous Examples (iii) log7 (log x) 3x + 2 + 1 1 h s d e 2x 2 + 4 2 = (3 x + 2) 2 + (2 x + 4) − 1 2 2 Note that this function is defined at all real numbers x > − . 2] 2 (iii) f ( x) = x – 1 for x ∈ [1. if f ( x) = x3 – 5 x2 – 3x in the interval [ a. 6. then prove that f (– 5) ≠ f (5). Examine if Rolle’s theorem is applicable to any of the following functions. x.r.8 1. Thus at c = 3 ∈ (2. if f (x) = x2 – 4x – 3 in the interval [a. b ]. we have f ′ ( c) = 6. 5.186 MATHEMATICS Now. Can you say some thing about the converse of Rolle’s theorem from these example? (i) f ( x) = [x] for x ∈ [5. b]. where a = 1 and b = 4. where a = 1 and b = 3. Verify Mean Value Theorem. Examine the applicability of Mean Value Theorem for all three functions given in the above exercise 2. 2] If f : [– 5. Verify Rolle’s theorem for the function f (x) = x2 + 2x – 8. x ∈ [– 4. 4. Hence f ( b ) − f ( a ) 16 − 4 = =6 b−a 4− 2 MVT states that there is a point c ∈ (2. 9] (ii) f ( x) = [x] for x ∈ [– 2. 3) for which f ′( c) = 0. f (2) = 4 and f (4) = 16. Verify Mean Value Theorem. 3. EXERCISE 5. 4) such that f ′( c) = 6.t. Find all c ∈ (1. Example 44 Differentiate w. But f′ ( x) = 2x which implies c = 3. 2]. 5] → R is a differentiable function and if f ′(x) does not vanish anywhere. 2. Therefore 3 −1 d − −1 d dy 1 ⎛ 1⎞ (3 x + 2) + ⎜ − ⎟ (2 x2 + 4) 2 ⋅ (2 x2 + 4) = (3 x + 2) 2 ⋅ ⎝ 2⎠ dx 2 dx dx 1 1 . 4).

Therefore Observe that the derivative of the given function is valid only in [ −1. 1] . 1] − {0} as the derivative of cos– 1 x exists only in (– 1. log 7 The function is defined for all real numbers x > 1.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 1 3 187 − − 1 ⎛1⎞ (2 x2 + 4) 2 ⋅ 4 x ⎟ = (3 x + 2) 2 ⋅ (3) − ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 3 2 3x + 2 − 2x (2x 2 + 4) 2 3 2 This is defined for all real numbers x > − . Therefore dy 1 d (log (log x)) = dx log 7 dx = = o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 ⎞ dy ⎛ sec2 x d ⋅ (sec2 x ) + 3 ⎜ − = e dx ⎝ 1 − x2 ⎟ ⎠ dx d 1 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ sec2 x ⎛ ⋅ ⎜ 2sec x (sec x )⎟ + 3 ⎜ − = e ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ dx ⎝ 1 − x2 ⎠ 1 ⎞ ⎛ sec2 x +3 ⎜− = 2sec x (sec x tan x) e 2 ⎟ ⎝ 1− x ⎠ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 sec2 x + 3 ⎜− = 2sec x tan x e 2 ⎟ ⎝ 1− x ⎠ 1 1 d ⋅ (log x) log 7 log x dx 1 x log 7 log x sec2 x −1 h s d e . 1) and the function itself is not defined at 0. 3 + 3cos x (ii) Let y = e This is defined at every real number in [ −1. (iii) Let y = log 7 (log x) = log (log x ) (by change of base formula).

188 MATHEMATICS Example 45 Differentiate the following w. (i) cos – 1 (sin x) ⎛ sin x ⎞ (ii) tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 + cos x ⎠ ⎛ 2 x +1 ⎞ (iii) sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1+ 4x ⎠ Solution (i) Let f (x) = cos – 1 (sin x). where cos x ≠ – 1. We may rewrite this function as = − 1 ⎛ sin x ⎞ ⎟ f ( x) = tan ⎜ ⎝ 1 + cos x ⎠ o n ⎛ x⎞ Observe that we could cancel cos ⎜ ⎟ in both numerator and denominator as it ⎝2⎠ is not equal to zero. Observe that this function is defined for all real ⎝ 1 + cos x ⎠ numbers. 1+ 4x . Since the quantity in the middle is always positive. x. We may rewrite this function as f ( x) = cos – 1 (sin x) π −x 2 Thus f ′( x) = – 1.r. Thus f ′( x) = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ cos ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢ 2 sin ⎜ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ tan ⎢ ⎥ = x ⎢ ⎥ 2 cos 2 ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎛π ⎞⎤ − x⎟ ⎥ = cos ⎢ cos ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ −1 ⎡ h s d e ⎛ x ⎞⎤ x −1 ⎡ = tan ⎢ tan ⎜ ⎟⎥ = ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ 2 1. 2 ⎛ 2x + 1 ⎞ (iii) Let f ( x) = sin – 1 ⎜ ⎟ . sin x ⎞ (ii) Let f (x) = tan – 1 ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ .. To find the domain of this function we need to find all ⎝1 + 4 x ⎠ x such that −1 ≤ 2 x +1 ≤ 1 . at all odd multiplies of π. Observe that this function is defined for all real numbers. i.t.e.

we have log y = log (sin x)sin x = sin x log (sin x) = 1 dy d = (sin x log (sin x)) y dx dx T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x −1 ⎡ 2 ⋅ 2 ⎤ ⎥ = sin ⎢ x 2 ⎢ ⎣1 + ( 2 ) ⎥ ⎦ −1 ⎡ 2 tan θ ⎤ = sin ⎢ ⎣1 + tan 2 θ ⎥ ⎦ = sin – 1 [sin 2θ] = 2 θ = 2 tan – 1 (2x) 1 1+ ( 2 x 2 h s d e f ′(x) = 2 ⋅ = ) ⋅ d (2 x ) dx 2 ⋅ (2 x ) log 2 x 1+ 4 = cos x log (sin x) + sin x . Solution The function y = (sin x) sin x is defined for all positive real numbers.e. Taking logarithms. Hence the function 2x is defined at every real number.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 189 we need to find all x such that may rewrite this as 2 ≤ 2 x +1 1+ 4x ≤ 1 .. By putting 2x = tan θ. We 1 + 2x which is true for all x. all x such that 2x + 1 ≤ 1 + 4x. this function may be rewritten as x+1 ⎤ −1 ⎡ 2 f ( x) = sin ⎢ x⎥ ⎣1 + 4 ⎦ Thus o n Then 2 x + 1 log 2 1+ 4x Example 46 Find f ′( x) if f ( x) = (sin x)sin x for all 0 < x < π. = cos x log (sin x) + cos x = (1 + log (sin x)) cos x 1 d ⋅ (sin x ) sin x dx . i.

⎛ 1⎞ and x = ⎜ t + ⎟ ⎝ t⎠ Solution Observe that both y and x are defined for all real t ≠ 0. We want to find du = du / dx . Clearly dv dv / dx du dv = 2 sin x cos x and = e cos x (– sin x) = – (sin x) e cos x dx dx . dt o n ⎛ 1⎞ a⎜ t + ⎟ ⎝ t⎠ 2 cos Example 48 Differentiate sin x w.190 MATHEMATICS Thus dy = y ((1 + log (sin x)) cos x) = (1 + log (sin x)) ( sin x)sin x cos x dx dy . T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dy d t +1 t = = dt dt a 1 t+ a t ( ) d ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ t + ⎟ ⋅ log a dt ⎝ t ⎠ 1 t2 ⎞ ⎟ log a ⎠ = a t+ 1 t ⎛1 − ⎜ ⎝ h s d e a −1 dx d ⎛ 1⎞ ⎡ 1⎤ = a ⎢t + ⎥ ⋅ ⎜ t + ⎟ dt ⎣ t⎦ dt ⎝ t ⎠ ⎡ 1⎤ = a ⎢t + ⎥ ⎣ t⎦ a −1 1⎞ ⎛ ⋅ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ ⎝ t ⎠ t+ ⎛ 1⎞ dy a t ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ log a ⎝ dy dt t ⎠ = = a − 1 dx dx 1⎞ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎛ a ⎢t + ⎥ ⋅ ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ dt ⎝ ⎣ t⎦ t ⎠ t+ 1 t 1 = a log a a −1 Solution Let u (x) = sin2 x and v (x) = e cos x. e x. Thus for t ≠ ± 1.r. where dx a Example 47 For a positive constant a find y =a t+ 1 t . Clearly Similarly dx ≠ 0 only if t ≠ ± 1.t.

– 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 dx 14. for . Find . + ( x − 3) . – 1 < x < 1. (3x2 – 9x + 5)9 2. 1. (sin x – cos x) −3 (sin x – cos x) 11. if y = sin–1 x + sin–1 1 − x 2 . sin3 x + cos 6 x 3. 0 < x< 2 ⎣ 1 + sin x − 1− sin x ⎦ log 7. (5x) 3 cos 2 x cos −1 5. − < t < 2 2 dx dy 13. if y = 12 (1 – cos t). 6. prove that 12.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 191 Thus 2sin x cos x 2 cos x du = − cos x = cos x dv − sin x e e Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 5 Differentiate w. sin–1( x x ).t. If (x – a) 2 + ( y – b ) 2 = c2 . prove that ⎡ ⎛ dy ⎞ 2 ⎤ 2 ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎦ d2y dx2 is a constant independent of a and b. for x > 3 x 2 h s d e . x > 1 8. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 ⎡ 1 + sin x + 1− sin x ⎤ π cot −1 ⎢ ⎥ . π 3π < x< 4 4 10.r. 3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t . x x 2 dy π π . x the function in Exercises 1 to 11. for some c > 0. Find o n dy 1 =− dx (1+ x )2 15. If x 1 + y + y 1 + x = 0 . for some constant a and b. x 2 . xx + xa + a x + a a. x = 10 (t – sin t). cos (a cos x + b sin x).–2<x<2 2x + 7 4. for some fixed a > 0 and x > 0 9. (log x) x.

i. dx 2 dx A real valued function is continuous at a point in its domain if the limit of the function at that point equals the value of the function at that point.. f ( x) 22. Using mathematical induction prove that integers n . with cos a ≠ ± 1. A function is continuous if it is continuous on the whole of its domain. If f (x) = | x |3. prove that = l m n dx a b c b c 2 23. If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t). Sum. dx sin a d2y 17. ⎠ d ( n) x = nxn −1 for all positive dx h s d e Every differentiable function is continuous. dx 2 18. product and quotient of continuous functions are continuous.192 MATHEMATICS 16. 19. 21. g ( x) is continuous. prove that dy cos 2 ( a + y) = . obtain the sum formula for cosines. show that f ″ (x) exists for all real x and find it. then ( f ± g ) (x) = f ( x) ± g ( x) is continuous. ( f . find . – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1. ⎛f ⎜g ⎝ o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Summary f (x ) ⎞ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) (wherever g (x) ≠ 0) is continuous. 20. Does there exist a function which is continuous everywhere but not differentiable at exactly two points? Justify your answer. but the converse is not true. if f and g are continuous functions. difference. . If y = ea c os− 1 x . If y = l a g ( x) h ( x) f ′( x) g ′(x ) h′(x) dy m n .e. g) (x) = f ( x) . Using the fact that sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B and the differentiation. show that (1 − x2 ) d y − x dy − a 2 y = 0 . If cos y = x cos (a + y).

b) such that f ( a) = f (b ). Mean Value Theorem : If f : [a. t = u (x) and if both dt dv and exist then dx dt df dv dt = ⋅ dx dt dx Following are some of the standard derivatives (in appropriate domains): d ( x) x d 1 e =e ( log x ) = dx dx x Logarithmic differentiation is a powerful technique to differentiate functions of the form f ( x) = [u (x)]v (x). Rolle’s Theorem: If f : [a . b] → R is continuous on [ a. If f = v o u. b] and differentiable on (a. then there exists some c in (a. b] and differentiable on (a. b) such that f ′(c ) = f (b ) − f (a ) b− a o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t d ( −1 ) 1 tan x = dx 1 + x2 d ( −1 ) −1 cot x = dx 1 + x2 d ( −1 ) 1 sec x = dx x 1 − x2 d ( −1 cosec−1 x ) = dx x 1 − x2 d ( −1 ) 1 sin x = dx 1 − x2 d ( −1 ) 1 cos x = − dx 1 − x2 h s d e — — . b ] → R is continuous on [a. b). b ) such that f ′(c) = 0.CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 193 Chain rule is rule to differentiate composites of functions. Here both f ( x) and u (x) need to be positive for this technique to make sense. Then there exists some c in (a .

i.2 Rate of Change of Quantities Recall that by the derivative ds . then by Chain Rule T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dy dy = dt dx dx dx ≠0 . (ii) to find the equations of tangent and normal to a curve at a point. then o n dy ⎤ (or f ′(x0)) represents the rate of change change of y with respect to x and dx ⎥ ⎦ x =x0 of y with respect to x at x = x0 .. satisfying some rule y = f ( x) . In a similar fashion. inverse trigonometric functions.194 MATHEMATICS Chapter 6 APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES With the Calculus as a key. whenever one quantity y varies with another dy (or f ′( x)) represents the rate of dx quantity x.. we will study applications of the derivative in various disciplines. social science.” — WHITEHEAD 6. exponential functions and logarithmic functions. if x = f ( t ) and y = g ( t ) . if dt dt h s d e . Further. 6. e. Finally. science. we will learn how the derivative can be used (i) to determine rate of change of quantities. if two variables x and y are varying with respect to another variable t. implicit functions. in engineering.g. In this chapter. we use the derivative to find approximate value of certain quantities. we mean the rate of change of distance s with dt respect to the time t.e. we have learnt how to find derivative of composite functions. Mathematics can be successfully applied to the explanation of the course of Nature. (iii) to find turning points on the graph of a function which in turn will help us to locate points at which largest or smallest value (locally) of a function occurs.1 Introduction In Chapter 5. and many other fields. We will also use derivative to find intervals on which a function is increasing or decreasing. For instance.

Example 1 Find the rate of change of the area of a circle per second with respect to its radius r when r = 5 cm. Therefore. where x is a function of time t. Solution The area A of a circle with radius r is given by A = πr2. the rate of change of the area A with respect to its radius r is given by When r = 5 cm. Let us consider some examples. Thus. the area of the circle is changing at the rate of dr h s d e dV d 3 d dx = ( x ) = ( x3 ) ⋅ (By Chain Rule) dt dt dx dt dx dt 3 dx = 2 x dt .6 cm 2 /s dt . dS = 3. Example 2 The volume of a cube is increasing at a rate of 9 cubic centimetres per second.. V be the volume and S be the surface area of the cube. Now Therefore o n Now or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dV = 9cm3/s (Given) dt 9= 2 = 3x ⋅ dA d = (π r 2 ) = 2π r .. Then. 10π cm2/s. when x = 10 cm. (1) dS d d dx (6x2 ) = (6x 2) ⋅ = dt dt dx dt ⎛ 3 = 12 x ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⎝x ⎞ 36 ⎟= ⎠ x (By Chain Rule) (Using (1)) Hence. V = x3 and S = 6x2. dr dr dA = 10π .APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 195 Thus. How fast is the surface area increasing when the length of an edge is 10 centimetres ? Solution Let x be the length of a side. the rate of change of y with respect to x can be calculated using the rate of change of y and that of x both with respect to t .

when r = 10 cm. Solution Since the length x is decreasing and the width y is increasing with respect to time. how fast is the enclosed area increasing? Solution The area A of a circle with radius r is given by A = πr2. $Note dy is positive if y increases as x increases and is negative if y decreases dx as x increases. when the radius of the circular wave is 10 cm. when r = 10 cm. we have dx dy = −3 cm/min = 2 cm/min and dt dt (a) The perimeter P of a rectangle is given by P = 2 ( x + y) o n dP ⎛ dx dy ⎞ = 2 ⎜ + ⎟ = 2 (−3 + 2) = −2 cm/min ⎝ dt dt ⎠ dt (b) The area A of the rectangle is given by A=x. When x =10cm and y = 6cm. Example 4 The length x of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate of 3 cm/minute and the width y is increasing at the rate of 2cm/minute. Therefore. At the instant. the rate of change of area A with respect to time t is dA dr d d dr (π r 2 ) = (π r 2 ) ⋅ = = 2π r dt dt dt dr dt It is given that dr = 4cm/s dt (By Chain Rule) dA = 2π (10) (4) = 80π dt Thus. find the rates of change of (a) the perimeter and (b) the area of the rectangle.y Therefore Therefore T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e dA dx dy ⋅y+ x⋅ = dt dt dt = – 3(6) + 10(2) (as x = 10 cm and y = 6 cm) = 2 cm2/min . Therefore. the enclosed area is increasing at the rate of 80π cm2/s.196 MATHEMATICS Example 3 A stone is dropped into a quiet lake and waves move in circles at a speed of 4cm per second.

015 Hence.135 – 0.1 . MC = 0. associated with the production of x units of an item is given by C ( x) = 0.02 x2 + 30 x + 5000 Find the marginal cost when 3 units are produced. when x = 5. the required marginal revenue is Rs 66. Solution Since marginal cost is the rate of change of total cost with respect to the output.04(3) + 30 dC = 0. The radius of a circle is increasing uniformly at the rate of 3 cm/s. How fast is the surface area increasing when the length of an edge is 12 cm? 3. The volume of a cube is increasing at the rate of 8 cm3/s. How fast is the volume of the cube increasing when the edge is 10 cm long? 5.005(3 x 2 ) − 0. we have Marginal When cost (MC) = = 0. Example 6 The total revenue in Rupees received from the sale of x units of a product is given by R(x) = 3x2 + 36x + 5. Find the marginal revenue. how fast is the enclosed area increasing? T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 2 x = 3. the required marginal cost is Rs 30. 4. where by marginal cost we mean the instantaneous rate of change of total cost at any level of output. At the instant when the radius of the circular wave is 8 cm. we have dR = 6x + 36 dx When x = 5. A stone is dropped into a quiet lake and waves move in circles at the speed of 5 cm/s.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 197 Example 5 The total cost C(x) in Rupees.02(2 x) + 30 dx h s d e EXERCISE 6. An edge of a variable cube is increasing at the rate of 3 cm/s.12 + 30 = 30. where by marginal revenue we mean the rate of change of total revenue with respect to the number of items sold at an instant. Find the rate at which the area of the circle is increasing when the radius is 10 cm. MR = 6(5) + 36 = 66 Hence.015(3 ) − 0. Solution Since marginal revenue is the rate of change of total revenue with respect to the number of units sold.02 (nearly). Marginal Revenue (MR) = o n 1.005 x3 – 0. Find the rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius r when (a) r = 3 cm (b) r = 4 cm 2.

has a variable diameter o n Find the rate of change of its volume with respect to x. is being inflated by pumping in 900 cubic centimetres of gas per second. A particle moves along the curve 6y = x3 +2.7 cm/s. which always remains spherical. Find the rate at which the radius of the balloon increases when the radius is 15 cm. 12. A balloon. The length x of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate of 5 cm/minute and the width y is increasing at the rate of 4 cm/minute. Choose the correct answer in the Exercises 17 and 18. 14. When x = 8cm and y = 6cm. and (b) the area of the rectangle. Sand is pouring from a pipe at the rate of 12 cm3 /s. The falling sand forms a cone on the ground in such a way that the height of the cone is always one-sixth of the radius of the base. The rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius r at r = 6 cm is (A) 10π (B) 12π (C) 8 π (D) 11π T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . Find the marginal revenue when x = 7. find the rates of change of (a) the perimeter. How fast is the height of the sand cone increasing when the height is 4 cm? 15. The total revenue in Rupees received from the sale of x units of a product is given by R ( x) = 13x2 + 26x + 15. A balloon. A ladder 5 m long is leaning against a wall.007x3 – 0. 17. The radius of a circle is increasing at the rate of 0. 8. Find the rate at which its volume is increasing with the radius when the later is 10 cm. Find the marginal cost when 17 units are produced. The radius of an air bubble is increasing at the rate of 1 cm/s. The bottom of the ladder is pulled along the ground. A balloon. away from the wall. 9. 2 13. How fast is its height on the wall decreasing when the foot of the ladder is 4 m away from the wall ? 11. which always remains spherical has a variable radius.003 x2 + 15x + 4000.198 MATHEMATICS 6. 16. at the rate of 2cm/s. which always remains spherical on inflation. What is the rate of increase of its circumference? 7. Find the points on the curve at which the y-coordinate is changing 8 times as fast as the x-coordinate. The total cost C (x) in Rupees associated with the production of x units of an item is given by C ( x) = 0. At what rate is the 2 volume of the bubble increasing when the radius is 1 cm? 3 (2 x + 1) . 10.

