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GOVERNMENT ORIENTAL
Class B, No,

SERIES

6

PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF
THE PUBLICATION DEPARTMENT OF

THE BlIANDARKAR ORIENTAL

RESEARCH INSTITUTE

POONA

POONA
Bhandarkar Oriental Research
Institute,

Poona

1941

GOVERNMENT ORIENTAL
Class B, No.

SERIES

6

Sftvltt

tftoS-B,

fa. 6

HISTORY OF DHARMASASTRA
(ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL
RELIGIOUS

AND

CIVIL

LAW)

BY

PANDURANG VAMAN KANE,
;
;

M.

A.,

LL. M.

ADVOCATE, HIGH COURT, BOMBAY SENIOR ADVOCATE, FEDERAL COURT OF INDIA FELLOW AND VICEPRESIDENT OF THE BOMBAY ASIATIC SOCIETY; AUTHOR OF HISTORY OF SANSKRIT POETICS' &c.
'

VOL. II PAET I

Bhandarkar Oriental Research

Institute,

Poona

1941

Copies can be had Bhandarkar Oriental Research
Price Rs.

direct

from the

Institute,

Poona

(4), India

30

for both

parts

(Parts not sold separately)

Printed at the Aryabhushan Press, 915/1 Shivajinagar, Poona 4 by Mr. Vithal Hari Barve, and Published by Dr. R. N.

Dandekar, M.

A,, Ph. D., Secretary,

Oriental Research Institute,

Bhandarkar Poona 4.

PREFACE
It is a little over ten years sinoe the first volume of my History of Dharmasastra was published. In the preface to that volume I expressed the hope that time and health permitting I might issue in a few years the second volume dealing with the development of the various subjects comprised in Dharmasastra. For several years thereafter whatever leisure I could secure from professional work was devoted to the collection and orderly assortment of the vast Literature on Dharmasastra. After my return from a few months' visit to Europe in 1937 I commenced the work of writing the second volume. It soon became apparent to me that to compress within the limits of a single volume the development of the thousand and one topics that fall within the purview of Dharmasastra would present only a scrappy and faint outline of the whole field. To add to the difficulties of my task my old painful complaint ( duodenal ulcer ) recurred with far greater virulence than before, so much so that, partly on medical advice and partly out of despair, in October 1938 I gave up the work altogether. When relief did not come even after six months' total abstinence from literary labours I resumed, in spite of my extremely painful complaint, the

work of writing, for fear that otherwise the extensive materials that J had been collecting for nearly two decades might be entirely lost to the world of Sanskrit scholars and that my labours might be altogether wasted. Being afraid that my strength and resolution

may

not last

till

the completion of the rather ambitious

undertaking, I decided upon bringing out in two volumes the development of the various subjects comprised in Dharmasastra.

The

present volume contains the treatment of varna and &&rama, the samskaras, ahnika and ac&ra, dana, pratistha and utsarga, and sirauta (vedic) sacrifices. The next volume (the last) will deal with the following topics: vyavahara (Law and procedure), adauoa (impurity on birth and death), 6r&ddha, prftya6oitta t tlrtha, vrata, k&la, 6anti, the influence of the Purvamlm&rhsft and other d&stras on Dharmasastra, customs and

usages modifying DharmaSftstra, the philosophical background of Dharmasastra, and future developments in Dharmasastra. Looking to my past performance I am unwilling to make any promise about the time when the next volume may be
H.D.

A

ii

History of Dharmaiastra

expected to be published. I of the fact that at present I
years more.

may state, however, that in view am in much better health than I
to publish
it

have been for several years I shall try

in three

Excellent works dealing with distinct topics of Dharmasastra have been given to the world by eminent scholars. But so far as I know no writer has yet attempted single-handed to survey the whole field of Dharmasastra. From that point of view this volume partakes of the nature of a pioneer undertaking. It is therefore to be expected that such an ambitious project will manifest the defects of all pioneer work. The circumstances (adverted to above) in which this work had to be written and the great hurry with which it had to be rushed through are other
factors

that are responsible for the awkward or obscure expressions and the errors that it may contain. I mention these matters

for lessening the surprise that such blemishes might lead my friends to feel and not for blunting the edge of adverse fcriti-

cism.
the

The critic is certainly entitled to mercilessly criticize work for its shortcomings and mistakes. Some readers may complain that the present work is prolix, while others
I

may

have

say that the space devoted to several topics tried to pursue a middle course.

is

meagre.

There was great temptation throughout this work to compare ancient and medieval Indian customs, usages and beliefs as disclosed by dharmasastra works with those of other peoples and countries. But I have tried to omit, as far as possible, such comparisons. Whenever I indulge in them I do so for
several reasons.
It is

the fashion

among many

writers, both

European and Indian, to hold the caste system and the dharma6astra view of life responsible for most of the evils from which
to that view.

India suffers at present. To a very large extent I do not subscribe 1 have endeavoured to show that human nature

being the same in essentials throughout the world, the same tendencies and evils manifest themselves in all countries, the

same abuses prevail and the same perversions of originally beneficent institutions take place everywhere and anywhere,
whether particular countries or societies are within the grip of the caste system or any other casteless system. Undoubtedly the caste system has in fact produced certain evils, but it is not
singular in this respect.
evil effects.

Though

I

No system is perfect and immune from have been brought up in the midst of the
it

Brahmanioal system, I hope

will be conceded

by scholars

Preface
that I have

Hi
picture

shown both
to write

sides of the

and that I have

endeavoured

with detachment.

A few words must be said about the extensive quotations from Sanskrit works and the references to modern Indian Legislation and case-law. For those who cannot read English (most pandits and iastris do not) the quotations will be of great help
in understanding at least the trend of the arguments. Besides Indian scholars are as a class poor and cannot afford to pur-

Nor are there many good libraries in India where all works of reference can be had. For all these reasons thousands of quotations have been cited in the footnotes.
chase numerous books.

The quotations are mostly references to mss. are few

drawn from published works and and far between. I hope that the numerous quotations will not intrude themselves on the attention of those who want to read only the English portion of the work. Legislative enactments and case-law have been referred to for showing that many regulations of dharma&astra are
still

very

much

alive, that they
all

govern the every-day

life

of

Hindus and permeate

classes of

Hindu

society in spite of

the fact that a considerable part of dharmaSastra has
obsolete.

become

Similar remarks apply to the numerous references to inscriptions on stone and copper. These latter serve to prove
that rules laid

down in the dharma^astra were throughout two thousand years observed by the people and enforced by kings and that such rules were not mere precepts composed by dreamers or scholastic pedants.
I acknowledge with great pleasure that I am under deep obligations to many predecessors and workers in the same and
other fields
I

and

to

many

friends.

Among

the works to

which

had to

refer constantly

and from which

I derived the greatest
:

benefit I

Bloomfield's must specially refer to the following Vedic Concordance, the Vedic Index of Professors Macdoneli and Keith, the Sacred Books of the East edited by Max Miiller
vol. II, VII, XII, XIV, XXV, XXVI, XXIX, XXX, XXXIIII, XLI, XLIII, XLIV). As I was handicapped by the fact that I

(

little German and less French, I could not fully utilise all done by modern European scholars. I am highly obliged work the to Paramahamsa KevalSnanda SvamI of Wai for constant help and guidance (particularly in the &rauta portion); to ChintSmanfcastri Datar of Poona for assistance in the chapter on dar&apuri?am5sa and for carefully going through the other chapters onfoauta; to Mr. Keshav Lakshraan Ogale for his work on a

know

iv

History of Dharmafastra

portion of the Index ; to Tarkatlrtha Raghunathasftstrl Kokje for reading through the whole work and suggesting additions and

emendations.
Besides, assistance in various ways during the progress of the work for over three years was very kindly rendered by a

host of friends, among whom I should like to make special mention of Prof. H. D. Velankar, Prof. Bangaswami Ayyangar

Mr. Bhabatosh Bhattacharya, Mr. N. G. Chapekar, Mr. G. H. Khare, Mr. N. C. Bapat, Pandit Rangacharya Raddi, Mr. L. S. Dravid (aSSmavedl ofPoona), Pandit S. D. Satavlekar, Mr. P. K. Gode. Thanks are due to all these and other friends for their help and interest in this volume,
Prof. P. P. S. SSstrl, Dr. Alsdorf f

I must state, however, that I alone am responsible for the views and mistakes contained in this work.

In a work containing thousands of quotations and refeit is very likely that many slips have occurred. Besides it is very much to be regretted that several misprints have crept into the footnotes by the loss or displacement of dots and other
rences
loose parts of Sanskrit letters in the process of printing.

15th June 1941

P. V.

KANE

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOL. H
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
...

vii-x
xi-xii

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE
SYNOPSIS
LIST OF

...

...

xiii-xxxiii

WORKS CONSULTED

...

xxxiv-xlv
xlvl-xlvii

TABLE OF CASES CITED
HISTORY OF DHARMASASTRA

...

...

1-1255

APPENDIX OF LONGER EXTRACTS IN
SANSKRIT
...

1257-1278
1279-1358

GENERAL INDEX
INDEX OF IMPORTANT WORDS

...

...

1359-1866 1367-1368

ERRATA

...

.

= fihfiradvaja-grhya-siitra. J. = Critical Edition of the Mahabharata. Baud. = Calcutta Law Journal. All. Indian Law Reports. = Apastamba-mantra-patha. Dr. = Ap. im ( Brahmanismus by ). Frau = Die Frau Poona. I. Up. W. Aife. = Apastamba-grhya-siltra. = Commentator or Commentary (according to context). P. V. Dh. Winternitz 1920. = Br. C. L. = Calcutta Weekly Notes ( Law Reports ). Chan. C. = Asvalayana-sirauta-sutra. B. = Bombay High Court Reports (vol. Brhadaranyaka Upanisad. Dh. C. 5= Apastamba-dharmasutra. Dh. Baud. Ap. or Ch. Calcutta Series. = Dharmasutra. Oriental Research Institute. Collection of Sanskrit Mas. Cr. O. Sr. V. = Apastamba-Srauta-sutra. L. S. I. Anan. D. M. L R. = Baudhayana-grhya-sutra. R. Bom. = Bombay Law Reporter ( edited by Ratanlal and Dhirajlal ). gr. = BaudhSyana-6rautasutra. S. Asv. W. I-XII). Die = Deccan College S. Cal. R. Up. = Baudhayana-dharma-sutra. ST. Ap. = Archaeological Survey of Western India Baud. gr. Ap. ed. S.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A. = Indian Law Reports. Bom. Indian Law Reports. I. Sr. Reports. = Asvalayana-grhya-sutra. Bom. M. A. India Reporter Chitaley of Nagpur ). = Com. published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. N. Poona. = Ananda&rama Press edition. ( edited by Mr. A6v. Br. Allahabad Series. Bombay Series. gr. All = Aitareya Brahmana. R. gr. Up. C. Bhar. L = ( Volumes of ) Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. = Chandogya Upanisad. = Bibliotheca Indica series. B. H. = Bhandarkar Poona. Calcutta. or Anand. I. Leipzig . 0.

A. S. I. . R. J. L. Indian Appeals ( decided by the Privy Council ) t the number of the volume Mait. = The commentary Mitaksara on Yajnavalkya Moo. Literature by Max Muller ( 1859 ). Mark. I. = Inscription or inscriptions. = Gfhastharatnakara of Cande&vara. = Manava-grhyasutra. Hir. H. S. M. = History of Ancient Sanskrit Gaut. Manava gr. A. German by = Dharmasutra of Gautama. n. and Maitland's History of English Par. and Maitrayanl-samhitft. L I. = Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. R. 8. C. A. = India Law Reports series. Pandit Jivananda's edition. = Gupta sarhvaL H. R. Gr. = Law Reports. =5 = E. gr. Shishirkumara Maitra. Kaut = L. = Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ( edited by James Hastings F. Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Journal of the Society. G. A. = Patafijali's Mahibhasya. A. gr. B. Jiv. as Paraskara-grhyapsatra. A. = P and M = Pollock Law. Prof. = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. I. Para&ara-Madhavlya. Fick = Footnote. = = Ins. ~ The Social organization in North-east India in Buddha's time (translated from Dr. S. Srarfci. = footnote. Epigraphia Indioa. or Markandey a = Mirkandey a-purana. L. = being inserted between L.viii History of Dharmai&atra E. B. Indian Antiquary. E. Par. R. 3. n. 0. R. Q. E. S. ). L HiranyakeM-grhya-sutra. Panini's Astftdhyayl. SB Indian Historical Quarterly. Kautilya's Arthatestra.= Moore's Indian Appeals. S. =a J. Pan. J. B. = Pat. London. 1920 ). R. I. R Epigraphia Carnatioa. Mit. R. s K&thaka = K^haka Samhit*. A.

Taittirlya Brahmana. S. N. = Vajasaneya Sambita. Vfij. S. Sat. Tai. = Yajnavalkyasmrti. V. S. = SariiBkaraprakasa of Mitrami&ra. Yaj. Religion and Philosophy Veda and Upuni^ads. Tai. K. Br. = Upanisad. Sr. = Vedanta-sutra. Visnu. or Vaikhanasa = Vaikhanasa-smarta-sutra.. Ar. . 0. = Hitlebrandt's ' Ritaal Opfer und Zauber '. Litteratur Vedische Sara. or^' San. V. = Scheduled castes Order of 1936. Dh. G. S. C. Br. gr. ' ' Rgveda. M. ( . S. Lit. C. = = Taittirlya Arapyaka. or Smr. or = Taittirlya Sarhhitft. Sm. Vaik. - J M. . = Samaveda. and Phil. H.List of Abbreviations ix Q. or Vas. = Satapatha Brahmana. = Sankbyayana-grhya-sufcra. Keith's of the Bg. D. Tai. = Rifc. = Smrfcimuktaphala of Vaidyanafcba. or \ = v Y a "" narma sam g raua Sam. P. = Sacied Books of the East Max Miiller ). . Yati. * Yati-dh Z. Vas. ( ed. = Translation or translated according to context Up. = Sam. D. P. = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesselschnft. Dh. R M* } ~ Samskara-ratna-mftlft of Goplnatha. = Smrti-candrika. or Pr. = Quoted. ). B. Sarhskara-kaustubha of Anantadeva. S. . = Vasistha-dbarmasutra. by Prof. M. = Prof. B . Rel. E. Tr. S. Sch. = Visnu-dharma-sutra. = Srautapadarfchanirvacana. S. Dh. Sm.

= ^T. 3?T. ^. qr. or cjf^. = m. or . jj. = %f %. jf. ^. ^3. ^T^t'^tq ^T. = ( as quoted in digests ) 2- . ^T. or q^T. ^f- or ST. ^. = ^I^TO^T^J^ *f. s. o?j.History of Dharwaiasira Q. or *7f. = . or 2fT[.

C. C. 300 A. D. The principal Srauta some 600 500 300 B. B. Vayu f 600 A. D. Yajfiavalkya-smrti. 300 B. D. particularly of ancient works. Some dates. 600 B. D.- 100 A. Visnu. 200 B. Latyayana. D. Brhaspatismrti ( not yet found ). D. Katyayana. and thafc some Upanisads (even out of those that are regarded as the principal and the earliest ones ) are later than 1000 B. D. of Jaimini.600 A. Jaimini's Purvamlmarhsa'-sutra. Kurma. 788 A. C.~ 200 300 100 A. Tantravartika of KumariJa. D. A. C. C. com. Asvalayana. D. B. Naradasmrti. . author of Brhatsamhita. The period of the Vedic Samhitas. D. C. 587 A. It is possible that some hymns may go back to a period even earlier than 4000 B. Baudhayana and The Nirukta. 100 A. Matsya. D. D. C. Mahabhasya Manusmrti. 200 A. 200 B. Markandeya. 300 A. D. 500 A. C. D. 650 A. C. Brahmanas and Upanisads. 500 A. D. C. Sabara. B. D. are conjectural and only tentative. the great Advaita philosopher. 500 A. Apastamba &c. D. D. The dharmasutras of Apastamba. ).CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE ( of important works and authors referred to in this volume ) N. C. 800 800 B. Some of the extant puranas viz. 300 A. Gautama. Satyasadha)and some of the grhya sutras ( Asvalayana. others. C. 820 A. D. Vasistha and the Grhyasutras of Paraskara. Baudhayana. 4000 B. Kautilya's Arthasastra 150 B. C. Katyayanasmrbi ( not yet found ). 200 A. Varaha-mihira. 750 A. C. 100 A. of Patanjali. sutras (of Apastamba. Visrmdharmasutra. 400 A. Sankhyayana. D. B. Vaikhanasa-smartasutra. Baudhayana. 505 A. Drahyayana. 300 B. a Panini. 500 B. 400 B. C. C. D. 400 A. D. A. Samkaracarya. D.-1000 B.D.

-1300 A. D. D.-1640 A.-1200 A. 1150 A. Dharraasindhu ( of Ka^Inatha ). 1125 A. Smrticandrika. 1310 A.-1360 A.-1300 A.-1380 A. D. D. author of SmiiBkartv-nmyukha and other Mayukhas. D. D. D. 1650 A.-1570 A. . -Medhatithi. D. Haradatfca. Mitaksara of VijnaneSvara. D.. D.Madanaratna. Nllakarrtha. 1360 A. 1610 A. D. D. 1200 A. 1610 A.-1150 A. D.-1750 A. 1425 A. Visvarapa. D. 900 A. author Anantadeva. D. Raghunandana. 1615 A. D. D.-1680 A. author of the Grhastharatnakara and other Ratnakaras.-1450 A. Apararka.-1150 A. of of Vlramitrodaya. D. D. D. D. Srartiinuktaphala of Vaidyanatha. Sumskara-kaus- About 1686 A. D.-1270 A.-1640 A. D. 1100 A.-1820 A. 800 A. D.xii History of Dharmata&tra 600 A. D. D. Madanaparijata. D. D. Smrtyarthasara. 1520 A. D. D. D. -Jlmutavahana. D. of Yajnavalkya. D. author of Niruayasindhu and Sudrakamalaktira. 850 A. D. D. 1260 A. D. author of 1790 A. D. Most of the other smrfcis and some of the purfinas. 1750 A. Mitra Misra. D.-1390 A. 1100 A. 1150 A. author tubha. -Madhavacarya.. 900 A. Kamalakarabhatttt. Kulluka. D.-1225 A. D. 1300 A. com.-1645 A. Candesvara.Balambhatta. Nagojlbhafta. -Kalpafcaru of Laksmldhara. of Manu 1100 A. D. of author Purastira- Madhavlya. D. com. D. 1700 A. 1150 A. D. D. Hemadri's Caturvargacintamani.

CHAP. officiating at and performing sacrifices. serve higher castes. teaching the veda. Status of children of mixed castes. D. Propositions deducihle from Vedic Literature. to 1000 A. List of various crafts and avocations culled from Vedic Literature. Rathakara and Nisada. Jahjatkarsa and Jalyapakarsa. love. Position of Sudra in Vedic Literature. Vis in the Rgveda. Varimsamkara. List of castes mentioned by works from 500 B. Characteristic features of modern caste system. Brahmana and money-lending. Ramifications of caste traced by dharmasastra writers to mixed unions. Four purusarthas ( goals of human existence ) and their gradation. viz. ll^* 19104 High eulogy and condemnation of caste system. High eulogy of brahmanas. Topics Dharmas common to all ( s&dharana-dharma ). Standard of moral values. 105-164 Bralimana's Duties. Disabilities of Sudras. Special duty of sudras to gifts. making and receiving Rules about receiving gifts. Truth. A few of the castes mentioned by medieval works. \Jrni. special privileges and duties study of veda. Professional castes and guilds. liability to rocoive higher punishment for certain offences. agriculture.SYNOPSIS OP CONTENTS I. charity. disabilities and privileges of varnas. not to hold high offices like that of judge. Position of the three higher varnas inter se. History of the word varna. Revolt against the caste system in the Mahabharata. Divisions of sudras. Enumeration and discussion of special privileges claimed by brahmanas. sale and barter as means of livelihood in distress. not authorized to study the veda nor to perform vedic sacrifices with vedic mantras. self-restraint. Anuloma and pratiloma castes. 1 - 18 Various divisions of dharma. CHAP. Begging. of Aryavarta. III. 0. Limits of dharoiasastra. Arya and dasa or dasyu. Brahmana in distress may do the work specially meant for ksatriyas and vaisyas. Two postulates as to castes Urdharmasastra writers. . Professions and crafts in Vedic Sariihitas. Bharatavarsa.

several component parts of it such as homa. Hardly any Vedic passage supports it. Rules time for it. Rules about names. Punyahavflcana. Untouchability. The proper age for upanayana for the three varnas.xiv History of Dharmaifistra CHAP. Slavery. Purpose of samskaras. Divergence as to number of samskaras. 188-267 \Jfamskaras. Whether it is a sarhskara of the woman or of the child. Kinds of slaves in the smrtis. Annapraiana. Whether women had upanayana performed and could wear yajnopavita. Anavalobhana. Procedure upanisad and smrtis. Imparting of sacred GSyatrl to the student. upanayana. Varsavardhana. Medhajanana. Preliminary Altar in grhya rites. Rules about shadow of unPublic roads and untouchables. Sosyantikarnia. 180-187 Existence of slavery in Vedic times. IV. Wearing of yajnopavita given up by ksatriyas in the fir^t few centuries Whether upanayana performed for the blind. Matrkapujana. Nandlsraddha. . touchables. Caula. 165-179 Arityajas according to the srnrtis. CHAP. of this sacrament. The auspicious Rules about the skin. V. Meaning of the word. the girdle and brahmacarin of different varnas. List of samskaras named by all or most of the smrti writers. the garments. manufacturing and wearing yajnopavTta. Niskramaria. Vidyarambha. Upanayana of mixed castes and of for the a^vattha tree. the after Christ. Namakarana. and Jatakarma Siniantonnayana. Puftisavana. deaf and dumb. Vimubali. rites in all Homa. Karnavedha. 268-415 ment Upanayana. How names . Garbhadhana known from the times of the AtharvaGarbhadhana in the Brhadaranyaka of veda. were given at various periods several names for the same person. VII. Samskaras of sudras. History of yajnopavita from ancient times. features of upanayana. idiots &c. Matters in which immediate relief required. Easy expiation provided for non-performance of samskaras. The preliminary the of the staff The principal rites of rites of Upanayana such as homa. Divisions of samskaras. Manumission of slaves. CHAP. Originally a simple ceremony. Origin and developAncient It implies gayatryupadesa. samskaras such as Ganapatipujana.

