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Improved RRI Performance for NOx Control in Coal Fired Utility Boilers

M. Cremer, D. Wang Reaction Engineering International E. Schindler RJM Corporation D. Boll AmerenUE E. Vásquez RMT, Inc., Alliant Energy Corp.

US DOE Conference on SCR/SNCR for NOx Control Pittsburgh, PA October 29-30, 2003

Presentation Outline
¾ RRI Background
– Measured performance – Impact of “deeper staging”

¾ Potential in other units
– Edgewater Unit 4 – 205 MW cyclone

¾ RRI Operating Costs ¾ Summary

RRI Background
¾ High temperature, fuel-rich conditions ¾ Synergism with staging and RRI ¾ Avoids ammonia slip
Chemical

OFA N2 NHi NCO 2400-3100oF NOx Fuel

Burnout Zone

¾ Potential for <0.15 lb/MBtu in cyclones ¾ Co-developed by REI and EPRI

Fuel Rich Zone

Injection

Staged Combustion Zone

Demonstration Results
¾ BL England Unit 1 (Conectiv)
– 130 MW cyclone, 0.55 lb/MBtu – RRI: 30% NOx reduction, <1 ppm NH3 – RRI+SNCR: 55% NOx reduction, <5 ppm NH3

¾ Sioux Unit 1 (AmerenUE)
– 500 MW cyclone, 0.38 lb/MBtu – RRI: 30% NOx reduction, <1 ppm NH3 – Sensitivity to barrel SR

As Good As it Gets?
1.4 1.2 NOx (lb/MBtu) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Baseline OFA OFA + RRI

Sioux Unit 1 Results
Predictions Measurements

•RRI+OFA: 0.27 lb/MBtu •Predictions consistent with measurements •Can RRI do better in Sioux? •Other units?

¾ What NOx emissions can be expected by combining RRI with “deeper staging?” ¾ Can better NOx reductions be achieved with RRI in other units?

CFD Model Approach
¾ Cyclone Barrel
Gas Tempering

¾ Lower Furnace OFA
Overfire Air

¾ Lower Furnace OFA + RRI
– 20 RRI ports – 6 on each side wall – 4 each on front and rear walls

FGR

Barrel Throat

RRI in Sioux Unit 1
500 MW Cyclone
0.28 lb/MBtu

NOx (ppm)
0.41 lb/MBtu 0.18 lb/MBtu

SR=0.95, OFA

SR=0.90, OFA

SR=0.90, OFA+RRI

Edgewater Unit 4
Alliant Energy ¾ 330 MW, seven barrels, single wall-fired ¾ SmartBurnSM technology ¾ Front and Rear Wall OFA ¾ PRB/Bituminous blend ¾ NOx
– 0.45 lb/MBtu – <0.30 lb/MBtu measured under “deeper staging”

RRI Evaluation
Edgewater Unit 4
Pre RRI Post RRI

500 NOx (ppm) 0

Predicted RRI Performance
Edgewater Unit 4
RRI 2 RRI 3 RRI 4 Baseline
1750 1550 NOx Mass Flow (lb-NO 2/hr) 1350 1150 950 750 550 350 620

RRI 1

Lower Barrels

OFA

∆NOx = 52%
Impact of injector location and droplet size

Upper Barrels
640 660 680 700 720

Elevation (ft)

¾ 52% NOx reduction to 0.22 lb/MBtu, <1 ppm NH3 slip ¾ <0.15 lb/MBtu expected when RRI is combined with “deeper staging”

205 MW Cyclone
¾ Opposed wall-fired, four scroll burner barrels ¾ Front and Rear Wall OFA ¾ Bituminous Coal ¾ Large residence time ¾ NOx ~ 0.6 lb/MBtu
– 1.2 lb/MBtu prior to OFA
Barrel EL 40’6” OFA EL 90’8”

Large residence time in fuel rich zone

Predicted Performance
205 MW Cyclone
700 NOx (ppm) 0

Pre RRI

Post RRI

Post RRI
200 NH3 (ppm) 0

57% NOx reduction from 0.61 lb/MBtu full load baseline

< 1 ppm NH3

NSR Dependence
RRI in 205 MW Cyclone
60% NOx Reduction Percentage
RRI 3 Full Load09

55% 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 0

RRI 3 Full Load095

0.5 1 1.5 2 Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio (NSR)

2.5

¾ 41% reagent utilization at NSR=1 ¾ RRI performance increases with staging level ¾ 57% NOx reduction to 0.26 lb/MBtu at NSR=2 ¾ Best performance with 12 injectors at two elevations

Overall Results
0.9 0.8 0.7 NOx (lb/MBtu) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
SR

OFA only OFA+RRI

0

0.95

0.90

0.90

0.80

0.95

0.90

Unit

Sioux 1

Edgwtr 4

205 MW

Approximate RRI Costs
1800 1500

Reagent Costs
(Assumes $0.80 per gallon 50% urea)

1200 $/ton NOx 900 removed 600 300 0 Sioux 1 Edgwtr 4 Unit 205 MW

¾ Capital Costs consistent with SNCR

Summary
¾ RRI combined with deeper staging will likely achieve NOx <0.15 lb/MBtu in certain cyclone boilers ¾ Combined with SNCR, NOx<0.15 lb/MBtu likely achievable in many cyclone boilers ¾ RRI in staged cyclone boilers having large rich zone residence time will likely achieve >50% NOx reduction

Acknowledgements
¾ The authors would like to acknowledge EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) for their support of the original development of RRI. US DOE support under contract number DE-FC26-00NT40753 (Bruce Lani, Project Manager).

Thank You!