Consequently. we will use differentiation to find out whether a function is increasing or decreasing or none. the height of the graph continuously increases. o n Now consider the graph to the left of the origin and observe here that as we move from left to right along the graph. the function is said to be increasing for the real numbers x > 0. the function is said to be decreasing for the real numbers x < 0.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 199 18. the height of the graph continuously decreases. Then f is said to be (i) increasing on I if x1 < x2 in I ⇒ f ( x1) ≤ f ( x2 ) for all x1 . For this reason. when x = 15 is (A) 116 (B) 96 (C) 90 (D) 126 6. Observe that as we move from left to right along the graph. (ii) strictly increasing on I if x1 < x2 in I ⇒ f ( x1) < f (x2) for all x1. Values left to origin x –2 3 − 2 –1 1 − 2 0 f ( x) = x 4 9 4 1 1 4 2 as we move from left to right. the height of the graph increases . The total revenue in Rupees received from the sale of x units of a product is given by R(x) = 3x2 + 36x + 5. x ∈ R. The graph of this function is a parabola as given in Fig 6.1) to the right of the origin. the height of the graph decreases First consider the graph (Fig 6. x2 ∈ I. We shall now give the following analytical definitions for a function which is increasing or decreasing on an interval. Consider the function f given by f (x) = x2. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x 0 0 1 2 1 3 2 2 0 1 4 1 9 4 4 Fig 6.1.1 Values right to origin f ( x) = x2 h s d e as we move from left to right. The marginal revenue. Definition 1 Let I be an open interval contained in the domain of a real valued function f. x2 ∈ I.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions In this section.

o n Let us clarify this definition for the case of increasing function. For graphical representation of such functions see Fig 6.200 MATHEMATICS (iii) decreasing on I if x1 < x2 in I ⇒ f ( x1) ≥ f ( x2) for all x1. x0 + h ). (iv) strictly decreasing on I if x1 < x2 in I ⇒ f (x1) > f ( x2) for all x1. A function f is said to be increasing at x0 if there exists an interval I = (x0 – h. h > 0 such that for x1. decreasing or strictly decreasing at x0 if there exists an open interval I containing x0 such that f is increasing. Solution Let x1 and x2 be any two numbers in R. Definition 2 Let x0 be a point in the domain of definition of a real valued function f. strictly increasing. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x1 < x2 ⇒ 7x1 < 7x2 ⇒ 7x1 – 3 < 7 x2 – 3 ⇒ f ( x1) < f (x2) h s d e Example 7 Show that the function given by f ( x) = 7x – 3 is strictly increasing on R. the other cases can be clarified. decreasing or strictly decreasing. respectively. Fig 6. x2 ∈ I. in I. Then f is said to be increasing.2 We shall now define when a function is increasing or decreasing at a point. x2 ∈ I.2. strictly increasing. x2 ∈ I x1 < x2 in I ⇒ f (x1 ) ≤ f ( x2) Similarly. Then .

b].e.b] if f ′(x) < 0 for each x ∈ (a . by Mean Value Theorem (Theorem 8 in Chapter 5). We shall now give the first derivative test for increasing and decreasing functions.b] if f ′( x) = 0 for each x ∈ (a . we have Hence. b) Proof (a) Let x1. x2 ∈[ a . Thus. i. Remarks The proofs of part (b) and (c) are similar. b) if f ′( x) > 0 for each x ∈ (a. Then. f is an increasing function in [a. by Definition 1. for all x1 . x ∈ R f ′( x) = 3 x2 – 6x + 4 = 3(x2 – 2x + 1) + 1 h s d e (as f ′( c) > 0 (given)) = 3(x – 1)2 + 1 > 0.b] if f ′( x) > 0 for each x ∈ (a . b] and differentiable on the open interval ( a. x2 ∈ [a . b) (iii) A function will be increasing (decreasing) in R if it is so in every interval of R. b) (ii) f is strictly decreasing in (a. b) (c) f is a constant function in [a. Theorem 1 Let f be continuous on [ a.b). (i) f is strictly increasing in ( a. it follows that f is strictly increasing on R. It is left as an exercise to the reader. b ) if f ′(x) < 0 for each x ∈ (a. Then (a) f is increasing in [a. Solution Note that T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t f (x2 ) > f ( x 1) x1 < x2 ⇒ f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 ). . b] f (x) = x3 – 3x2 + 4x. in every interval of R Therefore. b) (b) f is decreasing in [a. there exists a point c between x1 and x2 such that f ( x2) – f ( x1) = f ′( c) (x2 – x1) f ( x2) – f ( x1) > 0 i. the function f is strictly increasing on R. The proof of this test requires the Mean Value Theorem studied in Chapter 5.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 201 Thus. b] be such that x1 < x2. o n Example 8 Show that the function f given by is strictly increasing on R.e.

2π] and decreasing in [0.202 MATHEMATICS Example 9 Prove that the function given by f (x) = cos x is (a) strictly decreasing in (0. (– ∞. However. 2π).3). f ′ ( x ) > 0 and so the function f is strictly increasing in this interval. o n Note Note that the given function is continuous at 2 which is the point joining $ the two intervals. since the function is continuous at the end points 0 and π. 2) and (2. sin x > 0. Now the point x = 2 divides the real line into two disjoint intervals namely. we conclude that the given function is decreasing in (– ∞. ∞ ) . by Theorem 1. π). ∞). π]. In the interval (– ∞. in the interval (2. 2π). we have f ′( x) > 0 and so f is strictly increasing in (π. 2π). f is strictly decreasing in this interval. (b) Since for each x ∈ (π. ∞) (Fig 6. by Theorem 1. Solution We have f ( x) = 4x3 – 6x2 – 72x + 30 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6. sin x < 0. π) (b) strictly increasing in (π. we have f ′( x) < 0 and so f is strictly decreasing in (0. f ′( x) = 2x – 4 < 0. f is increasing in [π. (c) Clearly by (a) and (b) above. and (c) neither increasing nor decreasing in (0. 2π). Also.3 h s d e . Example 11 Find the intervals in which the function f given by f ( x) = 4x3 – 6x2 – 72x + 30 is (a) strictly increasing (b) strictly decreasing. f ′(x) = 0 gives x = 2. 2] and increasing in [2. $Note Example 10 Find the intervals in which the function f given by f (x) = x2 – 4x + 6 is (a) strictly increasing (b) strictly decreasing Solution We have f (x) = x2 – 4x + 6 or f ′( x) = 2x – 4 Therefore. f is neither increasing nor decreasing in (0. π). Solution Note that f ′( x) = – sin x (a) Since for each x ∈ (0. Therefore. So. 2). 2π).

or ⎡ π⎤ Example 12 Find intervals in which the function given by f ( x) = sin 3x. ⎟ and ⎜ . – 2). ⎝6 2⎠ 6 2 2 2 . ∞) while the function is strictly decreasing in the interval (– 2. However. f is neither increasing nor decreasing in R. – 2) and (3. ∞) f is strictly increasing f is strictly decreasing f is strictly increasing (+) (+) > 0 h s d e ⎡ π⎤ ⎢ 0. So x = and . ∞). Solution We have or f (x) = sin 3x f ′( x) = 3cos 3x π 3π ⎡ π⎤ (as x ∈⎢ 0. (– 2.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 203 f ′(x) = 12x2 – 12x – 72 = 12(x2 – x – 6) = 12(x – 3) (x + 2) Therefore. (– ∞. 3. ⎥ Therefore. namely. ⎟ as < x < ⇒ < 3 x < . 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ π⎞ π π Now. 3). 3). Consequently. f ′( x) = 0 gives cos 3x = 0 which in turn gives 3x = . The point x = divides the interval 6 2 6 ⎣ 2⎦ ⎡ π⎞ ⎛π π⎤ into two disjoint intervals ⎢ 0. ∞).5 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Interval Sign of f ′(x) (–) (–) > 0 (–) (+) < 0 Nature of function f (– ∞. ⎟ as 0 ≤ x < ⇒ 0 ≤ 3 x < and f ′( x ) < 0 for ⎣ 6⎠ 6 2 π π ⎛ ⎞ π π π 3π all x ∈⎜ . ⎝ 6 2⎦ ⎣ 6⎠ Fig 6. 3) Fig 6. – 2) and (3. f ′( x ) > 0 for all x ∈ ⎢ 0. ⎥ ). 3) (3. ⎥ is ⎣ 2⎦ (a) increasing (b) decreasing. x ∈⎢ 0. ⎥ .4 and (3. f ′(x) is negative. The points x = – 2 and x = 3 divides the real line into three disjoint intervals. f ′( x) = 0 gives x = – 2. f ′(x) is positive while in the interval (– 2. In the intervals (– ∞. – 2) (– 2. 2 2 ⎣ 2⎦ o n π π π ⎡ 3π ⎤ implies 3x ∈ ⎢ 0. the function f is strictly increasing in the intervals (– ∞.

by Theorem 1. 2 π⎥ 4 4 ⎣ ⎠ ⎝ ⎦ ⎛ 5π ⎤ ⎡ π⎞ f is strictly increasing in the intervals ⎢ 0. ⎜ ⎜ ⎥. Solution We have or Now f ′( x ) = 0 gives sin x = cos x which gives that x = The points x = 5π ⎡ π ⎞ ⎛ π 5π ⎞ ⎤ . f is strictly decreasing in ⎜ ⎝4 4⎟ ⎠ . ⎟ and ⎛ π . as 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π 4 4 5π π and x = divide the interval [0. Therefore. 6 ⎝6 2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎠ Also. f ′( x) = cos x – sin x Fig 6. ⎥ and decreasing on ⎣ 6⎦ ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢6 . ⎟ and strictly decreasing in ⎜ . ⎣ ⎦ π . ⎣ 4⎠ ⎝4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎦ Note that o n or Also or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t f (x) = sin x + cos x. ⎟ . 2π] into three disjoint intervals. 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.204 MATHEMATICS ⎡ π⎞ ⎛π π⎞ Therefore. 2 π⎥ ⎝ 4 ⎦ ⎣ 4⎠ ⎛ π 5π ⎞ f ′( x ) < 0 if x ∈⎜ . 4 4 ⎡ π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎤ f ′( x) > 0 if x ∈ ⎢0. 6 Example 13 Find the intervals in which the function f given by f (x) = sin x + cos x. 2 namely.6 h s d e π 5π . the given function is continuous at x = 0 and x = ⎡ π⎤ f is increasing on ⎢ 0. ⎢ 0. ⎟ . 2⎥ . f is strictly increasing in ⎢ 0. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . ⎟ and ⎜ . ⎟ ⎝4 4⎠ ⎛ π 5π ⎞ .

4 ⎟ ⎣ ⎠ ⎛ π 5π ⎞ . Show that the function given by f (x) = 3x + 17 is strictly increasing on R. 2. 9.2 4 sin θ ⎡ π⎤ − θ is an increasing function of θ in ⎢ 0. Prove that y = . ⎥ . x > – 1. Show that the function given by f ( x) = sin x is ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ (a) strictly increasing in ⎜ 0. Find the intervals in which the function f given by f ( x) = 2x2 – 3 x is (a) strictly increasing (b) strictly decreasing 5. Show that the function given by f ( x) = e2x is strictly increasing on R. Find the intervals in which the function f given by f (x) = 2x3 – 3x2 – 36x + 7 is (a) strictly increasing (b) strictly decreasing 6. 2 π⎥ ⎝ 4 ⎦ <0 f is strictly decreasing 1. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 6. (2 + cos θ) ⎣ 2⎦ >0 f is strictly increasing h s d e 2x . ⎟ (b) strictly decreasing in ⎜ . Find the values of x for which y = [x ( x – 2)]2 is an increasing function. Find the intervals in which the following functions are strictly increasing or decreasing: (a) x2 + 2x – 5 (c) –2x3 – 9x2 – 12x + 1 (e) ( x + 1)3 (x – 3)3 (b) 10 – 6x – 2x2 (d) 6 – 9x – x2 o n 7. ⎜ ⎝4 4⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎤ ⎜ . 3. π ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (c) neither increasing nor decreasing in (0.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 205 Interval Sign of f ′ ( x ) >0 Nature of function f is strictly increasing ⎡ π⎞ ⎢0. π) 4. is an increasing function of x 2+ x 8. Show that y = log(1+ x ) − throughout its domain.

The interval in which y = x2 e–x is increasing is (A) (– ∞. ∞) (B) (– 2. Prove that the function f given by f ( x) = log sin x is strictly increasing on ⎜ 0. π ⎟ .206 MATHEMATICS 10. π ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛ π⎞ (C) ⎜ 0. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ (D) None of these 2 h s d e 1 is strictly increasing on I. 11. 1). Let I be any interval disjoint from (–1. 19. Prove that the function f given by f (x) = x2 – x + 1 is neither strictly increasing nor strictly decreasing on (– 1. 2). x . ⎟ and strictly increasing on ⎜ . 0) (C) (2. Prove that the function given by f ( x) = x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 100 is increasing in R.4 Tangents and Normals In this section. Which of the following functions are strictly decreasing on ⎜ 0. Prove that the function f given by f ( x) = log cos x is strictly decreasing on ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 0. 2) o n 6. ⎛ π⎞ 12. ⎝2 ⎠ 17. 1). Prove that the logarithmic function is strictly increasing on (0. Recall that the equation of a straight line passing through a given point (x0. 15. ∞) (D) (0. ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 18. On which of the following intervals is the function f given by f ( x) = x100 + sin x –1 strictly decreasing ? (A) (0. ⎟ ? ⎝ 2⎠ (A) cos x (B) cos 2x (C) cos 3x (D) tan x 13. y0) having finite slope m is given by y – y0 = m ( x – x0) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎛π ⎞ (B) ⎜ . Find the least value of a such that the function f given by f (x) = x + ax + 1 is strictly increasing on (1. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎛π ⎞ and strictly decreasing on ⎜ . we shall use differentiation to find the equation of the tangent line and the normal line to a curve at a given point. ∞). π ⎟ .1) 14. Prove that the function f given by f (x) = x + ⎛ π⎞ 16.

the equation of the tangent at ( x0. the slope of the normal to the curve y = f (x) at (x0. Therefore. then tan θ = 0 and so θ = 0 which means the tangent line is parallel to the x-axis. y0) is −1 . y0) is given by dy ⎤ ( = f ′( x0 )) . $Note If a tangent line to the curve y = f (x) makes an angle θ with x-axis in the positive direction. y0) is given by y – y0 = −1 ( x − x0 ) ′ f ( x0 ) i. y0) to the curve y = f ( x) is given by y – y0 = f ′( x0)(x – x0) Also. then Particular cases dy = slope of the tangent = tan θ .APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 207 Note that the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f (x) at the point (x0. parallel to the y-axis. which means the tangent line is perpendicular to the 2 x-axis. So dx ⎥ ⎦ ( x0 . Solution The slope of the tangent at x = 2 is given by dy ⎤ 2 = 3x − 1⎤ ⎦ x= 2 = 11. Example 14 Find the slope of the tangent to the curve y = x3 – x at x = 2. the equation of the tangent at the point (x0 . then tan θ → ∞. In this case. y0 ) the equation of the tangent at (x0. o n π (ii) If θ → .e. y0 ) is given by x = x0 (Why?). the equation of the f ′ ( x0 ) normal to the curve y = f ( x) at (x0.7 h s d e ( y − y0 ) f ′ ( x0 ) + ( x − x0 ) = 0 . dx (i) If slope of the tangent line is zero.. dx ⎥ ⎦ x =2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6.e. if f ′( x0 ) ≠ 0 . i. y0) is given by y = y0. In this case. since the normal is perpendicular to the tangent.

2) and (4. 3 Solution Slope of tangent to the given curve at (x. 2) is given by y – 2 = 2( x – 2) or y – 2x + 2 = 0 and the equation of the tangent through (4.208 MATHEMATICS Example 15 Find the point at which the tangent to the curve y = 4 x − 3 − 1 has its 2 . there are two tangents to the given curve with slope 2 and passing through the points (2. Therefore 2 =2 (x − 3)2 y+ o n ( x – 3)2 = 1 x – 3 =±1 x = 2. Therefore. y = 4(3) − 3 − 1 = 2 . 2).y) is given by dy 2 = dx ( x − 3) 2 But the slope is given to be 2. y ) is −1 dy 1 2 2 4= (4 x 3) − = dx 2 4x − 3 2 The slope is given to be . the required point is (3. Thus. The equation of tangent through (2. – 2). 4 Now x = 2 gives y = 2 and x = 4 gives y = – 2. – 2) is given by y – (– 2) = 2( x – 4) or y – 2x + 10 = 0 or or or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . slope Example 16 Find the equation of all lines having slope 2 and being tangent to the curve 2 =0. So when x = 3. x−3 Solution Slope of the tangent to the given curve at any point (x. 3 2 2 So = 3 4x − 3 or 4x – 3 = 9 or x=3 Now y = 4 x − 3 − 1 .