women of greetings. Rules of conduct for snatakas. Tolerance in ancient India. Taking back those who had been forcibly converted or who belonged to other faiths. Three different npints of view about the four asramas. Nyasas and Mudras. not point to a society where there 427-541 The most important sarhskara of all. Students did work Rules about honouring the teacher and elders. Corporal punishment of pupils. Varna and asrama complementary. Number of asramas four from the times of the most ancient dhartnasutras. aghamarsana. japa of Gayatrl. vaisyas. student's stay with the teacher. Grounds of showing respect. Education of ksatriyas. Eulogy of Gayatrl. Performance of Samdhya twice daily and rules about the principal elements of samdhyft. Duration of student-hood. Keianta or Qodana. worship ). CHAP. Features of the ancient educational system. Bhiksa ( begging ) for food by brahmacarin. Rules about showing courtesy and precedence on public roads. Subjects of study at various periods. teacher and the qualities of a good pupil. pranayama. Absorption of foreign elements. -Manu's theory. The dharmas ( duties ) of brahmacarins. ( 416-426 Origin and development of the idea of a&ramas stages of life ). been performed ). Saluting and the wife of the teacher.Synopsis of Contents ' xv Vyahrtis and om '. CHAP. arghya to the sun. Study of the veda. such as oral instruction. np" ^Marriage. Texts do was Dromiscuitv and no .yiIL ^Asramas. such as acamana. The Vratyastoma for those whose upanayana had not been performed at all. Vaikhanasa and yati in Vedic Literature. Brahmacarya and householder's stage well-known even to the Rgveda. Punarupa- nayana ( performing upanayana again ). The Veda-vratas. marjana. Idea of moksa (release from samsara ). Merits and defects bowing to them and about the return relatives of the ancient system of education. Qualifications of a good upasthana the first ( duty. Perpetual Patitasavitrika (whose upanayana had not (naisthika) students. Anadhyaya ( cessation of study ) on various days and for various reasons. for the teacher. sudras and of women. Snana or Saniavartana ( the student's return from the teacher after finishing Vcdic study ). teaching without stipulating for a fee. Whether ksafcriyas and vaisyas exist in the Kali age. Three asramas expressly mentioned in the Ohandogya Upanisad.

in dharraa and grhya sutras and smrfcis and in Anuloma marriages allowed till about the 9th inscriptions. Rules about prohibition of marriage on the ground of sapinda relationfive Four or Conflict of texts as to these rules. In the ancient sutras girls were married about the time of puberty. Marriage between sagotras and sapravaras forbidden. medieval and modern. Gotra and pravara of importance in several matters. century A. Laksanas ). Names of ksatriya kings among gotras and pravaras. Father's power over his children. Only two forms of marriage in vogue in modern times. Examples of inter-caste marriages in Vedic Literature. Gotra in Divisions and sub-divisions of gotras.' Sapinda relationship of the Meaning of sapinda according to Dayabhaga and Raghunandana. Svayamvara. Each gotra has one or more pravaras. Reasons for insistence on pre-puberty marriages in Yajnavalkyasmrti and other works not clear. bridegroom. List of the several elements in the marriage rite and . Conflict on this point among medieval writers and among several castes. ship. No unmarried woman was deemed in medieval times to go to as to caste. marriage null and void. Selecting a girl by asking her to take one out of several lumps of clay gathered from various places. Conflict of views among writers as to ownership over one's wifo and children. gotra. Age of marriage for girls varied at different periods. Infanticide. Medieval works introduced difficulties on astrological grounds. D. |lestrictions Breach of these rales rendered a so-called relationship. Forms of marriage. Auspicious time for marriage. Meaning of gotra and pravara in Vedic works. ' * ' ' the sutras and digests. ( ( History of Dharmatnstra Purposes of marriage.xvt marriage. Marriage with one's maternal uncle's daughter. Marriage of sagotras and sapravaras void according to the writers of digests. Persons that have power to give a Sale of girls in marriage in ancient times. ' Meaning of viruddhasambandha. girl in marriage. pravara and sapinda heaven. indicatory characteristics invisible or inferrible ). In ancient times brotherless maidens not accepted as brides. Meaning of raksnsa and paisaca marriages. Age of marriage for men not fixed. Taking monetary consideration for one's daughter condemned. Procedure of marriage in the Rgveda and in the grhya eutras. Qualifications of a desirable Rules for the selection of a bride. Sapinda relationship explained in the Mit. Gotras ^of ksatriyas and vaisyas. bahya ( visible ) and abhyantara grounds for preferring a particular girl. Narrowing of sapinda relationship permitted by writers of digests only on the ground of usage. adopted son.

Procedure of marriage with the arka plant ). 542-549 it from the sutras. and as heir to Widow's position improved by liusband's separate property. . Wife's right of Supernatural powers ascribed to pativrata. No evidence for polyandry in Sanskrit Literature except in the case of Draupadl. chewWidow (except one's mother) declared to be most inauspicious. C. Duties of wife dwelt upon at great length in all smrtis and digests. fi 3HAP. xvii and irre- CHAP. residence and maintenance. Examination of texts relied upon in support of digests this practice. Madhuparka. Her rights in a joint family. Wife not authorised to perform religious rites independently or without husband's consent. flowers. 583-5a jrear after Duties of widows. In widowhood woman to lead an ing betelnut. character. Ideal of a pativrata. Theory of debts with which every man was supposed to be born. recent legislation. First duty of wife was to co-operate with the husband in all religious matters. Wife's conduct when husband was away from home on a journey. ( Arkavivaha ( Parivedana marrying before an elder brother CHAP. X. No identity of husband and wife for secular or legal purposes. Estimate of the charactei 5f "Tfrornen in Sanskrit works. H. XL 550-582 Polygamy. Foremost duty of wife is to obey her husband and honour him as god. Precedence among co-wives in religious matters. one being the debt to his ancestors and discharged by procreating sons. Practice gradually evolved from about 10th or llth century. rights and duties on marriage. polyandry. Position of women in ancient India. Rules of conduct for widows for one the death of the husband. High eulogy of Passages condemning wome' and reverence for the mother. The practice of tonsure of brahmana widows has no sanction in the vedas and smrtis ( excepting one or two ). XII.Synopsis of Contents their description. When marriage becomes complete vocable. Humane treatment even when wife guilty of adultery. ascetic life. Husband's power of correction. or sister ). avoid luxuries like perfumes. Sentiment that a woman should not be killed on any account. Marriage brought about by force or fraud. Only Skandapurana and medieval insist on tonsure.

xviii History of Dharma$astra Position of women became assimilated to that of sudras in Certain advantages conceded to women. Practice of SatI very limited in ancient times. Divorce law in England and Roman Catholic countries. CHAP. Verses of Rgveda and Atharvaveda supposed to refer to remarriage of widows examined. Rules for a wife whose husband is unheard of for many years. Some writers held that texts permitting niyoga applied to sudras or to girls who were only promised in marriage to a person but not actually married to him ( as he died in the meantime ). Some commentators were opposed to this practice. XIII. Narada on the kinds and svairinls. necessarily 608-623 The word 'punarbhu' does not of mean 'remarried widow*. CHAP. Restrictions imposed against widowburning by the smrtis. Remarriage of widows. Rewards promised to Sail. Hindu Widow's Remarriage Act of 1856. 599-607 Niyoga. Some even very ancient writers on dharma did not allow this practice. The Mahabharata is full of examples of niyoga. religious matters. XIV. Brahmana widows were not allowed anumarana. Practice of widow Satt. of Smrtis ( except those of Vasistha. XV. Stringent conditions were laid down by smrtikaras before niyoga could be resorted to.' Niyoga forbidden in the Kali age by Brhaspati and ' other smrti writers. 624-636 Forbidden in India from 1829. Great divergence of views about the origin and purpose of this practice. else . Kau^ilya on divorce. Breach of the conditions severely condemned and made punishable. Three views upon the question to whom the child born of niyoga belonged. Baudhayana and Kasyapa on 7 kinds punarbhus punarbhu. Widow-burning more prevalent in Bengal than anywhere owing to the higher rights of succession granted to wives. Narada and one or two others ) prohibit remarriage of widows. Practice of purda did not exist for women except for queens and ladies of high or noble rank. CHAP. Appalling number of child widows. burning obtained in many countries. Procedure of the rite of widow-burning. Sahagamana and anumarana. Divorce unknown in Vedic or Dharma&astra Literature. References to practice of SatI in classical Sanskrit Literature and epigraphic records.

The CHAP. When to begin Materials for havis. XVI. Then tarpana of gods. 637-639 from Vedic times. holder. Two views about performing it before or after sunrise. Dantadhavana (brushing the teeth) existed from the most ancient times. Rules about the clay to be employed for smearing and cleaning night ( drawn from wells the body. sister's son or a similar relative. collecting fuel sticks. Duties of householders described in detail in many smrtis and digests. How one who is a constituent part of snana. Acamana (sipping water). Six varieties of b-ithing with water. sages and pitrs. Japa of Vedic texts. Urdhvapundra and Tripundra. Three or five or six fires. Smrtis usually divide the day into eight parts. Rules about answering calls of nature. brother. 640-695 Ahnika and acara. What twigs to be used for it. What of are mangala ( auspicious ) first objects. A brief tarpana is also prescribed. Various ways of dividing the day. Homa to be maintaining grhya fire. Homa. so far occupy eighth part of the day. Times when there is to be no brushing of teeth. offered by oneself or by one's son. The matters described In 2nd part revision In 3rd to Vedic texts. Cleanliness of body (iauca) in various ways. The institution existed rights of concubines to maintenance. XVII. Natural water preferred to or hot water. Wife or unmarried daughter may offer homa in grhya fire if householder be ill. demning each other's marks. was to find out means of kusas &c. be purified. Actions to be done on getting up from bed. Importance of the stage of householder. Procedure of bathing. Ten good results of a bath. Vesya. KuSas necessary in most religious acts. Rules about collecting kusas. Agnihotra twice daily.Synopsis of Contents xir CHAP. part one wealth. Tarpana as Clothes to be worn by ajiouseill is to Making marks on the forehead after bathing. such as hymns of praise to God. Snana (-bath ). maintenance and . repeating the names of famous cirajlvins. earn In 4th part mid-day bath. flowers. personages like Nala and of persons that are supposed to be Auspicious and inauspicious sights on getting up from bed. Snana twice a day or thrice according to some. No bath at wafcer except on rare occasions). Grhasthas grouped into Sallna and yayavara. pupil. Saiva and Vaisnava sectarians conSamdhya after bath.

Tambula. Phallic emblems at times homa Mohenjo-daro. Analysis of devacaras puja in modern times. Brahmayajna. Deities of Vaisvadeva. XVIIL 696-704 Mahayajnas (five daily observances or sacrifices ). Procedure of VaiSvadeva. Linga worship. Who is an cdtthi. pitryajna and manusya-yajna. 741-748 According to some it comprises three yajnas. devayajna. Ten avataras Germs of the theory in Vedic Literature. and pitrs. bhutayajna. Namaskftras to the sun. Ar. of Visnu. CHAP. XX. These are mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana and Taittirlya Aranyaka. Earliest description in Satapatha Br. Vaisvadeva. Mahayajnas distinguished from rauta rites in two Sentiments that prompted the five yajnas in very ways. Devayajfla. Ritual of image worship. Evidence Siva worship. Earliest description of the worship of Visnu and Siva. Daily pitr-yajna. Substances from which images were made. Images known long before Panini. remote days. The 16 modes of worship ( upaFlowers in the worship of different gods. Meaning of Sisnadeva.xx History of Dharmaiaslra CHAP. 741-756 Nryajna or Manusyayajna ( honouring guests ). Views about Vaisvadeva in relation to Sraddha. bhufcas bhutayajna. Who are entitled to perform deva- Salagrama and other sacred stones. Baliharana or viz. In medieval receded into background and devapuja took its Discussion whether images of gods were known in place. Pancayafcanapuja. XIX. Brahmayajfia for Rgvedins described. XXI. for religious persecution in India very meagre. Modes . and Tai. Usually performed only once in the noon. Worship of Ganesa and Dattatreya. Principal gods of whom images were worshipped. Worship of Durga. 705-740 In sutras homa is Devayajna. ). Later on purpose of Mahayajnas stated to be atonement for injury to life caused by daily acts. Erection of temples and worship of images. CHAP. puja. whether borrowed or indigenous. Vedic times. Guests honoured from Rgveda downwards. Why Buddhism disappeared from India. CHAP. The five yajnas in order of performance are brahmayajna. to gods. When Buddha came to be looked upon as an avatara of Visnu.

oil or milk. used in bhojana. husband and wife. Occasions ( like eclipses ) when abstaining from food was prescribed. pranahutis &c. Laxity about food prepared with ghee. Occasions when cow could be offered in sacrifices. guests was universal kindliness. Acts to be done after of various kinds. Ksatriyas have been meat-eaters from ancient times. Importance attached to purity Rules about bhojana in Vedic Literature. but later on this was forbidden. Food from five classes of 6udras could be taken by brahmanas in the times of sutras. Times of taking food. Posture at time of eating. Rules about the flesh of beasts. Rules about sleeping. Drinking liquor in ancient times. Great fluctuations about the rules as to whose food may not be taken by a brShmana. XXIII. What food should or should not be eaten. of utsarjana. Bhojana ( taking meals ). constituents upakarma modern Holiday after Description upakarma. Direction of food. Sexual intercourse between bhojana. Rules about taking milk and its products and about certain herbs and Exhaustive list of persons whose food may not be vegetables. Who are bhojana. 807-818 CHAP. Madyas Tdmbula after bhojana. ). Causes of the giving up of flesh-eating. Explanation of the importance attached Upakarma ( to the month of of Sravana and the in Sravana constellation. Rules about the distribution of the king's duties in the several parts of the day and night. taken.Synopsis of Contents of xxi showing honour to guests. Vessels to be in which to take food. Sacred ness of cow. Divergence about time of upakarma. panktis (rows of dinners) were distinguished. birds and fishes. Various grounds on which food was forbidden. . 757-806 CHAP. Paficagavya. of at time Etiquette panktipavana brahmanas. All intoxicants forbidden to brahmanas from sutra times. Analysis of the times. How How much to eat. XXII. starting of the session of vedic studies ) and utsarjana ( cessation from vedic studies ). Motive of the injunction about Taking leave of a guest. Divergence about times of modern utsarjana. but some intoxicants allowed to ksatriyas and others. Rules about persons who could cook and serve food for brahmanas. Rules about Rajasvala ( a woman in her monthly illness ). Preliminaries before bhojana (such as acamana. Flesh-eating in Vedic times. Procedure of upakarma in ancient times.

salt. Gifts of land were not favoured in very early times. Discussion whether earlier kings. Vastupratistha. Dana is 837-888 a special feature of householder's ( gifts ). CHAP. XXVI. of invalid gifts. Generally gifts not to be made at night. Smrti rules about land-grants followed in epigraphic records. When gift becomes irrevocable. Women and Sudras also could spend on purta- . Danas of three kinds. jaggery &c. Serpent-worship from Slt&yajna. naimittika and kamya. Founding of hospitals. Gifts to dharma held void by modern CHAP. Sixteen mahadanas. All could make gifts ( including women Dana and sudras ).xxii History of Dharmatastra CHAP. of 889-916 Pratistha and Utsarga ( founding of temples and dedication wells &c. 819-836 Parvana sthallpaka. The eight bhogas in relation to land grants. viz. Gifts called mahadanas Procedure of Tuladescribed in puranas. ). Ten kinds of gifts called parvata or meru danas viz. ancient times. Kinds courts. General procedure of making gifts. Making gifts in secret eulogised. XXIV. Kings were required to make various kinds of gifts to brahmanas. Meaning of istapurta. Sulagava or X&anabali. purusa Gifts of ten kinds called dhenus such as of ghee. of heaps of corn. Gaitrl. Proper times for making gifts. sesame &c. Taxes remitted in royal grants. Three classes of things that could be given. Certain gifts should not be spurned. Gifts for propitiating planets. ancient and modern. AgrahSyanl. Expiations for accepting gifts which should not have been accepted. Aivayuji. Gifts of certain things forbidden. Difference between dana. samkranti and onayana days specially recommended. Gift of books. Spending money for marriages of brahmanas and settling them in houses highly eulogised. and other highly extolled. Gift of horses highly stage. Minor grhya and other rites. Proper places for gifts. SravanI and Sarpabali. Festival in honour of Indra. king is owner of all lands in the kingdom. Gifts of land the most meritorious. Presiding deities of various articles of gift. What things could be donated and what not. XXV. made by Verses deprecating the resumption of gifts Prior gifts to temples and brahmanas excepted in grants of villages. Gifts at times of eclipses. censured in some works. of Gift cows mahadanas. Persons fit and unfit to be donees. Gifts extolled in the Rgveda. Agrayana isti. nitya. yaga and homa. Establishing a pavilion for distributing water.

When re-consecration ( punah-prabecomes necessary. starting on the great journey . Practice of attaching dancing girls to temples tistha) comparatively ancient. Mathas have been established by the great teacher Sarhkara- carya. connected with being a vanaprastha. Trees supposed to save a man from hell just as a son did. Procedure of dedicating a tank or well the sutras.Synopsis of Contents xxiii dharma. In later times other details added from Tantra works. Jtrnoddhara (repairing or re-constructing a dilapidated temple &c. tattvanyasa and mantranyasa. in ancient Trees highly valued pratistha and utsarga. India. How property of ma^ha devolves. The origin of mathas in general. 917-929 \*/Vanaprastha (forest hermit). is Founding pupils). This practice prohibited Most of the duties prescribed for vanaprasthas in the Kali age. ancient word An ancient work called Vaikhanasa sfltra or for vanaprastha. Three . Worship of trees. Procedure prescribed in puranas gradually superseded the sutra procedure. Members Memof all varnas except 6udras could become vanaprasthas. Historical examples of this practice. ). Appointment and powers of the head of a ma^ha. Consecration of the image of Visnu from Vaikhanasa Smartasutra. How rulers and courts in ancient and medieval times controlled administration of temple and matha properties. Modern legislation dealing with religious and charitable endowments. to the public in Image worship in a public temple or privately. Procedure of consecration of images according to the Matsya-purana. though not on isfc ( vedic sacrifices ). Yogaksema is impartible. Consecration of images in temples. Meaning of dana. Vaikhanasa. he may start on the great journey till the body falls to rise no more. kinds of Ny&sas viz matrkanyasa. Charitable works for the benefit of the public canie to be regarded as more meritorious than sacrifices. Powers of a shebait to remove an idol or to establish another. Principal points Sastra. Ending one's life by or by fire or ( mahaprasthana ) water or falling from a precipice when and why allowed. Intricate classification of vanaprasthas in Baudhayana-dharma-sutra and others. Time for becoming a vanaprastha. Control of founder on work dedicated to the public. bers of princely houses as vanaprasthas. said to of mathas (monasteries or colleges for teachers and Distinction between a temple and a matha. time and procedure of. If he suffers from an incurable disease.

How successors to the pontiffs of the mathas are appointed. of ascetics). Daily duties of an ascetic. paryanka-sauca. 930-975 ties. kuticaka. Vidvat-samnyasa and vividisS-sarhnyasa. 962). on his death for his relatives and vice versa. Some held that samnyasa was meant only for the blind and the cripple. How and why samnyasins gave up doctrine of ahimsa in medieval times. No impurity Ascetic heads of tion in matters lapses. XXVIII. declaration of leaving home. Controversies about giving up sikha and yajnopavlta. Popular notion that the paramahamsa is beyond all rules and prohibitions combated by ancient texts. of topknot Samnyasa in extremis ( afcura-samnyasa ). Procedure of samnyasa according to Dharmasindhu. the ascetic Women in rare cases adopted mode of life. By custom certain samnyasins called Gosavis were allowed to have wives and concubines. CHAP. Procedure of of advaita their mathas. Jabalopanisad prescribes the earliest ascetics. savitripravesa. giving up karaTta and sacred thread. The word samnyasa conveys two distinct ideas. Life of giving up worldly Samnyasa (order of begging and contemplation on the Absolute known to Upanisads. Ascetics were to give up wife and home and were not to revert to householder's life. eight fcrftddhas. A samnyasin is severed from his family and loses rights of property in it. yogapatta (p. mathas claim in modern times jurisdicof caste. Principal elements are. turiyatita Opinions as to "whether samnyasa was allowed only to brahman as or to all three varnas. virajahoma. So vanaprastha stage forbidden in Kali age by the NSradlya-purSna and other works. According to smrtis and medieval works a sudra could not become an ascetic. giving of anew name by the teacher. teaching by guru of panel' and mahavakyas (like tat tvam-asi). The and avadhuta kinds of ascetics. all wealth and desires and taking vow of ahimsa. Tridandi and ekadandi ascetics. Ten orders samnyasins following Samkaracarya's doctrines and Disputes among the heads of these mathas as to properties and ecclesiastical jurisdiction. samnyasa according to the sutras.xxiv History of Dharmaiastra are the same as those for samnyasinB. expiations for In ancient times parisads (assemblies of learned . rules for The most salient features of samnyasa gathered from the dharmasutras and smrtis. excommunication. hamsa and paramahamsa and their characteristics. Four kinds of ascetics. bahudaka.

sakhSharar^a. established by Shivaji these eight. yajus. Anvarambhanlya isti. sacrifices. of persons required to constitute a parisad for Meaning of parisad. girding up the sacrificer'g wife ). Sayamdoha. ancient and modern. D. The council of eight ministers and the duties of the Panditrao. barhiraharana (bringing bundles of kusa grass ). of sacrificial material. The two agharas D . ( Nirvapa ) ( taking out sacrificial material sils Proksana sprinkling Construction of vedi (altar). Baking Patnlsamwhana verses. by kings for enabling brahmanas to perform agnihotra &c. for appreciating the influence of that Literature on varnas. idhmaharana ( bringing fuel-sticks ). Barhirastarana (strewing the vodi with kusas ). Time for starting the performance of darsapurnamasa. ( 976-1008 ) Srauta Vedic sacrifices. The several fires. Agnyadheya. Literary and epigraphic evidence for the performance of Vedic Grants made sacrifices by kings after the advent of Buddha. expiations &c. General rules applicable in all sutras. Sacrificial utensils. ( Pravaramantra H. Chrosacrifices. ( invocation of fire ). deciding a doubtful point about dharma. Fifteen SamidhenI &e. Jaimini on interpretation of Vedic texts relating to Cult of yajna existed in Indo-Iranian period. Punaradheya. XXX. The Haviskrt call. one of Panditrao took advice of the parisads of learned brahmanas on questions of re-admission of converts. saman and nigada. Works. Rules about agnihotra when the householder goes away from home either alone or with his wife. Sistas constitute a ista. cake (purodasa) on potsherds. Pranlta waters. It is a partial truth that Indians have the highest regard for the ascetic. Upatasatha day. Many features of asceticism are common to all religions. utenBeating the grains of rioe. 1009-1090 Darsapurnamasa ( New moon and Full moon sacrifices ). XXIX. rk. CHAP.Synopsis of Contents xxv men ) The number exercised these functions and kings acted on their advice. Brahmavarana (choosing the brahma priest ). Deep study of vedic sacrifices essential for the proper understanding of Vedic Literature. The references to sacrificial matters in the Rgveda. CHAP. Different kinds of ladles. Procedure of AgvJiotra in the morning and agnySdheya. Choosing the devayajana ( place of worship ). on Vedic nology uncertain. ). evening. Mantras of four kinds. The five bhusamskaras. Sannayya.

