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# Wedge Shaped and Sloping Aquifers

Previous methods assume that the thickness of the aquifer is the same
throughout, or that the watertable is horizontal prior to a pump test. As this is not
always the case, these methods were developed.
- 1 method for wedge shaped confined aquifers at unsteady-state flow
- 1 method for sloping unconfined aquifers at steady-state flow
- 1 method for sloping unconfined aquifers at unsteady-state flow
Wedge shaped aquifers at unsteady-state flow
Hantush’s Method: the inflection point
Assumptions
-Thickness of the aquifer varies exponentially in the flow direction (x direction)
-Thickness of the aquifer remains constant in the y direction
-Aquifer is homogeneous and isotropic
-dD/dx < 0.20
-Assumptions made for confined aquifers
Sloping unconfined aquifers at steady-state
Culmination-Point Method
Assumptions
-Unconfined Aquifer with constant saturated thickness
-Slopes uniformly in the direction of flow
Flow rate per unit depth
F= Width of zone where water is drawn
α= Slope of the impermeable base of the aquifer
At steady-state flow, the slope of the cone of depression is:
At some distance from the well, the combined slopes for α and dh/dx will equal
zero, indicating the edge of the cone of depression. This is called the
culmination point, and is shown as x0.
Sloping unconfined aquifers at unsteady-state flow
Hantush’s Method
Assumptions
-Unconfined Aquifer
-Aquifer has seemingly infinite areal extent
-Aquifer is isotropic, homogeneous, and of uniform thickness
-prior to pumping, the watertable slopes in the direction of flow with a gradient i<
0.20
-flow to the well is in unsteady-state
Example
-Using data from one piezometer, plot s’ v/s t on semi-log paper (t =logarithmic)
and extrapolate the max drawdown S’m
-Using Annex 3.1, prepare a type curve (W(q) v/s q on log-log paper) = identical
to plot of W(u) v/s u
-Separately plot the observed data curve (s’m - s’) v/s t.
-Match the curves and choose a match point (A) to determine the values of (s’m -
s’), t, q, and W(q)
-Substitute (s’m - s’) and W(q) into Equation 7.12 and calculate
-Multiply the value by 2 and substitute this value and s’m into Equation 7.13.
-Determine the value of (r/γ) using Annex 4.1 and calculate γ
-Determine exp 1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− θ
γ
cos
r
using Annex 4.1 and substitute this value, Q and D
into 1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− θ
γ π
cos exp
2
r
KD
Q
and calculate K
-Substitute t and q of point A and those of KD and γ into Equation 4.11 and
calculate S