0) and (–2. the curve cuts the x-axis at (7. i. Example 18 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = point where it cuts the x-axis. Solution Differentiating x 2 y2 + = 1 at which the tangents are (i) parallel 4 25 x 2 y2 + = 1 with respect to x. Thus. Hence. 4 25 25 x points at which the tangents are parallel to the y-axis are (2. Therefore.e. y = 0.e. x−7 at the ( x − 2)( x − 3) o n or Solution Note that on x-axis. we get 4 25 x 2 y dy + =0 2 25 dx or −25 x dy = 4 y dx (i) Now. – 5). y = 0. i.0) (5)(4) 20 h s d e . gives x = 7. So the equation of the curve. 0). when y = 0.. y = ± 5. 0).APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 209 Example 17 Find points on the curve to x-axis (ii) parallel to y-axis. we obtain dy 1 − y(2 x − 5) = dx (x − 2)( x − 3) (Why?) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dy ⎤ 1− 0 1 = = ⎥ dx ⎦ (7.. (ii) The tangent line is parallel to y-axis if the slope of the normal is 0 which gives x 2 y2 4y + = 1 for y = 0 gives x = ± 2. the = 0 . the points at which the tangents are parallel to the x-axis are (0. the tangent is parallel to the x-axis if the slope of the tangent is zero which gives x2 y2 −25 x + = 1 for x = 0 gives = 0 . This is possible if x = 0. Now differentiating the equation of the curve with respect to x. Thus. 5) and (0. Then 4 25 4 y y2 = 25.

the equation of the 20 20 y − x + 7 = 0 2 x3 Example 19 Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve at (1. 1) is y – 1 = – 1 (x – 1) or y+x–2=0 Also. we get dx = 3a sin 2 t cos t dt and dy = −3b cos 2 t sin t dt . we get 2 3 −1 x3 or Therefore. y = b cos3 t at a point where t = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t + 2 3 −1 y3 dy =0 dx h s =2 d e dy ⎛ y ⎞3 = −⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝x⎠ 1 dy ⎤ = −1 . (1) π . 1). 0) is tangent at (7. dx ⎥ ⎦(1. 0) is y−0= 1 ( x − 7) 20 or 1 .. 2 2 + 2 y3 Solution Differentiating x 3 + y 3 = 2 with respect to x. 1) is given by −1 =1 slope of the tangent at (1. 1) is y – 1 = 1 (x – 1) or y–x=0 Example 20 Find the equation of tangent to the curve given by x = a sin3 t .210 MATHEMATICS Therefore. the slope of the tangent at (1. 2 Solution Differentiating (1) with respect to t. the slope of the tangent at (7. the equation of the normal at (1. 1) is So the equation of the tangent at (1.1) .1) o n Therefore.. Hence. the slope of the normal at (1.

y = b cos 2 θ at θ = . Find the slope of the tangent to the curve y = x −1 . when t = curve at t = 1. Find the slope of the normal to the curve x = 1 − a sin θ. 8. Hence.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 211 or dy −3bcos2 t sin t −b cos t dy dt = = = dx dx 3asin2 t cos t a sin t dt π is 2 π 2=0 = π a sin 2 −b cos Therefore. x ≠ 2 at x = 10. 2 7. i.. Find a point on the curve y = (x – 2)2 at which the tangent is parallel to the chord joining the points (2. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t π . 2. the equation of tangent to the given 2 h s d e EXERCISE 6. 0) and (4. Find the slope of the normal to the curve x = a cos3 θ. 0) is 2 y – 0 = 0 ( x – a ). slope of the tangent at t = dy ⎤ dx ⎥ ⎦ t= π 2 Also. π . Find the slope of the tangent to the curve y = x3 –3x + 2 at the point whose x-coordinate is 3. y = 0. i. Find points at which the tangent to the curve y = x3 – 3 x2 – 9x + 7 is parallel to the x-axis. Find the slope of the tangent to curve y = x3 – x + 1 at the point whose x-coordinate is 2. x−2 3.. o n π 5. 4).e. Find the slope of the tangent to the curve y = 3x4 – 4x at x = 4. x = a and y = 0. at (a . y = a sin 3 θ at θ = .e. 4. 4 π 6.3 .

x ≠ 3. Find the equation of all lines having slope – 1 that are tangents to the curve 1 . Find the points on the curve x2 + y2 – 2x – 3 = 0 at which the tangents are parallel to the x-axis. For the curve y = 4x3 – 2x5. x −1 11. 3) y = x3 at (1. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 . 16. 10.212 MATHEMATICS 9. 0) π 4 15. y = sin t at t = (a) parallel to the line 2x – y + 9 = 0 (b) perpendicular to the line 5y – 15x = 13. Find the equation of all lines having slope 2 which are tangents to the curve y= 1 . 5) y = x4 – 6 x3 + 13x2 – 10x + 5 at (1. Find points on the curve (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) y = x4 – 6 x3 + 13x2 – 10x + 5 at (0.am 3) for the curve ay2 = x3. x ≠ 1. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the given curves at the indicated points: 13. o n 17. Find the equation of the normal at the point (am2 . 19. Show that the tangents to the curve y = 7x3 + 11 at the points where x = 2 and x = – 2 are parallel. find all the points at which the tangent passes through the origin. 14. Find the points on the curve y = x3 at which the slope of the tangent is equal to the y-coordinate of the point. . x−3 12. x − 2x + 3 2 h s d e 20. 1) y = x2 at (0. Find the point on the curve y = x3 – 11 x + 5 at which the tangent is y = x – 11. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve y = x2 – 2x +7 which is (v) x = cos t. Find the equations of all lines having slope 0 which are tangent to the curve y= y= x 2 y2 + = 1 at which the tangents are 9 16 (i) parallel to x-axis (ii) parallel to y-axis. 18.

We define the following o n (i) The differential of x. 24. The slope of the normal to the curve y = 2 x2 + 3 sin x at x = 0 is 1 1 (C) –3 (D) − 3 3 2 27. Let f : D → R. – 2) (D) (– 1. 22. Prove that the curves x = y2 and xy = k cut at right angles* if 8k2 = 1.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 213 21. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = 3x − 2 which is parallel to the line 4 x − 2 y + 5 = 0 . Choose the correct answer in Exercises 26 and 27. x2 y2 − = 1 at the a2 b2 25. D ⊂ R. denoted by dy. 23. The line y = x + 1 is a tangent to the curve y = 4x at the point (A) (1. denoted by Δy. (ii) The differential of y. is defined by dy = f ′( x) dx or ⎛ dy ⎞ dy = ⎜ ⎟ Δx. denoted by dx . 2) (A) 3 (B) 6. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the parabola y2 = 4ax at the point ( at2.5 Approximations In this section. Find the equation of the normals to the curve y = x3 + 2x + 6 which are parallel to the line x + 14y + 4 = 0. Let Δx denote a small increment in x.8 h s d e * Two curves intersect at right angle if the tangents to the curves at the point of intersection are perpendicular to each other. 2 at). is defined by dx = Δx. ⎝ dx ⎠ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6. 26. Recall that the increment in y corresponding to the increment in x. 2) (B) (2. 1) (C) (1. y0). is given by Δy = f (x + Δx) – f ( x). . be a given function and let y = f ( x ). we will use differentials to approximate values of certain quantities. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the hyperbola point (x0.

6 is 6 + 0.6 − 6 . one may refer to Fig 6. dx and dy.8.6) = 0.6 .926 . dy is a good approximation of Δy and we denote it by dy ≈ Δy. Example 21 Use differential to approximate Δy = Solution Take y = x .6. For geometrical meaning of Δx. Then 1 1 1 1 or (25)3 = 3 + Δy Now dy is approximately equal to Δy and is given by o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x + Δx − x = 36. Note In view of the above discussion and Fig 6. the approximate value of (25) 3 is given by 3 + (– 0.214 MATHEMATICS In case dx = Δx is relatively small when compared with x.05. h s d e (as y = x ) 1 ⎛ dy ⎞ (−2) dy = ⎜ ⎟ Δx = 2 ⎝ dx ⎠ 3 3x = 1 1 3 2 1 (as y = x 3 ) ( −2) = 1 3 ((27) ) −2 = − 0. Then or 36. Let x = 36 and let Δx = 0.05 = 6. we may note that the $ differential of the dependent variable is not equal to the increment of the variable where as the differential of independent variable is equal to the increment of the variable. 074) = 2.6 = 6 + Δy Now dy is approximately equal to Δy and is given by 1 1 ⎛ dy ⎞ (0.05 dy = ⎜ ⎟ Δx = ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 x 2 36 Thus. Let x = 27 and let Δx = – 2.6) = (0. Δy = ( x + Δx) 3 − x3 = (25) 3 − (27) 3 = (25) 3 − 3 1 1 36.6 − 36 = 36.8.074 27 Thus. Δy. 1 (25) 3 Example 22 Use differential to approximate 1 Solution Let y = x3 . the approximate value of 36.

the approximate change in volume is 0.02) ≈ (3x + 5x + 3) + (6x + 5) Δx = (3(3)2 + 5(3) + 3) + (6(3) + 5) (0. Example 24 Find the approximate change in the volume V of a cube of side x meters caused by increasing the side by 2%. Solution Let x = 3 and Δx = 0.02x) = 0.03) = 9. the volume V of the sphere is given by o n or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎛ dV ⎞ dV = ⎜ ⎟ Δx = (3x2) Δx ⎝ dx ⎠ V= 4 3 πr 3 dV = 4 πr 2 dr h s d e (as 2% of x is 0. Therefore . Therefore f (x + Δx) = f ( x) + Δy ≈ f (x) + f ′(x) Δx (as dx = Δx) 2 f (3.02) (as x = 3.02x) ⎛ dV ⎞ 2 dV = ⎜ ⎟ Δr = (4πr )Δr dr ⎝ ⎠ 2 = 4 π(9) (0. Then r = 9 cm and Δr = 0.02) = (27 + 15 + 3) + (18 + 5) (0.02). Solution Note that V = x3 or = (3x2) (0.03 cm. Now. Example 25 If the radius of a sphere is measured as 9 cm with an error of 0.02) is 45.02.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 215 Example 23 Find the approximate value of f (3. then find the approximate error in calculating its volume. Solution Let r be the radius of the sphere and Δr be the error in measuring the radius.46 = 45.02) or = 45 + 0.72π cm 3 Thus.06 x3 m3. 02) = f (x + Δx) = 3 (x + Δx) 2 + 5(x + Δx) + 3 Note that Δy = f (x + Δx) – f (x).46. where f ( x) = 3x2 + 5x + 3. Δx = 0.03 cm.46 Hence. Then f (3. approximate value of f (3.72π cm 3.06x3 m3 Thus. the approximate error in calculating the volume is 9.

02 m. then find the approximate error in calculating its surface area. Find the approximate value of f (5.6 1 (iv) (0. 3.9 x3 m3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 (401) 2 1 (0.06 x3 m 3 (B) 0.66 (C) 67.009) 3 (vii) (26) (x) 1 3 (v) (0. Find the approximate value of f (2.5 1 (iii) 0.09 x3 m3 (D) 0. 6. then the approximate value of f (3.15)5 6. (i) 25.02) is o n (A) 47.03 m.01). where f ( x) = 4x2 + 5x + 2. Find the approximate change in the volume V of a cube of side x metres caused by increasing the side by 1%. If the radius of a sphere is measured as 9 m with an error of 0.66 9.6 x3 m3 (C) 0. then find the approximate error in calculating its volume. In fact. we will find the ‘turning points’ of the graph of a function and thus find points at which the graph reaches its highest (or . 4.5) 4 2.66 (B) 57. where f ( x) = x3 – 7x2 + 15.3 1 (ii) 49.57) 3 1 1 h s d e (xiv) (3. The approximate change in the volume of a cube of side x metres caused by increasing the side by 3% is (A) 0. 8.001).0037) 2 3 (xii) 1 (26. 5.66 (D) 77.4 1. If f( x) = 3x2 + 15x + 5. Find the approximate change in the surface area of a cube of side x metres caused by decreasing the side by 1%. we will use the concept of derivatives to calculate the maximum or minimum values of various functions.6 Maxima and Minima In this section. 7. Using differentials.216 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 6. If the radius of a sphere is measured as 7 m with an error of 0.999) 10 (viii) (xi) 1 (255) 4 (vi) (15) 4 (ix) 1 (82) 4 (xiii) (81.968) 2 (xv) (32. find the approximate value of each of the following up to 3 places of decimal.

. How many trees per acre will maximise the profit? (ii) A ball. we have exhibited that graphs of certain particular functions help us to find maximum value and minimum value at a point. thrown into the air from a building 60 metres high. we will also find the absolute maximum and absolute minimum of a function that are necessary for the solution of many applied problems. Then (a) f is said to have a maximum value in I. in this case. points of local maxima and minima and test for determining such points. (i) The profit from a grove of orange trees is given by P(x) = ax + bx2 . What is the maximum height the ball will reach? (iii) An Apache helicopter of enemy is flying along the path given by the curve f ( x) = x2 + 7. Further. if there exists a point c in I such that f (c) < f ( x). The number f (c). Infact. Let us consider the following problems that arise in day to day life. for all x ∈ I. we wish to find out the maximum or minimum values of the given functions. we can even find maximum/minimum value of a function at a point at which it is not even differentiable (Example 27).b are constants and x is the number of orange trees per acre. in this case. What is the nearest distance? In each of the above problem. i. where a. The knowledge of such points is very useful in sketching the graph of a given function. placed at the point (1. (b) and (c).e. Definition 3 Let f be a function defined on an interval I. through graphs. in this case. (b) f is said to have a minimum value in I. for all x ∈ I. there is something common. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . is called the minimum value of f in I and the point c. The number f ( c) is called the maximum value of f in I and the point c is called a point of maximum value of f in I. 2). A soldier. In order to tackle such problems. is called a point of minimum value of f in I. is called an extreme value of f in I and the point c is called an extreme point. travels along a path x2 . we first formally define maximum or minimum values of a function. wants to shoot the helicopter when it is nearest to him.9(a). Remark In Fig 6. The number f ( c).APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 217 lowest) locally. if there exists a point c in I such that f (c ) > f ( x) . where x is the horizontal distance from the building given by h ( x) = 60 + x − 60 and h ( x) is the height of the ball . (c) f is said to have an extreme value in I if there exists a point c in I such that f (c) is either a maximum value or a minimum value of f in I.

Solution From the graph of the given function (Fig 6. note that f ( x) ≥ 0.10 Fig 6. for all x ∈ R and f (x) = 0 if x = 0. the minimum value of f is 0 and the point of minimum value of f is x = 0. Also. 1] only. 2 Example 27 Find the maximum and minimum values of f . it may be observed from the graph of the function that f has no maximum value and hence no point of maximum value of f in R. $ then f will have maximum value(– 2) = 4 at x = – 2. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6. x ∈ R.9 Fig 6.218 MATHEMATICS Example 26 Find the maximum and the minimum values. 1] only. . the graph clearly shows that f has no maximum value in R and hence no point of maximum value in R. x ∈ R. of the function given by f ( x) = | x |.11 h s d e $ Note (i) If we restrict the domain of f to [– 2. Also f (x) ≥ 0. of the function f given by f (x) = x2. Therefore. if any. for all x ∈ R. Note If we restrict the domain of f to [– 2. Therefore. if any. then f will have maximum value |– 2| = 2.11) . Solution From the graph of the given function (Fig 6.10). we have f ( x) = 0 if x = 0. Further. the function f has a minimum value 0 and the point of minimum value of f is x = 0.

the function changes its nature from decreasing to increasing or vice-versa. then x1 + 1 > x1 for all x1 ∈(0. if any.. if we extend the domain of f to [0. if we include the points 0 and 1 in the domain of f . Infact. if a point x0 is closest to 0. it seems that. observe that at turning points. Are such points available? Of course. It is not possible to locate such points. if x1 is 2 h s d e in an interval I.13. C and D on the graph. Solution The given function is an increasing (strictly) function in the given interval (0. 1). the function has minimum value in some neighbourhood (interval) of each of the points A and C which are at the bottom of their respective T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x0 < x0 for all x0 ∈(0. we mean that f is either . o n Note By a monotonic function f $ increasing in I or decreasing in I.1) . A more general result is Every continuous function on a closed interval has a maximum and a minimum value. Fig 6. then we find closest to 1. Example 28 Find the maximum and the minimum values. then the function f has minimum value 0 at x = 0 and maximum value 1 at x = 1.1) . Observe that at points A.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 219 (ii) One may note that the function f in Example 27 is not differentiable at x = 0. i. 1). we have the following results (The proof of these results are beyond the scope of the present text) Every monotonic function assumes its maximum/minimum value at the end points of the domain of definition of the function. Maximum and minimum values of a function defined on a closed interval will be discussed later in this section. of the function given by f (x) = x. From the graph (Fig 6.12 2 Therefore. Infact. Further. x ∈ (0. Also.1]. it should have the minimum value at a point closest to 0 on its right and the maximum value at a point closest to 1 on its left.e. Roughly speaking. B.12) of the function f . Let us now examine the graph of a function as shown in Fig 6. the given function has neither the maximum value nor the minimum value in the interval (0.1). Remark The reader may observe that in Example 28. not. the graph has either a little hill or a little valley. These points may be called turning points of the given function.

f ′(x) > 0) in the interval ( c – h. for all x in ( c – h .e. of the function.220 MATHEMATICS o n valleys.14(a). This suggests that f ′( c) must be zero. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6. for all x in (c – h. (b) c is called a point of local minima if there is an h > 0 such that f ( c) < f ( x). then the graph of f around c will be as shown in Fig 6. Similarly. We now formally give the following definition Definition 4 Let f be a real valued function and let c be an interior point in the domain of f . The local maximum value and local minimum value of the function are referred to as local maxima and local minima .13 h s d e . c + h).. c) and decreasing (i. Note that the function f is increasing (i. f ′( x) < 0) in the interval (c. respectively.e. the function has maximum value in some neighbourhood of points B and D which are at the top of their respective hills. For this reason. Geometrically..14 Fig 6. the points A and C may be regarded as points of local minimum value (or relative minimum value) and points B and D may be regarded as points of local maximum value (or relative maximum value) for the function. the above definition states that if x = c is a point of local maxima of f. Then (a) c is called a point of local maxima if there is an h > 0 such that f (c) > f ( x). c + h ) The value f ( c) is called the local maximum value of f. c + h) The value f (c) is called the local minimum value of f .

and f ′( x) < 0 at every point sufficiently close to and to the right of c. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6. then c is neither a point of local maxima nor a point of local minima.. c + h ). a point at which the derivative vanishes need not be a point of local maxima or local minima.15).15 h s d e . The above discussion lead us to the following theorem (without proof). c) and increasing (i. i. f ′(x) < 0) in the interval (c – h .14(b). $Note A point c in the domain of a function f at which either f ′( c) = 0 or f is not differentiable is called a critical point of f. and f ′( x) > 0 at every point sufficiently close to and to the right of c. then either f ′( c) = 0 or f is not differentiable at c.15). if f ( x) = x3. if c is a point of local minima of f . (iii) If f ′(x) does not change sign as x increases through c. then c is a point of local maxima . This again suggest that f ′(c) must be zero. If f has a local maxima or a local minima at x = c. Let f be continuous at a critical point c in I.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 221 Similarly. c + h). if f ′( x) > 0 at every point sufficiently close to and to the left of c. (ii) If f ′( x) changes sign from negative to positive as x increases through c. f ′(x) > 0) in the interval (c. Remark The converse of above theorem need not be true. For example. Suppose c ∈ I be any point. Here f is decreasing (i. then f ′(x) = 3x2 and so f ′(0) = 0. that is. then the graph of f around c will be as shown in Fig 6. We shall now give a working rule for finding points of local maxima or points of local minima using only the first order derivatives.e. But 0 is neither a point of local maxima nor a point of local minima (Fig 6. Theorem 2 Let f be a function defined on an open interval I.. if f ′( x) < 0 at every point sufficiently close to and to the left of c. Note that if f is continuous at c and f ′(c) = 0.e. then there exists an h > 0 such that f is differentiable in the interval ( c – h.. such a point is called point of inflection (Fig 6.. i. Then (i) If f ′( x) changes sign from positive to negative as x increases through c. Infact.e. Theorem 3 (First Derivative Test) Let f be a function defined on an open interval I. then c is a point of local minima.e.

by first derivative test. In the case of x = –1. x = – 1 is a point of local maxima and local maximum value is f (–1) = 5. Let us first examine the point x = 1. x = ± 1 are the only critical points which could possibly be the points of local maxima and/or local minima of f . then f (c) is a local maximum value of f. x = 1 is a point of local minima and local minimum value is f (1) = 1. for values close to and to the left of –1 and f ′( x) < 0.) to the left (say − 1. Therefore. Solution We have f (x) = x3 – 3x + 3 or f ′( x) = 3x2 – 3 = 3 ( x – 1) (x + 1) or f ′(x) = 0 at x = 1 and x = – 1 Thus. by first derivative test. for values close to and to the right of – 1. if c is a point of local minima of f . f ′(x) > 0 and for values close to 1 and to the left of 1. geometrically explain Theorem 3. Note that for values close to 1 and to the right of 1. Example 29 Find all points of local maxima and local minima of the function f given by f (x) = x3 – 3x + 3. Figures 6. Values of x Sign of f ′ (x) = 3(x – 1) (x + 1) o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6.222 MATHEMATICS $Note If c is a point of local maxima of f .) >0 <0 Close to –1 to the right (say − 0. note that f ′(x) > 0.1 etc.16 h s d e Close to 1 to the right (say 1.9 etc.9 etc.16. f ′( x) < 0. Therefore.) <0 >0 . Similarly.15 and 6. then f( c) is a local minimum value of f.1 etc.) to the left (say 0.

in Example 30. We shall now examine this point for local maxima and/or local minima of f. Hence x = 1 is a point of inflexion. Example 31 Find local minimum value of the function f given by f (x) = 3 + | x |. by first derivative test. Solution Note that the given function is not differentiable at x = 0. Also T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6. (ii) x = c is a point of local minima if f ′( c) = 0 and f ″( c) > 0 In this case. Theorem 4 (Second Derivative Test) Let f be a function defined on an interval I and c ∈ I. the point x = 1 is neither a point of local maxima nor a point of local minima.17 h s d e . Then (i) x = c is a point of local maxima if f ′(c) = 0 and f ″( c) < 0 The value f ( c) is local maximum value of f . graph of f has no turning points and hence no point of local maxima or local minima. Now to the left of 0. x ∈ R. x = 1 is the only critical point of f . we mean $ second order derivative of f exists at c. Observe that f ′( x) ≥ 0. So. we go back to the first derivative test and find whether c is a point of local maxima. Remark One may note that since f ′(x). In this case. o n Note As f is twice differentiable at c. We shall now give another test to examine local maxima and local minima of a given function. local minima or a point of inflexion. Note that 0 is a critical point of f . (iii) The test fails if f ′( c) = 0 and f ″ (c) = 0. Therefore. Let us try first derivative test. f ( x) = 3 – x and so f ′( x) = – 1 < 0. for all x ∈ R and in particular f ′( x) > 0. Solution We have f (x) = 2 x3 – 6x2 + 6x + 5 or f ′( x) = 6 x2 – 12x + 6 = 6 ( x – 1) 2 or f ′( x) = 0 at x = 1 Thus. second derivative test fails. f (c) is local minimum value of f . never changes its sign on R. This test is often easier to apply than the first derivative test. Let f be twice differentiable at c.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 223 Example 30 Find all the points of local maxima and local minima of the function f given by f (x) = 2 x3 – 6x2 + 6 x +5. for values close to 1 and to the left and to the right of 1.