The ( five offerings ). The wife has to declare or indicate if she havis of eight offerings to eight deities. respectively in charge of adhvaryu and pratiprasthatr. g. not using a Five cot. XXXI. . Yajamana takes Visnu strides. eats prasitra. A thin long slice ( for brahma ). Other istis performed for some specific objects e. Ajyabhagas ( two ). Vayu and Surya. Two vedis prepared. Observances on all parvan days such as shaving head and face. Varunapraghasa. sacrifice of principal Bvistakrt. Offering to Agni Cutting off a portion of the cake called prSsitra Ida cut off from purodasa. avoiding meat. Recitation of suldavaka. Samsthajapa by hotr. Also Traiyambaka homa offered to Rudra. hotr eats avantareda. Phalikaranahoim. Four special offerings in this praghasas. Adhvaryu and brahma leave the sacrificial hall. Vaisvadeva. seasonal sacrifices 1091-1108 Four Caturmasyas each ). Cooking a mess of boiled rico priests. Hotrvarana. putresti for son. CHAP. Caturmasyas may be Three special performed throughout life or for one year. Throwing the paridhis on fire. Patnisamyajas. Sakamedha requires two days. Concluding avabhrtha ( bath ) in a river or the like.xxvi ( History of Dharmatastra Prayajas pouring of Sjya in a continuous stream ). Kartika and on the 5th full moon day from Sakamedha or two or three days before it. Then pitryajna ( called mahapitryajna ) on a separate vedi. Pindapitryajna. offerings in Vaisvadeva-parva. ( Brahma called anvaharya ) as fee for the four priests. Sunaslrlyaparvan has three special offerings to Sunasirau. The three anuyaja offerings. Sakamedha and Sunaslrlya. viz. Three istis and a mahain addition to five common to all. Final prayer by yajamana. Division of puroclaSa for Agni into four parts and eating of the portions by the four Marjana thereafter. Samistayajus offerings. offerings common to all Caturmasyas. of purodasa for yajamana. Samyuvaka. to north and south. Caturmasyas ( called a parvan. honey. Asadha. Invocation of Ida by the hotr. Throwing of prastara bunch and sakha" into tire. salt and sexual intercourse. Karlrlsti for rain &c. Varunapraghasa performed in rainy season outside the house. all priests together with the yajamana partake of ida. respectively performed on Full moon days of Phalguna. The Vasa^kara. Procedure is like that of Vaisvadeva. Procedure of Varunahas any paramour. Nine prayajas and mnQanuyajas in Vaisvadeva. Isti called Agrayana ( offering of first fruits ) in Sarad on Full moon day. portions of the cake.

Requesting the king for sacrificial ground (devayajana). Sacrifices are divided into isti pa&u and soma. sacrificer and his wife perform Marjana. Maitravaruna throws his staff into fire. Priests and of the limbs of the victim. Agnistoma. The prayaniya isti. prayaja deities. Time for performing Agnistoma. Upayaja offerings of a part of the entrails along with the Anuyaja offerings. usually lasts for five days. The eleven offerings. Even a ksatriya sacrificer was announced as a brahmana. Nirudhapa&ubandha or Pa&ubandha (animal victim is offered 11J9-1132 sacrifice). Seven forms of soma sacrifices. XXXIII. Ekadasina. Hotr's recitation of the Adhrigu formula. Ukthya &c. Purificntion of both with bunches of darbhas. Observances of the dlksita and his wife and people's conduct towards him. Choking to death or strangling of the he-goat. Soma sacrifices divided^into ekaha. Animals Surya or Prajapati. Procedure of animal sacrifice. Jyotis/toma. and portions of which are offered as pasu-purodasa. Offerings of Patnl-sarhyajas with portions of the tail. but as part of it. Cow offered as its price is taken back. XXXII. Samitra fire for roasting omentum of the victim. Preparing a vedi and a raised platform on it called uttaravedi and a square hole thereon called nabhi.often identified with Agnistoma. a group sacrifice of eleven victims. KamyUh Pasdmih ( animal sacrifices from various desires). Heart of victim is roasted with a pike on 6amitra fire and offered as havis to sacrificer partake of ida constituted by remnants Manota. Eleven prayaja from Verses Aprl hymns employed. A SomayEga also.Synopsis of Contents xxvii CHAP. ahlna and sattra. Nirudhapasu is an independent sacrifice to be performed by an ahitagni every six months or once a year. Priests invited and honoured with Madhuparka. Observance of silence by sacrificer twice daily. Chief rites performed on those five days. Bundle . Procedure of dlksanlya is^i after which sacrificer comes to be called dlksita. Omentum taken out and offered sacrificed for Indra-Agni or by the adhvaryu into Ahavanlya fire for Indra-Agni or Surya or Prajapati. Six priests required in this in sacrifice. Purchase of Soma and the drama of higgling about its price. Six priests. The hotr repeats the formula called Suktavaka. t 1133-1203 Agnistoma. CHAP. Atyagnistoma. Sacrificer and his wife undergo apsu-diksa and subsist on milk or light food. Selecting a tree and making a y upa ( sacrificial post ) and a head piece ( casala ) for the post. The limbs of the victim that are cut off.

filling the and of pannejana Soma from a few upamsugraha and offering its contents. Offering soma from various cups to several deities. Wife was not to look at it ( at least in the beginning ).xxviii of History of Dharma&astra stalks placed on antelope skin spread to the east of the Soma on a cart. Pravargya Pravargya was a sublime rite supposed to and Upasad follow. Repeating of a long prayer ehed. Fire carried to the uttaravedi. that is brought pragvamsa. and established on agnldhra dhisnya. On the hide are stones for crushing soma stalks. where the . Mantras repeated in Upasad refer to sieges of iron. The heated milk is called gharma and the pot of heated milk Mahavlra or Samrat. Offering of an animal to Agni-Soma. Oxen are released from the cart. silver and gold castles. 3rd and 4th days Pravargya and Upasad performed twice. How pravargya apparatus is discharged udvasana ). Vipru$-dhowa. endow sacrificer with a new body. Recital of the Su- Subrahmanya priest. brahmanya litany by the Tanunaptra ( a solemn covenant of the sacrificer and priests not to injure each other). Digging of four holes ( called the below uparavas) forepart of the shafts of the southern cart. Bringing Vasatlvarl water in a j'ir and keeping it in agnldhra Last day is called sutya'. Planting of an udumbara post in sadas. placed on a couch of udumbara wood and brought to the south of the ahavanlya. on which a quadrangular platform is raised and a pquare hole called nabhi ( called uttaravedi ) is made on which fire is brought on the 4fh day from the Erection of the harvidhana-mandapa original ahavanlya. Usas and Asvins. called Prafcaranuvaka by hotr long before daybreak to Agni. A goat is presented to king Soma. is * Filling of ekadhana pitchers by adhvaryu vessel by the sacrificer's wife. Then comes MahabMsava ( principal pressing ). soma bundle taken out of the cart. one in the agnldhrlya shed and the eighth in the marjallya shed. six in sadas. Priests come creeping towards the north corner of the great vedi. On 2nd. in which two carts are kept. nor sudras. over which two boards of udumbara are placed and a hide thereon. Extracting stalks. On 2nd day of upasads Mahavedi is prepared. Atithyes^i Then comes ( isti for hospitably receiving king Soma ) follows. ( A mound vessels on. Making ready of five offerings. Not necessary in every Agnistoma. Upasad is an isti. Preparing eight dhisnyas (seats). soma (khara) to Erection east of of sadas uparavas for keeping of the to the west havirdhana mandapa. On uparavas kusas are spread. Then follow offerings of ajya called Vaisarjina to Soma.

Sastra recited by hotr. ). Procedure of evening pressted. The nine verses of the Bahispavamana Btotra set out from the Rgvoda and method of their manipulation when sung in the eama chant exhibited. The five savanlya offerings of cake &c. Procedure of midday pressing similar to that of morning pressing. sight-seers and pit. in which soma stalks were tied. Agnimaruta. The priest gravastut wears the cloth. Wife of sacrifioor pours pannejana water over her thigh and udgatr priost looks at her. Three more Prstha stotras and three &astras recited by maitravaruna and two others. Offerings of soma from dvidevatya grahas (cups). For the mid-day pressing priests again enter sadas. sadas. ing of the Madhyandina-pavamana-stotra. The Marutvatlya Sastra. ns a turban and repeats many verses from the Rgveda. The Pafcnlvata Chanting of Yajnayajnlya Agni Patnlvat. Rites of offering the savanlya animal. Agnistomasaman. Enumeration and distribution of and Sastras t sastra called Prauga recited by hotr and three more repeated brahmanacchamsin and acchavSka. prastotr and the prati-hartr. twelve clauses of nivid. At the maitravaruna. Some of the other priests and the sacrificer become choristers. from savanlya pasu offered. Camasonnayana (filling of nine camasas) for the priests called Camasadhvaryus. Prstha-stotra and Niskevalya sastra. chips of wood offered to the asuras. by end of morning pressing priests go out of the sadas. Notes on the parts and svaras of sUmana. The chantrite. Ksatriyas were not authorised to drink soma. Explanation of stoma stobha and stotra. The hotr performs japa. Sanda and Marka. Hariyojana cup offered to cup to stotra also called . Meaning of Rathantara and other samans. hotr offers prayer called tusnlm-samsa. then hotr recites the of the twelve stotras Agnistoma. Acchavaka priest's request and filling his camasa with soma Offering of rtagrahas. ahava (hotr's call) to which there is pratigara (response of adhvaryu). horn in catvala The yajamana throws antelope Five offerings called Vaisvakarmana. Chanting of stotras other than Bahispavamana near audumbarl post in Four ajya-stotras in morning pressing. ing similar to mid-day pressing. priests. Arbhava-pavamSna chanHaiis prepared IJbhus connected with third pressing. The 2nd ajyasastra. The Two offering of soma from the cups called iukra and manthin. Vaisvadeva Sastra. Distribution of daksina to the several others.Synopsis of Contents xxix Bahispavaraana laud is to be chanted by the udgatr. The dadhigharma then the offering of pau purodasa and the five savanlya offerings ( cake &c.

Anubandhya rite ( offering of a barren cow to Mifcra and Varuna ) or only payasya. Jaimini's conclusions about Vajapeya. 17 dasls &c. Rajasuya. Atiratra and Apfcoryama. They offer fuel sticks. yajamana and his wife at three places on their way to reservoir of water. Yajamana and wife enter water. ' Theories about tho identity of the soma plant In the Deccan a substitute called ransera is employed for soma. The Udayanlya isti ( concluding ). Raka. Then five offerings called Devika to Dhatr. 1204-1223 Brief descriptions of Ukthya.When race starts brahrna priest repeats Vaji-saman. Other soma sacrifices. Vi6vajit. The unnetr brings out yajamana. Handful of kusa thrown in avabbrfcha isti. Udavasanlya igti like punaradheya. The nidhana of the saman is pit. mantras.xxx History of Dharmaiastra Indra. 17 chariots with four horses yoked to each. Horses of the chariots are made to smell earn of wild rice. All vessels except four sthalls are thrown into water. Atyagnistoma. CHAP. drunk by those Vajapeya. XXXIV. Sodasin. A race with 17 chariots and 17 drums beaten. Sinlvall and Kuhu. Purodasa offered to Varuna and then to Agni and Varuna. Animals for Prajapati are offered at time of mid-day pressing. A . Chariots The go round udumbara post and return to sacrificial ground. Avabhrkha (final bath). 17 cups of soma and 17 cups of sura for Prajapati. Description of the twelve days of tho Dvada^aha. and * its relation to the moon. repeated by all priests. sacrificey extending over two to twelve days of soma pressing.super-eminence or overlordship. Differences between Dvada&aha us an ahlna and as a sattra. All priests wait on ahavanlya with Hindu. Yajamana casts antelope skin in catvala Avabhrtha saman chanted. Fees distributed are 1700 cows. After Vajapeya a king should perform Rajasuya and a brahmana Brhaspatisava. rub each other's back. Number 17 predominant in it. wife and priests. Gosava and Ahlna Sarvasvara among Ekaha sacrifices briefly described. Chariot of sacrifioer is in front and the rest follow at a distance. Anumati. principal wine cup is held by the pratiprasthatr and other who joined in the race and they are Ladder raised against yupa and the sacrificer climbs up and holds a dialogue with his wife. Vajapeya to be performed only by a brahmana or ksatriya who desired. Adhvaryu Certain observances after declares yajamana to be samrat sixteen are held by those latter. An udumbara post as the goal for the chariot race. Vajapeya may be regarded as an independent sacrifice.

On Full moon of phalguna isti to Anumati. Holy water taken in four vessels. Sacrificer recites uvid formulae. Waters of seventeen kinds in seventeen vessels of udumbara from SarasvatI river and other sources. Caturmasyas performed for one year. Five offerings one on each day after Pavitra sacrifice. One month after that the SautiamanI isti. some say 240000 cows should be presented. After Sunaslrlya several rites. between the parvans of which darSa and purnamasa rites are celebrated. 1224-1255 SautrSmanl and other sacrifices. ' CHAP. ) offered to different deities. Twelve offerings called 'ratninam havlmsi* on twelve days in the houses of the ratnas ( viz. Four principal priests sprinkle him with water from four vessels and a ksatriya. e. Chief characteristic was offering of sura ( wine ) in it. Sautramanl takes four days. wine is . brigbt half of Phalguna. g. The Pavitra sacrifice which is like Agnistoma. After Da&apeya some observances are kept by the sacrificer for one year. state officers &c. Abhisecanlya (consecration) rite on first of Oaitra and follows procedure of Ukthya. during first three of which prepared from various ingredients and on last day. One month after 2nd Vyustfdviratra the Ksatradhrti rite. vai^ya and a friend of the king do the same. Symbolic march for plunder of cows. Three goats both. Then two rites called Vyustf-dviratra at the interval of a month. At the end of the year. his queens. For ten days ' after Abhisecanlya offerings called Samsrpam havlmsi are made to Savitr and other deities. Procedure of offered instead. Remnants of anointing water handed by king to his son. in which each of the camasas of soma are drunk by ten brahmanas ( i. in all 100). Avabhrtha follows. XXXV. Sautramanl is one of the seven Haviryajnas according to Gautama. and comprising and animal sacrifices. in modern times milk being Kokill and Caraka-sautramanl. Eight offerings called Devasuhavlmsi. the king.Synopsis of Contents xxxi years very complex ceremony extending over a long period ( over two many separate istis. Dice-play which is so arranged that best throw comes to the king. tlio keSavaraniya ceremony took place. The Da^apeya. Rajasuya to be performed only by Dlksa on first day of Its relation to Vajapeya. v three cups of milk and three of wine were offered. One year thereafter Abhisecanlya. ksatriyas. Story of Sunah^epa recited by hotr for sacrificer's benefitKing takes three strides called Visnukramas. Very large daksinSs prescribed e. Partha homas. soma sacrifices ).

each 21 aratnis high. sacrificer took dlksa. persons guilty of grave sins plunge into it and become days. Large number of animals tied to yupas slaughtered. free from sins. Offerings on the head of a bald man who dips into water to theological * Jumbaka' ( Varuna). Sattras. Avabhrtha and then amiksa to MitraVaruna and an animal to Indra. Epigraphic references to Asvamedha. but a brahmana was hired for drinking them or they were poured on an ant-hill. When horse killed. of the horso. Time of commencement. brought back and anointed by the queens on various parts of the body. Scheme of the General parts of Gavam-ayana. Dvadasaha is the archetype. Remnants of these sprinkled over the king and offerings. The four queens accompanied by princesses and large retinue come near paring wine described. the king. Large fees on first and third pressing Asvarncdha rare even in ancient times. Their duration is from twelve days to a year or more. between brahma and favourite wife. when ifc is let off to roam over the country. Gavamayana is model of all sattras of one year or more. between four principal priests and chamberlain on one side and the queens and their attendants on the other. horse's were killed in this and fourth to Brhaspati. Brahmodya Mahiman dialogue of questions and riddles ). A&vamedha. be performed by a king. to in vogue even in Rgveda. bathed in it. When dlksa commenced. Description of Asvamedha in the Mahabharata. Though all are yajamanas and . Avabhrtha on third pressing day. queens go round horse.' Every day for a year four oblations called Dhrti made in the ahavaAt the end of the year horse was brought back and nlya. crowned queen lies by the side of the horse and both are covered with mantle.zzxii History of Dharmaiastra Method of preRemnants of the wine offered were not drunk by the priests. ratrisattras and samvatsarika. Horse-sacrifice It was a sacrifice for three days. Horse taken to a lake. Chants by a brahmana after the istis every day and also by a ksatriya lute-player. Dialogue between hotr and bralima. ( Fat and blood of the horse offered. Hotr recites to the king surrounded by his sons and ministers the narrative called ' Pariplava. When sacrificer comes out of water after avabhrtha bath. Abusive and obscene dialogues between hotr and crowned queen. Rules about colour and qualities of horse. rules applicable to all sattras. Sattras divided into two classes. Persons for whom Sautramanl was offered. 21 yupas. offering to 12 months. fan ifc with their garments. Guards During absence for a year three istis every day to Savitr.

Numerous offerings. E . This rite is the most complicated and recondite of all srauta sacrifices. on 10th dlksa. followed as to day or Brahmodya procedure abuse of Prajapati. Observances for a year give larger numbers. Five victims are first Heads built up into altar. Rules is Most interesting day to be observed while dlksa lasts. Other bricks prepared. Furrows sown with several corns. First brick called AsadhS prepared by wife of sacrifices Ukha ( pan ) prepared from same clay. Several things such as a lotus leaf. brought. Three bricks called Ground measured and ploughed. then a living tortoise is enveloped in moss and made motionless and then altar is constructed on it.D. Satapatha Brahmana is leading work on it. Peculiar mode of cooling altar. abuse by Drums beaten on harlot and brahmacarin of one another.Synopsis of Contents xxxiii Peculiar also priests in a sattra. brahmana and dudra engage in praise and abuse of those engaged in sattra. golden ornament. Fight of arya and sudra for a white circular skin . chanting. after cayana. from which he prepares three bricks called Visvajyotis. Wives of sacrificers become choristers for Dance round marjallya by servants and slave-girls singing popular airs referring to cows. Mahavrafca. svayamatrnnah. corners of vedi. which is the last day but one in sattras. Fundamental conceptions Construction of fire altar underlying it are costnological. Clay for the bricks how offered. Procedure of Somayaga followed with a few variations. mixed and prepared. Description of the piling of the altar in five layers. golden image of a man are first placed. Agnicayana ( piling of the fire altar). Harp with a hundred strings. are of various Several forms of altar and of bricks. Bricks sizes and have various names. Sattras of a thousand years believed even by ancient writers to be mythical and Jaimini states that in such descriptions samvatsara means 4 a day'. in five layers is an anga of Somayaga. but others Time required for piling varies. one of them is called grhapati. Each of five to layers contains 200 bricks according Satyasadha. H.

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Sometimes

Nrsimhapurana (published by Messrs. Gopal Narayan & Co., Bombay, 1911 ). Padmapuiana Anandasrama Press. Sahyadrikhanda a portion of the Skanda-purana, edited by Dr. Gerson Da Cunha fti 1877, Bombay. Skandapurana Venkatesvara Press, Bombay. Vamana-purana Venkatesvara Press, Bombay.
Varaha-purana fe. I. series. Vayu-purana published by the Anandasrama Press. Sometimes the B. I. edition in two volumes has been referred to, but wherever that is so the volume is mentioned. Visnudharmottara Venkatesvara Press, Bombay.

Visnupurana

published
1902.

by

Messrs. Gopal

Narayan

& Co,,

Bombay

SMRTIS.
Pandit JiyTEnanda published in two parts a collection of AnandS&rama Press, Poona, published another in 1905. They are referred to ag 'Jiv.' and 'Snan. respectirely below.

N. B.

26 smitis and the

1

Angirasa-smrti

(

in both Jiv.

and Anan. with a few
).

variations).

Apastamba-smrti in verse (Anan Atri ( in both Jiv. and Anan. ), Ausanasa-smrti (Jiv.).

Brhad-Yama (Anan.).
Brhaspati (Anan.).

Brhat-Parasara (Anan).
Caturvimsati-mata-sarhgraha Daksa-smrti ( Anan. ).
Gobhila-smrti
(

(

Benares Sanskrit series

).

Anan. and

Jiv.

).

Also called Karmapradlpa

or ChSndogaparisista or Kafcyayana-smrti.

Katyayana-smrti on Vyavahara ( reconstructed by P. V. Kane as Katyayanasmrti-saroddhara, with English translation and notes ).

Laghu- Atri ( Jiv. ). Laghu-Harlta ( Jiv. and Anan. Laghu-Sankha ( Anan. ).
Laghu-Satatapa
(

).

Anan

t

).

xxxviii

History of Dharmaiastra

Laghu-Vispu ( Anan. ). Laghu-Vyasa ( Jiv. ). Laghvasivalayana ( Anan, Likhita-smrti ( Anan. ).

).

Manusmrti with

Manusrarti with the commentary of Kulluka (Nirnayasagar ed.). the commentaries of Medhatithi, Govindaraja, Sarsrajna-Narayana and three others ( edited by Rao Saheb V. N. Mandlik ).
(

Narada-smrti

edited
( (

by Dr. Jolly

).

Parasara-smrti
Prajapati-smrti

Bombay

Sanskrit series

).

