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Leaky Aquifers -More likely to occur in the real-world than confined aquifers -When a well in a leaky aquifer

is pumped, it pulls water from the leaky aquifer and from the aquifers above and below. Example Leaky Aquifer

When well is pumped, water from aquifer comes from storage, water is also supplied from storage in aquitard and water that leaks into it from the unpumped aquifer. Over time, more and more of the water pumped comes from storage in the unpumped aquifer until a steady state is reached. Assumptions -Overall 1) aquifer is leaky 2) aquifer and aquitard have an infinite areal extent 3) aquifer and aquitard are homogeneous, isotropic, and uniform thickness 4) prior to pumping, piezometric surface and water table are horizontal 5) aquifer is pumped at constant discharge rate 6) well is fully penetrating and receives water from horizontal flow 7) flow in aquitard is vertical 8) drawdown in unpumped aquifer is negligible

During unsteady state flow, storage capacity of the aquifer needs to be accounted for. If it is not, the following errors can occur: -overestimation of K in leaky aquifer -underestimation of K in aquitard -false impression of inhomogeneity in leaky aquifer Steady State Flow

Jacob’s Method Assumptions 1) flow to the well is steady state 2) L > 3D .057m (drawdown) and r= 1100m (at well this far away) Known Q of 761 m3/d KD= Q x K0(r/L) = 761 2π sm 2 x 3. choose point where K 0(r/L) =1 and r/L=1 Values of sm= 0. make curve.057 x 1 = 2126m2/d c= r2/KD = (1100) 2 / 2126 = 569 d Hantush. -Fit De Glee Type curve to plotted values.14 x 0. the water table in the upper aquifer remains constant 2) the rate of leakage into the pumped aquifer is equal to the hydraulic gradient across the aquitard (ignores aquitard storage) 1) flow to well is steady state 2) leakage factor is greater than 3 times the D (diffusivity? Or thickness?) De Glee’s Method Assumptions Example Determine values for KD and c -Plot values of drawdowns at piezometers at different distances away.Assumptions- 1) during pumping.

Hantush Curve fitting and Neuman and Witherspoon ratio methods include aquitard storage Assumptions -Unsteady 1) water removed from storage in the aquifer and water supplied State from leakage from aquitard is discharged instantaneously with decline of head 2) storage in well can be ignored Walton Curve Fitting Method Assumptions 1) Aquitard is not compressible. so changes in aquitard storage are negligible 2) Flow to well is unsteady state Similar to the Theis Method .12)2 2020 Unsteady State Flow 4 methods .12 (L/r)) 2πKD Example: Plotted data from pump test and fit line to data points.138 r0 from graph = 982 m C= (r0/1. one log cycle of r) KD= KD= 2.3) r/L ≤ 0.138m (from graph.05 sm~ 2.14 x 0.12)2 KD C= (1100/1.Walton curve-fitting and Hantush inflection point methods ignore aquitard storage .30Q x (log 1.30 x 761 = 2020 m2/d 2 x 3. 761 m3/d) 2. s m versus r Delta sm= 0.30 Q 2π Delta sm (Q is known.

14 x 0.035 Hantush’s Inflection Point Method Assumptions 1) aquitard is not compressible so aquitard storage is negligible 2) flow to the well is unsteady state 3) It must be possible to extrapolate the steady state drawdown for each piezometer Can be used with a single piezometer or at least 2 piezometers One piezometer method -plot data from piezometer and extrapolate data to determine maximum drawdown sp= half of maximum drawdown delta sp comes from graph at log cycle .5. r/L) 4πs 761 x 1 = 1731 m2/d 4 x 3. s versus t -Fit Walton’s type curve to plotted points to get values KD= KD= Q x W(u.Graph of various Walton’s type curves Example: -Plot values from pumping test on graph. r/L) 4πKD u= r2S 4KDt Figure 4.s= Q x W(u.

Hantush’s Curve Fitting Method Includes aquitard storage Assumptions 1) flow to the well is in an unsteady state 2) the aquitard is compressible 3) t < S’D’/10K’ -Uses type curves like the Walton and Theis methods Example: -Plot data from piezometer on graph. s versus t -Fit Hantush’s type curve to plotted line to get values Neuman-Witherspoon’s Method Assumptions 1) Flow to the well is in unsteady state 2) the aquitard is compressible 3) radial distance from the well to the piezometer should be small (r < 100m) 4) t < S’D’/10K’ .

58x10-2 sc= 0.7x10-3 .-Used for “slightly leaky” aquifers Example: Given valuest= 4.009m s= 0.now can use the graph to get values for 1/u c Z=depth to bottom of aquitard .171 KD= 1800 m2/d S= 1.