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Cylon

What Happened
Noble (Eupatrid) in 732 who tried to take power –supported by father in law Theagenes Was an Olympic victor Attempted a coup, thwarted by the Alcmeonids Megacles was the archon who stopped him Committed sacrilege by killing in a temple – includes megarans Family banished from Attica

Primary Sources
Aristotle „The Athenian constitution‟ Flawed as we are missing the start „ Thucydides „The history of the Peloponnesian war‟ Book 1 „The people came out the fields and besieged it‟ „The Athenians banished those that were under the curse‟

Secondary Sources
„elite family feuding’ J.B. Bury A history of Greece to the death of Alexander

Impact on democracy
Show the conflict between rich and poor (kaloi k’agathoi and the Hoi Polloi), Inter Rich competition inside Athens and from outside Oligarchic strife – use of religion for political gain Population strongly tribal and divided between key families Unstable politics – oppression of the poor Between Cylon and Draco Athens was at war with Megara = worse for the poor Poor = slaves of the rich Loans = secured against people and their families Poor work rich peoples lands – fail to pay rent = enslavement = Pelatae „no part nor share in anything‟ Aristotle Murder = inter family blood feuds

Draco
What Happened
Noble who made Athenian laws – equality before the law – try to prevent coups First time laws were codified – written down Increadibly harsh – death penalty for minor offense Harsher on Poor as they are more likely to be forced to commit crimes

Primary Sources
“It prevents minor crimes and for major ones it was the most serious punishment I could think of” Draco

Secondary Sources
Rhetoric and the law of Draco Edwin Carawan – talks about homicide laws Drakon and Early Athenian History Michael Garagin – evolution of homicide laws

Impact on democracy
Show the conflict between rich and poor Rich an Rich competition Shows attempts at fair laws Independent judiciary introduced – helped poor as it reduced wealthy domination

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Document1

R. Stanton „Highly aristocratic outlook‟ Impact on democracy Athens now a Limited Democracy Large Enfranchisement Basic rights + integration of people Rich families still dominate Social reforms Abolished debt bondage – stopped slavery from debt Banned loans being secured against people Did not stop slavery Limited property ownership Division of people into Wealth classes: Pentacosiomedimnio – 500 bushel men – richest people Hippeis – 300 bushel men – Knights – owned warhorse Zeugati – 200 bushel men – tillers – owned 2 beasts Thetes – everyone else Changes who is allowed in what legal chamber Areopagus – highest law court – contains Pentacosiomedimnoi Boule – Council of 400 – contains Pentacosiomedimnoi and Hippeis Ecclesia – Assembly – everyone can talk and have a say Political reforms Scraps some of Draco laws – still keeps punishment for Homicide Archons are made to upheld laws Elected by lot from 40 candidates picked by tribes After completing term in office can enter the Areopagus Allows Thetes to enter Ecclessia Gives them say over Appointment of Archons Accountability of Archons Forming the Judiciary Possible limitation Several of solons friends took out large loans just before the reforms which got wiped out Page 2 of 4 Document1 . see below Primary Sources Aristotle The Athenian constitution „Everywhere he lay the blame for the strife on the rich‟ „Solon liberated the people‟ Plutarch Life of Solon Describes his social reforms Secondary Sources Athenian Politics C800-500BC: A Sourcebook G.Solon What Happened After Draco things getting worse for the poor Legal inequality and greater tension between rich and poor Made several political and social reforms to improve equality in Athens.

L.C Impact on democracy Broke down the power of the elite Prevented officials abusing power Ensure accountablilty for any citizen Favoured his own tribe with regards to influence Areopagus dominated by elite Ostracism exploited Tribal reforms Before Cleisthenes there were 4 tribes Strong tribal allegiance. coastal and city tritties Breaks up Athens. reduces elite domination + breaks up the power bases Each tribe sends 50 men to the Boule – breaks down old party system Political reforms All the chief magistrates were elected from the Boule Most by Lot but ones with important military roles were elected on basis of merit Control of Officals Dokimasia – interview Eisangelia – Impreachment Euthuna – account of actions Ostracism – exiled on popular vote Page 3 of 4 Document1 . A History of Greece to 322 B. allowed some tribes to dominate Gave richer families greater influence and control Broke the tribes into 10 different tribes (Phylai) Tribes made up of Country.Peisistradids What Happened Pisistratus takes power in Athens after 3 attempts Demonstrates importance of appeasing the masses to gaining power Primary Sources Aristotle The Athenian Constitution Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian war Book 1 Secondary Sources Impact on democracy Shows importance of the people to the rulers Cleisthenes What Happened Athens in disarray in 612BC after Pesistradids Cleisthene told to enact reforms to improve situation Primary Sources Aristotle The Athenian Constitution „the reason why he did not arrange the people into 12 tribes was to avoid using the existing tritties‟ Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian war Book 1 Secondary Sources N. G. Hammond.

Social reforms Creates tribal Demes – smallest political unit Own mini government Men must serve on these before being allowed to serve in Boule The Boule Increased in number to 500 Members elected annually – still limited to Hippeis and above Each tribe lead for a month – Prytanny Prytanny leader changed daily Try to prevent attemptive coups The Ecclesia Most significant reform was accidental Ratified his reforms by going to the ecclesia set a legal precident Gives Ecclesia supreme legislative power „Isonomia‟ all have equal political status Page 4 of 4 Document1 .