Anan. ). Samvarta-smrti ( Jiv. and Anan. ). Sankha-smrti ( Anan. ). Satatapa-smrti ( Anan. ). Saunaka-karika ( Ms. in the Bombay University Library
"USanas-smrti.

).

Veda-VySsa-smrti

(

Anan.
Jiv.
).
).

).

Vrddha-Gautama
Vrddha-Harlta
(

(

Anan.

Yajnavalkya-smrti, with the commentary of Vi&varupa (Trivandrum Sanskrit series, 1922 and 1924 ).
Yajnavalkya-smrti, with the commentary Mitaksara of Vijnane^vara ( Nirnaya-sSgara Press, 1926 ).

Yama-smrti

(

in Jiv.

and Anan.

).

Commentaries and Digests on dharma&astra

Acaramayukha
(

of Nllakantha

edited

by Mr.

J.

R. Gharpure,

1921

).

Acararatna
(

published by the Nirnaya-sagara Press, Pothi size ).
of

Bombay
published

Ahnikaprakasa(part
in the

Vlramitroday a of Mitramisra
).

Chowkhamba Sanskrit series Ahnikatatfcva of Raghunandana (published by Pandit Jiv5 nanda). Apararka's Commentary on Yajnavalkya-smrti (AnandaSrama
press
).

Asia vakra Vide Manavagrhya. BalambhattI of Balambhatta PayagundeCom. on the Mitaksara edited by Mr. J. R. Gharpure, Bombay.
Caturvarga-cintamani
series.

of

Hemadri

published

in the B,

I.

Danacandrika with Marathi translation edited by Bhikacarya Ainapure and published at Baroda, 1908.

Works Consulted

xxxir
series,

Dana-mayukha
1909.

of Nllakantha

Chowkharaba Sanskrit

Danakriya-kaumudI of Govindftnanda (B. I. Series, 1903). Dana-vakyavali of Vidyapati (D. C. Ms. No. 368 of 1891-95 ). Dattakamlmamsa of Nandapandita with Bengali translation,
Calcutta.
of Jlmutavahanar-edited by Pandit Jivananda, 1893. Devapala Vide Kathakagrhya. Dharmasindhu with Marathi Translation published by the

Dayabhaga

Nirnayasagara Press, Bombay ( 1926 ). Dlpakalika of Sulapani ( edited by Mr. J. R. Gharpure, 1939 ). Goplnatha Vide Samskara-ratna-mala. Grhastharatnakara of Cande&vara published in the B. L series. Haradatta Vide Gautamadharmasutra. Harihara Vide Paraskaragrhya.

Vide Caturvarga-cintamani. Deccan College Ms. No 347 of 1887-1891. Vide Jayarama Paraskaragrhya. Karka Vide Paraskaragrhya. Krtyakalpataru Ms. in the possession of Rao Bahadur RangaBwami Ayyangar. Krtyaratnakara by CandeSvara (B. I. series, 1925). Madanaparijata of Madanapala and Vi^veSvarabhatta ( B. I.
Jativiveka
series
).

Hemadri

Malamasatattva of Raghunandana (published by Pandit Jivananda ). Medhatithi Vide Manusmrti. Mitaksara of Vijnane^vara published by the Nirnayasagara
Press,
tion

Bombay,
of

1926.

Nirnayasindhu
1935.

Kamalakarabhatta, with Marathi TranslaPublished by the Nirnayasagara Press, Bombay*

Nityaoarapaddhati of Vidyakara Vajapeyl (B. I. series). Nityacarapradlpa of Narasimha Vajapeyl, two volumes
series
).

(

B.

I.

Para6ara-Madhavlya of Madhavacarya edited by Vamanasastri Islampurkar in the Bombay Sanskrit series. Paribha^aprakasa ( part of Vlra-mitrodaya ) by Mitramisra
(

Chowkhamba
Bombay.

Sanskrit series

).

Pratisthamayukha of Nllakantha
pure,
of Pravaramanjarl Mysore, 1900.

edited

by Mr.

J.

R. Ghar-

Purusottama

Edited

by Chentsalrao,

rl

History of Dharmaiastra
edited

Praya6citfcaviveka of Sulapani

PujaprakaSa (part of Vlramitrodaya khamba Sanskrit series ).

)

by Pandifc Jivananda, of Mitramisra ( Chow-

of Anantadeva published in Gaik wad's Oriental series, 1935. Sarhskara-kausfcubha of Anantadeva with Marathi translation-

Rajadharmakaustubha

published by Vyankatacarya Upadhye at Baroda. Saihskararaayukha of Nllakantha published by the Gujarati
Press,

Bombay.
(

Samskaraprakasa
Sanskrit series.

park

of

Vlramitrodaya

)

Chowkhamba

Samskara-ratnamala of Goplnatha

published by the Anandapublished by Pandit Jiva-

6rama

Press.

Samskaratattva of Raghunandana nanda.
Sarasvatlvilasa
of the

published in the Oriental Library Publications
edited

Mysore University, 1927.
by Mr.
J.

Smrticandrika of Devanna-bhatta
pure,

R. Gbar-

Bombay.

Smrtimuktaphala by Vaidyanatha ( the Samskara and Ahnika portions edited by Mr. J. R. Gharpure, Bombay ). Smrtyarthasagara of Chalarl ( printed at Nirnayasagara Press,

Bombay

).

Smrfcyarthasara of Srldhara

published by the AnandaSrama

Press, Poona. SubhodhinI of Vi^vesvara-bhatta^-edited

by Mr. J. R. Gharpure.

Suddhitattva of Raghunandana-published by Pandifc Jivananda. Sudrakamalakara of Kamalakarabhatta with Marathi Translation-published by the Nirnayasagara Press, Bombay, 1880. Sudrakrtyatattva of Raghunandana published by Pandifc Jivananda.

Udvahatattva of Raghunandana edited by Pandit Jivananda. Utsarga-mayukha of Nllakantha edited by Mr. J. R. Gharpure

Bombay.
Varsakriya-kaumudI of Govindananda published inB. I. Series. Vlramitrodaya (vyavahara portion) edited by Pandit Jivananda. Vi&varupa's commentary on Yajnavalkya-smrti published in the Trivandrum Sanskrit series.
Vivada-ratn&kara of Oande^vara
VratyatSprayafccitta-nirnaya Sanskrit series, 1927 ).

published in the B.
(

I.

series.

by NageSabhatta
edited

Chowkhamba
in

Vyavaharamayukha
the

of

Nllakantha

by P. V. Kane

Bombay

Sanskrit series, Poona.

Works Consulted
Yatidharmasamgraha of Visvesvara
the
Sarasvafcl (published
).

xli

by

Anandasrama

Press, Poona, 1909

Other Miscellaneous

Texts

Artha^astra

see Kautilya.

Astahgasarhgraha of Vagbhata -published by the Nirnayasa"gara Press. Brhatl of Prabhakara ( Tarkapada ) edited in the Madras University Sanskrit series, 1936.

Brhat-samhita of Varahamihira
B.
I.

-edited

by Dr. Kern

in the

series.

GathasaptasatI of Hala

published by the Nirnayas&gara Press,

the commentary of Nllakantha published by Messrs. Gopal Narayan Co, Bombay, 1895. Harsacarita of Bana edited by P. V. Kane with notes. Jaimini's Purvamlmamsa-sutm with the bhasya of Sahara and

Bombay. Harivamsa with

&

the Tantravartika and Tup-tlka of KurnarHabhatta

(

Anan-

dasrama Press, Poona). Jlvanmuktiviveka of Vidyaranya ( Adyar Library edition ). Kadambarl of Bana edited with notes by P. V. Kane. Kamasutra of Vatsyayana Chowkhamba Sanskrit series,
1912.

Karpuramafijarl of Rajasekhara Oriental series ).

(

published in the

Harvard
at

Kasika, commentary on Panini's Astadhyayl

(published
edition

Benares
Kautilya's

).

Arthasastra

(

Dr.

Shama

Sastri's

in the
).

Mysore University Oriental Library Publications 1919

Kslrasvamin's commentary on the Amarakosa, edited by K. G. Oka, Poona, 1913. K'imarilabhatta Vide under Trantravartika.

Mahabharata with the commentary

of

Nllakantha

(

oblong

Bombay
in

edition).
(

Mahcabhasya of Patanjali

ed.

by Dr. Kielhorn in three volumes
).

Bombay

Sanskrit series
of

Malatlmadhava
the

Bhavabhuti

(

ed.
).

by

Sir R. G.

Bhandarkar in

Bombay

Sanskrit series

Mrcchakatika of Sudraka-Nirnayasagara Press edition, 1900. Naradlya-siksa from the Slksasamgraha (published in the Benares Sanskrit series ).
H, D.

F

xlii

History of Dharmnsastra

The edition of Prof. Nirukta of Yaska edited by Roth. Rajvade with a Marathi translation and learned" notes in Marathi has sometimes been referred to.
As^adhyayl with SiddhanfcakaumudI of Bha^toji ( Nirnayasagara Press, Bombay 1929 ). PfcrvamlmSmsSsutra of Jaimini vide above Jaimini.' Raghuvam^a of Kalidasa ( published in the Bombay Sanskrit
Panini'g

Dlksita

*

series

).

Rajataranginl

edited

vol. II translation

by Dr. Stein, vol. I and notes ( 1900 ).

(text

and

translation),

Ramayana

of Valmlki. at the

Edition published by R.

Narayana(

swSmi Aiyar

Madras

Law
is

Journal Office

1933

),

except where some other edition "Pgveda-pratisakhya- edited by Dr.

specially referred to. Mangaldev Shastri in the

Panjab Oriental

series

(

1937

).

Rgvidhana Sahara's Bhasya

edited

by Dr, Meyer ( transliterated ). on the Purvamlmamsa-sutra ( vide Jaimini
(

).

Monier Williams). Samkaracarya's bhasya on the Vedantasutra ( Nirnayasagara
Sakuntala of Kalidasa
press,

edited

by

Prof.

1927

).
(

Saradatilaka with the commentary of Rfighavabhatta Sanskrit Series, 1934 ).

Kashi

Sarvadar^anasamgraha of MadhavScarya ( Ananda^rama Press, 1906 ). Sarvajna-narayanain Mandlik's edition of Manusmrti. Srautapadartha-nirvacaim ( published in the Benares Pandit
'

'

1887 ). Suryasiddhanta ( B. I. Series, 1859 ). Sutasarhhita, with the commentary of MSdhavacarya-(Ananda-

^rama Press ).
Tantravartika of

Kumar ilabhatta
of

(

vide above Jaimini
I.

c

').

Trikanda-mandana

Bhaskara

(

B.
(

series 1903

).

Tristhallsetu of Narayanabhatta Uttarararaacarita of Bhavabhuti

Anandasrama Press, 1915). edited by P. V. Kane.
of

Vedanga

Jyotisa.

Vedautasutra with the commentary

Samkaracarya (published
(

by the Nirnayasagara Press ).
Vedantakalpataru-parimala of Sanskrit series, 1895 ).
the

Appayadlksita
edited

Vizianagram
in

Vikramanka-devacarita of Bilhana

by Dr. Bvihler

Bombay
1892

Sanskrit Series, 1875.

Yogastitra of Patafijali with Vyasabha^ya-(
series,
),

Bombay

Sanskrit

Works Consulted
Modern Works
Sir Sivaswaray
*

xliii

Aiyar's
'

Evolution of Hindu Moral Ideals'.

1935,

Alberuni's
(

'

India

translated by Dr. Sachau in two volumes

London 1888

).
'

Dr. A. S. Alfcekar's
*

Education in Ancient India'

(

1934

*

),

The

position of women in Hindu civilization* (Benares, 1938). Arrian's Indika' translated by Me Crindle, 1877.

Arthasastra of Kautilya
Sir

translation
'

by Dr. Sham Sastry.

Mysore 1915. Gooroodas Baner jee's
edition, 1923
).
'

Marriage

and Stridhana

'

(

5th

M. Earth's
(

Religions of India' translated by Rev. J. Wood Trubuer & Co. 1882 ). Sir Dr. R. G, Bhandarkar's 'Vaisnavism and Saivism' ( in the

German

Grundriss), 1913.
*

L Agnistoma' ( Paris 1906 ). Caland and Henry Colebrooke's 'Miscellaneous Essays' vol. I and II ( 1837 London ) and Digest of Hindu Law (3rd edition 1864-65).
' '
'

Deussen's 'Philosophy of the Upanisads translated by Rev. A. S. Geden (1906) and 'Das system des- Vedanta'
( Leipzig, 1883 ). Edicts of Asoka in the Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. I. Eggeling's translation of the Satapatha Brahmana in the

'

Sacred Books of the East series, Vol. XII,

XXVI, XLI,
and

XLIII, XL1V. Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences
Johnson,
'

(edited by Seligman

York). Encyclopaedia Britanica ( 14th edition ). Enthoven's The tribes and castes of Bombay in three volumes
'

New

(Bombay, 1920-22).
Epigraphia Carnatica, edited by B. Lewis Rice.

Epigraphia Indica.

Fa Hien's 'Record
Legge
(

of Buddhist

Kingdoms' translated by James

1886

).

Dr. J. N. Farquhar's 'Outlines of the Religious Literature of

Fick's

India '(Oxford 1920). Social Organization of North-East India in Buddha's
'

time* translated in English by Dr.

S.

K. Maitra

(

Calcutta,

1928
Fleet's

).

Gupta Inscriptions ( Calcutta, 1888 ). Dr. Ghurye's Caste and Race in India ( London, 1932
'

'

)

,

xliv

History of Dharma&astra

Grant-Duff's History of the Marathas in three volumes Reprint, 1863 ). Halsbury' a Laws of England ( Hailsham edition ).
'

(Bombay

'

Haug's translation of the AitareyaBrahmana ( Bombay, 1863 ). Hillebrandt's Ritual-Litteratur Vedische Opfer und Zauber Das Altindische Neu-und vollmonds-opf er/ ( 1897 ) Holdswortb's History of English Law ( 5th edition, 1931 ). Hopkins' Ethics of India' (New Haven, 1924), 'Epic Mythology' (1915, Strassburg), 'Great Epic of India' ( 1901 ). in three volumes Dr. Hultzsch's South Indian Inscriptions
*
'
* ;

*

4

'

( Madras Dean Inge's Christian Ethics
).
*

'

(

1930

).

Itsing's* Records of the Buddhist Religion' translated

by Dr.

Takakusu
*

Prof. Jolly's
*

Oxford, 1896 ). Recbt nnd Sitfce/ translated by Mr. Batakrishna
(

Ghose, Calcutta, 1928. Keay's Ancient Indian Education
Prof. A. B. Keith's
'
'

the Upanisads

( London 1918 ). Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and in two parts; Translations of tho Taitfcirlya,

'

Samhita, and of the Rgveda Brahmanas Oriental Series ).
*

(

in the

Harward

Jnanakosa ( in Marathi ), vol 2 and 5. M.M. Kunte's Vicissitudes of Aryan Civilization in India/
Dr. S. V. Ketkar's

'

1880.
Prof. Macdonell and Prof. Keith
*

Dr.

Vedic Index in two volumes. John MacKenzio's Hindu Ethics ( in Religious Quest of
' ' '

India series ), London 1922. Rao Saheb V. M. Mandlik's Hindu Law
Sir

(

1880,

Bombay

),

John Marshall

*

Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civilization,'
(

in three volumes, 1931. MaxMiiller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature

1859

).

Megasthenes-India
(

(

as described by

)

translated

by McCrindle
(

1877

).

Pollock and Maitland 1895 ).

History of English
*

Law
(

Cambridge,

Prof. V. K. Rajvade's edition of the Nirukta' and learned notes in Marathi ), Poona.

with translation

M. G. Ranade's Rise of the Maratha power.' Rhys Davids' Buddhist India ( 1903 ). Rice's Mysore and Coorg from Inscriptions
'

'

'

*

'

(

London 1909
).

).

Risley's

Tribes and castes of Bengal ( 1891, Calcutta ' ' G, 0. Sarkar's Hindu Law ( 7th Edition, 1936 ).

*

'

Works Consulted
*

xlv

Senart's

Caste in India
).
*

*

(

translated from French

by

Sir Denison

ROBS, 1930

Sherring's
f *

Steel e s

Strabo's

Hindu Tribes and castes/ 3 volumes (1872, 1879 ). custom of Hindu castes ( London, 1868 ). Geography translated by A. C. Hamilton and W.

Law and

'

( 1939 ). Mr. Edward Thomson's Suttee ( 1928 ). Tilak's Orion ( Poona, 1893 ) and 'Arctic Home in the Vedas'. in two volumes Tod's Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan of and 1873 1880 Madras edition ). ( Westermarck's Origin and development of moral ideas' in two volumes (1906 and 1908); History of human
'

Dr. Tarn's
'

Falconer, London, 1866-67. Greeks in Bactria and India
*

'

'

'

*

'

*

*

f

marriage

(1921

).

Dr. John Wilson's 'Indian castes', two volumes (Bombay, 1877). ' f and Prof. H. H. Wilson's Religious festivals of the Hindus
other Papers in (London, 1862).
'

Works

edited

by Dr. R. Host,
'

vol.

II

Die Frau im Brahrnatiismus (1920, Leipzig ). Yuan Ch wang's Travels in India/ two volumes, translated by Watters ( 1904-5 ).
Dr. Winternitz's
*

TABLE OF CASES CITED
Ami-it
v.

Hari

865n.
914

Hirabharthi

v.

Bai Javer

952
586n.

Annaji
Asita

v.

Narayan

Uonama
Indi
y.

v.

Timannabhat

Mohan v. Nirode Mohan Auojona Da si v. Prahlada
Chandra
Bai Diwali
v.

75

Ghania

502
888n.

In Re
538

Pyne

In the matter of

Ram
v.

Kuinari

621 n.

Moti
Jivanlal

503
452n.

Ishwari Prasad

Rai Hari
75

Bai Gulab

v.

Praead
Jiwani
v.

Bai Jivi

v.

Narsingh
v.

570
452n.

Mula Ram

502
908

Bai Kashi

Jamnadas
v.

452n. Kaliangsing Bai Nagubai v. Bai Monghibai 639 570 Bai Premkunwar v. Bhika
Bai

Bai Lakshmi

Kailasan Pillai v. Nataraja Kailasnath v. Parasakthi
Kali

525 n.
916

Kanta Chatterji
Surendra

v.

Ramkore
v.

v.

Jamnadas

502 952
586n.

Dhondgir Bhikubai v. Hariba
Balgir

Keahav v. Bai Gandhi Khushalohand v. Bai Mani
Lakshmibai
-v.

616n.

503
586

Bholanath v. Emperor Bhupatinath v. Kara Lai Binda v. Kaunsilya

75
911

Ramchandra
v.

570
621n.

Madhusudan Parvat Madhava Teertha
Maharaja of

Shree
950
v.

Budansa
Chunilal

v.

Fa tin a
v.

Kolhapur

Chintaman
v.

Dhondo
v.

913-914
525n.

Sundaram Ayyar
Moriceu. The Bishop of
Motilal
v.

382

Surajram

Durham 888
553

Collector of

Thana

Hari
v.

860n.

Deosaran
Dular Koer

Bharthi

Deoki
892

Bharthi
v.

Dwarkanath

570
164

Chanchal v. Budhia Munnilal v. Shiama Muthusami v. Masilamani

Mulchand

538

252u
179

Emperor

v.

Narayan
v.

Nalinaksha

v.

Rajanikanto

452n.

Fanindra Deb
Ghelabhai
v.

Rajeshwar

389
860n.

Natha

v.

Mehta Chotalal
v.

452u.

Padma Kumari
Paigi
v.

Hargovan
f.

Girijanund Datta Jha Sailajanund Datta Gitabai v. Shivbakas

Suraj Kuinari 452n. Sheo Narain 570
573u.
v.

910
,

Parami v. Mahadevi Pramatha Nath Mullick

952

Giyana Sambandha v. Kandasami Taiubirau 908 Gosain Rain Bharti v. Mahant
Surajbharti

Pradyumna Kumar Mullick 735,
911n., 916

Prosunno Kumaii Golabchand

v.

962
o.

911o., 915;i.

Government of Bombay

Queen Empress
621n.
v.

v.

Tippa
v.

904 n.

Ganga
Guru Govind Shaha Mandal Anand Lai Ghose

Rajah Muthu Ramlinga

474

Periyanayagum Pillai Ramangavda v. Shivaji
Uambrahina Chatterji Nath
v.

914

467
735 469

Eari Raghunath t>. Anant 916 Harischandra v. Atir Muhmud 952 Hira v. Hansji Pema 525a.

Kedar

Ramchandra

v.

Gopal

Table of Case* Cited

xlvii

Ranganaiki
Ravji
0.

v.

Ramanuja

502
865n.

Dadaji

Reg.

v. Jaili
v.

Reg.
Reg.

Bhavin Karsan Goja

904 IK
616n.
616n.

Vidyashankara v Vidya Narsinha Virasaini v. A p pas a mi
of

950

553
869n.

Vyakunta Bapuji r. Government

v.

Sambhu

Bombay
v.

Sainmantha'Ptndara v. Seilappa
Cbetti

Yamunabai
90S

Sardar Singh

v.

Kn nj
v.

Behari

889n.

Shamcharan Nandi

Abhiram
914

Goswami
Sohan Sing
v.

Kabla Singh 179 Somasundaram v. Vaitbilinga 952 Subrao v. Radha 75, 382
Thakur Indraj Bux Sheo Naresh
Tulabirara
v.
v.

Narayan A. I. R. 1930 Oudh 426 6 Bom. 24 14 Bom. 482 15 Bom. 612 17 Bom. 351 23 Bom. 725
12 Gal. 140 1 Mad. 164

570
525n. 888

888
216n.

888 888 539
904n.

Thakur
889n.

Bibari Lai

75
865n.

Vaman

Thana Vellanki Ramakrishna v.
t>.

Collector of

Mad. 12 Mad. 15 Mad. 15 Mad.
7

548 72
41

462
525n.
904n.

75

904n.

Kotagiri

Subbamma
w.

468

20 Mad. 283 30 Mad. 340

469 888 469
Journal
621

Vonkatacharyulu

43 Mad. 830

Rangacbaryulu

538
v.

42 Madras
3 Moo.
1.

Law

Vidyapurna Tirtha

A. 198

950
525n.