224 MATHEMATICS to the right of 0. Therefore. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎧ f ′′(0) = −12 < 0 ⎪ ⎨ f ′′(1) = 48 > 0 ⎪ f ′′(−2) = 84 > 0 ⎩ ⎧ f ′( x) = 6 x2 − 12 x + 6 = 6( x − 1) 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ f ′′( x) = 12( x − 1) h s d e Solution Let one of the numbers be x. So. x = 0 is a point of local minima of f and local minimum value of f is f (0) = 3. Then the other number is (15 – x). x = 0 is a point of local maxima and local maximum value of f at x = 0 is f (0) = 12 while x = 1 and x = – 2 are the points of local minima and local minimum values of f at x = – 1 and – 2 are f (1) = 7 and f (–2) = –20. f ″( x) = 36x2 + 24x – 24 = 12 (3x2 + 2x – 1) or Therefore. Let S(x) denote the sum of the squares of these numbers. f ( x) = 2x3 – 6x2 + 6x +5 Solution We have or o n Now f ′(x) = 0 gives x =1. Example 34 Find two positive numbers whose sum is 15 and the sum of whose squares is minimum. Therefore. using first derivative test. x =1 is neither a point of local maxima nor a point of local minima and so it is a point of inflexion. by first derivative test. Then . respectively. Example 33 Find all the points of local maxima and local minima of the function f given by f ( x) = 2x3 – 6x2 + 6 x +5. Example 32 Find local maximum and local minimum values of the function f given by f ( x) = 3x4 + 4x3 – 12x2 + 12 Solution We have f ( x) = 3x4 + 4x3 – 12x2 + 12 or or Now f ′( x) = 12x3 + 12 x2 – 24x = 12 x (x – 1) (x + 2) f ′( x) = 0 at x = 0. We have already seen (Example 30) that. x = 1 and x = – 2. by second derivative test. Also f ″(1) = 0. we shall go back to the first derivative test. the second derivative test fails in this case. f ( x) = 3 + x and so f ′( x) = 1 > 0.

Let D be the required distance between (h. where 0 ≤ c ≤ 5. k ) lies on the parabola y = x2. Also when 2 2c − 1 2c − 1 . k) be any point on the parabola y = x2. (1) Since (h. Solution Let (h. 2 2 2 D′ ( k ) = h s d e 1 + 2(k − c) 2 k + (k − c)2 D′( k) = 0 gives k = 2c − 1 2 2c − 1 . then D′( k ) > 0 . So (1) gives D ≡ D(k) = k + ( k − c) 2 or o n Now k> Observe that when k < T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 15 15 15 and 15 − = . then 2( k − c ) + 1 < 0 . x = ⎧S′ ( x) = 4 x − 30 ⎨ ⎩S′ ( x) = 4 15 ⎛ 15 ⎞ .. whose sum is k and the sum of whose squares is minimum. we have k = h 2. by second derivative 2 ⎝ 2⎠ 15 is the point of local minima of S. D (k) is minimum at k = . c). 2 2 Hence.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 225 S( x) = x2 + (15 – x)2 = 2x2 – 30x + 225 or Now S′( x) = 0 gives x = test. D′( k ) < 0 . 2 2 Example 35 Find the shortest distance of the point (0. So. Also S′ ⎜ ⎟ = 4 > 0 . Then D = ( h − 0) 2 + ( k − c) 2 = h 2 + ( k − c) 2 . Therefore. k) and (0.. by first derivative test.. the required shortest distance is given by . are k k and .e. c) from the parabola y = x2. Hence the sum of squares of numbers is 2 minimum when the numbers are Remark Proceeding as in Example 34 one may prove that the two positive numbers. i.

Now S′( x) = 0 gives x = 10. Example 37 If length of three sides of a trapezium other than base are equal to 10cm. the distance of R from A on AB is AR = x =10 m. Therefore S′( x) = 4x – 40. Solution The required trapezium is as given in Fig 6.19. BQ = 22 m and AB = 20 m.19 h s d e . Example 36 Let AP and BQ be two vertical poles at points A and B.18 and RQ 2 = RB2 + BQ2 Therefore RP 2 + RQ2 = AR2 + AP2 + RB2 + BQ2 = x2 + (16)2 + (20 – x) 2 + (22)2 = 2x2 – 40x + 1140 Let S ≡ S(x) = RP2 + RQ2 = 2x2 – 40x + 1140. Then RB = (20 – x) m (as AB = 20 m). Also S″( x) = 4 > 0. Draw perpendiculars DP and o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6. From Fig 6. then find the area of the trapezium when it is maximum. Thus. Therefore. we have used first derivative test instead of the second derivative test as the former is easy and short. Solution Let R be a point on AB such that AR = x m.226 MATHEMATICS 2 c − 1 ⎛ 2c − 1 ⎞ 4c − 1 ⎛ 2c − 1 ⎞ D⎜ +⎜ − c⎟ = ⎟= 2 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 $Note The reader may note that in Example 35. x = 10 is the point of local minima of S.18. respectively. by second derivative test. for all x and so S″(10) > 0. we have RP2 = AR2 + AP2 Fig 6. If AP = 16 m. then find the distance of a point R on AB from the point A such that RP2 + RQ 2 is minimum.

x = 5.e.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 227 CQ on AB. Now 100 − x2 ( −4 x −10) − ( −2 x 2 − 10 x + 100) 100 − x 2 ( −2 x ) or o n Thus. DP = QC = 100 − x 2 . Solution Let OC = r be the radius of the cone and OA = h be its height. i. Also. QB = x cm. Therefore. Let AP = x cm. So. Let A be the area of the trapezium. Since x represents distance. Note that ΔAPD ~ ΔBQC. by Pythagoras theorem. The height QE of the cylinder is given by T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t −2 x2 − 10 x + 100 100 − x 2 = h s d e A″ ( x) = 2 100 − x2 = 2 x3 − 300 x − 1000 (100 − 3 x2 ) 2 (on simplification) A″ (5) = 2(5) 3 − 300(5) − 1000 (100 3 − (5)2 ) 2 = −2250 −30 = <0 75 75 75 . area of trapezium is maximum at x = 5 and the area is given by A(5) = (5 + 10) 100 − (5) 2 = 15 75 = 75 3 cm 2 Example 38 Prove that the radius of the right circular cylinder of greatest curved surface area which can be inscribed in a given cone is half of that of the cone. it can not be negative. Then A ≡ A(x) = = 1 (sum of parallel sides) (height) 2 1 (2 x + 10 + 10) ( 100 − x2 2 ) ) = ( x + 10) ( 100 − x2 or A′(x) = ( x + 10) ( −2 x) 2 100 − x 2 ) + ( 100 − x2 Now A′(x) = 0 gives 2x2 + 10x – 100 = 0.. x = 5 and x = –10. Let a cylinder with radius OE = x inscribed in the given cone (Fig 6.20).

1) and neither has a maximum value nor has a minimum value. Similarly. d]. o n However. 1) Observe that the function is continuous on (0.1 Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function in a Closed Interval Let us consider a function f given by f (x) = x + 2. the minimum value 2 of f at x = 0 is called the absolute minimum value (global minimum or least value) of f on [0. Then S ≡ S( x) = or r r ⎛r⎞ . then f still may not have a local maximum (minimum) values but it certainly does have maximum value 3 = f (1) and minimum value 2 = f (0).21 of a continuous function defined on a closed interval [a . Consider the graph given in Fig 6. Hence. The maximum value 3 of f at x = 1 is called absolute maximum value (global maximum or greatest value) of f on the interval [0.228 MATHEMATICS QE EC = OA OC or or QE r −x = h r QE = (since ΔQEC ~ ΔAOC) h(r − x) r Let S be the curved surface area of the given cylinder. Now S′( x) = 0 gives x = 6. Further. So x = is a 2 2 ⎝ 2⎠ point of maxima of S. 1]. if we extend the domain of f to the closed interval [0.6. Since S″ (x) < 0 for all x. we may note that the function even has neither a local maximum value nor a local minimum value. S′ ⎜ ⎟ < 0 . 1]. x ∈ (0. Observe that the function f has a local minima at x = b and local T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 2πx h ( r − x) 2πh ( rx − x2 ) = r r Fig 6. the radius of the cylinder of greatest curved surface area which can be inscribed in a given cone is half of that of the cone. 1].20 2πh ⎧ ′ S ( x) = ( r − 2 x) ⎪ ⎪ r ⎨ ⎪S′ ( x) = − 4 πh ⎪ r ⎩ h s d e .

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 229 minimum value is f (b ).e. Step 3: At all these points (listed in Step 1 and 2). We will now state two results (without proof) regarding absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of a function on a closed interval I. Theorem 5 Let f be a continuous function on an interval I = [a . b]. Further note that the absolute maximum (minimum) value of f is different from local maximum (minimum) value of f .21 h s d e . f has the absolute minimum value and attains it at least once in I. it is evident that f has absolute maximum value f ( a) and absolute minimum value f ( d).. Then f has the absolute maximum value and f attains it at least once in I. In view of the above results. Step 2: Take the end points of the interval. o n Working Rule Step 1: Find all critical points of f in the interval. b]. Theorem 6 Let f be a differentiable function on a closed interval I and let c be any interior point of I. calculate the values of f . Also. Then (i) f ′( c) = 0 if f attains its absolute maximum value at c. find points x where either f ′( x ) = 0 or f is not differentiable. (ii) f ′( c) = 0 if f attains its absolute minimum value at c. The function also has a local maxima at x = c and local maximum value is f (c). This maximum value will be the absolute maximum (greatest) value of f and the minimum value will be the absolute minimum (least) value of f . i. we have the following working rule for finding absolute maximum and/or absolute minimum values of a function in a given closed interval [ a. Step 4: Identify the maximum and minimum values of f out of the values calculated in Step 3. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig 6. Also from the graph.

So f (1) = 2 (13) – 15(12 ) + 36 (1) + 1 = 24 f (2) = 2 (23) – 15(22 ) + 36 (2) + 1 = 29 f (3) = 2 (33) – 15(32 ) + 36 (3) + 1 = 28 f (5) = 2 (53) – 15(52 ) + 36 (5) + 1 = 56 Thus. we have 8 4 1 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t f ( x) = 12 x 3 − 6 x 3 . 5]. 5] is 56. f ′( x) = 0 gives x = . at x = 1. i.230 MATHEMATICS Example 39 Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of a function f given by f ( x) = 2x3 – 15x2 + 36x +1 on the interval [1. We shall now evaluate the value of f at these points and at the end points of the interval [1. 1 Thus. x = 2.. Solution We have f (x) = 2x3 – 15x2 + 36 x + 1 or f ′( x) = 6x2 – 30x + 36 = 6 ( x – 3) (x – 2) Note that f ′( x) = 0 gives x = 2 and x = 3. 5] is 24 which occurs at x = 1. 5]. x ∈[ −1.e. we conclude that absolute maximum value of f on [1. and absolute minimum value of f on [1. So the 8 1 critical points are x = 0 and x = . 1] 4 1 h s d e f ( x) = 12 x 3 − 6 x 3 1 f ′( x) = 16 x 3 − 2 2 x3 = 2(8 x − 1) 2 x3 f (–1) = 12 ( −1) 3 − 6 (−1) 3 = 18 f (0) = 12 (0) – 6(0) = 0 . Now evaluating the value of f at critical points 8 1 and at end points of the interval x = –1 and x = 1. Further note that f ′(x) is not defined at x = 0. Example 40 Find absolute maximum and minimum values of a function f given by 4 1 Solution We have or o n x = 0. x = 3 and at x = 5. occurring at x =5.

we conclude that absolute maximum value of f is 18 that occurs at x = – 1 and absolute minimum value of f is Example 41 An Apache helicopter of enemy is flying along the curve given by y = x2 + 7. i. The value of f at this point is given by f (1) = (1 – 3)2 + (1)4 = 5. the distance between the solider and the helicopter is f (1) = 5 . f ′( x) = 0 gives x = 1 or 2x2 + 2x + 3 = 0 for which there are no real roots. Solution For each value of x.5 1. there is only one point.7) is ( x − 3) 2 + ( x2 + 7 − 7) 2 . Also. −9 1 that occurs at x = . Hence. Therefore. the distance between the helicopter and the soldier placed at (3. placed at (3. 7). Since f (0) = (0 − 3) 2 + (0) 4 = 3 > 5 . i. 5 is the minimum value of distance between the soldier and the helicopter. Find the maximum and minimum values. namely. 8 4 h s d e 5 is the minimum EXERCISE 6. of the following functions given by (i) f ( x) = (2x – 1) 2 + 3 (ii) f (x) = 9x2 + 12x + 2 (iii) f (x) = – (x – 1)2 + 10 (iv) g (x) = x3 + 1 . there are no end points of the interval to be added to the set for which f ′ is zero. x = 1.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 231 ⎛ 1⎞ 1 ⎞3 ⎛ 1 ⎞3 −9 f ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎛ − 6⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ 8 ⎝ ⎠ 4 ⎝8⎠ ⎝8⎠ 4 1 4 1 f (1) = 12 (1) 3 − 6 (1) 3 = 6 Hence. Thus. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 5 is either a maximum value or a minimum value. Note that o n it follows that f ( x) .e. the helicopter’s position is at point (x. x 2 + 7). Let or f (x) = ( x – 3)2 + x4 f ′( x) = 2(x – 3) + 4x3 = 2( x – 1) (2x2 + 2x + 3) Thus. if any... wants to shoot down the helicopter when it is nearest to him. ( x − 3) 2 + x4 . Find the nearest distance.e. A soldier.

if any. Find also the local maximum and the local minimum values. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t π 2 (vi) g (x) = x 2 + . x ∈ [0. x > 0 x +2 4. Prove that the following functions do not have maxima or minima: (i) f (x) = ex (ii) g (x) = log x 3 2 (iii) h ( x) = x + x + x +1 5. Find the maximum value of 2x3 – 24 x + 107 in the interval [1. x >0 2 x h s d e . 3]. 8. 1) 3. Find the maximum and minimum values. if any. x ∈ ⎢ −2. 3]. What is the maximum value of the function sin x + cos x? 10. 0 < x < 2π (v) f (x) = x3 – 6x2 + 9 x + 15 (vii) g ( x) = 1 (viii) f ( x) = x 1 − x . π] (i) f (x) = x3. –1]. x ∈ (– 1. Find the maximum value of the same function in [–3. Find the maximum profit that a company can make. 2π]. At what points in the interval [0.1] 2 2⎦ ⎣ o n 6. x ∈[−3. of the following functions. of the following functions given by (i) f (x) = | x + 2 | – 1 (ii) g (x) = – | x + 1| + 3 (iii) h (x) = sin(2 x) + 5 (iv) f (x) = | sin 4x + 3| (v) h (x) = x + 1. Find the local maxima and local minima. ⎥ (iv) f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 + 3. as the case may be: (i) f (x) = x2 (ii) g (x) = x3 – 3x (iii) h (x) = sin x + cos x. if the profit function is given by p (x) = 41 – 72x – 18x2 7. Find both the maximum value and the minimum value of 3x4 – 8x3 + 12x2 – 48x + 25 on the interval [0. 2] 2 1 9⎤ ⎡ (iii) f ( x) = 4 x − x2 . does the function sin 2x attain its maximum value? 9. x ∈ [– 2.232 MATHEMATICS 2. Find the absolute maximum value and the absolute minimum value of the following functions in the given intervals: (ii) f ( x) = sin x + cos x . 0 < x < (iv) f (x) = sin x – cos x.

A wire of length 28 m is to be cut into two pieces. What should be the side of the square to be cut off so that the volume of the box is maximum ? 19. 21. ⎝ 3⎠ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . the function x4 – 62x2 + ax + 9 attains its maximum value. Find two positive numbers x and y such that x + y = 60 and xy3 is maximum. find the dimensions of the can which has the minimum surface area? 22. A rectangular sheet of tin 45 cm by 24 cm is to be made into a box without top. Find the value of a. Find the maximum and minimum values of x + sin 2x on [0. 16. of a given volume of 100 cubic centimetres. Show that of all the rectangles inscribed in a given fixed circle. One of the pieces is to be made into a square and the other into a circle. Show that semi-vertical angle of right circular cone of given surface area and −1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ maximum volume is sin ⎜ ⎟ . 2]. A square piece of tin of side 18 cm is to be made into a box without top. Find two positive numbers x and y such that their sum is 35 and the product x2 y5 is a maximum. Show that the semi-vertical angle of the cone of the maximum volume and of given slant height is tan −1 2 . the square has the maximum area. 12. Find two positive numbers whose sum is 16 and the sum of whose cubes is minimum. 14. 25. 17. by cutting off square from each corner and folding up the flaps. Show that the right circular cone of least curved surface and given volume has an altitude equal to 2 time the radius of the base.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 233 o n 11. 20. Of all the closed cylindrical cans (right circular). 13. 2π]. Show that the right circular cylinder of given surface and maximum volume is such that its height is equal to the diameter of the base. radius R is 27 24. on the interval [0. 26. Prove that the volume of the largest cone that can be inscribed in a sphere of 8 of the volume of the sphere. What should be the length of the two pieces so that the combined area of the square and the circle is minimum? 23. What should be the side of the square to be cut off so that the volume of the box is the maximum possible. by cutting a square from each corner and folding up the flaps to form the box. 15. 18. Find two numbers whose sum is 24 and whose product is as large as possible. It is given that at x = 1.

