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USES Ability in the present (puedo, sé) ABILITY Ability in the past (podia, sabía) Ability in other tenses (sabré

, he sabido) Permission in the present and future (puedo, me dejan, podré, me dejarán) Permission in other tenses (he podido, me han dejado) Certainty or affirmative deduction in the present (debe de) Possibility in the present (puede que, quizás) Impossibility or negative deduction in the present (no puede, es imposible que) Certainty or negative deduction in the past (debe de haber …) Possibility in the past (puede que haya…) Impossibility in the past (es imposible que haya …) Obligation in the present (debo, tengo que) Obligation in other tenses (tuve, tendré que, he tenido que) Prohibition in the present (no debo, no puedo) PROHIBITION Prohibition in other tenses (estaba/estará prohibido/ no tenía /no tendré permiso para …) Absence of obligation (no tengo que, no es necesario que …) Absence of obligation in other tenses (no tuve que/no fue /no ha sido necesario que) Advice in the present (debería /no debería)

MODAL VERB Can / can’t I can / can’t play the guitar Could / couldn’t I could/couldn’t drive 10 years ago


Can /may / I can / may go out at night.



Must She must be very intelligent. Can /may / could / might It may rain. Can’t It can’t rain. Must have + past participle He must have won. Can /may /could /might have + past participle He may have won. Can’t have + past participle He can’t have won. Must You must stop at the red light. Mustn’t / can’t /may not You mustn’t cross the yellow line. Needn’t I needn’t get up early on Sundays. Needn’t have She needn’t have told me because I knew it. Should / shouldn’t / ought to / oughtn’t to You should / ought to study hard this year. You shouldn’t /oughtn’t to tell lies. Should / shouldn’t have to Ought / oughtn’t to have to You should/ought to have studied harder for yesterday’s exam.

ALTERNATIVE EXPRESSION Am/am not able to // know how to I’m able to / I know how to play the guitar Was/wasn’t able to // knew how to I was able to / knew how to drive 10 years ago. I will be able to / have been able to // will know how to / have known how to play the guitar. Am allowed to / will be allowed to I am allowed to go out at night. I will be allowed to go out at night. have been allowed to I have been allowed to go out at night since I was 15. Present simple (facts) She is very intelligent. Is likely to // will probably It’s likely that it rains / It will probably rain Is unlikely to // won’t probably It’s unlikely that it rains / It won’t probably rain


ADVICE Advice in other tenses (debería haber … / no debería haber …)

It’s compulsory //Have to It’s compulsory / You have to stop at the red light. Had to / will have to / have had to He had to/will have to/has had to stop at the red light. It’s forbidden // am not allowed to It’s forbidden to cross / You aren’t allowed to cross… It was / will be /has been forbidden /banned/prohibited Wasn’t / won’t be / haven’t been allowed to Don’t / doesn’t have to I don’t have to get up early on Sundays. Didn’t have to / won’t have to / haven’t had to She didn’t have to/ won’t have to/ hasn’t had to tell me. Had better + root of the verb You’d better study hard this year. You’d better not tell lies.