Vidyanidhi Tirtha

908

17 Patna 134

HISTORY OF DHARMASASTRA VOLUME II
CHAPTER
I

THE TOPICS OF DHARMASASTRA
Manifold are the topics that have been included under DharmaSastra from very ancient times. The Dharma-sutras of Gautama, Baudhayana, Apastamba and Vasis^ha deal in greater or less detail principally with the following subjects the several wrijas (classes), aframas (stages of life), their the samskaraa privileges, obligations and responsibilities performed on an individual (from garbhadhana to antyesti); the duties of the brahmacarin ( the first a&rama ) anadhyayas ( holidays on which Vedic study was stopped ) ; the duties of a
: ; ;

snataka
(

(

one
)

who has
all

marriage

and

matters connected therewith

finished the first stage of life ) ; vivaha the duties of ;

the grhastha ( house-holder's stage ) ; iauca ( daily purification of body ) the five daily yajnas ; dana ( gifts ) ; bhaksyabhaksya
;

(

what food should one partake of and what not ) ; iuddhi
vessels, clothes
;
; ;

(

puri-

fication of persons,

on birfch and death ) antyesti ( rites performed for the deceased ancestors and relatives ) strldharma duties of women ) and strlpumdharma ( duties of ( special husband and wife ) dharmas of katriyas and of kings vyava* hara (judicial procedure, and the sphere of substantive law such as crimes and punishments, contracts, partition and
; ;

&c. ) aiauca ( impurity on death ) sraddha ( rites

;

inheritance, adoption, gambling &o.); the four principal classes, mixed castes and their proper avocations; apaddharma ( actions

and avocations permitted
difficulties
)
;

to the several

castes in
to

extreme

expiate them ) ; karmavipaka ( results of evil deeds done in past lives ) ; Santi (rites on the happening of portents or for propitiating the

prUyaidtta

(

sins

and how

planets &c.

samnyasin

of vanaprastha ( forest hermit ) and All these subjects are not treated in any To take only one fixed or settled order in the sutra works. example, the subject of partition and inheritance occurs at the end of the dharmasutra of Gautama, while Vasistha
)
;

duties
).

(

ascetic

places the

chapter

)

same subject in the middle of his work ( 17th and Apastamba deals with those topics after finishing

2
three-fourths of his

History of DharmatSstra'

[

Oh. I

work ( in II. 6. 14 ). Further, some works on dharma&astra give very elaborate treatment of certain topics of which only faint traces are found in the ancient dharmasutras
and metrical smrtis.
pratistha (dedication of

Such topics are

vratas

(

which may be

looked upon as extensions of the subject of gifts ), utsarga and

and

works of public utility and of temples and pilgrimages to them), kala ( auspicious times, festivals &c. ).
shrines), tlrtha( sacred places

A glance at the above list will convince anyone how the conception of dharma was a far-reaching one, how it embraced the whole life of man. vThe writers on dharmasastra meant by dharma not a creed or religion but a mode of life or a code of
member
conduct, which regulated a man's work and activities as a of society and as an individual and was intended to bring

about the gradual development of a man and to enable him to reach what was deemed to be the goal of human existence.

dharma were The first comprised those rites and ceremonies with which the Vedic SamUtas and Br&timanas were chiefly concerned, such as consecration of the three sacred fires, the Full moon and New moon The smUrta comprised sacrifices, the solemn soma rites &c. those topics that were specially dealt with by the smrtis and 1 The that concerned the various classes and sfcages of life. smarta concern with work itself will dharma present principally and rauta dharma will be dealt with concisely in an appendix. Some works divide dharma into irauta (Vedic), smarta (based upon smrtis) and iistacara (the actions of the respected in 8 This classification is based on the three sources of society) dharma viz., iruti^ smrti and iistacara, as observed by Baudhayana.* Another and more comprehensive classification says that dharma is sixfold, viz. dharma of varnas (injunctions based on varna alone such as *a brahmapa should never drink wine* or 'a brfthmana should not be killed'), a&ramadharma
this standpoint various

From

divisions of

suggested.

Dharma was

divided into irauta and smarta.

.

t*iiciY

^"nSTTP^Rt
'

144. 30-31

.

m^<w
i

59.

31-32 and 39.

3ji?*mn*nft-

1 11

TO. m. L part
*ft *nr:

1 p. 64.

irf

141. 65

;

^fiteirsroteTO RuswWSt **re$ 207. 83
i

ro jfhirwft ***& WTRRI:

11

>^^OTH n
3.

;

vide ^nf^er 354. 6 also.
i

wd& *% qf^^

...

wraTftihR iffrn AVPRI

i

A v.%,

1. 1.

Oh. I

]

Samanya-dharrna
* >
* '

3

(

such rules as begging and carrying a staff enjoined on a brahmaoarl* ), varna&rama-dharma (rules of conduct enjoined on a man because he belongs to a particular class and is in a particular stage of life, such as a brahmana brahmacarl should carry a staff of palaia tree ), guipadharma ( such as protection of subjects in the case of a crowned king ), naimittika dharma
*

(such as expiation on doing what is forbidden), sadhararia dharma ( what is common to all humanity viz,, ahii'nsa and other 4 This classification appears to have been an ancient virtues ). on Manu II. 25 speaks of fivefold dharma Medhatifchi one. dharma from the abovementioned ( only omitting sadhara^a six ) and quotes the explanations of them from the expounders Hemftdri ( vrata-khanda p. 5 ) quotes 16 verses from of smrfcis. 5 It will be noticed the Bhavisyapurana on the six-fold dharma. from the abovajhat all matters ( except sadhara^a or samanya dharma) have^yar^ajtnd asrama as the pi votsjKwnd which the whole of dharmasastra revolvej* Tnrinerefore that in ancient smrfcis tife^fctro^r'oTManu fl. 2 and 107) and Yajnavalkya
_

( 1.

1

)

of those codes to inHjart to
varrias

the sages are represented as asking the great expounders them instruction in the dharmas of

and a&ramas,

N

Before embarking upon any treatment of varnas

it

would

not be out of place to say a few words about dharmas common to all humanity. Our dharmasastra works do not enter into

any

subtle or detailed examination of the principles of ethics

or of the moral standard, nor are the concepts of duty, happi6 ness or perfection subjected to any searching analysis . But

fa

4
5.

?s <r*PwnCi q$
i

^-fsr
i

Khrcoratra*

sres^%

i

fono on

ng II.

25;

aiHr^: q^ft^m^^Rq^j sreror-^'feni OTWn*&*iffif mcnsm on ^r. i. i.

^

an^^^^^w^^fpn

KullUka on Manu 11.25 and the KityaratnSkara pp. 9-10 Io the same. It is to bo noted that some of these very verses are quoted as from Sumantu by the Smrticandrika*. ( I p. 6 ). Reference may be made to the 6. Ethics of India by Prof* Hindu Ethics * by Dr. John McKenzie in Hopkins ( 1924 ) and The former work is marked by a 'lieligious quest of India' series. detached and fair attitude towards the ideas of the ancient Indiana and their writings. The latter, I am sorry to say, is marred by the
t ' *

unsympathetic and supercilious attitude of a Christian missionary. Its key-note is perverse inasmuch as the foundation of the author's criticism is the notion that one is not really moral unless one is engaged in active social service. There is very little warrant foe
(

Continued on Must pag* )

I would make him a present of the following lines from the EncycloThe term social service is a pedia Britannica on Social Service comparatively new one in Great Britain. . vn. 12 says ' True speech and ( Continued from last page) this hypothesis in well-known^ works on Ethics. No necessity arose throughout the ages for a Poor Law in India with its attendant evils well portrayed in Dickens' famous master-piece 'Oliver Twist The above were some of the different aspects of philanthropy and charity which are now dubbed 7 . 1 mean that the principles of ethics were passed over by dharmasSstra works or were not highly thought of by them. There are annasatras even now where hundreds are fed every day. ascetics and to all beings including the untouchable cSndslas and even dogs and crows. But a few words must be said here. To expose the fallacies in Principal McKenzie's work would require a volume.4 this does nofe at all History of Dharmaiastra t Oh. feeding students and the poor. 12. If it had been used previous to the 20th century it would have meant philanthropy and charity in the ordinary sense '. What particular brand of active social service the learned author has in view is difficult to follow. Again quote words from the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vide the recent and lucid book of Sir Sivmswamy * Calcutta Evolution of Hindu moral ideals Alyer on ( 1935. 7 ftgveda VII. . 251 ) Is there anything comparable to the movement which St. Francis of Assist initiated and led ? The learned Professor has fallen into the frequent error of comparing a move' ' I shall ment of the 13th century with Indian ideas over 2000 years old. C. he has read the Indian Literature in vain. 104. Before every thing he was an ascetic and mystic '. Francis had schisms and was guilty of all the moral evils that are associated with Western monastic institutions. Every brShmana who could teach had to do so without demanding any fee beforehand. From very ancient times truth is exalted above everything else. The learned Professor asks with an air of triumph and condemnation of all Indian morality ( p. Attoka had established hospitals not only for men but even for beasts and YSj. 104. 1. 'It would be an anachronism to think of Francis as a philanthropist or social worker though he fulfilled the functions of all these. Every house-holder was called upon by the Hindu Sffstras to offer food according to his ability to students. or a revivalist preacher. If the learned author means that ancient India never insisted on universal philanthropy and charity. social service. The particular brands of Social Service that are now in vogue are mainly due to the ravages of Imperialism and extreme capitalistic tendencies. In the third century B. Maths were established like to * in all parts of India for expounding religious books. ' University ). Besides he forgets that even the movement started by St.209 equates the free nursing of sick persons with gifts of cows.

* charity ). remarks dana from falsehood lead me unto truth. 3. I \ w$ ^ i ^T i 9. . 23. 10 sternly condemns five drinking spirits. where the daksina ( ). 3. II. of the is two what true '. on life. ) is ( fivefold the five virtues of tapas ( asceticism ( arjava straightforwardness ahimsS beings). !*ftfa 11. Up. 3. The Chan. bed and association with these. v. from darkness light. I. 2. 1. v. viz. 11. inculcates on all the great need of) truth'. vide also I. aftiwft *c S^f ^44d ^ft T*H > and 1. I.1. the teacher when taking leave of his pupil at the end of the latter's studenthood places ' . ' I. 5 Asvapati exultantly declares that in his kingdom there were no grave sinners. V. I false oufc ] Samanya-dharma speech run a race against each other. which the student of a high and sublime philosophy . 3. 9.28 ) lead me unto * falsehood the path of the gods is spread out by ( the pursuit . The Mundakopanisad says only truth is victorious and not Up. 1 ). T. NH^-NCU *n ^ 1 wr mmfore t%^ ^T fnf ^if^ra 1* . ( fee to be paid ). says that the world of Brahman is free from all evil and only those who have lived as chaste students can enter the world of brahma. theft of gold. satyavacana (truthfulness). non-injury to sentient The Br. murder of a brahmana. 5 Soraa protects and what is very straight-forward and strikes down what is false The conception of ria in the Rgveda is a sublime one and is the germ of the later doctrine of the rule of dharma. 4. daya ( compassion or love for all sentient life) and dana (gifts or charity ). ( I. 2. 11. 1. 1. of three cardinal virtues. ff TcprrRr 7. 44 p. In the Chandogya ( III. E. vol. III. Compare sraTOm. i OT fff. 28. 1. Up. The ia upon cessation from evil Kathopanisad ( I. from death lead me unto immortality '. viz. One of the noblest prayers in all literature occurs in the Br. I. . n The Chan.Ch. 12. B.7 and SbftgTi. The Satapatha-brahmana ( S. 1* 10. 10 that truth and dharma are in practical life identical terms. 2. 17 ) there is an allegory of a Soma sacrifice viz.23 ) insists ' 8.5. 85) enjoins therefore let a man speak naught but truth* 8 In the Taittirlyopanisad ( I. as one's of guru's defiling the greatest sins and in V. 9 truth in the forefront of his exhortation and dharma next. sins. Up. Up. 5 for a Hat of qualities of darkness has to avoid. 1. The Br. self-restraint. j 14. ^ir^r3TOS^n%^*3$TTfi?r tn+H^c^T ^epEnrr^TH 3<jcfh% 7.

covetousness. and verse 21 says that non-injury to all beings in thought. p.<J History of Dharma&astra [ Ch. part 1 p.7 describes how satya has 13 of dama ( self-control ). asprha ( not hankering ) holds that daya ). which Vide Matsya 52. abuse of others.66 for saying that days ( love for beings) is at the top of the eight Stmag-unas and28i31-32 for a slightly different enumeration of the eight. peace of mind and concentration as essential for the seeker after the Self. 21. SmrUcandrika (I. 23-24.20ff. 13 The Gautaraa-dharmasutra ( VIII. delusion. 1 ) he delivers a fine exhortation adharma. anayasa ( absence of painful efforts or ambitions ). 15 Vasistha ( X. self-praise.40-49. anger and envy is the dharma of all * asramas and further ( XXX. AparSrka ( pp. Atri (verses 34= -41) also defines these eight similarly but in different words.8-10 for these eight qualities closely resemble Atri's. 164-165 ). unbelief. 13 ). speech and thought ). look far ahead. jealousy. VIII. k$anti anasuya ( freedom from envy ). p. 13) quotes veriet of 6ankha to the same effect. mangala ( doing what is commended ). not speak wfi^i 162. HemSdri ( Vrata p. Haradatta quotes eight verses which explain these eight qualities. egoism. practise dharma ( righteousness ) and not the truth and nob untruth . sauca ( purity of body. 84 quote from Brhaspati eight verses defining these eight qualities. and Vayu 59. W.35-37 ) says that these eight mentioned by Gautama (f^fgr^TT being substituted for snfSeT ) and three more namely ?niHHTl%n. SmrticandrikS ( 1. 8 ) and Para^aramSdhaviya I. aspects 24-26 ( ( compassion or love for all beings ). I conduct. \v^n^ <ti*iu *m t irci i 3?3?n** ^rnt ^ *mf *m* tf^ncR: n 14. forebearance after sensual pleasures or the possessions of others ) are the qualities of the soul and remarks that the person who has these u and eight qualities realizes non. while he who has all the forty samskSras but is not possessed of these eight qualities does not reach the world of Brahma. word and deed. 30 ) says that avoiding backbiting. MSrkandeya 61. 13. VisnupurEna ( III. The Udyogaparva 43.difference from Brahma reaches the world of Brahma. akarpanya ( not demeaning oneself before others ). deceit. speaks of the twelve vratas ( vows or rules of conduct ) for brahmanas and verses 22-25 describe at great length the characteristics of one who is danta ( self-controlled ). though he may not have all the other forty samskaras. 3 3*c 15. good will and charity are the eternal dharma of the good. Santi 160 contains an eulogy Santi 162. pride. . flTTj and ft^ifiprr are common to all varnas. Vide 3TOB VI. ajsjTErarwsom I i ^n *?^<j sni^cflCT^n 9rreuHi4i<tft *ft. ^. 8. crookedness.

. man righteousness. Coinpaie ajrq^Fsrc^nr X. Happiness and misery affect one's self and others in the same way '. 17 There16. 23-29. 22. 239 says 'No parents. 22) declares ie one who desires happiness t ' ' should look upon another just as he looks upon himself. the scale of values mere performance of sacrifices and purificatory and other religious ceremonies ranked according to Gautama and other writers very low and the highest value attached to the moral qualities of the soul. Anusasana 2. 91-92. 73-74. But it should not be supposed that no indications whatever are given of the reasons why this should be done. 20 and 25 SRI? $TO cTcT^f fpficf srpwrftq^TcOTt n . That doctrine requires us to regard the goodness or badness of one's actions from the standpoint of other individuals who will be affected by such actions. Vide also Adi207-54 Vanaparva parva 74. Two principles emerge if we closely examine the texts. not at what is not highest erato aSramas all calls 8. II SRTr i anmiiiwfa : I s^r<T: i wmfaT^m STOFCT 260. near. 86. Dh. There is no elaborate discussion of the questions as to why a man should tell the truth or abstain from himsa (injury to sentient beings) and cultivate other high moral qualities. 23. 17. upon ) ( Apastamba dicate faults that tend to destruction and to cultivate the oppoThis shows that in site virtues (and gives long lists of both). 161 says assiduously do that which will give satisfaction to the antaratman' (inner self ). I ] Sclmanya-dharrna 7 1 . This is the highest point reached in Indian metaphysics and combines morality and metaphysics. 12 : q^rra *r <n^f$ IP at3$nnra$ 113. ft n ^r 17. The reason given for cultivating such virtues as daya ahimsa is based upon the philosophical doctrine of the one Self being immanent in every individual as said in the words 'tat tvam-asi*. In the midst of countless rules of outward conduct there the inner ' is always insistence on the necessity to satisfy (antara-purusa) or conscience. Manu VIII. Manu IV. 3-6 S.Oh. I. 8-9 5 W $qcft U& *T fr'THT^t Vlfa n . look at what is highest. IV. nor wife nor sons will be a man's friends in the next world but only . H III.' 'Gods and the inner man mark the sinful acts and Manu VIII. sf^cft wtri^ 3j*arT ^r^rrw^r^cTT^ i 3?T*HT: %*f?y quoted in ^?wrreTT p. Daksa (III. Devala says that the quintessence of dharma is that one should not do to others what would be disliked by one's self. 85.

20. Another reason for cultivating high moral qualities is found in the doctrine of the goals or ends of human existence (purusartha). artha and kama are concerned. should enjoy all such pleasures as are not opposed to 124. ( II.' Yaj. As regards the other three.8-9 for the statement that dharma lowest and that a man * the best. to be four.62 . : he secures dharma and arfcha or only dharma if he has a choice A man of middling disciof only one from among the three. but that the satisfaction of these impulses is of lower values than the moral and spiritual ends proper for a developed human personality and therefore insist that it should be subordinated to artha and dharma.0re our texts lay down two seats of authority in morals viz.& OT?^** sffm** * ftnrS *r ?r^ n **fTrcfto 5. the revealed truth (sruti) that 'All this is brahma* and the inner light of oonsoience. midday and evening to remain fruitless so far as dharma. . vide ?nF^ 167. 115 says practically the same thing.. But among these three one should attach most importance to dharma.37. 46-47 ' ) says one should not allow the morning. S.' The dharma^astra writers did not condemn kama place. I. there is a gradation of values. altogether. 22-23 ) declares that 1 a man 18. Gautama ( IX. Kama is the lowest of all and only fools 18 The Mahabharata says ' A wise regard it as the only end.8. History of Dharmaifistra I Ch. satisfaction of sexual. and artistic life ). pline prefers artha to the other two . Ap. 8. I f. From very kama moksa ( ( dharma (right conduct ). man tries to secure all three.22. but if all three cannot be attained.' The nffVTOT winds up with the words i . they recognise that kama has a place as a motive urging men to be active but they assigned it a low They recognised that a man shares with lower beings the impulses and emotions of sex. emotional ancient times they are said artha ( economic interests ). Dh. dharma is the source of both artha and kama. vide also 60. artha is middling and kama is the should so act that dharma would he the principal is goal of his life and that he should so deal with others as he would deal with himself *nm^Rsr*n?ta. & 151. The last is said to be the supreme end and to be attained only by the few and the vast majority can only place it as an ideal to be attained in the most distant future. 34-38 . liberation of the spirit ). Hftei^f WRJTiTT II .

20. 2 . 8. I ] Purusarthaa 9 lf In the In this way one secures both worlds '. one * should not lead a life of no pleasures and then true to hia role of a writer on arthaaSstra. II.Oh. H. Manu further says ( V.7 C| K<^^f ^M^IJRr TT^TTST^fT'rT leHT ' t|H*i'-<i^S'W^h c^i^hi^rsHHf ^ II I at&g ^T^ft I ^l^^ I. Visnu Dh. Manu II.18-19 iiqi-am*^ I. 2. but adds that if artha or kama is in conflict with dharma one should give up artha or kama as the case may be. 56 ) that the natural proclivity of all beings is to hanker after the satisfaction of the common and lower desires of hunger. 22-23. 9 say the same. 19. Kautilya says* dharma. that the ultimate ends are really the most valuable and that the whole teaching of dharmasastra points to this that all higher life demands discipline both of body and mind and requires the subjection of lower aims to aims of higher value. qfr<HM4&hi4?i T ^E^rat werT&ft pare fo*3*m^gr 71. 176 . as dharma and 1 after setting out ( II. ' there is no conflict with dharma and artha. n 5 11. he proclaims that his own opinion is that artha is the principal of the three. M of (71. ?^ f ^jfruf -q c^ IV^^TR ftefSfH *P^H ?TH I <fiWtaft WT.7-15. ^T. 11 ) one may enjoy that is not opposed to dharma. 1. 4 ( like Aristotle in the first sentence of his Politics) says that the end of all activity is some presumed good.84 '^R^fi ^T*h*?uft (*nr^[) fc i ^ I *T3 IV. 224 ) kama both spring from artha' is three principal states it as several views about which of"the kama provided Mnu own opinion that one should strive for all the three. kama with himself identifies Krsna Bhagavadglta ( VII. artha his and kama each preceding one is superior to each following one and that to the king artha should be the highest goal. S. This teaching shows that there are proximate ends or motives and ultimate ends or motives. thirst and sexual gratifica- tion and therefore no stress is to be placed on cessation or curbing of these. 224. D. them but on the The Upanisads 8* recognise the 20. N *3 II. 21. The Kamasutra Vatsyayana defines the three and says that out of dharma. 84) and Bhagavata 1. 23. 2. com- sTg^rTfr^T ' 111. III. .