0 ≤ x ≤ 1 is (B) 1 2 (C) 1 (D) 0 h s d e Miscellaneous Examples dx = 4t – t2 = t (4 – t) dt . 0) (D) (2.234 MATHEMATICS Choose the correct answer in the Exercises 27 and 29. The maximum value of [ x(x (A) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ 1 ⎛ 1⎞ 3 Example 42 A car starts from a point P at time t = 0 seconds and stops at point Q. 27. the minimum value of 1− x + x 2 is 1+ x + x 2 (D) 1 3 (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 3 1 − 1) + 1]3 29. Now v = 0 at P as well as at Q and at P. Also the distance travelled in 4 seconds is given by 4⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ 32 2⎛ m x]t = 4 = 4 ⎜ 2 − ⎟ = 16 ⎜ ⎟ = 3⎠ ⎝ ⎝3 ⎠ 3 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t . The point on the curve x2 = 2 y which is nearest to the point (0. v = 0 gives t = 0 and/or t = 4. 4) (B) (2 2. Now t⎞ ⎛ x = t2 ⎜ 2 − ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ v= o n Therefore Thus. in t seconds is given by t⎞ ⎛ x = t2 ⎜ 2 − ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ Find the time taken by it to reach Q and also find distance between P and Q. 5) is (A) (2 2. t = 4. The distance x. 2) 28. So. the car will reach the point Q after 4 seconds. at Q. Thus. in metres. 0) (C) (0. Solution Let v be the velocity of the car at t seconds. covered by it. t = 0. For all real values of x.

5) (given) h or r= 2 Let V be the volume of the cone.5).22 dV d ⎛ πh 3 ⎞ dh = ⎜ ⎟⋅ dh ⎝ 12 ⎠ dt dt = π 2 dh h 4 dt (by Chain Rule) dV = 5 m3/h and h = 4 m. h So But or −1 ⎛ r ⎞ α = tan ⎜ ⎟ . . Find the rate at which the level of the water is rising at the instant when the depth of water in the tank is 4 m.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 235 Example 43 A water tank has the shape of an inverted right circular cone with its axis vertical and vertex lowermost. Its semi-vertical angle is tan–1 (0. 88 Thus. Therefore o n or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t r = 0. Find the rate at which the length of his shadow increases. ⎝h⎠ –1 α = tan (0. the rate of change of water level is Example 44 A man of height 2 metres walks at a uniform speed of 5 km/h away from a lamp post which is 6 metres high. Then Therefore Now rate of change of volume. dt π 2 dh (4) ⋅ 4 dt 5= dh 5 35 22 ⎞ ⎛ = m/h ⎜ π = ⎟ = dt 4π 88 7 ⎠ ⎝ 35 m/h . Water is poured into it at a constant rate of 5 cubic metre per hour. r Solution Let r. Then tan α = ..5 h 1 2 1 ⎛ h⎞ πh 3 V = πr h = π ⎜ ⎟ h = 3 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 12 2 h s d e Fig 6. i. h and α be as in Fig 6.22.e.

2).23. 2). Let MS = s metres..236 MATHEMATICS Solution In Fig 6. MS is the shadow of the man. the lamp being at the position B and let MN be the man at a particular time t and let AM = l metres.23 h s d e . Solution Differentiating x2 = 4y with respect to x. k) = y–k= −2 ( x − h) h Since it passes through the point (1. Hence. we get dy x = 2 dx Let (h . Let AB be the lamp-post.. (1) . k) is Hence. But AM = l l = 2s dl ds = 2 dt dt −2 2 (1 − h ) or k = 2 + (1 − h ) h h Fig 6. the length of the shadow increases at the rate km/h. Then. Now. the equation of normal at (h. k ) be the coordinates of the point of contact of the normal to the curve x2 = 4y. we have 2− k = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t AS = 3s (as MN = 2 and AB = 6 (given)) AM = 3s – s = 2s . Note that or or Thus So ΔMSN ~ ΔASB MS MN = AS AB Therefore Since 5 dl = 5 km/h. slope of the tangent at (h. 2 dt Example 45 Find the equation of the normal to the curve x2 = 4y which passes through the point (1. k) is given by dy ⎤ h dx ⎥ ⎦ ( h. slope of the normal at (h .. k ) = 2 o n −2 h Therefore.. (2) .

the required equation of tangents are . 0 ⎟ . Thus. 0 ⎟ and ⎜ . whose slope is −1 . tangents to the 2 2 ⎛ −3 π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ . (3) From (2) and (3). since −2 π ≤ x ≤ 2 π . n ∈ Z 2⎠ ⎝ = 0. for all n ∈ Z −3 π π and x = . n∈Z 2 h s d e π⎞ ⎛ y = cos(x + y) = cos ⎜ nπ + (−1)n ⎟ . Substituting the values of h and k in (1). – 2π ≤ x ≤ 2π that are parallel to the line x + 2y = 0. we have h = 2 and k = 1. we get the required equation of normal as y −1 = −2 ( x − 2) or x + y = 3 2 Example 46 Find the equation of tangents to the curve y = cos ( x + y). Solution Differentiating y = cos(x + y) with respect to x.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 237 Since (h .. we have − sin ( x + y ) dy = 1 + sin ( x + y ) dx − sin ( x + y ) 1 + sin ( x + y ) or Since the tangents to the given curve are parallel to the line x + 2y = 0. k) lies on the curve x2 = 4y.. y) = − sin( x + y) −1 = 1 + sin( x + y) 2 sin (x + y) = 1 x + y = n π + (– 1)n π. we get x = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t slope of tangent at (x. given curve are parallel to the line x + 2y = 0 only at points ⎜ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Therefore. we have h2 = 4k . we have 2 or or Then o n Also.

f is strictly increasing in (– 2. – 2). 1).e. f ′( x) < 0 when – ∞ < x < – 2.. Consider the interval (– 2. In this case. (– 2. 3) and (3. observe that for x = 0. when – 2 < x < 1. x + 2 < 0 and x – 3 < 0. Therefore. we have x – 1 < 0. . (1. ∞) (Fig 6. f ( x) = Solution We have Therefore Now f ′(x) = 0 gives x = 1. i. f ′(x) = (x – 1) ( x + 2) (x – 3) = (– 4) (– 1) (– 6) < 0) o n So Thus. and 3 divide the real line into four disjoint intervals namely.24 h s d e (on simplification) (In particular. i. – 2). or x = 3. Consider the interval (– ∞. f ′( x) = (x – 1) (x + 2) (x – 3) = (–1) (2) (–3) = 6 > 0) f ′( x) > 0 when – 2 < x < 1. 1). (– ∞. – 2). when – ∞ < x < – 2. (In particular. 1). x + 2 > 0 and x – 3 < 0 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 3 4 4 3 36 x − x − 3x2 + x + 11 f ( x) = 10 5 5 f ′ ( x) = 3 4 36 (4 x3 ) − (3 x2 ) − 3(2 x) + 10 5 5 6 ( x −1) ( x + 2) ( x − 3) 5 = Fig 6.24). – 2. we have x – 1 < 0. In this case. Thus..238 MATHEMATICS y–0= 3π ⎞ −1⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ 2⎝ 2 ⎠ or 2 x + 4 y + 3π = 0 −1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎜x− ⎟ or 2 x + 4 y − π = 0 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Example 47 Find intervals in which the function given by and y–0= 3 4 4 3 36 x − x − 3 x2 + x + 11 10 5 5 is (a) strictly increasing (b) strictly decreasing. x = – 2. The points x = 1. the function f is strictly decreasing in (– ∞. observe that for x = –3.e.

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 239 Now consider the interval (1. ∞). So f ′(x) > 0 when x > 3. In this case. . i. we have x – 1 > 0. Find the rate at which its area is increasing when radius is 3. i. Thus. 3). Finally. f is strictly increasing in the interval (3.. i. Thus. ⎜ ⎝ 4⎠ Solution We have Therefore ⎛ π⎞ 0. .2 cm. if 0 < x < π⎞ f ′( x) > 0 in ⎛ 0. x > 0 f (x) = tan–1 (sin x + cos x). x + 2 > 0 and x – 3 < 0. x > 0 f ′( x) = h s d e 1 (cos x − sin x) 1+ (sin x + cos x)2 cos x − sin x 2 + sin 2 x = (on simplification) f ′( x) > 0 if cos x – sin x > 0 f ′( x) > 0 if cos x > sin x or cot x > 1 π 4 cot x > 1 if tan x < 1.e. we have x – 1 > 0. its radius increases at the rate of 0.e. ∞). ⎟ . In this case. Due to expansion. ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 4⎠ π⎞ Hence f is strictly increasing function in ⎛ ⎜ 0. ⎟ . So. f is strictly decreasing in (1... consider the interval (3.e. when 1 < x < 3. when x > 3. f ′( x) < 0 when 1 < x < 3. 3). x + 2 > 0 and x – 3 > 0. Example 48 Show that the function f given by π⎞ is always an strictly increasing function in ⎛ 0. ⎝ 4⎠ Example 49 A circular disc of radius 3 cm is being heated. Note that 2 + sin 2x > 0 for all x in ⎜ ⎝ 4⎟ ⎠ Therefore or Now o n Thus T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t f (x) = tan– 1(sin x + cos x).05 cm/s.

05) = 0. 3 ⎝3 ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ . then o n Now Therefore T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t dA = ⎛ dr ⎞ dA (Δt ) = 2 πr ⎜ Δt ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ dt 2 = 2π (3. Then A = π r2 or dA dr = 2 πr dt dt (by Chain Rule) dr Δt = 0.2 cm) h s d e Fig 6.320π cm /s ( r = 3.240 MATHEMATICS Solution Let r be the radius of the given disc and A be its area. the approximate rate of increase in area is given by Now approximate rate of increase of radius = dr = Example 50 An open topped box is to be constructed by removing equal squares from each corner of a 3 metre by 8 metre rectangular sheet of aluminium and folding up the sides. Thus.2) (0. But x ≠ 3 (Why?) 3 V′(x) = 0 gives x = 3.25). Now V′ ⎜ ⎟ = 24 ⎜ ⎟ − 44 = − 28 < 0 .05 cm/s. Solution Let x metre be the length of a side of the removed squares. length is 8 – 2x and breadth is 3 – 2x (Fig 6. the height of the box is x. dt Therefore. Then.25 V (x) = x (3 – 2x) (8 – 2x) = 4x3 – 22x2 + 24x ⎧ V′( x) = 12 x2 − 44 x + 24 = 4( x − 3)(3x − 2) ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ V′ ( x) = 24 x − 44 2 . Find the volume of the largest such box. we have x = 2 ⎛2 ⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ . If V(x) is the volume of the box.

Solution Let S (x) be the selling price of x items and let C (x) be the cost price of x items. or T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t P(x) = S( x) − C ( x ) = 5 x − 24 x2 x − − 500 P(x) = 5 100 24 x − 5 50 x2 x − − 500 100 5 P′( x) = −1 −1 <0 .e. i. The ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎛x ⎞ cost price of x items is Rs ⎜ + 500⎟ . then the volume of the box such obtained will be the largest and it is given by Therefore. x = 240 is a point of maxima. if he sells 240 items. we have x ⎞ x2 ⎛ x = x − 5 S( x) = ⎜ 5 − ⎟ 100 ⎝ 100 ⎠ x + 500 5 Thus. x = ⎛ 2⎞ 2⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛2 ⎞ V ⎜ ⎟ = 4⎛ − 22 ⎜ ⎟ + 24 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 3 2 x ⎞ ⎛ Example 51 Manufacturer can sell x items at a price of rupees ⎜ 5 − ⎟ each.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 241 2 2 is the point of maxima.. the profit function P( x) is given by and C ( x) = o n i. Then. So P′′(240) = 50 50 = 200 3 m 27 h s d e Now P′( x) = 0 gives x = 240. if we remove a square of side 3 3 metre from each corner of the sheet and make a box from the remaining sheet. the manufacturer can earn maximum profit. Hence. Also P′′( x) = Thus. Find the number of items he should sell to earn ⎝5 ⎠ maximum profit.e. .

where k is some constant. 2). x 3. 9. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e 1 . Find the equation of the normal to curve x 2 = 4y which passes through the point (1. Show that the function given by f (x) = x = a cosθ + a θ sin θ. If building of tank costs Rs 70 per sq metres for the base and Rs 45 per square metre for sides. x ≠ 0 is x3 x2 y2 + =1 a2 b2 . Prove that the sum of their areas is least when the side of square is double the radius of the circle. What is the cost of least expensive tank? 10. 5. 6. The two equal sides of an isosceles triangle with fixed base b are decreasing at the rate of 3 cm per second. y = a sinθ – a θ cosθ is at a constant distance from the origin. How fast is the area decreasing when the two equal sides are equal to the base ? 4. Find the intervals in which the function f given by f ( x) = 4 sin x − 2 x − x cos x 2 + cos x is (i) increasing (ii) decreasing. Using differentials. find the approximate value of each of the following: (a) ⎛ 17 ⎞ 4 ⎜ ⎝ 81 ⎟ ⎠ 1 (b) ( 33) − 5 1 log x has maximum at x = e. 7. open at the top is to be constructed so that its depth is 2 m and volume is 8 m3. Show that the normal at any point θ to the curve 2. A tank with rectangular base and rectangular sides. 8. Find the maximum area of an isosceles triangle inscribed in the ellipse o n with its vertex at one end of the major axis. The sum of the perimeter of a circle and square is k.242 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 6 1. Find the intervals in which the function f given by f ( x) = x3 + (i) increasing (ii) decreasing.

Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of the function f given by f (x) = cos2 x + sin x.1 m3/h cone and the greatest volume of cylinder is (C) 1. 3 18. Show that the height of the cylinder of maximum volume that can be inscribed in inscribed in a sphere of radius r is . Show that height of the cylinder of greatest volume which can be inscribed in a right circular cone of height h and semi vertical angle α is one-third that of the a sphere of radius R is 4 πh 3 tan 2 α . Then prove that f is an increasing function on (a . Find the points at which the function f given by f (x) = ( x – 2) 4 (x + 1)3 has (i) local maxima (ii) local minima (iii) point of inflexion 14. 27 Choose the correct answer in the Exercises from 19 to 24. 13. Find the dimensions of the window to admit maximum light through the whole opening. 19. y = 2t2 – 2t – 5 at the point (2. b] such that f ′( x) > 0.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 243 11. Show that the altitude of the right circular cone of maximum volume that can be 4r . Also find the maximum volume. 12. x ∈ [0. Let f be a function defined on [a. b). b ). A cylindrical tank of radius 10 m is being filled with wheat at the rate of 314 cubic metre per hour.1 m3/h (D) 0. π] 15. A point on the hypotenuse of a triangle is at distance a and b from the sides of the triangle. Then the depth of the wheat is increasing at the rate of (A) 1 m3/h (B) 0. 3 16.– 1) is (A) 2R o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 22 7 (B) h s d e 6 7 (C) 7 6 (D) −6 7 .5 m3/h 20. 17. The slope of the tangent to the curve x = t2 + 3 t – 8. 2 2 3 Show that the maximum length of the hypotenuse is (a 3 + b 3 ) 2 . for all x ∈ (a. A window is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by a semicircular opening. The total perimeter of the window is 10 m.

. then by Chain Rule dy dy = dx dt dx dx ≠0. If two variables x and y are varying with respect to another variable t. The line y = mx + 1 is a tangent to the curve y2 = 4x if the value of m is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 1 2 22. The normal to the curve x = 4y passing (1.. The normal at the point (1. x2 ∈ (a . b). b) if x1 < x2 in (a .e. ± ⎟ 8⎠ ⎝ If a quantity y varies with another quantity x. b ) ⇒ f (x1) ≤ f ( x2) for all x1. ⎟ 8⎠ ⎝ h s d e Summary A function f is said to be (a) increasing on an interval (a . then dy (or f ′( x ) ) represents the rate of change of y with respect to x and dx dy ⎤ (or f ′( x0 ) ) represents the rate of change of y with respect to x at dx ⎥ ⎦ x =x0 o n x = x0 . (B) ⎜ ⎝ 3⎟ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ (D) ⎜ ± 4. if dt dt T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎛ −8⎞ 4.2) is (A) x + y = 3 (B) x – y = 3 (C) x + y = 1 (D) x – y = 1 2 3 24. The points on the curve 9y = x . . i. satisfying some rule y = f ( x) . if x = f ( t ) and y = g ( t ) .244 MATHEMATICS 21. ± ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ (C) ⎜ 4.1) on the curve 2y + x2 = 3 is (A) x + y = 0 (B) x – y = 0 (C) x + y +1 = 0 (D) x – y = 0 2 23. where the normal to the curve makes equal intercepts with the axes are 8⎞ ⎛ (A) ⎜ 4.

Let y = f ( x). then the normal is parallel to x-axis dx and its equation is y = y0 . ⎝ dx ⎠ dy ⎤ (x − x0 ) dx ⎥ ⎦ ( x0 . Then dy given by T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎛ dy ⎞ dy = f ′( x ) dx or dy = ⎜ ⎟ Δx . y0 ) If If o n dy at the point ( x0 . A point c in the domain of a function f at which either f ′(c) = 0 or f is not differentiable is called a critical point of f.. y0 ) does not exist.b) if x1 < x2 in (a. y0 ) is zero. b) (b) decreasing on (a. then Equation of the normal to the curve y = f ( x) at a point ( x0 . y0 ) is given by y − y0 = −1 ( x − x0 ) dy ⎤ dx ⎥ ⎦( x0 .y 0 ) h s d e dy at the point ( x0 . . b) The equation of the tangent at (x0 . dx is a good approximation of Δy when dx = Δx is relatively small and we denote it by dy ≈ Δy. then equation of the normal is x = x0. y0) to the curve y = f (x) is given by y − y0 = If dy does not exist at the point ( x0 . Alternatively. if f ′(x) ≥ 0 for each x in (a. if f ′(x) ≤ 0 for each x in (a. b ) ⇒ f (x1 ) ≥ f (x2) for all x1. x2 ∈ (a . b ). Δx be a small increment in x and Δy be the increment in y corresponding to the increment in x. Δy = f ( x + Δx) – f (x).e. ⎦ x =x0 dx ⎥ If tangent to a curve y = f (x) at x = x0 is parallel to x-axis.APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 245 Alternatively. y0 ) . i. dy ⎤ =0. then the tangent at this point is dx parallel to the y-axis and its equation is x = x0.

calculate the values of f . Working rule for finding absolute maxima and/or absolute minima Step 1: Find all critical points of f in the interval. then c is a point of local minima. i. minima or a point of inflexion. (iii) The test fails if f ′( c) = 0 and f ″ (c) = 0. and f ′(x) > 0 at every point sufficiently close to and to the right of c.e. Step 4: Identify the maximum and minimum values of f out of the values calculated in Step 3.246 MATHEMATICS First Derivative Test Let f be a function defined on an open interval I. if f ′( x) > 0 at every point sufficiently close to and to the left of c. (ii) If f ′( x) changes sign from negative to positive as x increases through c. Then (i) x = c is a point of local maxima if f ′(c) = 0 and f ″( c) < 0 The values f ( c) is local maximum value of f . Infact. This maximum value will be the absolute maximum value of f and the minimum value will be the absolute minimum value of f .e. then c is neither a point of local maxima nor a point of local minima. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t — — h s d e . Step 2: Take the end points of the interval. Let f be twice differentiable at c. Then (i) If f ′( x) changes sign from positive to negative as x increases through c. i... if f ′( x) < 0 at every point sufficiently close to and to the left of c. Let f be continuous at a critical point c in I. such a point is called point of inflexion. find points x where either f ′( x) = 0 or f is not differentiable. Second Derivative Test Let f be a function defined on an interval I and c ∈ I. then c is a point of local maxima.. i. we go back to the first derivative test and find whether c is a point of maxima. (iii) If f ′( x) does not change sign as x increases through c. f (c) is local minimum value of f . and f ′(x) < 0 at every point sufficiently close to and to the right of c. In this case. Step 3: At all these points (listed in Step 1 and 2). (ii) x = c is a point of local minima if f ′( c) = 0 and f ″( c) > 0 In this case.e.

each statement being justified with a definition or an axiom or a proposition that is previously established by the method of deduction using only the allowed logical rules.1.1.2 What is a Proof? o n Proof of a mathematical statement consists of sequence of statements. theorems and deductive reasoning. each proof is a chain of deductive arguments each of which has its premises and conclusions. Here. with the help of axioms. A. But some times it is easier to prove an equivalent proposition rather than proving the proposition itself. converse and contrapositive of a statement. then x = 3 or x = 2.Appendix 1 PROOFS IN MATHEMATICS Proofs are to Mathematics what calligraphy is to poetry. we prove a proposition directly from what is given in the proposition. we have learnt about the concepts of a statement. to what is to be proved using rules of logic. This leads to. two ways of proving a proposition directly or indirectly and the proofs obtained are called direct proof and indirect proof and further each has three different ways of proving which is discussed below. conjectures. — VLADIMIR ARNOLD h s d e .1 Introduction In Classes IX. compound statement. definitions or already proved theorems. A. Many a times. (i) Straight forward approach It is a chain of arguments which leads directly from what is given or assumed. Direct Proof It is the proof of a proposition in which we directly start the proof with what is given in the proposition. Thus. Solution x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 (given) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Mathematical works do consist of proofs just as poems do consist of characters. X and XI. axioms. negation. Consider the following example: Example 1 Show that if x2 – 5x + 6 = 0. we will discuss various methods of proving mathematical propositions.

