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Chapter 3: Confined Aquifers

Draw a Confined Aquifer: (an aquifer bounded above and below by an aquiclude)

Aquiclude Aquifer Aquiclude
When a confined aquifer is pumped, the loss of hydraulic head happens rapidly because the release of the water from storage is entirely due to the compressibility of the aquifer material and the water. This means that the drawdown will be measurable at great distances from the pumping well. Because the pumped water must come from reduction of storage within the aquifer, theoretically, only unsteady-state flow can exist. However, in practice, if the change in drawdown has become negligibly small with time, it is considered to be in a steady-state. Therefore there are methods for evaluating both steady-state flow and unsteady-state flow pump tests. Assumptions • • • • • • The aquifer is confined The aquifer has a seemingly infinite areal extent The aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic, and of uniform thickness over the area influenced by the test Prior to pumping, the piezometric surface is horizontal (or nearly so) over the area influenced by the test The aquifer is pumped at a constant discharge rate The well penetrates the entire thickness of the aquifer and thus receives water by horizontal flow


Additional assumptions for unsteady-state methods: • • The water removed from storage is discharged instantaneously with decline of head The diameter of the well is small (i.e. the storage in the well can be neglected)

57 equation 3.sm2) Q= well discharge in m3/d T= transmissivity in m2/d r1 and r2= respective distances of the piezometers from the pumping well in m sm1 and sm2= respective steady-state drawdowns in the piezometers in m (note: there is an additional equation you can use if only one piezometer is available. Using semilog paper.30 log (r2/r1) T = 2.sm2) or 2. and the second uses a slightly reduced equation: Q = 2πT Δsm (the slope of the line) or T= 2. Figure 3. and should only be used when other methods can not be applied.3 for more details) There are two procedures that can be used to determine the transmissivity. The first method uses the original equation. See pg.30 Q . the first method plots the drawdown of each piezometer against time (draw in curve.3).Confined Aquifer Example: Oude Korendijk Steady-State Flow • Thiem’s Method (uses two or more piezometers) Q= 2πT(sm1. but it is of limited use.4).30 Q_ log r2/r1 2π(sm1. and the other plots the drawdowns against the distance between the well and the piezometer (draw in best-fitting straight line. Figure 3.

which is called “transient steady-state flow”. but it dropped uniformly in H30 and H90 after a short amount of time. meaning that the hydraulic gradient between these two wells was constant. . Thiem’s method works under this condition.2.30 2πΔs Note: The water level dropped in all piezometers throughout pumping.

and t. s. you can superimpose the Theis curve on the data curve to find where they match (Figure 3. 1/u.6). and read it’s coordinates for W(u).1) 2x2! 3x3! After plotting the observed drawdown versus time on log-log paper. you should give less weight to the early data because they may not closely represent the theoretical drawdown equation on which the type curve is based.0. Then choose an arbitrary point.) When using the Theis method and all curve-fitting methods. or T= QW(u) 4πs .Unsteady-State Flow • Theis Method (introduces the time factor and Storativity) s = Q_ W(u) 4πT Where: u = r2S_ and consequently S= _4Tut_ 4Tt r2 t= time since pumping started W(u) = .577261 – ln u + u – _u2 + _u3 ……. (values can be found in Annex 3. (Calculations can be simplified if you choose the point where W(u) = 1 and 1/u = 1.

at various times (r is constant) 2. and the test needs to be performed over longer periods of time.3Q 4πΔs and S= 2. at various times For method 1 (Figure 3.7): T= 2.01 To achieve small values of u the piezometers needs to be close to the pumping well.25Tt 4πT r2S There are three applications for Jacob’s Approximation: 1. s versus log r for several piezometers. s versus log t/r2 for several observation wells.• Jacob’s Method This method is based on the Theis equation. s = 2. s versus log t for one piezometer. at one time (t is constant) 3.3Q log 2. and is only valid when u ≤ 0.25Tt0 r2 .

For method 2: (you need at least 3 piezometers for reliable results) T= -2.3Q and S= 2.25Tt 2πΔs r02 .

For method 3: T= 2.3Q and 4πΔs S= 2.25T (t/r2)0 .