ness. should give and should speak the truth. vide in. I what ). . II of St. gentleness. sharing one's wealth 24. and even to a later and VII in E. 175 ) calls parts of his empire the liberality. 249 and 272 that freedom from anger. arf^^TT II ^r^Tg: Hg ^flc^nt^ X.' The Mitaksara on Yaj. truthfulness. Manu says that ahimsa. -M - -i > -M .. generosity. saint liwhich bear a close resemblance to Gautama's list Yaj. Vasistha ( IV. ?Ti ti fnP^ ^ 5y ^ ^ m I ft * ^IH ^mi4 u 4sall ng VI. Gautama (X. UdRj Hd*f ^Nr nfa ^TT'i^f' *TTT<T I M4idl g M< 120. truthfulness. the remarkable emperor A&oka inscribed on stone in all IV. The qualities are variously enumerated and emphasis is laid upon different lists in different works. 84 and in another place truthfulness and freedom from anger vow for a man is threefold viz. 5) says that forbearance. Paul ( vide Pillar Edicts II ). 63 vide . p. 62 for ten gui^aa prescribed for a^ramas. he that best vrata the ) ( says should feel no enmity ( to others ). truthfulness. in conduct worthy of an arya and in purity. 66. -i -ii i ~i i i < ---all 1 -T ' ^ ms 44 i v . ahimsa ( non-injury ) and procreation of offspring are ( the common dharma ) of all ( varnas ).. 26 Manu upon all to take delight in truth. ^ -i. purity following list of virtues : compassion. 1. 4 i vi Qe siti s *^* Sdramas. absence of enmity. vol. 52 says that even the Sudra has to submit himself to the dharma of truthfulness.10 distinction between beneficial ( History cf Dharmaittetra [ Oh. freedom from anger and purity ( of ) body and mind ). The Mahabharata says that three are the best qualities among all beings viz. joyousness. C. peace. 122 ) mentions nine qualities as the means of securing dharma for all 87 The Mahabharata says ( from the brahmana to the cSndala ). 13 ) declares * that what conduces to the greatest good of beings is satya. 4 ) says85 that truthfulness.<x " 30 for 13 qualities prescribed for . p. Sankhasmrti (I. freedom from anger. in dharma. purity and restraint of senses are in brief the ( common dharmas of all varnas. III. In the 3rd century B. self-restraint and purity are common to all varnas. I. remarks that ahimsa and other qualities are the dharmas common to all including even c&ndalas. self-control list . : i 26.10. 1. no wrongful taking of another's possessions. 20 ) and what is most and 330. ( 1. truth. is beneficial ( ( hita hitatama Santiparva 288.

satyat asteya. maintaining persons dependent on one-self these nine are the duties of all varnas.' who called themselves the followers of the Therefore a few wordr on this subject would be The Rgveda shows chat the centre of Aryan quite relevant. duties common One important question that is very much Aryavarta canvassed in works on dharmasastra is about the country or territory which should be called qryavarta or which was a fit habitation for those Vedic religion. rites had to do with reference to his station in society. The foregoing discussion establishes that all dharmasastra writers attached the highest importance to moral qualities and enjoined them upon all with all the emphasis they could command.6 for a long list of qualities srri^q^ 297. e. to guide people to right acts in elaborately with the acts. rates fourteen qualities as s&manya-dharma. 7-8 ) quotes several passages from the Brahma. i 3T?r^^T ^ wrfrp^rt ^orr?n grf^mr spri: u 3*r1rm II. I ] Samanya-dharma 11 with others. restraint. purity. 88 dharma is common to all 29 The Vamanapurana says that tenfold and names these ten as ahimsa. forbearance. 1-2 114. viz. compare 3?rT. dana.Ch. procreation ( of children / irum one's wife ( alone ).. 7-8. ( i. 3$rnp> ^T^T^r^ra: wftft ^riirST^. but as their main purpose was a practical one. i 29. 60. not demeaning HemSdri ( vratakhanda pp. Brahmavaivarta and Visrmdharmottara for several sftdharana dbarmas ( virtues common The Vignudharmasutra enumeto all varnas and asraraas ). . they dealt more and ceremonies that each person dharma and not with sadharaya dharma to all alike ). i avfttrr *n*m^f ^nr srtfScTt*: 3*3^4 ^ srN . %r- % prescribed for all Sdramas and 23. purity. n ^rHsr^m 14. 16-18 prescribes the following as common to all varnaa and Ssramas. tapas. 24-25 for 13 I. 8. culture in the times of the ftgveda was the land of "t!Te seven 28. 50 oneself. They are therefore found principally concerning themselves with varpSsratna everyday life. forbearance. straight-forwardness. absence of enmity. 35^n^T n I 16-17 . n sm^. quiescence. $m*..

Rg. Parusnl ( Rg. 9.5 ) 17. 9 75. Vipas alone in Rg. 30. and settled to the east of that river. 52. 30. X. IV. 51 ). In the Satapatha we have the story of Videgha Ma^hava who went beyond the country of Kosala-Videha. 19. 75. brahmana and a Kuru-Pancala 1 Uddalaka Aruni is called contrasted with brahmanas of the north ( S. 31. the seven Sindhus Rg. 105-106. 12. 53. VIII. 50 for various interpretations. V. where their confluence is spoken of Vipas and Sutudri ( Rg. 24. II. V. Rg. in Rg. B. 75. Asiknl ( Rg. 25. 31. 3 ) up to the Yamuna 75. 45. DrsadvatI. in Rg. History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. viz. X. 23. 5 ). v. 5. 5 ). 15. X V. 10 of which says it has seven sisters ). . III. 61 is another hymn addressed to it. X. 75. X. Among the rivers of the Punjab II. 30. B. IV. VIII. IV. Gradually the Aryans spread southwards and eastwards. In Sat. Even in the Buddhist 4-17. in the seas and on mountains). We find that khe . Apaya and Sara- svatl (as very holy in Rg. X. V. The Kanaka S. 12 pp. VIII. 24. 1 ). vol. 53. 4. 1. 25 where reference is made to the medicine in the Sindhu. VII. 6 speaks of Kuru-Paficalas. 2. Rg. 43. 3. rivers from Kubha Krumu ( ( the Kabul river. 9 ). Vide B. 20. 28. V. E. VI. in the Asiknl. 52. 53. I North-west India and Punjab. X. VIII. 37 ). speech is at 88 that those who Similarly the Kausltaki-br. 27. 6. S. Sutudri alone in Rg. the Ganges ( Rg. vol. 33. 95. SarasvatI alone (Rg. Rg. V. Br. 30. in Rg. modern Kurram. the following are individually mentioned : 15. 6 ). 12 p. in. ). 32. awqpfrrmfi XLII n. and vol. E. while in former ages it had been uncultivated (I. X. In the Brahmanas the centre of Aryan activities and culture shifted to the countries of the Kurus and Pancalas and Kosala-Videhas For example. . XL 4. 76. 2. 6 ).). VIII. 26 p. 6 x. Vitasta ( Rg. 4). 44 p. the Satapatha Brahmana remarks that in the lands of Kurupaiicalas . III. IV. where the country was a cultivated and civilized one in the times of that work. the whole hymn is addressed to it of which verse 2 says it springs from the mountains. B. B. 12. GomatI ( Rg. SuvSstu ( modern Swat. 9 ) figure in the Rgveda. crossed the river Sadanlra that came down from the Himalaya. 31 its best. 22. ( Rg. w^m s^rarasrr 1 i ?ra^ m. 6 *he made the Sindhu flow northwards'. and Sarayu ( probably in modern Oudh. VI. 20. 1. 5). ( the 53. X. VII. 75. Rg. vol. 6 ) remarks want to learn ( best ) speech go northwards or wait upon him who comes from that direction.12 rivers. IV. 9. 75. WT m 3*TT^rf?r fR^r *n U^JSP^ i ehitferr3 wr. ( VII. 12. Sindhu ( Rg. 18 and 12. 1.

king of Videha. 1. i 1. (chap. mountains Pariyatra and Vindhya and to the south of the Himalaya It then refers to two more views held by other authors viz. the country of Kamboja was outside the limits of the country of Aryas.. kh. though the language spoken there seems to have been the same. Br. The Br. Br. arnrhrm i HHII^^^^ ^id*Hi|*M?*nrr^f%nta flT?m: i T^nr^^nfrF^'c^ rf*?l I. 3. the Kurupaiicalas go westwards in the last month of summer. . 5. to the west of Kalakavana. 8. Br. 34. 4 i fot %*$% ^rrffci. 13 refers to two mountains one in the North and the other in the South ( meaning probably Himavat and Vindhya ). i ... 23. Satapatha IV. 19. Up. 33. 3**^^ ^Vlc4l if^cf n. In the times of the Dharmasutras great divergence of opinion prevailed on the question of the location of Aryavarta. ' * of Sarasvatl in the desert '. performed a sacrifice the brahmanas of Kurupaficala flocked there in large numbers... ) says that when Janaka. 2 ).. 8-9 and 12-13. 1. of as the best spot and In the times of the Upanisads also the Kurupancala country appears to have occupied a pre-eminent place. I. According to the Nirukta ( II. V. D. 4 ). III. 1. sndrov qft ercmi^sriSft I ^TOTWT: ursft *n% i . east in the winter the rivers DrsadvatI. says that ( vide III. Matsya. ( I. Kurupancala and Kadivideha as centres of intellectual activity and in II. S. p. for Kurukfetra as u very ancient place vide 35. Up. The Mahsbhasya lends support to this and adds that Arya country ( vol. 1. 1. ( '. VI 2.5. 1. Kausltaki Br.. wr. Up.Oh. .. 23. Aryavarta is in the region between * the Ganges and the Jumna and where the black antelope roams about there is spiritual pre-eminence The Baud. speaks of 83 Even in the the vedi of the gods as being in Kuru-ksetra. 1. ft ^ T II 3?. Up. being an 'udicoa brihmano' was a source of great pride ( vide Fick's work p. ( III. Vide also Br.13 and Ait.. limits of Aryavarta as Vasis^ha. The Tai.. ( IV. 40 )... I j Limits of AryUvarta 13 Jfttakas we see thai. 1 Rgveda itself the country through which ApayS and Sarasvatl flowed is spoken The Tai. 1 say that Svetaketu went to the assembly of the PancSlas. The Vasisthadharma24-sutra says: Aryavarta is to the east of the disappeaSurasfra was not an ' rance to the north of the ).27 ) gives the same . %*T I *nrm*ra HI. ) names the countries of Uslnara.. IT. . 9. The Br. 1 and Chandogya V. 4) . 9 ).

3-5) says that I A % srigror we have the words disappeared at the entrance of Ni$a"darStia through fear of pollution from Ni5das tmd Salyaparva (37. I.20 special honour is shown to those who dwell between the Ganga and the the black antelope view ( viz. 1-2) tells us that Vinasana is the sacred place where the Sarasvati disappeared through hatred for and Abhiras. 1. 1. i quoted in trfwnsmigFfi^T ( ^Tr^r>^T i p. VI. ( 1. 475 (on Pan. to '. while may mean *dividing line.27. 14-15. to the west of the city of by remarking ( south of Himalaya and to the north of The extant Manusmrti ( II. S. 1. Aryavarta is the country where roams about naturally ) is the one given in most smrtis. According to the Vanaparva 82. Ill Vinasana is the tirtba wheie the Sarasvati the Sarasvati disappeared and Vanaparva (130. 3. ^T*5r*n f^T^r^ ^TST^ (24. Even so early as the rTpginTf TW. 29-30 ) quote an ancient gatha from the Nidana work of the third Yamuna. Ar. be found countries of Sindhu and spotless spiritual in the country ) to the east of the Sauvlra. III.109) 37. 174 (on Pan. Dh. vol. The Bhftllavins 28 to the effect that wherever the black antelope roams about in the country lying between the Sindhu in the west and the rising mountain in the east. I substituting the word his vinasana ' for ' adarsa '. there is spiritual pre-eminence. Dh. gives Aryavarta several times in the same 88 The Dharmasutra of Sankha-Likhita limits ( somewhat similar is to pre-eminence KSmpill. p. 38. II. In the Tai. Both Vagistha ( I. ( 1. S5 Patanjali in Mah&bh&sya defines terms as Vasis^ha does. 4.10).28 ). 5^: i ^n^R^roWwr^ 7 rrm JJ^^^HH ' vftr wte 1. qftHiqmaRrer p. 14-15 ) and Baud. So this view is a very ancient one and probably 35. boundary '. Aryavarta is the region between the Ganges and the Jumna ) the 87 Pfiriyatra occurs in Baud. ^j vol.17. The second view ( viz. 57 reads f^wfr and explains f^R^ ^H^qJc^T . 57 ).1 ). I. 36. 22 ) makes ArySvarta coterminos with the whole of India north of the Vindhya by saying that the territory between the Himalaya and the Vindhya and extending up to the eastern and western oceans is known by the wise as Aryavarta. 11. S. reads 'ftfT^ft and explains it as where the sun sets '. p.il History of Dharmatastra ' \ Ch. This shows that the Sarasvati had disappeared by the time of the ciF^T.

falling into the Sarasvati and 25.Upftvrt. when distressed for his livelihood. Pancala and Sflrasena are styled Brahmarsidesa and are slightly less ( in holiness ) than Brahm&varta.2 which quotes a prose passage of the Svetasvataras Sacrifice became a black anfcelope and wandered over the earth. (chap. 5 ) as follows : one who desires to practise Vedio religion should live in one of the four countries these countries viz. 10. that Madhyadesa is between the Himalaya and the Vindhya and to the east of Vina&ana and to the west of Prayaga. 3) for Kuru-Pancala. Anga. Brhat-ParSsara ( p. Yaj. 2 ). 16 for the disappearance of the latter and Ait. 31 ) says that the countries of Avanti. Veda-Vyasa ( I. This is explained by Aparftrka (p. 1. 25. that Aryavarta is the country between the Himalaya and Vindhya up to the eastern and western oceans. Vada and U^lnara as included in the centre of India. 38 kh. Surastra. Laghu-HSrlta (I. p.Sindhu south of the Vindhya Vide TSndya Br. Dh. 1 1 Limits of Aryavarta 15 arose from some mythological account as is indicated by the commentary of Visvarupa on Yaj. This view of the limits of Aryavarta is maintained by Sankha ( as quoted by Vi&varupa on Yaj. 4 ) says that the country where the system of the four varnas is not established is to be known as Mleccha country and Aryavarta is beyond that. Br. The Manusmrti ( II. 10. The Visnudharmasutra (84. then in a country where there is establishment of the four varnas and the black antelope roams about naturally if both these cannot be had. says that the traditional mode of conduct observed in that is called sadacftra. Brahmavarta and others if that is not possible. 3 ). Sathvarta4. that the countries of Kuruksetra. dharma followed it in its ' wanderings'. was looked upon as beyond the pale of Aryan culture^ Baud. 1. I. then one should dwell in a country where at least one of the two (caturvarnya and black antelope) is found. . Manu II. The above discussion shows that in very ancient times the country viz. Brahmarsidesa. men in of the three higher ( varnas should endeavour to Brahmavarta. . 178 ). Ifagadha. Daksinapatha. S. Vianudharmasutra 814. 17-24 ) defines Brahmavarta as the country between the holy rivers Saras vatl and Drsad89 vatl. . 23. Madhyadesa. ) while a sudra. fl. Matsya. I. 56 ) and several other smrtis.Oh. 2. Aryavarta &c. that that territory where country for sacrifices ^that live the black antelope roams about naturally is the country fit and the countries beyond constitute mlecckade&a. 13-14 for Dr^advatl 39. may stay in any country whatever.

42. T?f?T It is I- This is Devala v. Kfiraskara. Saurfistra. Karnaparva 43. Sauvlra. \\ $nfto 44.** 40. I ( i. Medhfttithi on Manu II. 22 explains that Aryavarta is so called because Aryas again and again spring up there and because the Mlecchas even if they overrun it from time to time do not abide and then makes the following very sensible there for long observation ( on II. goes to these countries for some purpose other than pilgrimage. in the Smrticandrika" I. '. 9. 3JTOT ^cT'n cf^ ifat on irg II. Gradually however as Aryan culture spread over the whole of what is now called India the view of the sages about the countries pre-eminently Aryan had to be given up. since the earth is not by itself impure. 23 ) if a ksatriya king of excellent conduct border lands ' ' ' were to conquer the Mlecchas. 40 and 43. Pundra. Vanga. 5-8 abuses those who live on the Sindhu and the five rivers of the Punjab as impure and dharmabahya. the ( or Mleccha countries ). III. 22 . Kalinga and Andhra he has to perform the Upanayana satfaskSra over 40 The Mit. but becomes impure through contact of the spread ( of impure persons or things culture of Aryan As a result eastwards and southwards ). Anga.16 History of Dharmaiastra of I Oh. even that country would be fit for the performance of sacri( Mleccha ) fices. e. that a person who going to Kalinga the prayascitta is an offering to Vaisvanara Agni. 292 quotes a verse of Devala to the effect that if a man goes to Sindhu. . adds a remark that this is so only if the man again. Kalinga and PrRnuna (?) has to offer a solemn sacrifice like the Sarvaprs^ha and that for and Sauvlra are mixed origin ancestry). 31-34 calls these countries Arattas and * na^tadharma Vide t . not of pure Aryan goes to Araftaka. Anga. 23. trernrr [ 1%^^^^ ^rr^t ^mfwn: 7 . the countries on the rivers of the Punjab came to be looked upon in the whirligig of time as unworthy of the Aryas to live in. on Yaj. The Mit. ascribed to 41. p. i OT^ 43. . establish the system of four varnas ( in the Mleccha country ) and assign to Mlecchas a position similar to that of cftndalas in Aryavarta. Sauvlra. Vanga. on ?rg II. \ BaudhSyana J 16 with slight variations in the 3rd pftda.' 41 and the frequent invasions of non-Aryan tribes on the northwest.

It is somewhat amusing to find that Vide E. v. f^r^^nFft i \ f^V ts^t^<i*<^ II. 1. II. compare with the P.3 . 75-76 -q^-q ^TTHT W5i\ ). ) in his and 42 ) shows that to him there and culture from the Himalaya to quoted in the Paribhasa-prakasa (p. 3 : jgpui^prV RxR!^ W^^JS^IC{T M^cfiul *ri^n<TT*rejT5r p.. ) as Bharadhavasa. of Jlsafoha. It occurs in the Hathigumpha InscripttaTof Kharavela ( 2nd century B. 43. Riyi^TT . particularly in the Puranas. 106-106 . 20 p.D. 81 : T^m^Ht^^ ^ X.Ch. 1. j^TOT ^"c^ns^^r fi^u^^nT ^f^op II.42. ~ TX&F1 114.* Tne Visnupurana ( II.-. 58. bhasya on Jaimini ( X. I. I. 45 Sahara ( not the 1-35 later than 5th century A. four-legged ) in the country from the Himalaya to Cape Comorin. pp. 48. ^"i*j vol. 48 The Vayupurana says almost the same and adds that in no laud other than Bharatavarsa is karma after Bharata.^ vc-. 77 ^ * H. 3TT4d^ ^T^TTCTtft *T^T^. 45.59 45. The Visnupurana says that after thousands of births a person secures life as a human being in Bharatavarsa and this land is called Karmabhumi ( the land of religious actions ) for those who want to secure heaven and final liberation. 2. vide WiUon'a j^ SRI? fw^sfanfr ^R^g" rr)^rar srBtWt'Pcif^oyj^ur II. 47. D. 33-52) and other Puranas Bharafcj^varsa is so called descendant of Svayambhuva Manu. cTH. *T3 45. was unity of language 48 Cape Comorin. I . . 1. ?TT tnjrfn^: ' &*i f^raRT STT crar ^ ^prrTT. II <T%cf3?t^ spj grrT< I <R|cn<j<c4 57. Vayu (vol. 3.^. qrif'$iftTv4 ^4^M^*i ^r M^^JdT^ " II. 58) says that dharmajs fully developed ( lit. 0. ) appears to strike a different note by saying that Bharatavarsa is so called after Bharata. 43 The Markandeyapurana says that Bhauatavarsa has the ocean" on the east. chap. south and' west and the Himalaya on 4 riorCh. Pai^hlnasi as son while Vayu ( vol. 3. vol. I chap.1 ) says the same and Matsya ( 114-10 ) and Vayu define Bharatavarsa as stretching from Cape Comorin to the source of the Ganges. 10 % ^XM^*. 3. 37-130 prescribed for mortals. I ] Bharatavarsa 17 Another word which is very often used. 45. According'tff Markarideya ( 5341 ). to denote the territory where the ancient Vedio religion prevails is Bharatavarsa or Bharatavarsa. N. 4T . the son of Dusyanta and Sakuntala. 5. 79.^. lust yu^4<IT vol.

Sindhu.. . ( says Adityapurana ? ) as quoted in the ParibhasSprakasa ( p. e. 69.^^%fa-u^ijVfl<^iq^?af3TI.. Karmanasa if ) or Karatoya except on a pilgrimage' and that should perform the penance of candrayana. p. he All smrti writers and commentators generally restrict themselves to the duties of varnas and asramas as practised in Yaj. II. I many selves on being most orthodox are declared modern times pride themby the Aditya-purftna quoted in the Smrticandrika ) to be countries unfit for ( as habitation and to be such that a stay in them except for pilgrim49 The Adipurana age entailed loss of caste and prayasoittas.*:W^( H (same verse as in n. whether a dvija or not. born in Aryavarta should ' cross the three rivers. 59 ) no one. Karmada ( i. 192 Aryavarta or Bharatavarsa. i ^rnw^i i^Nn^c y^^^^^M qreft^n ^T g^^ ^ir< ^n?^t*r ^r^f^sr: u ^Q-^o sn^n^-ainihifiHi^wft f^s?t ^r ^rf% ^rrsflr^r: i n 1*1^1 9 quoting ftpa'TTt *i%rf ^ airof^i AiahH f^n fMf^yt f^t > arryr fry a*n f^g^^T fIgvzrfS qftHiQiwtiTO p.. he does so. *J5T* H trM4Jr>. though in very rare cases ( as in of the usages of ) they provide for the observance even heretics. 42).18 History of Dharmafastra of the countries of India that in [ Oh.

. (1896). however. concern themselves with the detailed description of the bewildering variety of castes and subdivisions of castes in modern times and their present religious and social customs and usages. tribe ( Ibbetson ). W. occupation ( Nesfield ). B. Tribes and Hayavadan Rao's 'Indian Caste system* (1934). Ketkar's ' History of of caste in 2 ' Vol. K. Dutt's * of Origin and growth of caste in India (1931) and Aryanization Tribes and castes of Bombay 3 Vol. ' Ibbet- Punjab castes India ' ( 1881. ^The origin of caste has given rise to great speculation and several schools of thought have arisen. A complete and critical examination of the several theories of caste advanced by distinguished authors and a detailed description of the hundreds of castes and suboastes now found in India is far beyond the scope of the present work. Fick'|/ Social Organisation in North-east Dr.Fpr those want to make a thorough study of the most important works on caste a modest list is given in the footnote who below. II The number of works dealing with the origin and Most characteristics of the caste system in India is legion. V.S. time. E. Enthoven's India ( 1925 ) India in Buddha'i (1920). K. ' 1 ' ' ' ' . V. R. Crooke's * Tribes Caste system of Northern India ( 1931) and castes of N. such as race ( Risley ). Risley's People of castes of Bengal 1891 ( mostly anthropoinetric data ) and * India' 2nd ed. 1915. O'Malley's system of the North-west Provinces and Oudh Indian caste customs '( 1932 ) and 'India's social heritage' (1934). . Russell's Tribes and castes of Central ' * ' ' ( Continued on next page ) . The study of the origin and development of caste in India is one of deep and absorbing interest to all students of sociology. Kitt's Compendium castes found in India 1885 ) Nesfield's * A brief review of the caste ' (1885). Provinces and Ondh 4 Vol. N. H. ' ' J. A.' by Jstaka materials) son's ' . reprint In 1916 S. ( ( 1909 and 1911 . E. B. \. Dr. 50 N. Maitra 1920 (deals only with the Buddhist translation 50. Ghuryo's 'Caste ' and race in India' (1932) ) ) .CHAPTER VARNA . Bbattaeharya's Hindu castes and sects (1896). W. of them. Blunt's * ' . Generally individual authors lay undue emphasis on one element or attach far too much importance to one point in tracing the origin of the caste system and its ramifications.