Starting with p. i. There arise two questions: (i) How does the expression (x – 3) (x – 2) is equal to the expression x2 – 5x + 6? (ii) How can we replace an expression with another expression which is equal to the former? The first one is proved in earlier classes by factorization.e. i. From the statement p . x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 implies x = 3 or x = 2. The symbolic equivalent of the argument is to prove by deduction that p ⇒ q is true. we deduced the statement r : “(x – 3) (x – 2) = 0” by replacing the expression x2 – 5x + 6 in the statement p by another expression (x – 3) ( x – 2) which is equal to x2 – 5x + 6. Explanation Let p be the given statement “ x2 – 5x + 6 = 0” and q be the conclusion statement “x = 3 or x = 2”. given that f ( x1) = f (x2 ). we deduce p ⇒ r ⇒ s ⇒ … ⇒ q. This implies that “p ⇒ q” is true.248 MATHEMATICS ⇒ ( x – 3) (x – 2) = 0 (replacing an expression by an equal/equivalent expression) ⇒ x – 3 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 (from the established theorem ab = 0 ⇒ either a = 0 or b = 0. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e Solution Note that a function f is one-one if f ( x1) = f ( x2) ⇒ x1 = x2 (definition of one-one function) Now. x2 – 5x + 6 = x2 – 3 x – 2x + 6 = x (x – 3) –2 ( x – 3) = ( x – 3) (x – 2). Example 2 Prove that the function f : R → R defined by f (x) = 2x + 5 is one-one.e. The second one is by valid form of argumentation (rules of logic) Next this statement r becomes premises or given and deduce the statement s “ x – 3 = 0 or x – 2 = 0” and the reasons are given in the brackets... 2x1+ 5 = 2x2 + 5 ⇒ 2 x1+ 5 – 5 = 2x2 + 5 – 5 (adding the same quantity on both sides) . for a . b in R) ⇒ x – 3 + 3 = 0 + 3 or x – 2 + 2 = 0 + 2 (adding equal quantities on either side of the equation does not alter the nature of the equation) ⇒ x + 0 = 3 or x + 0 = 2 (using the identity property of integers under addition) ⇒ x = 3 or x = 2 (using the identity property of integers under addition) Hence. This process continues till we reach the conclusion.

if (i) the natural number 1 ∈ S and (ii) the natural number k + 1 ∈ S whenever k ∈ S. Assume that P(k) is true. The whole basis of proof of this method depends on the following axiom: For a given subset S of N. then S = N. then the statement is true for any positive integer n. We now consider some examples. for all n ≥ j. P(1) is true. of proving a proposition which is deductive in nature. then An = ⎣ − sin θ cos θ⎦ Solution We have o n We note that T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ cos n θ sin n θ ⎤ ⎢ − sin n θ cos n θ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ cos n θ sin n θ ⎤ P(n ) : An = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ − sin n θ cos n θ ⎦ h s d e ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ P(1) : A1 = ⎢ − sin θ cos θ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Therefore.e. Example 3 Show that if ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ A= ⎢ ⎥ . i.PROOFS IN MATHEMATICS 249 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 2x1+ 0 = 2 x2 + 0 2x1 = 2 x2 (using additive identity of real number) 2 2 x1 = x2 (dividing by the same non zero quantity) 2 2 ⇒ x1 = x 2 Hence. the given function is one-one. and if “S(n ) is true for n = k” implies that “S(n) is true for n = k + 1” (whatever integer k ≥ j may be). According to the principle of mathematical induction. (ii) Mathematical Induction Mathematical induction. is a strategy. if a statement “S(n ) is true for n = 1” (or for some starting point j). ⎡ cos k θ sin k θ ⎤ P(k) : Ak = ⎢ − sin k θ cos k θ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ..

is proved and so p ⇒ q is proved.250 MATHEMATICS We want to prove that P( k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. then (r ∨ s ∨ t) ⇒ q. From A draw AD a perpendicular to BC (BC produced if necessary). A ⎡ cos k θ sin k θ ⎤ ⎡ cos θ sin θ ⎤ Ak+1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ − sin k θ cos k θ ⎦ ⎣ − sin θ cos θ ⎦ cos k θ sin θ + sin k θ cos θ ⎤ ⎡ cos k θ cos θ − sin k θ sin θ = ⎢ − sin k θ cos θ − cos k θ sin θ − sin k θ sin θ + cos k θ cos θ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (by matrix multiplication) ⎡ cos ( k + 1) θ sin ( k + 1) θ ⎤ = ⎢ − sin( k + 1) θ cos ( k + 1 ) θ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Thus. As we know that any triangle has to be either acute or obtuse or right angled. s ⇒ q. (iii) Proof by cases or by exhaustion This method of proving a statement p ⇒ q is possible only when p can be split into several cases. i. The method consists of examining every possible case of the hypothesis. where T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . o n Example 4 Show that in any triangle ABC. P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. If the conditionals r ⇒ q. ⎡ cos ( k + 1) θ sin ( k + 1) θ ⎤ P(k + 1) : Ak+1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ − sin( k + 1) θ cos ( k + 1 ) θ ⎦ Now Since P(k) is true. It is practically convenient only when the number of possible cases are few. r. we can split p into three statements r . Hence. s and t.e.. we have Ak+1 = Ak . a = b cos C + c cos B Solution Let p be the statement “ABC is any triangle” and q be the statement “a = b cos C + c cos B” Let ABC be a triangle. P(n ) is true for all n ≥ 1 (by the principle of mathematical induction). t (say) so that p = r ∨ s ∨ t (where “ ∨ ” is the symbol for “OR”). s. and t⇒ q are proved.

.e. A1.2 . (1) CD = AC = = CD = = cos ∠ ACD cos (180° – C) – cos C – AC cos C – b cos C Fig A1. t : ABC is a right angled triangle with ∠ C is right angle. i.e. From the right angled triangle ADC.1 h s d e CD = AC cos C = b cos C . Now a = BD + CD = c cos B + b cos C Case (ii) When ∠ C is obtuse (Fig A1.e. i. BD = cos B AB i. BD = cos B AB o n i. we prove the theorem by three cases. Hence.. From the right angled triangle ADB.PROOFS IN MATHEMATICS 251 r : ABC is an acute angled triangle with ∠ C is acute.2). s : ABC is an obtuse angled triangle with ∠ C is obtuse.1). From the right angled triangle ADB. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t BD = AB cos B = c cos B CD = cos C AC Fig A1. BD = AB cos B = c cos B From the right angled triangle ADC.e. Case (i) When ∠ C is acute (Fig.

.e.3).. Pk (say). P2. We take the negation of the statement “the set of all prime numbers is infinite”.e.e.. (2) BC = cos B AB i. Indirect Proof Instead of proving the given proposition directly. Let us illustrate this method by an example. Pk .. we can list all the prime numbers as P1 . By rules of logic. t ⇒ q is proved. Hence. o n Example 5 Show that the set of all prime numbers is infinite. By case (iii). we may write a = 0 + c cos B = b cos C + c cos B .. P3. we start with the assumption that the given statement is false. Fig A1. we assume the set of all prime numbers to be finite... a = b cos C + c cos B By case (i)... (2) and (3). i..3 and b cos C = b cos 900 = 0. (3) From (1). p ⇒ q is proved.. . r ⇒ q is proved. (i) Proof by contradiction ( Reductio Ad Absurdum) : Here. i. Hence.252 MATHEMATICS Now i.. N is either prime or composite. Solution Let P be the set of all prime numbers. we establish the proof of the proposition through proving a proposition which is equivalent to the given proposition.e. We assert that for any triangle ABC. P3... we arrive at a conclusion contradicting the assumption and hence it is inferred that the assumption is wrong and hence the given statement is true. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . P2 . Thus. Note that we have assumed that there is no prime number other than P1... From the right angled triangle ACB. BC = AB cos B a = c cos B. By case (ii). (1) N is not in the list as N is larger than any of the numbers in the list. from the proof by cases. a = BC = BD – CD a = c cos B – ( – b cos C) a = c cos B + b cos C Case (iii) When ∠ C is a right angle (Fig A1. Now consider N = (P1 P2 P3…Pk) + 1 . s ⇒ q is proved. (r ∨ s ∨ t) ⇒ q is proved.

we prove its contrapositive statement. o n ⇒ Since “~ q ⇒ ~ p”. $Note Observe that the above proof also uses the method of proof by cases.e. Thus.. p is “matrix A is invertible” and q is “A is non singular” Instead of proving the given statement. Thus. Hence. (ii) Proof by using contrapositive statement of the given statement Instead of proving the conditional p ⇒ q . Solution A function is one-one if f (x1) = f ( x2) ⇒ x1 = x2. Example 7 Show that “if a matrix A is invertible. then f ( x1) ≠ f (x2 )”. if A is not a non singular matrix. our assumption that set of all prime numbers is finite is false. where.PROOFS IN MATHEMATICS 253 If N is a prime. then x1 = x2 ” is “if x1 ≠ x2 . if N is composite. then the matrix A is not invertible. then by (1). Hence. in both the cases whether N is a prime or a composite. i. Now contrapositive of this statement is ~ q ⇒ ~ p. But none of the numbers in the list can divide N. i. the prime divisor should be other than the one in the list. we prove its equivalent. because they all leave the remainder 1... We can also prove the same by using contrapositive of the statement. p is 2x1+ 5 = 2x2 + 5 and q : x1 = x2. we ended up with contradiction to the fact that we have listed all the prime numbers. the set of all prime numbers is infinite. The contrapositive of a conditional can be formed by interchanging the conclusion and the hypothesis and negating both. We have proved this in Example 2 of “direct method”. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e Solution Writing the above statement in symbolic form. ~ q ⇒ ~ p. . then A is non singular”. (students can verify). i. where. there exists a prime number which is not listed.e. This is of the form p ⇒ q. Using this we have to show that “2 x1 + 5 = 2x2 + 5” ⇒ “x1 = x2”. Now ⇒ ⇒ x1 ≠ x 2 2 x1 ≠ 2 x2 2x1+ 5 ≠ 2 x2 + 5 f ( x1 ) ≠ f ( x 2). Example 6 Prove that the function f : R → R defined by f (x) = 2x + 5 is one-one. On the other hand. is equivalent to “p ⇒ q ” the proof is complete. it should have a prime divisor. contrapositive of “ if f ( x1) = f ( x2 ).e. we have p ⇒ q.

Hence. In such a situation. i. Thus. this is also a method of proof. But. Example 8 For each n. 5 So the generalisation “For each n. at first sight the generalisation looks to be correct. The example to disprove the statement is called a counter example. if a matrix A is invertible. Hence. Just this one example 22 + 1 is sufficient to disprove the generalisation. there are occasions when all attempts to find a valid proof of a statement fail and the uncertainty of the truth value of the statement remains unresolved. 3 2 2 + 1 = 28 + 1 = 257 is a prime. n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 2 2 + 1 = 22 + 1 = 5 is a prime. Since the disproof of a proposition p ⇒ q is merely a proof of the proposition ~ (p ⇒ q ). A–1 = adj A does not exist as |A | = 0 |A| (iii) Proof by a counter example In the history of Mathematics. 2 2 + 1 is a prime ( n ∈ N). we have proved that the generalisation “For each n . 2 2 + 1 is a prime (n ∈ N)” is false. |A| = 0 Then Hence. A is not invertible. eventually it was o n 2 2 + 1 = 232 + 1 = 4294967297 shown that which is not a prime since 4294967297 = 641 × 6700417 (a product of two numbers). we have proved that if A is not a non singular matrix. This was once thought to be true on the basis that n 1 However... . then A is not invertible. 2 h s d e 2 2 + 1 = 24 + 1 = 17 is a prime.254 MATHEMATICS If A is not a non singular matrix. then it means the matrix A is singular. ~ q ⇒ ~ p. n 5 Thus.e. it is beneficial. i. This is the counter example. 2 2 + 1 is a prime ( n ∈ N)” is not true in general. then A is non singular. if we find an example to falsify the statement.e.

we find that they are all differentiable for all the values of x. Hence.PROOFS IN MATHEMATICS 255 Example 9 Every continuous function is differentiable. This makes us to believe that the generalisation “Every continuous function is differentiable” may be true. This means that the statement “ Every continuous function is differentiable” is false. But if we check the differentiability of the function given by “φ ( x) = | x |” which is continuous. Just this one function “φ (x) = | x |” is sufficient to disprove the statement. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t —— h s d e . Proof We consider some functions given by (i) f (x) = x2 (ii) g ( x) = ex (iii) h (x) = sin x These functions are continuous for all values of x. we find that it is not differentiable at x = 0. If we check for their differentiability. “φ ( x) = | x |” is called a counter example to disprove “Every continuous function is differentiable”. in general.

Therefore. algebra. (ii) To find the optimal angle in case of shot-put (by considering the variables such as : the height of the thrower. To solve many problems faced by us. drawings or sketches. Roughly speaking mathematical modelling is an activity in which we make models to describe the behaviour of various phenomenal activities of our interest in many ways using words.e. it is important to study mathematical modelling as a separate topic. A. we have observed that solutions to many problems.. we have learnt about mathematical modelling as an attempt to study some part (or form) of some real-life problems in mathematical terms. when it is difficult to cross the river).). calculus and linear programming. when it is not possible to reach the top of the tower). computer programs. involve mathematical modelling in one way or the other. In earlier classes. the conversion of a physical situation into mathematics using some suitable conditions. Sometimes we solve the problems without going into the physical insight of the situational problems.256 MATHEMATICS Appendix 2 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING A. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . acceleration due to gravity etc. Let us consider the following problems: (i) To find the width of a river (particularly. In this chapter. we need a technique and this is what is known as mathematical modelling. (iv) To find the temperature at the surface of the Sun. we shall further study mathematical modelling of some real-life problems using techniques/results from matrix.2. trigonometry and linear programming etc. resistance of the media.1 Introduction In class XI.2 Why Mathematical Modelling? o n Students are aware of the solution of word problems in arithmetic. mathematical formulae etc. (iii) To find the height of a tower (particularly. involving applications of various mathematical concepts.2. Situational problems need physical insight that is introduction of physical laws and some symbols to compare the mathematical results obtained with practical values. i.

(for what we are looking for) (iii) Identify the available relevent data. . (viii) Find the volume of blood inside the body of a person (a person is not allowed to bleed completely).MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 257 (v) Why heart patients are not allowed to use lift? (without knowing the physiology of a human being). However. you might have studied the methods for solving some of them in the present textbook itself. (ii) List the parameters/variables which are required for the model. (vii) Estimate the yield of pulses in India from the standing crops (a person is not allowed to cut all of it).2. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e (vii) Identify tests that can check the (viii) Identify the parameter values that can improve the model. (a) consistency of the model. (iv) Identify the circumstances that can be applied (assumptions) (vi) Identify o n (a) the equations that will be used. Some of the basic principles of mathematical modelling are listed below in terms of instructions: (i) Identify the need for the model. (b) the calculations that will be made. it will be instructive if you first try to solve them yourself and that too without the help of Mathematics. All of these problems can be solved and infact have been solved with the help of Mathematics using mathematical modelling. (vi) To find the mass of the Earth. (b) utility of the model.3 Principles of Mathematical Modelling Mathematical modelling is a principled activity and so it has some principles behind it. (what is given?) (v) Identify the governing physical principles. (c) the solution which will follow. These principles are almost philosophical in nature. if possible. In fact. A. (ix) Estimate the population of India in the year 2020 (a person is not allowed to wait till then). you will then appreciate the power of Mathematics and the need for mathematical modelling.

The above steps can also be viewed through the following diagram: Example 1 Find the height of a given tower using mathematical modelling. then accept the model. Let PQ be an observer measuring the height of the tower with his eye at P. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig A.2 h s d e .258 MATHEMATICS The above principles of mathematical modelling lead to the following: steps for mathematical modelling. Step 2: Convert the physical situation into a mathematical model by introducing parameters / variables and using various known physical laws and symbols. Step 5: If the result is in good agreement.2.2.2. Let PQ = h and let height of tower be H.1 Fig A. Step 3: Find the solution of the mathematical problem. Solution Step 1 Given physical situation is “to find the height of a given tower”. Step 2 Let AB be the given tower (Fig A. Step 1: Identify the physical situation. Let α be the angle of elevation from the eye of the observer to the top of the tower. Step 4: Interpret the result in terms of the original problem and compare the result with observations or experiments.2). Otherwise modify the hypotheses / assumptions according to the physical situation and go to Step 2.

Step 2 Let A be a matrix that represents purchase orders from the two clients F1 and F2.e. P2 and P3. respectively. So from ΔPQB.. Step 4 In case... Then. i. let β be the angle of depression from P to the foot B of the tower. when l is not known to the observer. we have Step 5 is not required in this situation as exact values of the parameters h. (1) H = h + l tan α Step 3 Note that the values of the parameters h . l and α (using sextant) are known to the observer and so (1) gives the solution of the problem. Example 2 Let a business firm produces three types of products P1. required to manufacture each unit of the products P1 . B is of the form R1 R 2 R 3 P1 ⎡• • •⎤ ⎥ B = P2 ⎢ ⎢• • •⎥ P3 ⎢ ⎣• • •⎥ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t PQ h tan β = = or l = h cot β QB l h s d e . Let the firm has purchase orders from two clients F1 and F2. α and β are known. R2 and R3 required to meet the purchase orders. Considering the situation that the firm has a limited quantity of R1 . prepare a model to determine the quantities of the raw material R1. R2 and R3 .MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 259 Let Now or l = PC = QB tan α = AC H − h = PC l . R2 and R3. Then. A is of the form P1 P2 P3 F1 ⎡• • •⎤ A= ⎢ F2 ⎣• • •⎥ ⎦ o n Let B be the matrix that represents the amount of raw materials R1. R2 and R 3. Solution Step 1 The physical situation is well identified in the problem. l. if the foot of the tower is not accessible. P2 and P 3 that uses three types of raw materials R1.

the raw material required is 335 units of R1. o n Remark If we replace A in Example 3 by A1 given by ⎡9 12 6 ⎤ A1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣10 20 0 ⎦ i. if the clients agree to reduce their purchase orders.. 467 units of R2 and 147 units of R3 which is much more than the available raw material. Since the amount of raw material required to manufacture each unit of the three products is fixed.e. Solution Note that ⎡3 4 0 ⎤ ⎡10 15 6 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ AB = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢7 9 3 ⎥ 10 20 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣5 12 7 ⎥ ⎦ R1 R 2 R3 F ⎡165 247 87 ⎤ = 1⎢ F2 ⎣170 220 60 ⎥ ⎦ This clearly shows that to meet the purchase order of F1 and F2. B = ⎢7 9 3 ⎥ 10 20 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 5 12 7 ⎥ ⎦ and the available raw materials are 330 units of R1. in case ⎡3 4 0 ⎤ ⎡10 15 6 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ A= ⎢ ⎥ . R2 and R3 to fulfill the purchase orders of the two clients F1 and F2.260 MATHEMATICS Step 3 Note that the product (which in this case is well defined) of matrices A and B is given by the following matrix R1 R2 R3 F1 ⎡• • •⎤ AB = ⎢ F2 ⎣• • •⎥ ⎦ which in fact gives the desired quantities of the raw materials R1. we can either ask for an increase in the available raw material or we may ask the clients to reduce their orders. 455 units of R2 and 140 units of R3. Example 3 Interpret the model in Example 2. then T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡3 4 0 ⎤ ⎡9 12 6 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡141 216 78 ⎤ A1 B = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢7 9 3 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ 10 20 0 ⎣ ⎦⎢ ⎣170 220 60 ⎦ ⎥ 5 12 7 ⎣ ⎦ h s d e .