* . manners and customs of the people of India. his trade union. Ananthakrishna Iyer. There are yet needed. and I am well that. Bmile Senlfft's Les caste dans ' I * Inde ' (1896) translated Tribes and Castes Ross (1986'). if the people of India never sunk into a state of if. 262-263. IV ( 1924 ) pp. barbarism. 2nff ed. Slater's 3 volumes ( 1872-1881 ) Dravidian element in Hindu culture (1514). his occupation.20 History of Dharma&Ustra [ Ch. his circle of It makes him at the outset a member of a corporate protects him through life from the canker of social jealousy and unfulfilled aspirations. X pp. K. M. Ghurye's on c Ethnic theory of caste ' in Man ' in India vol. preserved tended the sciences. body. who wrote about 130 years ago being in close touch with Hindus of all castes for 15 years as a missionary. vol. ' * ' . V. translated 1 into English and published in London in 1817 ) 1 consider the institution of castes among the Hindu nations convinced as the happiest effort of their legislation. 1 . it ensures him companionship and a sense of community with others in like case with himself. Dr.* his career. place. castes that she indebted several his ' high the celebrity justification ( 14 ) and he remark. (1877). 209-371. The caste organization is to the Hindu his club. 'Mysore Trib&s and castes' by S. II The caste system has been highly eulogised and also most severely condemned by Western writers. Besides these there are numerous papers published in Journals such as Weber's in Indische Stttdien ' vol. the arts and civilization. and when almost all that dreary gulf. of 1907) speaks of the beneficent aspect of the caste system in the following eloquent passage There is no doubt that it is the main cause of the fundamental stability and contentment by which Indian society has been braced up for centuries against the shocks of politics * and the cataclysms of Nature. . Sir E. his benefit society. I-IV with several hundred illustrations.' Abbe after no work-houses in India and none are as Dubois. Sherring's Hindu by G. his philanthropic society. India kept up her head. 1-160 ( very exhaustive as to Vedio material ) . Steele's 'Law and customs of Hindu castes' (1868) Thurston and Rangaclmri's 'Caste and Tribes of South India 7 volumes (1909 ) John Wilson's Indian castes 2 vol. It provides every man with his it friends. tfanjundayya and Rao Bahadur L. remarks ( in his work on the character. Sidney Low in his 'Vision of India* (pp. devotes of this Maine in page} * pages to Ancient (Continued from last Provinces ' 4 volumes * ( 1916 ) . it is to the Europe was plunged in and exwholly for that is distinction ' of p. A.

but it could not have been more than a small fraction of that colossal number during the thousands of years that the system has flourished. The system simply grew up in the lapse of ages."' Sherring in Hindu tribes* anTcastes vol. The population of Hindus when Sherring wrotejmay have been near two hundred millions. That another and lurking in the above quoted passage of Sherring. 274 has been said with some truth that caste promotes cleanliness r and order and is in a certain sense a bond of union among all classes of the Hindu community.Oh.Hindu Tribes and castes ' vol. (edition of 1901 73 ) "wrote f ifc begin withjmd the strongest form"~knbwnTbf Trades Union*. On ' the other hand Meredith Townsend in Europe and" Asia* r l firmly believe caste to be a marvellous discovery. Ill p. hard-hearted and Jcruel social system that could possibly be invented for cfamning the human race*. there is nothing to show that tho caste system was invented by any body of persons who could impose their will on a continent. TTie invention of a project BO wonderfully elaborate and intricate a project of bringing into absolute.* that believe 51. 51 though their number is small. in handicrafts and in the fine arts and unduly exaggerate the defects of the system that have become glaring only in the machine-made civilization of the 19th and 20th centuries. Yet surely these ends might have been attained in a simpler manner and by a less antagonistic process. Ill p. Fick (p.T5Tsays it is the most baneful. There are others. g. * says It E. II ] Varrta 21 ) Law most ' ( new ' edition of 1930 p. whereby it preserved Indian society from social anarchy during ages of foreign invasions and internecine wars. While severely condemning the brShmanas the critics altogether forget that the vast and varied Sanskrit Literature owes its production and preservation mostly to the sacrifice of the brShmanas ages. project like this. Under the caste w (^Continued on next page )J . so prodigious and far-reaching was not needed to accomplish such useful and beneficent endg. These critics ignore the great adaptability of the system. ID the first place. Besides writers like Sherring pass over the great achievements of Indians under the caste system in Literature. 331) entirely scouts the idea that the theory of castes was invented by tho priests.' Equally sweeping condemnation can be and has been indulged in Jas regards feudalism and modern capitalism. Sherring in his . 17 characterises all ' it as ' the disastrous and blighting of human institotions. to feed his pride and to minister to his self-will.-subjection two hundred millions of the human very was in view from the very first is abundantly manifest. This object was neither more nor less than to exalt the Brahman. a form of socialism which through 'ages protected Hindu Society from anarchy and from the worst evils of industrial and competitive life is an automatic poor law to p. There are several fallacies different object the invention of a species by robbing them of their independence. religion and philosophy.

other smrtikaras and commentators on the subject and to describe the peculiar ceremonies. Every great institution has its extremes of good or evil". that he does not think that the caste system was an artificial product due to the intrigues. the restrictions on taking food and intercaste marriages are almost as rigid as . of Hindu To discuss the castes as feasibility and means or desirability of totally destroying the caste system or the ways of attaining that end is deemed to be outside the It legitimate limits of this volume. In the cities we may find some people taking their food together but the real India is in the villages. institutions have no doubt reached a and ( Continued from last page) no man was allowed to be useless to the commonwealth and his system. critical We in India stage in our history when old ideals. in order to avoid misunderstandings or fruitless speculations about his personal views. "When all work was turned out with the hands. Most of these critics have the western stfial system based on wealth and the industrial revolution in view j%ut that system aUo worse than the modern caste system. ancient and medieval. duties and responsibilities gathered from these works in Sanskrit. is as evil as or perhaps . conduct was a question of honour with his group. Moreover what social organization is to be substituted and how is not made clear by these critics. nor does he hold that it is feasible to destroy the whole edifice of the caste system in the near future. In the present work the discussion will be mostly confined to the evidence of Sanskrit literary monuments. It will try to present and balance facts and though it cannot help passing judgments it will leave the reader free to judge for himself as far as possible.22 Histonj of Dharmaiastra { Oh. II that the caste system was an invention. may. privileges. An attempt will be made to trace the origin of caste from Vedio times. Our efforts among and directed to wide and rapid spread of literacy the village people. where in spite of the loud denunciations of reformers for a hundred years. greed and cunning of brahmanas. due to the machinations of crafty br&hmanas. an artificial product. be expressly stated as the authors opinion. the caste system tended to preserve and augment the skill of artisans.they once were. to exhibit theories of the Dharmasutrak&ras. however. the diffusion of the idea of one people one nationality and gradual fusion of small subcastes into must be larger* similar units. This work will **" endeavour to steer clear of downright and hypercritical condemnation of the caste system due to relying on modern standpoints and conditions of society and unthinking adulation thereof.

e.Ch. Ty Boss pp. e. unanimity seems possible as to the several causes and circumof the stupendous structure of casteX Nofc only is it impossible to hold that the origin of the modern complexity of the caste system is to be traced that back to one single cause. in theory a man is assigned to a particular caste by birth to ( 2 ) endogamy and exogamy i. . though of the same caste ( 3 ) restrictions as to food ( i. what food and water may be taken or not taken and from whom ) ( 4 ) occupation ( i. it dwindled and disappeared in the course of time. e. Pick pp. but it is difficult to accept the origins that have been postulated by the several authors can adequately and satisfactorily explain the even all modern . In most of the works on the castes in India a few features : are pointed out as the characteristics of the caste system and as common to all castes and sub-castes. councils and no caste chiefs ' . for lapses. members of most castes follow certain occupations and no others). have to decide whether we shall make or be able to make a clean sweep of all old ideals and We much debris and rubbish or whether while keeping the old ideals and some of the old institutions as foundations we shall build up a new social order and create and foster institutions as so new the present v habits of thought and action. ] Varya 23 habits are being shattered by the impact of new ideas and by the onrush of world forces. caste system. . 66-73 ( 1930 ). It may be said at once that this last is a feature Vide Senart's * caste in India tr. It is beyond the scope of work to write more on this point. 62. e. restriction as marrying in the same caste and not marrying certain relatives or other persons. the caste council with its chief having in meeting assembled among 9ther matters the power to regulate the conduct of its members. some being at the top in the social scale and others being deemed to be so low that they are untouchable. II. They are ( 1 ) heredity i. to impose the penalties of fine or excommunication in that caste . Some authors 52 like Senarfc add another characteristic. 36-37 holds that there were no caste. viz. Rome But in all these countries it hardly ever made any we have ^No stances which led in India alone to the evolution near approach in rigour and complexity to the caste system that in India and instead of ramifying into divisions and subdivisions. of caste A sort prevW in many and Japan. (5) gradation of castes. system based on birth and occupation did countries In ancient times as in Persia.

II.24 that is History of Dharmai&stra [ Oh. Apte. Bhuskute. unless he is or claims to N be a brahmana. in spite of and ). Introduction XXII-XLVI (vol. Bivalkar. gives an alphabetical list of brahmanical tribes and remarks ( XL VII ) Hundreds of these tribes. . religious sality their most commendable patience and industry.neither eating nor drinking together nor intermarrying*. For example. \ We is great difference VeTween the popular modern caste the~ ancient and the conceptions liBbut and medieval dharma&astra" works. he enumerates Athavle. To take only a few examples. the number of castes as larger than what it actually is. but it is well-known to people in Westertotndia that these are the surnames ( not Bubcastes ) of the KMkanastha or CitpSvana brahmanas. cherish mutual distrust and antipathy to such a degree that they are socially separated from one another as far as it is possible for them to be-as much as brahmanas are from the institution regulating marriages ( ' lowest outcastes. Abhyankara. who not only interdine. Badye. often present. if not at enmity with one another. through ignorance or lack of first-hand knowledge. butchers. Bodas as separate tribes . Bhagvat. tanners &c. Achwal. Agashe. The list he gives is most misleading. ' conceptions""!)! it embodied in In the twentieth century caste in India is a matter of marriage and As to avocato a much lesser extent of food arid drink. II not found castes even in ristic of among most of the brahmana and ksatriya modern times and is not dealt with by dharraanow the most prominent charactetlaat it is byJbirjtbuV) sastra works. ) Sherring pp. Bhide. It is also not possible even now for any one to be generally accepted as a priest. but also inter-marry among themselves. \(Elndogamy is caste^and soTSTKeTtfceory The other three are or less fluctuating from province io province and age to age) In this work the first five characteristics of the caste system set out above will be subjected to a close more critical examination OH the basis of the Vedic^ ^l^dharma- must also remember thaFthe attributes sastra material/ There of caste have not been the sarae throughout the ages. Bhat. tions any one can at present follow any fear of loss of caste excepting a few believed profession without to be very impure and very degrading ones (like those of sweepers. ). Bhanu. ^The old barriers that separated one caste or subcaste from another have been greatly shaken by the influx of modern ideas and the exigencies of the times and one may hope that in a few decades more caste will remain as a purely social and to a lesser extent commennot a one Western scholars.

(in dra having killed the dasyus protected the arya varna' (^g. Rg. I. r- ^ ' * ' 1 applied to gods like Variina has another meaning also in the Rg. IX. he exposes the Asura colour '.6 the fierce sage in Rg.2... 71. 'TOtt'f Indra) subdued for Rjisvan. can byTKe help' we intBriJrettSe'Tlgveda mean then in Rg. we moans RgveSa ( e/ * colour ' or v ' light in most read in Rg.ilT. 104. the words asurja^^arnam 6udra trjbej. Br. 130.A. 4 . in ftg. n.D. IlL 34. Rg.. For example.' but this i8 appears bettor to take the passage as meaning that supported both Aryas and dasas.4. Indra punished for the sake of Manu ( the dasas ) who do not observe the ordinances and subdued ( or killed ) the dark skin '. 71. I. IX.l2.2. IX. I. 16. I. * ' . ^. Mahavrata in which there was a mock ( with reference to the and a sudra ) says that the brahmana.7. you mowed down thousand dark (men). ( a fighter ) who ' strikes the people he ( Soma ) who is powerful goes giving out frequent roars. IV. 1. 6. I. varria \Theword II.Oh. you shattered cities as old age does shatter good looks Rg.. iipru fifty and powerful Mrgaya.13 Sornas. The words cannot reasonably * Here Saya^a interprets Ear-fetched varpau ' and it Agastya be taken to refer to Brahmana and Ks-ttriya since there was no difference of colour between the two and since varnas have been four and not two. In numerous ^places in the Rgveda the antagonism 53..5. WT^rn^T ^3*3" HJUchcf TFTf& ^ftfl^^ff WT^TOT: 3^5^: I SjJTt 2. 73.. ^^^of^^^r^: 1^. and sudra is the ^asurycT' varipa V verse of the Tai.:.. 3. There is no doubt that the word asura when ' ' .9T. ' ' . passages of ~the g. 54.l^lt Indra ) who placed low the dasa colour in a cave (or darkness)'.7 ).. 158. 97.1.2 like one (Agastya) cherished both varnas * ' ' . IS. IX. I. H.^--^-.^vftWlllTOT:3qklgFr.179.4.. ft*. as 'ktJina' and 'tapaa. 104.6. 41. which strike dark skin In the IX. But in some verses of the 53 Rgveda the word varna is associated with groups of people having a skin of a dark or fair colour. I. ll ] Varria is 25 of provided there no bar on the ground sameness of gotra ' and pravara.4. II. X. 124.2 varna seems to be placed in opposition to dasa. The Tai.8 Indra helped in battles the Arya sacrificef . Br. These passages make it clear that the Aryas and dasas both were designated varnas were two opposing camps and f KK ***"---*-<* "-*.5 a certain away dasa is called f raitana which name has a Persian ring about it In Rg.6 on account of the colour of their skins.15.. in Rg.. 179. the son of Vidathin. IX. 105. . brahmana a between fight s* If is the divine varria.

X. The dasyus are described as avrata ( not obeying the ordinances of the gods ) in VI. V. ^5.4 to VI. 3f*ra$. 26. This does not mean that there was difference between the two in bodily 4 appearance only. 18.2 and as an asura in X. (who perform no 51. by the help of a brilliant weapon ). 175. paraphrases ^sreFcT: as V. 51.8. 11. 3. 4. 31 YtUka. 29. 99. by one effort together you shook ninety II iff. S. The enmity between dasa and arya is breathed in such verses as the following: Rg. 88.26 History" of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. In Tai. II. Rg. III. 3. In IV. V. 6. Varcin is styled dasa in $g. 29. VII.3 ) also it seems that they are held to be identical. Rg. Rg.3. IX. 11. 30. 51. 32. 6-7 the dasa lamped P^ni. 29.8.4 and dasa in Rg. 34.8 dasyu and applying to the same enemy. This verse applies seven epithets to dasyus. Sambara is called dasyu and dasa in Rgveda VI. VI. 12-6 Oh Indra and Agni. It appears that dasa and dasyu For are synonyms and were sometimes styled asuras. e.4 vanquish the tribe of dasas by the sun ( i. 14. distinct or soft in VII.11.3.2. III. I. 5. II. 18. 99. 57 ( IV. I. 6. 103.11. you laid him low on the ground ).3 . 70. I. 174-7 You made the earth a pillow for ' ' the dasa * I ( i.6. dasa are used in the same verse as applicable to the same enemy.10.8 Indra is requested mark who are aryas and who are dasyus. between the I. 31.3 . 18. 22. 47. X. 56. akratu I. mrdhravacah ) in VII.3. VII.5.3.21 and asura in VII. IV. X. ' ' ' ' sacrifice ) anasa^i ( Bimb-nosed or dumb ) in IJg. both dasa and dasyu respectively. In Nirukta VI. . They are called pagis ( greedy traders ). 117. 1. ll 3?.8. spoken of Fipru Pipru as a dasa in ftg. 6.3. In Rg.9 I. II art/as and dasas or dasyus is emphasized and prayers are offered to India and other gods for having subdued or for subduing the dasa in favour of the Arya.2. Rg. 22. .5 and is also associated with in is like asuras VI.6 and 8 Indra is represented as killing difference of their cults.8 . In Rg. 56 * ' ( * whose speech ' is in- example.10. on the contrary the antithesis between the arya who is referred to as barhismat ' and the dasyu who is styled 'avrata' clearly shows that the emphasis was rather on the That dasyu and dasa are identical in meaning follows from the same epithets being applied to both and from the fact that dasyu and dasa occur in the same verses as 55 In Rg. 19 .3 and V. e.15 and VI. 138.21.3. VIII.3n> . VI. .

though both of tnem occur in the Atharvaveda (V.1.. 27 It is cities that not possible to say that Aryan tribes that had fallen from the worship or culture of the Aryan singers of Vedic hymns. speech and bodily appearance. Besides we cannot forget that the final Brfthmanacchamsin as Sayana explains < . But the verse begins by saying ' and so brahmathat you eing a Sama like the Udgafcr priest ' * putra must mean a rtvij whose duty it was to recite sastras (the ). fin the whole of the Bgveda the wordCyaisya and sudra do not offiur except in tacrlPurusasukta. 20. Protectors of the good! you ( two ) killed Arynn foes and dasa foes Rg. 90 ) where the words brahmana. foregoing shows that in the times of the Rgveda there were two aTtfagonTs?io^c'amps. Vide also ftg. they diffeyred ir\ the colour of their skins and also iu worship. . 60-6. the worovarna is not usedin connection with them. of the aryas and dasas or dasyus. It is generally conceded that the Purusasukfca is a much later hymn than rnSst of ihe hymns of the Rgveda. S. ]$Q one denies that brahmana denotes a caste in later literature?) But whether it has the same the ftgveda rnustTe determined on the materials furnished by the Rgveda itself. ^the Though the words brahmana and ksatrijra^ occur frequently in the Jfcgveda.. 102<3. 69-6. 17-9 for vaiSya an^lV. This shows that though the aryanshad become divided and fought among themselves.. X. Even in the Purusasukta ( Rgveda X. VII. X.Oh. For example.. Rgveda must be held to have been separated from the composition of the indiviflral hymns by several hundred years ( if not more ) and that even if it be conceded redaction of the . vaisya and sudra occur the word varna is not used.. X. II ] Van?a had das as as overlords '. VI. VI. one ina^xeasqn^ably say that the only water- tight groups that are positively or expressly vouchsafed by the Rgveda afe^arya and dasa^ orjasjru. II. 22-10. they keptaryss and dasas quite distinctlj^h^. 2 as showing that a brahmana became ' ' ' sense in so only by birth in the Rgveda. 43. -fand 8 for 6udra and arya ) and very frequently in the Tai. 83. Hence.*Tn^ the Rgveda aTsoTTmttst be presumed to haviTthe "same meaning. It is often argued that^ as the word bf^ffioalia^enotes^ a caste In laterTi?erature. 'Oh Indra and Varuna you killed dasa foes and also Arya foes and helped Budas with your protection dasas or dasyus were some * ' I ' Rg. In many places the sage refers to the conquest for him by Indra and other gods of dasas as well as Aryan foes. rajanya. Some rely on the word brahmaputra in Rg. in the earliest period we find word varna ^associated o^ly^jth^jd^a an<T wlth^arya. Therefore. But this begs the whole queslTon. 83-1.

28
that at the time

History of Dharmaiiistra

I

Oh. II

when the Purusasukta was composed, the four varnaa had been constituted and had become castes, yet the same cannot be affirmed for the time of the original composition of the other hymns. The word brahmana occurs several times in 58 Oh brahmanas, Oh pitrs fond of soma May the the IJgveda:
*
!

sinless Dyavaprfchivl ( Heaven and Earth 4 Like brahmanas in the Atiratra where

tend to our welfare'; soma is to bo drunk, utterring ( words ) round a lake full of water you have, Oh frogs, gathered together on that day of the year on which the rains begin*
)

The brahmanas, who drink soma, reciting yearly sacrifice, have sent forth their speech 8 ). In this verse brahmanas are expressly said brahma ready. May Agni who devours everything make that ( dead body ) free from disease and ( may ) soma also ( do the same ) who entered into the brahmanas ( Rg. When the brahmanas worship together as friends X. 16. 6 ). in hymns ( lit. speed of the mind ) that are fabricated from their hearts X. 71. 8 ). In Rg. VI. 75. 10 brahmanas are ( Rg. invoked for welfare along with pitrs. This shows that the brahmanas were highly venerated. The other verses establish that they were the reciters of hymns ( brahma ) and drank soma. In "Bg. VIII. 35. 16-18 we read You ( Asvins ) urge on (or inspire ) brabma, you urge on our thoughts ( or actions ), you kill the evil spirits and subdue diseases ( 17 ) you urge ksatra (valour) and also men, you kill evil spirits (same as 16 ) and also the Vi6 ( the rest is same ( 18 ) you urge on the cows Here it seems that the groups of people ( viz. those as 16 )/ who think and make songp, those who show valour and lead men, and those common peoplo who tend cattle ) are clearly
Rg. VII. 103. prayers of the ( Rg. VII. 103. to be getting
(
'

7

59

*

);

'

'

*

'

'

'

*

;

;

,,

meant.

These verses

may

be conceded as pointing to the exis-

tence of three groups ( brahmanas, ksatriyas and visah ) but there is nothing in them to show that these three had crystallised into
33.

somewhat
is

11 Vasistha

mean that he was been born of UrvasI from Mifcra and Varuna.
58.

like tho castes of later times. In IJg. VII. addressed as brahman, but that does not a brahmana ( by birth ), as he is said to have

Similarly, in

WTSJOrWt fqrR:

l**mT: f?T%

*ft

59.

wrsrTro> s*i1frr%

* tfftr
7.