$ Note One may further modify A so as to make full use of the available raw material. 436 units of R2 and 138 units of R3 which are well below the available raw materials. R2 . we have o n Similarly. we have 4 x + 9 y + 12z = 455 (for raw material R2) and 3y + 7 z = 140 (for raw material R3) This system of equations can be expressed in matrix form as ⎡3 7 5 ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ 330 ⎤ ⎢ 4 9 12 ⎥ ⎢ y⎥ = ⎢ 455 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 3 7 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ z⎥ ⎦ ⎣140 ⎥ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 3 x + 7y + 5z = 330 (for raw material R1) h s d e . Let the firm has 330 units of R1. P 2 requires 7 units of R1 and P3 requires 5 units of R1 (observe matrix B) and the total number of units. y units of P2 and z units of P3. i. R2 and R3 required to manufacture each unit of the three products is given by R1 P1 ⎡3 B = P2 ⎢ ⎢7 P3 ⎢ ⎣5 R2 R3 4 0⎤ 9 3⎥ ⎥ 12 7 ⎥ ⎦ How many units of each product is to be made so as to utilise the full available raw material? Solution Step 1 The situation is easily identifiable. Step 2 Suppose the firm produces x units of P1. 455 units of R 2 and 140 units of R3 available with it and let the amount of raw materials R1.. P3 and R1. Thus. Query Can we make a mathematical model with a given B and with fixed quantities of the available raw material that can help the firm owner to ask the clients to modify their orders in such a way that the firm makes the full use of its available raw material? The answer to this query is given in the following example: Example 4 Suppose P 1. 455 units of R 2 and 140 units of R3 . of R1. 330 units of R1. R3 are as in Example 2. if the revised purchase orders of the clients are given by A1.e. P2.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 261 This requires 311 units of R1 . Since product P1 requires 3 units of R1. available is 330. then the firm can easily supply the purchase orders of the two clients.

3). we obtain ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ 20 ⎤ ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ = ⎢ 35 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣z⎥ ⎦ ⎣5⎥ ⎦ This gives x = 20. y ≥ 0 ⎪ ⎭ y ≤ 40000 x + y ≤ 45000 h s d e .. (1) Step 3 The shaded region OPQRST is the feasible region for the constraints (1) (Fig A. 34500). Thus. (20000. therefore the objective function (which is to be maximised) is given by Z ≡ Z ( x. 6000). (10500.2. S and T are (0. There are sufficient raw materials available to make 20000 bottles of M 1 and 40000 bottles of M2. (20000. Example 5 A manufacturer of medicines is preparing a production plan of medicines M1 and M2. Q. 0). How should the manufacturer schedule his/her production in order to maximise profit? Solution Step 1 To find the number of bottles of M 1 and M2 in order to maximise the profit under the given hypotheses. The profit is Rs 8 per bottle for M1 and Rs 7 per bottle for M2. Step 2 Let x be the number of bottles of type M1 medicine and y be the number of bottles of type M2 medicine. P. 35 units of P2 and 5 units of P3 to make full use of its available raw material.262 MATHEMATICS Step 3 Using elementary row operations. Remark One may observe that if the manufacturer decides to manufacture according to the available raw material and not according to the purchase orders of the two clients F1 and F2 (as in Example 3). 40000). y) = 8 x + 7y The objective function is to be maximised subject to the constraints (Refer Chapter 12 on Linear Programming) o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t x ≤ 20000 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ 3x + y ≤ 66000 ⎪ ⎪ x ≥ 0. (5000. respectively. R. it takes 3 hours to prepare enough material to fill 1000 bottles of M1 . y = 35 and z = 5. . 40000) and (0. the firm can produce 20 units of P1 . The co-ordinates of vertices O. Since profit is Rs 8 per bottle for M1 and Rs 7 per bottle for M2. Further. he/she is unable to meet these purchase orders as F1 demanded 6 units of P3 where as the manufacturer can make only 5 units of P3. but there are only 45000 bottles into which either of the medicines can be put.. 0). it takes 1 hour to prepare enough material to fill 1000 bottles of M2 and there are 66 hours available for this operation.

0) = 0 Z at P (20000. Prepare a mathematical model to examine the profitability.3 Z at P (0. 0) = 8 × 20000 = 160000 Z at Q (20000. 40000) = 8 × 5000 + 7 × 40000 = 320000 Z at T = (0. 40000) = 7 × 40000 = 280000 h s d e .MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 263 Note that o n Now observe that the profit is maximum at x = 10500 and y = 34500 and the maximum profit is Rs 325500. Hence. Example 6 Suppose a company plans to produce a new product that incur some costs (fixed and variable) and let the company plans to sell the product at a fixed price. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Fig A. the manufacturer should produce 10500 bottles of M1 medicine and 34500 bottles of M2 medicine in order to get maximum profit of Rs 325500. 6000) = 8 × 20000 + 7 × 6000 = 202000 Z at R (10500. 34500) = 8 × 10500 + 7 × 34500 = 325500 Z at S = (5000. Solution Step 1 Situation is clearly identifiable.2.

264 MATHEMATICS Step 2 Formulation: We are given that the costs are of two types: fixed and variable.e. I.. Step 3 From (3).e. The mathematical model Let x = number of units produced and sold C = total cost of production (in rupees) I = income from sales (in rupees) P = profit (in rupees) Our assumptions above state that C consists of two parts: (i) fixed cost = a (in rupees). The fixed costs are independent of the number of units produced (e. i.e. So P=I–C = sx – (a + bx ) = ( s – b) x – a . The company earn a certain amount of money by selling its products and wants to ensure that it is maximum. s can determine P. b. P parameters a. we assume that the variable costs are directly proportional to the number of units produced — this should simplify our model. a. These variables may be classified as: independent x dependent C. x = produces few units. s−b Steps 4 and 5 In view of the break even point..... rent and rates). material). (3) We now have a mathematical model of the relationships (1) to (3) between the variables x. (1) .g. a. b. b. C. income I depends on selling price s (rupees/unit) Thus I = sx The profit P is then the difference between income and costs.... I. we can observe that for the break even point (i. less than x = a units .. while the variable costs increase with the number of units produced (e. make neither profit a units.g. (ii) variable cost = b (rupees/unit produced). then the company will suffer loss s−b o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s . Initially.. Then C = a + bx Also.. one may conclude that if the company nor loss). s. we assume that all units produced are sold immediately. he must have P = 0. P. For convenience. i. knowing x. (2) d e . s The manufacturer.

Now the inflow of brine brings salt into the tank at the rate of 5 kg per minute (as 25 × 200 g = 5 kg) and the outflow of brine takes salt out of the tank at the rate of o n or y ⎛ y ⎞ y 25 ⎜ = kg per minute (as at time t. Further. in order to gain profit. Brine containing 200 g of salt per litre flows into the tank at the rate of 25 litres per minute and the mixture flows out at the same rate. (1) ... which is the difference of selling price and the variable cost of each product.e. What would be the amount of salt in the tank at any time t? Solution Step 1 The situation is easily identifiable. then another model could be tried or the assumptions regarding cash flow may be modified. then it can s −b make huge profit. before the inflow–outflow of the brine starts. ⎝ 1000 ⎟ ⎠ 40 1000 Thus. Further assume that y is a differentiable function. i. the rate of change of salt with respect to t is given by dy y = 5− dt 40 dy 1 + y =5 dt 40 (Why?) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e . we also have dP = s −b dx This means that rate of change of P with respect to x depends on the quantity s – b . the salt in the tank is kg). y = 250 g × 1000 = 250 kg Note that the change in y occurs due to the inflow. Assume that the mixture is kept uniform all the time by stirring. this should be positive and to get large gains. When t = 0. we need to produce large quantity of the product and at the same time try to reduce the variable cost. i. much more than a units .e. Example 7 Let a tank contains 1000 litres of brine which contains 250 g of salt per litre. outflow of the mixture.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 265 and if it produces large number of units. if the break even point proves to be unrealistic. outflow starts... Step 2 Let y = y (t) denote the amount of salt (in kg) in the tank at time t (in minutes) after the inflow. Remark From (3). Thus.

Also. Note that when t = 0. bio-mathematics etc. The solution of (1) is given by y e 40 = 200 e 40 + C or y ( t) = 200 + C e where. Therefore... Step 3 Equation (1) is a linear equation and can be easily solved. The reason behind this is that either the situation are found to be very complex or the mathematical models formed are mathematically intractable. (3) .. y = 250.. But there are still a large number of situations which are yet to be modelled. if and only if 200 < y < 250 i. o n Till today many mathematical models have been developed and applied successfully to understand and get an insight into thousands of situations.. c is the constant of integration. from (4). operations research. mathematical economics.. 250 = 200 + C or C = 50 Then (2) reduces to t t − t 40 . (2) or or Therefore Here. are almost synonymous with mathematical modelling. (4) d e e 40 = 50 y − 200 ⎛ 50 ⎞ t = 40 log e ⎜ ⎝ y − 200 ⎟ ⎠ Limitations of Mathematical Modelling .266 MATHEMATICS This gives a mathematical model for the given problem. from (3).e. the amount of salt content in the tank after the start of inflow and outflow of the brine is between 200 kg and 250 kg.. Some of the subjects like mathematical physics. we conclude that t > 0 if and only if 0 < y – 200 < 50 i. the minimum amount of salt content in the tank is 200 kg. − t Step 4 Since e 40 is always positive. the equation (4) gives the time t at which the salt in tank is y kg..e. T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t y = 200 + 50 e − t 40 t − y − 200 40 = e 50 t h s . we conclude that y > 200 at all times Thus.

oceanography. we can prepare reasonably accurate models to fit any data by choosing five or six parameters / variables. physics. Infact. computer science. are involved in meeting these challenges with courage. o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t — — h s d e . Mathematical modelling of large or complex situations has its own special problems. it has been possible to prepare more realistic models which can obtain better agreements with observations. pollution control etc. social sciences. etc. Due to these fast and advanced computers. we do not have good guidelines for choosing various parameters / variables and also for estimating the values of these parameters / variables used in a mathematical model. These type of situations usually occur in the study of world models of environment. However. We require a minimal number of parameters / variables to be able to estimate them accurately.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 267 The development of the powerful computers and super computers has enabled us to mathematically model a large number of situations (even complex situations). engineering.. Mathematical modellers from all disciplines — mathematics.

( fo g ) (x) = 8x 4. The set of all triangles 14. Neither reflexive nor symmetric but transitive. Reflexive.3)} 3. Neither reflexive nor symmetric but transitive.2 (ii) Neither injective nor surjective EXERCISE 1. 9.268 MATHEMATICS ANSWERS EXERCISE 1. gof = {(1. 9}.3 1. B 1. 9. Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. 13. (i) Injective but not surjective o n (iii) Neither injective nor surjective (iv) Injective but not surjective (v) Injective but not surjective 7. A T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Reflexive.1). c ∈ R 16. symmetric and transitive. C 15. 3). Yes 11. Neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.1 1. D 12. T1 is related to T3. Neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. Reflexive. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. No 10. (v) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3. No 2. Neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. 5. symmetric and transitive. symmetric and transitive. (ii) {1} 12. (4. h s d e EXERCISE 1. (3. (i) ( gof ) (x) = | 5 | x |– 2|. (i) One-one and onto (ii) Neither one-one nor onto. Inverse of f is f itself . 5. Neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. The set of all lines y = 2x + c. (i) {1. (fog) (x) = | 5x – 2| (ii) ( gof ) (x) = 2x.

(B) 1. f –1 is given by f –1 (y) = 1− y 4 11. f –1 is given by f –1 (a ) = 1. since f is many-one (iii) Yes. (v) (ii) True 13. 13. since h is one-one-onto. since g is many-one. 10. ∗ does not have any identity in N 9. (C) 14. Identity element does not exist. (i) No 2. (iv). (v) is associative. y ≠ 1 7. (i) No. 6. (i) (2 * 3) * 4 = 1 and 2 * (3 * 4) = 1 5. (v) are commutative. 12.4 (ii) Yes (iii) Yes (iv) Yes (v) Yes 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 (ii) Yes (iii) Yes (iii) 1 (iv) 1 (ii) Yes h s d e (v) 1 11. No 8. (i) ∗ is neither commutative nor associative (ii) ∗ is commutative but not associative (iii) ∗ is both commutative and associative (iv) ∗ is commutative but not associative (v) ∗ is neither commutative nor associative Λ 1 2 3 4 5 (vi) ∗ is neither commutative nor associative 3. f –1 is given by f –1 (y) = (ii) No. Yes 6. B T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 1. ∗ is both commutative and associative. 20 * 16 = 80 7.ANSWERS 269 5. 2y y−3 . f –1 (b ) = 2 and f –1 (c) = 3. (i) 5 * 7 = 35. (ii) . 1 2 3 4 5 o n 4. (ii) False .

π – sec–1 x 2 −1 x 10. B T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 2. (ii) F does not exist 12. B 1 −1 tan x 2 −1 x 9. x= π 4 14. 2π 3 EXERCISE 2. D 1. B 10. B 18. y−7 2. 9. π 6 15.2 7.1 3. 7. c)}. 3π 4 12. 1 5 11. 11. No 10. b ). a). The inverse of f is f itself 10 x4 – 6x3 + 10x2 – 3x 8. 19. No B 1. o n 17. 0 16. − 4 π 6 π 6 h s d e −π 4 14. −π 3 π 6. (1. −π 6 2π 3 3π 4 13. π −x 4 12. 2. 11. C . 8. D Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 2 π 6 16. 18. 13. π 6 π 6 4. 15. (2. 3tan a 6. ± 1 2 π 3 17 6 19. A 17. C 2. B 20. 5. 14. 1 − xy 5. No Yes 16. 15.270 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 1 1. sin a x+ y 13. x= 1 3 17. g ( y) = 3. x 2 π 4 8. −π 4 21. n ! –1 –1 (i) F = {(3.

ANSWERS 271 EXERCISE 3. 2 × 12. 1 × 24. 1 × 5. (i) A+ B = ⎢ (ii) A − B = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣5 −3 ⎦ ⎣1 7 ⎦ ⎡ 8 7⎤ ⎡ −6 26⎤ (iii) 3A − C = ⎢ (iv) AB = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ (v) ⎣ 6 2⎦ ⎣ −1 19 ⎦ ⎡ 2a ⎢0 ⎣ 2b ⎤ 2a ⎥ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t y = 4. d = 4 8. c = 3. ⎡ ⎢2 ⎢ ⎢9 ⎢ ⎣2 9⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 8⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎢1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣2 1 ⎦ ⎡9 (iii) ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎣8 25 ⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 18 ⎦ 4. – 5. 3 × 6. a = 1. z=3 (iii) x = 2. D h s d e EXERCISE 3. C 9. 8 × 3. B o n 2.1 5 2 2. 12 × 2. 13 × 1 3. 35. 6 × 3. z = 0 or x = 2. 1 × 18.2 ⎡11 10 ⎤ BA = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣11 2 ⎦ (ii) ⎡ (a + b )2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎣ ( a − c) (b + c) 2 ⎤ ⎥ (a − b )2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡11 11 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ (iii) ⎢16 5 21⎥ ⎢ ⎣5 10 9 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 1⎤ (iv) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 1⎦ . 4 × 6. y = 2. 9 × 2. z = 3 (ii) x = 4. (i) ⎢ (ii) ⎢3 2 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 5 4 3 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢4 7 3 5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 2⎦ ⎣ 6. 1 × 13. 5 × 1 1. 3 × 8. (i) (ii) 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢1 2 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡1 0 −1 −2 ⎤ 5 3 ⎥ ⎢ 2 1 5. (i) ⎡1 1 ⎤ ⎡3 7 ⎤ 1. 6 × 4. 7. (i) 3 × 4 (ii) 12 (iii) 19. (i) x = 1. y = 4. 2 × 9. b = 2. y = 4. 18 × 1. z = 0 10. 12. 24 × 1.

Rs 20160 21. y = 4. Rs 15000 (b) Rs 5000. (i) ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡2 3 4 ⎤ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ (ii) ⎢ 4 6 8 ⎥ a2 + b2 ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 6 9 12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 (v) ⎡ 1 2 3⎤ ⎢ 1 4 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ −2 2 0 ⎥ ⎦ (iii) ⎡ − 3 − 4 1⎤ ⎢8 13 9⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (iv) ⎡14 0 42⎤ ⎢18 −1 56 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 22 −2 70 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡14 −6 ⎤ (vi) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣4 5⎦ ⎡ 4 1 −1⎤ ⎡ −1 −2 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 4. (i) ⎡ −1 −1⎤ X= ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −2 −1⎦ 11. ⎥ Y= 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 2 13 ⎤ ⎢5 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢14 −2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣5 ⎦ 9. x = 3. B T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t ⎡ 5 0⎤ ⎡ 2 0⎤ . t = 6 12. x = 2. z = 1 EXERCISE 3. y = 3 10. ⎢ −1 −1 −10 ⎥ 17. A+ B = 9 2 7 . x = 3. (i) ⎡ 1 −1 −3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 15.3 ⎡ 1 2⎤ ⎢ −1 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢5 ⎣ 1 2 ⎤ −1⎥ ⎦ (ii) ⎡ −1 ⎢ (iii) ⎢ 5 ⎢6 ⎣ 3 5 6 2⎤ ⎥ 3⎥ −1⎥ ⎦ . w = 3. Rs 25000 20.272 MATHEMATICS ⎡ a2 + b2 3. k = 1 ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣ −5 4 ⎦ 19. x = 3. ⎡ 0 0 0⎤ ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 6. y = – 4 8. B − C = ⎢ 4 −1 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 3 1 4 1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 5. ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 7. (a) Rs 15000. Y=⎢ X= ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ 1 4⎦ ⎣ 1 1⎦ h s d e ⎡ 2 ⎢ (ii) X = ⎢ 5 ⎢ −11 ⎢ ⎣ 5 −12 ⎤ 5 ⎥. z = 9. y = 6. A 22. o n 1.

⎡ 0 0 0⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ . ⎢ −a ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ −b b⎤ c⎥ ⎥ −c 0 ⎥ ⎦ a 0 ⎡3 3 ⎤ ⎡ 0 2 ⎤ 10. ⎡ 4 −1⎤ ⎢ −7 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 4 −5⎤ ⎢ −3 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 6. B EXERCISE 3. ⎢ ⎢2 ⎢ ⎣ 4. ⎡ ⎢1 10. ⎡ 1 −1⎤ ⎢ −1 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3. ⎡ 7 −10 ⎤ ⎢ −2 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −1 11. ⎡ 3 ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎢ −2 ⎢ ⎣ 5 o n 7. 8.ANSWERS 273 ⎡ − 4 5⎤ 4. ⎡ −7 3 ⎤ ⎢ 5 −2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 2 −1⎤ ⎢ −5 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 3⎥ 2⎥ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t −1 0 ⎡ 6 A = ⎢−2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 2 −2 3 2 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ −1 + ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢ 3 ⎢ 1 A= ⎢ ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎢ −5 ⎢ 2 ⎣ 1 2 −2 −2 −5 ⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ −2 ⎥ + ⎥ ⎥ 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ −5 ⎢2 ⎢ ⎢ −3 ⎢2 ⎣ 5 2 0 −3 3⎤ 2⎥ ⎥ 3⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎦ h s d e ⎡ 1 2⎤ ⎡ 0 3⎤ (iv) A = ⎢ ⎥+ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 2 ⎦ ⎣−3 0 ⎦ 12. ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎣2 3⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎦ 12. Inverse does not exist. (i) A = ⎢3 −1⎥ + ⎢ −2 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (ii) (iii) 11. A 1. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 6⎦ 9.4 1⎤ 5⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ 5⎥ ⎦ 2. . 9. ⎡ 7 −3⎤ ⎢ −2 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 3 −5 ⎤ ⎢ −1 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5.

z= ± 2 6 3 Total revenue in the market . ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎢ 2 ⎢ 5 ⎣ 18. (i) 1. ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎢ −3 ⎢ ⎣ 5 −2 5 4 25 1 25 −3 ⎤ 5⎥ ⎥ 11 ⎥ 25 ⎥ ⎥ 9⎥ 25 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 3 −1 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 17. Rs 17000 ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ 11. x=± 7. D 0 1 5 1 5 6. (i) 18 5. (i) – 12.2 16.I = Rs 46000 (b) Rs 15000. x = – 1 9. (iv) 5 x =± 3 . ⎡ −2 ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎢ −1 15. x = ± 4 3 10. C . (ii) x = 2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 3 1 1 1 . C 3⎤ 5⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ −2 ⎥ 5⎦ ⎥ ⎡ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎢ −2 16. (B) EXERCISE 4. Inverse does not exist.1 2. B 15.II = Rs 53000 13. (a) Total revenue in the market .y=± . (i) 15. C 14. 0 8. (ii) x3 – x2 + 2 6. ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎣ 3⎤ 2⎥ ⎦ 14.274 MATHEMATICS 13. (ii) 46. (iii) 0. X = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣2 0 ⎦ o n 7. C 1. ⎢ −15 6 −5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 5 −2 2 ⎥ ⎦ h s d e EXERCISE 4.

A31 = 0. a = – 4. A12 = 0. A13= 3. A32= 0. M21 = c. M21 = – 4. (iii) 15 2 2 3.3 15 47 . M13= 3. 7 1. A22= 2.4 1. b = 1 15. A23= –1. (i) 5. (ii) . ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 sin α −1 0 ⎤ sin α ⎥ ⎥ – cos α⎥ ⎦ 14. A21 = 4. M21 = 0. (ii) x – 3y = 0 1. 3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ − − 1 11 6 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡2 −1⎤ ⎢1 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t M22 = a A11 = d. M22 = 2.ANSWERS 275 EXERCISE 4. M23= 1. M12 = 0. 13. M33 = 1. A33= 1 A11=11. A12= – 6. (ii) 0. A11= 1. M33= 5 EXERCISE 4. 1 ⎡ 2 −5 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 13 ⎣ 3 −1 ⎦ o n 9. 1 7 ⎡ −1 5 3⎤ −1 ⎢ − 4 23 12 ⎥ ⎥ 10. ⎡ −3 0 0 ⎤ −1 ⎢ 3 −1 0 ⎥ ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ −9 −2 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 ⎢ 0 cos α 11. A22= 1. M32= –13. A12 = – b. A22 = 2 (ii) M11 = d. ( x – y) (y – z) (z – x) 5. A13 = 0. A23= 0. A21= 4. 1 ⎡ 3 2⎤ ⎥ 14 ⎢ ⎣− 4 2 ⎦ ⎡10 −10 2 ⎤ 1 ⎢ 0 5 − 4⎥ 7. M22 = 1. (D) EXERCISE 4. 8. A33= 5 4. M32 = 0. M31= –20. M22= 2. M31 = 0. 2. M12 = b . A21 = – c. M12= 0. 8 4. A22 = a h s d e M11= 11. A12= 0. A11 = 3. (i) y = 2x. M12= 6. ⎡ 4 −2⎤ ⎢ −3 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 6. (i) M11= 1. (D) (ii) 3.5 ⎡ 3 1 −11⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2. ⎥ 10 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −2 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ 9 2 −3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 6 1 2 ⎣ ⎦ 8. A32= 13. M13 = 0. (i) M11 = 3. A ⎡−3 4 5⎤ 1 ⎢ = ⎢ 9 −1 − 4⎥ ⎥ 11 ⎢ 5 −3 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . A31= –20. (i) 0. ⎢ −12 5 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 6 2 5 ⎥ ⎦ 5. A21 = 0. M23 = 0. M21= –4.

x = –1. Consistent 4. o n 3. A T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t −5 12 . x = 2. – 2(x3 + y3) 10. Consistent 5. y = 1. z = 1 14. x = 7. 1 17. Consistent 9. B EXERCISE 4. y = 2. z = 3 15.y= 11 11 1 −3 11. x = 2. y = – 3 10. x = 1. ⎡ 0 1 −2 ⎤ ⎢ −2 9 −23⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . x = 2. D . y= 11 11 −6 −19 .6 1. z = 3 ⎢ −1 5 −13⎥ ⎣ ⎦ cost of onions per kg = Rs 5 cost of wheat per kg = Rs 8 cost of rice per kg = Rs 8 16. ⎡ 3 1 −1⎤ 1⎢ 1 3 1⎥ ⎥ 4⎢ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 3 ⎣ ⎦ 17. z = 5 19. y = 4 12. −a x= 3 −3 5 ⎤ 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎦ 9. x = 1. B 18. y = 2. y = –1. x = 2. x y 18. y = . y = 3. A 16. x = 1. x= 3. Inconsistent 8.276 MATHEMATICS 16. ⎢−2 ⎢ ⎣ 1 5. z = –1 h s d e Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 4 ⎡9 ⎢ 7. Consistent 2. Inconsistent 6. z = 2 2 13.

3.2 x 2 h s d e 2. (b). 10. k= o n 4. k = −2 π 3 4 24. f is continuous at x = π 21. Not continuous at x = 1 Discontinuous at x = 2 7. 2 x cos (x + 5) T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 5. 16. – cos x sin(sin x) 3. 5. f is continuous for all x ∈ R 26. 2 Continuous 17.ANSWERS 277 EXERCISE 5. 25. f is not continuous at x = 1 f is not continuous at x = 1 and x = 3 x = 1 is the only point of discontinuity 23. a cos ( ax + b ) sec (cx + d) + c sin( ax + b) tan ( cx + d) sec ( cx + d) 6. Discontinuous at x = 3 Discontinuous at x = 0 9. a cos( ax + b ) sec (tan x) . 15. 8. n ∈ Z There is no point of discontinuity. 20. 18. 1. No point of discontinuity No point of discontinuity 11. f is continuous for all x ∈ R 28. secant is continuous except for x = (2 n + 1) . n ∈ Z and 2 cotangent function is continuous except for x = n π. f is continuous at x = 3 (a). b = 1 5 34. cosecant is continuous except for π x = nπ. Yes. 6.tan (tan x ). 9 30.1 2. 14. 10x4 sin x5 cosx5 cosx3 – 3 x2 sinx3 sin 2 x5 . n ∈ Z. (b) and (c) are all continuous Cosine function is continuous for all x ∈ R. No point of discontinuity f is discontinuous at x = 1 13. There is no point of discontinuity. a = b + 3 For no value of λ. k = 6 29. a = 2. 12. k= 27. f is continuous at x = 0 but f is continuous at x = 1 for any value of λ . 22. (a).sec2 2 x 5. (c) and (d) are all continuous functions f is continuous at x = 0 and x = 2.

y sin xy 7. − sin 2 x sin 2 y 9. 2 cos y − 3 (2 x + y) ( x + 2 y) 3. sin x 2 sin 2 x 2 8. n ∈ N 6. x> 1 x log x ( x sin x ⋅ log x + cos x ) . cosx − 2 3 sec x − y x + 2y − 1 2 2. 1. ex ≠ (2n + 1) e x T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 5. 1 − x2 2 1 − x2 EXERCISE 5.278 MATHEMATICS −2 2 x 7. ex (sin x − cosx) .3 1. − sin x 2 x EXERCISE 5. x > 0 10. x ≠ nπ.1) 4. 3 1 + x2 2 h s d e −2 1 + x2 13. − a 2by + sin y (3 x2 + 2 xy + y2 ) ( x2 + 2 xy + 3 y2 ) 4. x (log x) 2 ⎛1 ⎞ − ⎜ + e x ⎟ sin (log x + ex ). 3x 2e x o n 7. − e − x cos (tan −1 e– x ) 1+ e−2 x 2 π x ex 2 x3 3 x4 4 x5 . − 5.4 esin −1 x 1 − x2 . −2 1 + x2 14. n ∈ Z 2. sin 2 x 3 3. − 6. – ex tan ex. 11. 2 1 + x2 − 12. 15. sin 2 y − x sin xy 8. 9. x > 0 ⎝x ⎠ . e + 2 x + 3 x e + 4 x e + 5 x e 2 .x>0 x 8. 2 1 + x2 10. 4 xe 1 . x ∈( − 1.

log (log x)] + 2x . logx 1 1 8. (sin x) x (x cot x + log sin x) + 2 x − x2 ⎡ sin x ⎤ + cos x log x⎥ + (sin x) cos x [cos x cot x – sin x log sin x] 9. (1 + x) (1 + x2) (1 +x4) (1 + x8) ⎢ + + + ⎥ . – cos x cos 2 x cos 3x [tan x + 2 tan 2 x + 3 tan 3 x] 2. yx y −1 + y x log y x y log x + xy x−1 13. 3. – 4 sin t 4. (log x) [1 + log x . x sinx ⎢ ⎣ x ⎦ 10. o n 1. ⎡ 1 1 ( x − 1) ( x − 2) 1 1 1 1 ⎤ + − − − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ( x − 3)( x − 4)( x − 5) ⎣ x − 1 x − 2 x − 3 x − 4 x − 5 ⎦ ⎡ cos x ⎤ (log x)cos x ⎢ − sin x log (log x )⎥ ⎣ x log x ⎦ 4.5 1. ( x cos x) x [1 – x tan x + log ( x cos x)] + ( x sin x) 12. (1 + log x) – x sin x log x] – 4x ( x −1) 2 2 1 x 11. ( x + 3) (x + 4)2 (x + 5)3 (9x2 + 70x + 133) x 1 2 1 + ⎛ x + 1 − log x ⎞ 1 ⎤ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡ x −1 6. 15. ⎜ x + ⎟ ⎢ 2 + log ( x + )⎥ + x x ⎜ ⎟ x ⎠ ⎣ x +1 x ⎦ x2 ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ x-1 logx–1 7. 5 x4 – 20x3 + 45 x2 – 52x + 11 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t y ⎛ y − x log y ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x ⎝ x − y log x ⎠ y ( x −1) x ( y +1) h s d e ⎡ x cot x + 1 − log ( xsin x )⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎣ ⎦ EXERCISE 5.6 2. x x cosx [cos x . − 14. f ′(1) = 120 ⎣1 + x 1 + x 2 1 + x4 1 + x8 ⎦ 17. t 2 y tan x + log cos y x tan y + log cos x ⎡ 1 2x 4 x3 8 x7 ⎤ 16. xx (1 + log x) – 2sin x cos x log 2 5.ANSWERS 279 EXERCISE 5. − 1 t2 . b a 3.

11. cos θ − 2cos2 θ θ 6. ( x log x) 2 12. – cot 3t 8. (log x) logx ⎢ + ⎥. o n 6.7 1. xx 2 8. − − 6x 1. ⎡ x cos −1 ⎢ 1 2 −⎢ + 3 4 − x2 2 x + 7 (2 x + 7) 2 ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 log (log x) ⎤ 7. 9. 9 e (3 cos 3x – 4 sin 3x) (1 + log x ) 10. – cot y cosec2 y 9.280 MATHEMATICS 5. 2 4. tan θ cosec θ a 7. tan t EXERCISE 5. 3sinx cosx (sinx – 2 cos4 x) 5. x >1 x ⎣x ⎦ 10. − cot 2 sin 2 θ − sin θ 2 b 10. xx (1 + log x) + ax a –1 + ax log a −3 . (sinx – cos x)sin x – cos x (cosx + sinx) (1 + log (sinx – cos x)). 2ex (5 cos 5x – 12 sin 5x) 2x 8. sinx > cosx ⎡ x2 − 3 ⎤ 2 + 2 x log x⎥ + ( x − 3) x ⎢ ⎣ x ⎦ ⎡ x2 ⎤ + 2 x log( x − 3)⎥ ⎢ ⎣x−3 ⎦ T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t sin (log x) + cos (log x ) x2 h s d e Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 5 2. – x cos x – 2 sin x 6. ⎡ 3cos2 x ⎤ − 6sin 2 x log 5 x⎥ (5 x ) 3cos 2 x ⎢ ⎣ x ⎦ 3 x 2 1 − x3 1 2 4. ( a sin x – b cos x) sin ( a cos x + b sin x) 9. 27 (3x2 – 9 x + 5)8 (2x – 3) 3. − (1 + x 2 ) 2 7. x(5 + 6 log x) 3. 380 x18 5. − 1 x2 2.

D 17.4π cm/s 4. (4. (a) –2 cm/min 8. 8 cm2/s 3 (b) 8 π cm2/cm 3. (a) Strictly decreasing for x < – 1 and strictly increasing for x > – 1 (b) Strictly decreasing for x > − 3 3 and strictly increasing for x < − 2 2 (c) Strictly increasing for – 2 < x < – 1 and strictly decreasing for x < – 2 and x>–1 9 9 and strictly decreasing for x > − 2 2 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t (b) 2 cm2/min 9. 11) and ⎜ − 4. 0 17. 27 π (2x + 1)2 8 16. 1 cm/s π −31 ⎞ ⎛ 11. 3) (d) Strictly increasing for x < − . 60π cm2 /s 6. (a) (– ∞.1 1. B h s d e EXERCISE 6. 2 π cm3/s 14. 8 cm/s 3 12. 400π cm3/cm 10.0 < t < at 2 EXERCISE 6. 900 cm3/s 5. 1 cm/s 48 π 15.967 18. 6 t cot 5 2 13. 1. Rs 20. sec3 t π . – 2) and (3. ∞) 6. (a) 6 π cm2/cm 2.ANSWERS 281 12. (a) ⎜ . ∞ ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ o n 5. ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 13. 80π cm2/s 7. ⎟ 4⎠ ⎝ (b) (– 2. Rs 208 ⎛3 ⎞ 4.2 ⎛ 3⎞ (b) ⎜ − ∞ .

11 4. y = – tx + 2at + at3 x x0 y y0 y − y0 x − x0 − 2 = 1. (0.282 MATHEMATICS (e) Strictly increasing in (1. 0) 2 Tangent: 10x + y = 5. ± 4) (ii) (± 3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Tangent: x + y − 2 = 0. Normal: x + 3 y – 4 = 0 Tangent: y = 0. 21. ± 2) 20. 764 5. 48x – 24y = 23 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 27. 12) 2b 8. 3) and (3. D 14. 24. (1. Normal: x = 0 14.035 (v) 0. 0 < x < 1 and x > 2 12. – 20) and (–1. (2. 0). B 13. Normal: x – 10y + 50 = 0 Tangent: y = 2x + 1.8 (vi) 1. 2).9999 (iii) 0. (i) (0. ∞). 24 −a 7. A h s d e EXERCISE 6. (3.208 . 17. – 9) 10. –2) (1.03 (iv) 0. 12. D EXERCISE 6. (i) 5. a = – 4 19. Normal: x + 2 y – 7 = 0 Tangent: y = 3x – 2. 0). 19. 2x + 3my – am 2 (2 + 3m2) = 0 x + 14y – 254 = 0. 22. 6. (3. + 2 =0 2 a b a 2 y0 b x0 26. x + 14y + 86 = 0 ty = x + at2. 1). 27) 18.4 (ii) 7. –1) and (– 1.3 1.96875 1. Normal x = y 15. (i) y + x +1 = 0 and y + x – 3 = 0 11. A. strictly decreasing in (– ∞. No tangent to the curve which has slope 2. 1 2. (3. 8. −1 64 3. 1) 9. (–1. o n (a) y – 2x – 3 = 0 (b) 36 y + 12x – 227 = 0 (0. D 25. y= 1 13.

00187 4. 28.995 6. (i) local minimum at x = 0. local maximum value = 4 2 local minimum at x = 7π .025 (xiii) 3. local minimum value = – 2 4 local maximum value = 19 local minimum value = 15 local minimum value = 2 local minimum at x = 3.06083 (xiv) 7.9629 (x) 20. (i) Minimum Value = – 1.ANSWERS 283 (vii) 2.904 3. 2.948 (xv) 2. D (viii) 3. Maximum Value = 4 (v) Neither minimum nor Maximum Value 3. No minimum value (iii) Minimum Value = 4. local maximum value = 2 π . 4 local maximum value = 2 3π . (iii) local maximum at x = o n (iv) local maximum at x = T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t EXERCISE 6.12 x2 m2 8. h s d e (v) local maximum at x = 1. Maximum Value = 6 (iv) Minimum Value = 2. C (ix) 3.92 π m3 9. (vi) local minimum at x = 2. (ii) local minimum at x = 1.5 (ii) Minimum Value = – 2 (iv) Neither minimum nor maximum value local minimum value = 0 local minimum value = – 2 local maximum at x = – 1. 0.0046 2.16 π m3 1. – 34.03 x3 m3 7.9961 (xi) 0.21 5. .009 (xii) 2. 0. No maximum value (ii) Maximum Value = 3. 3. (i) Minimum Value = 3 (iii) Maximum Value = 10 2.

Maximum at x = 2π. Maximum profit = 113 unit. local maximum value = 1 2 2 3 9 2 (viii) local maximum at x = . 3 cm 12. maximum value = 25. 25. 10 16. b 3 cm2/s . 112 28 π cm. C Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 6 (b) 0. x = 5 cm 50 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 50 ⎞3 21. radius = ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ cm and height = 2 ⎜ ⎟ cm ⎝ π⎠ ⎝ π ⎠ o n 22. absolute maximum value = (iii) Absolute minimum value = – 10. absolute maximum value = 8 (iv) Absolute minimum value = 19. At x = π 5π and 4 4 9. Maximum at x = 3. 15 15. minimum value = – 39. maximum value = 2π. Minima at x = 2. 8 18. (i) Absolute minimum value = – 8. Maximum value = 2 10. 45. maximum value = 139 11. maximum at x = – 2.497 4. 3 local maximum value = 5. 8.284 MATHEMATICS (vii) local maximum at x = 0. Maxima at x = 0. D 29. maximum value 89. absolute maximum value = 3 7.677 3. 12. 6. 8. a = 120 13. (a) 0. cm 27. x + y – 3 = 0 1. A π+ 4 π +4 T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 1 1 2 h s d e 28. Minimum at x = 0. minimum value = 0 14. absolute maximum value = 8 (ii) Absolute minimum value = – 1. 12 17.

3 3 ab 4 9. 22. A 23. A 24. Absolute maximum = 4π R 3 3 3 17. (i) 0 < x < 3π π and < x < 2π 2 2 (ii) – 1 < x < 1 (ii) π 3π < x< 2 2 7.ANSWERS 285 6. (i) local maxima at x = 2 (ii) local minima at x = (iii) point of inflection at x = –1 14. length = 13. B 19. breadth = m π+4 π+4 11. B o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t 2 7 5 . A 21. (i) x < –1 and x > 1 8. Rs 1000 20 10 m. A h s d e —— . Absolute minimum = 1 4 20.

286 MATHEMATICS o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e .

ANSWERS 287 o n T i l R b E u C p N re © e b o t t h s d e .

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