^

^^
-,

STnrrT^ft 3T^FTT

I

Sff.

VI. 75.10.
.

$forf2ra>

^n

i

^f^^^^ er^f

i!

<*?.
;

103. 7

I

=ff
;

7. 103. 8

.

10

16. b

J-^T

aif TredlsT^! ^r^nirm:

^^

snaro

i

^?.

X. 71. 8

;

u 9?. 1. 164.

45.

Oh. II

]

Farrwi
96. 6

29
the word
',

Bg. IX.
'

(

Brahma devanam
'

)

brahma
'

60

does not
'

brahmana by mean brahmanas by birth In
certainly
'.

mean

birth

nor does

vipranam
is

that verse oae

who

super-

eminent among a group

is

specified, just as the buffalo

among

animals, the hawk among carnivorous birds &c. In Rg. VIII. 33. ' 19 look down and not up ; bring your feet close together ; may
thy kasaplakas ( legs wert born a woman/
?
)

it is

be not seen, for though a brahma, thou impossible to hold that the last words

mean
reason

*

thou

wert;

a brahmana

woman

'.

If

it is

to refer to the fact that she is a

brahmana woman,
'

( babhuvitha ) is most probably means a priest of that name ', as that is the meaning in Rg. II. I. 2 ( brahma casi Tha word brahmajaya in Rg. X. grhapatis-ca no dame).

why

the Perfect tense
'

only intended there is no used and not the

present.

Here brahma

'

'

'

109. 2, 3, 6

and

7

does not
'

mean

the wife of a

brahmana by

wife of Brhaspati '. The whole hymn is obscure and more or less enigmatic or allegorical. In the 61 35. 2-4 it is said that soma is the food Aitareya-brShmana
birth but rather

brahmanas and that a ksatriya was to press the tendrils of Nyagrodha tree and the fruits of Udumbara, Asvattha and Plak^a and drink the juice so pressed instead of soma. vJJ^ appears, therefore, that tha brahmanas were a distinct group even in thefearliest period of the, Bgyeda, Whether they were hereditary is certainly not clear nor is there anything to show
of

the

;

as regards partaking of food from persons other than brahmanas of as to marriage. That brahmanas in the Rgveda were a class by themselves may be conceded,
that there were restrictions

but whether they had become a^casferByTliriiK is"'a "matter of opinion dependent on the connotation given to the word caste. Dr. Ghurye ( Caste and race in India p. 42 ) thinks, probably
*
'

following the Vedic Index ( vol. I on Ksatriya ), that the reference in Rg. X. 71. 9 to a false claim for being regarded
as a brahmana points to the conclusion that brahmanas had become a caste. The verse literally translated means these who do not move below nor beyond, who are ( persons )
*

neither
60.

brahmanas,
argrr

nor

engaged in

pressing

soma

they

ifrwrt <Tcpfp

^T3C
sft

I

3?.

r? wgrr spjifoi

IX. 96.6; 3TO: SR. viti. 33.
ii

61.

^l^.wr. 35.2-4;
47-61, III. 6.

vide

^j^j^^

III. 5. 22,

III.

5.

36 and Sahara's bhs^ya thereon for this subject.

80

History of Dharmaifistra

[

Oh. II

being ignorant and having reHorted to speech in sinful ( or coarse ) language take to ploughshares and engage in ( agricultural) operations'.
It is

difficult to see

how

there is here

any false claim to be regarded as a brahma na. This verse means apparently that those who are not composers of prayers or drinkers of soma ( because they are ignorant ) are men of low speech and have to turn to agriculture. Even in the days of the dharma-sutras restrictions as to food and marriage for brahmanas were not at all as rigid as they became in medieval and modern times but even when these restrictions were not rigid it was clearly laid down that a*brahmana is brahma generally means in so by birth alone. VT^ e word
;

'

'

1fe IV. 6.11, Vl. 52.2, prayer or"* hyntn ". Vfde X. 141.B "~(*0li Agnir'make our prayer and sacrifice IJg. III. 53.12 is 'this brahma prosper by your flames'). or of Visvamitra protects the Bharata ) power ( prayer spiritual In the Atharyaveda II. 15.4 (as brahma and ksatra people*. entertain no fear, nor are~tne~y""MTtned ) brahrna seems to mean the class of brahmanas '. The transition of mearifng from 'brahma' (prayer) to Brahma' meaning the class of In those who composed or recited prayers is natural and easy. 63 in the the Rgveda I. 157.2 both""fcrafrffia and ksatra occur same verse where they probably mean prayer and valour respectively. In the Atharvaveda III. 19. 1 both words occur and probably mean the same thing as in Rg. I. 157.2. In some Vedic 64 works brahma and ksatra aland collectively for brahmanas and
the ftgveda

'

'

**

X.

105.8,

'

'

'

'

'

ksatriyas (e.
I. 2.

g.

Tai. Br. II. 7.18, Br. Up.
is

I.

4.11,

Kathopanisad

24).

The word ksatriya
e. g.'

epithet to several gods;
(

very frequently applied as an Kg? VII: 64. 2 and VIII. 25. 8

), Rg. VIII. 67. 1 ( to Adityas ), Bg. X. 66.8 ( to gods in general ). In some verses ksatrjya e means a king or a nobleman '; e. g. 3Jg. IV. 42.1 tEeTkingdom on both sides ( heaven and "earth ) belongs to me, who am a ksatriya and who holds sway over all living persons, so that 65 all the immortals ( gods ) are ours (on my side)'; Bg. X, 109.3
'

in both to Mitra

and Varuna

62.

?t^3&a*&f^^^*#n^.
I

X. 141.5.

Sff.

III. 53. 12.

63.

^T^fTmT(^T^^5fftj^TT^?r5^cr
TT

^RHcTf H%JTI%

II

Sff. 1.
i

157.2.

64.
65.

wsr

WT^TOT: %nf TI^^T:
fjerr

^.

srr.

III. 9. 14.
i

*m

ti^ srSwr fi^rnfl*^ 3^^m ^IT TJ
this is

^K.

IV. 42.1.

to the

Anukiama^i

a

by mn

of

king

Trasadasyu

sou

Ace. of

Parukutsa.

Oh.II]
(

Varya

3i

Atharva V, 17.3 ) 'the domain of the ksatriya has been ' protected ( from the sight of enemies ) '. (The word rSjanya occurs in the Rgveda only in the PurusaStrkts: ft OOOnrS' in
the sense of ksatriya in the

^Sarvayeda

V." 17.9.

~TCe~1slJme

remark applies l6~tW"wor3 ksatriya as to brahmana. It is difficult to say whether ksatriyas were so by birth ia the times of the hymns of the Kg. 'or were only a class more or less fluid. We find that the Rg. speaks of Devapi as the The story 86 is that purohita of Santanu who became a king. both were sons of Rstisena and that Santanu, though a younger brother, became king as Devapi was not willing to be a king. The result was a famine due to Santanu 's transgression and so Devapi performed a sacrifice to induce rainfall. This shows that out of two brothers one became a king and the other a purohita. So kings and purohitas did not depend on birth. In Rg. IX. 112. 3 a poet exclaims I am a reciter of hymns my father is a physician and my mother grinds ( corn )
"

'

with stones.
In Rg.

We

desire to obtain wealth in various actions.
'

'

67

III. 44-5 the poet wistfully asks Indra 0, Indra, fond of soma, would you make me the protector of people, or would you make me a king, would you make me a sage, that has drunk of soma, would you impart to me endless wealth ? This shows that the same man could be * a rsi or a noble or a king. Dr. Ghurye ( in Caste and
*

p. 44 ) thinks that the ksatriyas had become a compact body and he particularly relies on Rg. VII. 104. 13 = Atharvaveda VIII. 4. 13 ) which is cited in the Vedio ( Index ( vol. 1, p. 207 ) for the same purpose. That verse literally means Soma does not urge on the crooked one, nor the ksatriya

race in India

*

'

who
'

bears false.
;

He

strikes the raksas,
'

and

strikes

him who

'

speaks falsely both lie in the bonds of Indra '. The words ksatriyam mithuya dharayantam are explained by Sayana as Ksatriya who bears false words'. The 2nd half is only an

'

expansion of the first half and so vrjina corresponds to raksas and asad vadantam is only a paraphrase of mithuyS dharayantam'. They may mean this that one who is a
* *
* *

*

'

ksatriya, but has no strength as a ksatriya should have, is at
66. Vide Nirukta II. 10 for the story of DevSjn and Santanu who were Kauravya brothers according to it.
67.
5i.

sTRi^t

am

IX. 112.3.

Kara means here

3*3 TT fosnjTcswoft T*T ^TmiWr VidvSmitra composer of hymns
i

^^r

*

'

;

ia

addressed as kSru by the rivers in Vide fsfc-tff VI. 6

%.

III.

33. 10

32

History of Dharmafaslra

[

Oh. it

state of society
it is

the morcy of Indra. Unless we project our notions of the later and the caste system when considering this verse,

refers to persons
*

hardly possible to hold that this verse indicates that it making a false claim for entrance into a com-

pact body of ksatriyas by birth. Dr. Ghurye also says ( p. 44 ) The 2nd order in society, the ksatriya, is known in the earlier
portions of the Rgveda as rajanya.' I have nofc been able to find the word rajanya in the Rgveda any where except in the Purusasfikfca. In the Aitareya biahmana (chap. 34. 2) the word 'rajanya'

stands for a member of the 2nd class in society, while ksatriya means a king of whom land ( for sacrifice to gods ) is asked for

by brahmana, rajanya
\

or vaisya,

Though
in

the word

in* the
people

Purusasukta,
it.

_the

vaisya occurs in the Bgv&4,a_ only word 'vis* is very frequently
'
i

^employed
'.

people or group of generally means In a large number of cases we have the words
It
_

manusir-visah or manuslsu viksu or

manuslnam visam,

e.

g.

Rg. I1I.5.3, III. 6.3, III. 11. 5 (invincible Agni goes in front of human groups ), IV. 6. 7 and 8, IV. 9. 2, V. l. 9, V. 8. 3, VI. 48. 8, VI. 47. 16 ( viso manusyau ), X. I. 4, X. 69. 9. In some places we have dasir visah ( the dasa hordes ) e. g. IV. 28-4, VI. 25-2. 68 In Rg. III. 34-2 we have Oh Indra, you are the leader of human hordes as well as of divine hordes ( where we have 69 VIII. 63-7 (when loud invocations daivlnam visam). Rg. were sent towards Indira by the people consisting of five groups) In Rg. V. 32. 11 shows that vis means all the Aryan people
'
*

*

'

*

'

.

Indra is styled pancajanya ( favourable to the five people ) and in IX. 66. 20 Agni has the appellation pancajanyah. purohitafr of the five peoples). Sometimes jana and vis seem ( the puroMta
'

'

'

'

to be contradistinguished as in Rg. II. 26. 3 ( sa ij-janena sa visa sa janmana sa putrair-vajam bharate dhana nrbhih ), But the

very fact that
68. 69.

vis

is qualified

also as paiioajanya
1

shows that

%?%

{ScfteT^nw

sriswt
I.

^qra^^r ScSlr? ^"fTT s^g^cf
4.
'

bhaya on VedaLtasutra
VIII. 63 7
'

Rsrr '<Hfaf5*r ^Vncr 3?. III. 34.2. ^aihkara in his Wt. V11I. 63.7. 12 says that the word pancajana in
I

%.

means 'prajs' (people) and also notes that according to some panca jauah are devaa, pitrs, asuras, gandharvas and rak^ases while according to others they are the four varnas and nissdas as the The Ait. Br. (13. 7 ) gives an explanation of panoa janSh similar fifth.
;

to the first
^TftJTt

*

<n3F3

ST

*FwWwt WTt ^r R^rt ^

^ypsf ^1^%%^ srifnt *n tjarcq-^rsrsfifrs^^ ^wgThe Nirukta ( III. 8 ) in explaining
.

X. 53. 4 remarks about panca janahi.
j
I

>

Oh. II
there

]

rarva

33

was hardly any distinction between jana and vil In the Rgveda frequent reference is made to five people ( pafica janah );

vide Rg. III. 37. 9, III. 59, 7, VI. 1 1. 4, VIII. 32. 22, X. 65. 23, X. 45. 6. In the same way the words krsti (II. 2. 10, IV. 38. 10), ksifci ( V. 35. 2, VI. 48. 7, VII. 75. 4 ), oarsani ( V, 86. 2, VII. 15. 2 ) are

employed
krstisu
all
4
'

along
"frg.

with

panca.

We
is
'

have also

'

pancajanyasu
tha
'
'

in

III. 53-16.

So
'

ifc

clear that vii cannot in almost
*

or people ' is aryan people or daivlh 70 The Ait. Br. (I. 26 ) says that ' visah ' means prefixed. rastrani ( countries ) when explaining Trig. IV. 50-8 ( tasmai
'
'
*

hymns

of the Rg.

mean vaisya bub means when no epithet like daslh

'

'

vi6ah svayam-3vanamante

).
*

means a serf or a slave.' It follows that the dasa tribes that we see opposed to the Aryas in the Tlgveda were gradually vanquished and were then made to serve the Aryas. In the Manusmrfci ( VIII. 413 ) the Sudra is said to have been created by God for service
dasa
in later literature
(

The word

*

'

7I dasya ) of the brahmana. and other Brahmana works

We

find in the Tai.

S.,

the Tai. Br.

that the sudra occupies the same position that he does in the smrtis. Therefore it is reasonable to infer that the dasas or dasyus conquered by the Aryas were

gradually transformed into the 6udras. From being enemies they were brought into friendly relations and given a very subordinate position. Traces are visible even in the Rgveda that friendly relations had begun to be established between certain
'

dasas and the priests. For example in IJg. VIII, 46. 32 we read the singer took a hundred ( cows or other gifts ) from the dasa
fro'ii

Balbutha and

Taruksa.

1

In the Purusasukta

(

X. 90. 12

)

the brahmana, ksatriya, vaiSya and sudra are said to have sprung from the mouth, arms, thighs and feet of the supreme

Purusa.
to

In the very next verse the sun and the moon are said have been born from the eye and mind of the Purusa. This shows that the composer of the hymn regarded the division of society into four classes to be very ancient and to be as natural and God-ordained as the sun and the moou.
shall now see what position was assigned to the suclra in the Vedic Samhitas and Brahmanas. In the Rgveda the ' Arya is contradistinguished from the men of dark skin.' In

VWe

the dharmasutras we find the Madras spoken of as
70.

^ark

varna.

1

Vide Rg.

I. 25.1, I.

114

3,

VI. 15-1, X. 173*4 for 'vi*T by itself.

H. P. 5

34

Hidtory of Dharmaifistra
S. I. 9. 27.

[

Oh. II

Vide Ap. Dh.
II. 1. 59.
78

11 which

is

^The Sudra among men and
;

the same as Baud. Dh. S. the horse among beasts.

ances of beings

Therefore those two, the horse and the sudra, are the convey therefore the svidra is not fit ( or ordained )
73

for sacrifice' (Tai. S, VII, 1.1. 6).

This shows that the 6udra could not perform the Vedic sacrifices and Jhat he was employed for carrying person's "in a palanquin or otherwise.
In Tai. S."v.
7.
6.
it

3-4 we have 'put light (glory) in our ( or kings ), ( put ) light in 74 vaisyas and Sudras, put light in me by your light.* This is a sure dasa is here of the who took the indication that the dudra place other with the three in the on classes the same level placed
brfihmanas, put
in our chiefs

matter of the receipt of light from God and that far from being looked upon as an enemy, he had come to be looked upon as a

member
6udra
the

of the society

(

though the lowest in the scale ).\*The
;

is^a moving Veda in the vicinity

burial ground

of a siudrar^5

therefore one should not study He created the brah'

mana with Gayatrl, the rajanya~wllh Tristubh and the vaisya with JagatI ;Jbut he did not create the sudraVith any metre. 76 The Tandy amahabrahmana says ^ Therefore a sudra, though he
'

may have many
is

beasts, is not entitled to

perform

sacrifice,

he

godless as no deity of the other varnas )

was created
;

after

him
),

(

as in the case

therefore

he

does

not

go beyond

being an allusion to the Purusasukta X. 90. 12 padbhyam sUdro ajayata ). This shows that the sudra, however rich in cattle he might be, had to
feet*

washing the feet created from the

(

of the

three other varnas
(this
last

since he

was

perform the menial duty of washing the feet of
72.
I. 9.

dvijas.

The

27.

11=

165. 29.
73.

^rjtowSHt
74.

1

1. *. VII.

l. 1.6.

75.

i

TO^r(T^?iT^TE|r5-j
1.
*

cnEm

1

?^^^
-a

w^rac

i

This
18.

is

quoted

by Sahara on Jaimiui VI. these words ij^
is

38 as a

sriiti.
I

qr%s u. ^.

11-12 echoes
.

m wSlrt

^

?T:

cited as Satapatha Sruti
76.

This

is

by the ^ndrakiinalakara (p. 3 ). Vide quoted by Vaa. Dh. S. IV. 3.

Ait. Br. 5. 12

77.

VI.

1.

11.

Cb. II

]

Varna

:

position
'

of Sudra
'

35

B. E. the sudra is untruth Satapatha Br. says that ( S. vol. 44. p. 446 ), that the sudra is toil (S. B, BY Vol. 44 p. 410 ), and that a dlksita ( one who was initiated for a Vedic sacrifice ) was not to speak with a sudra ( S. B. E, vol. 26 p. 4 ). The 78 Aitareya Brahmana remarks that the sudra is at the beck
'

'

'

ancfcaTI of 6tHefs~t"the three' varnas)," foe c^nTjeTSade to rise 79 at Will, he'cltn^l^eaten at will.' When the father of Sunahsepa
(

who had

^sold

SunahsepsT for 100 coins

and had shown

himself ready to kill him as a pasu for another hundred coins ) urged his son to come back to him after the boy had been

taken into favour by Varuna and VisvSmitra, he contemptuously discards his father's proposal with the words one who commits an evil deed once may commit another sinful deed thereafter you did not leave aside the sudra's line of conduct
'

;

;

you did what leaves no door for reconciliation. These passages show that the sudra, though he had ceased to be an enemy of the arya and had been allowed to be within tEePpale of society, was looked Uown upon, wa_s -asSTglteli a very'low position, had to perform wttfk oT toil as a menial and was not
*"
'

'

allowed to perform Vedic sacrifices. A clear line of demarcawas kept between S&e^SVya and the Sudra in tho times of the Brahmana works and even in tho dharmasutras. The 80 Tandya Brahmana speaks of a mock fight 'the sudra and
tion

5rya fight on a hide, out of the two they so arrange that the The Ap. Dh. S. ( I. 1.3.40-41 arya colour becomes the victor 81 says that a brShmaoarin, if he cannot himself eat all the food he has brought by begging, may keep it near an arya or he may give it to a sudra who is a dasa ( of ( for his use ) his teacher)'. The same Dharmasufcra 88 (II. 2.3. land 4) says Aryas who are pure ( by bach ) should prepare the food or SQdras supervised by aryas should for Vaisvadeva; it Similarly Gautama X. 69 uses the word anarya prepare for sudra and Gautama 12.3 prescribes heavy punishment for a
'. *
*

'.

78.

(

^:

)

a^^^r

ifcnr:

^THVwi^ft ^SH^TTRI^:

I

.

art.

35.3

79
I

*r
.

The legend of Sunahsepa is referred to even in Rg, *r. 33. 5. 24.12-13 and V. 2.7 (where it is expressly said that unah6epa was released by Varuna from the sacrificial post to which he had been tied).
I.

80.
81. 82.
t?TT. v.

^j

|*4I

^nlf ^MI^SPH

fl <U'*I*ta

u

l?S'*rhMsPc|
'

I

cTPST V.
^.

5. 14.

3jnfrrrTMJq<tw<U awfSfr
sinr?: snr

*r ^r^pr

STTT. v.

1. 1. 3.

40-41

%

H,

2. 3. 1

and

4.

36

History of Dharmasastra

[

Ch. II

sudra having sexual intercourse wit'* an arya woman. Jaimini in his Purvamlmansa sutra (VI. 1.25-38) establishes after elaborate discussion that the sudra has no adhikara for the performance of Aguihotra and Vedic sacrifices. It is, however,

somewhat gratifying

to find that tit least one acarya, Badari, espoused the cause of the sudra and propounded the view that all ( including sudras ) were entitled to perform Vedic sacrifices (VI 1.27). In the Vedanta-sutras also (I. 3.34-38) it is

established that the sudra has no adhikara for

brahmavidya based on Veda study, though some sudras like Vidura might have been endowed with the knowledge of brahma owing to sarhskSras of former births. In the smrti literature, however, a few passages are found allowing marriages of aryas with sudra women Similarly sexual relations ( which will be discussed later on ). between a sudra woman and a man of higher ( illicit ) varna are alluded to even in the Samhitas e. g. Tai. S. 83 VII. 4.19.3 when a sudra woman has an arya as her paramour
*

SllS

deer

*]ofc

.seek

wealth for the prosperity

(

of her relations

)

'.

In Ait. Br. (8. 1) there" is the "tory or Kavasa Ailusa, who was driven out from the sacrifice on the SarasvatI with the words* Oh, son' of a female slave, you are a rogue and not a

brahmana; how did you take the dlksa ( initiation ) as one of us 'and they carried him off to a sandy desert with the idea He when tormented by that he might die of thirst there. the hymn $g. X. 30 and SarasvatI came rushing thirst saw 84 Further discussion about the sudra and his disto him.
*
'

abilities will follow in another section later.

The position
arya
)

of the three varnas inter se

(

called collectively

now

requires consideration.

It is clear that the

Samhitas

other than the
classes of

Rgveda and Brahmana works show that the three brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaisyas had become differbecome
,,

entiated and their privileges, duties and liabilities had more or less fixed in those times.

83.

^r tr^fcrm
woman
)

**

fifln*r

*Wrfiri&

Sarhhita ^3. 30. 'Arya''
(

may moan an
).

tf. VII. 4. 19.3 and VtTjasaneya Arya, or simply 'master' or 'vaidyu'

as in later literaiiuo

The words

TT..."^

of the dadra

docs not desire wealth for his

may mean Ho ( the father own prosperity (ag
'

'

he

is

pained by the event).

84.

A

The words

*

mean

that,

is told in the SankhSyana BrShmatja XII. 3. dSsyah putrah may be only terms of abuse or they may though he posed to be a brahmana, he was the BOH of a brRh-

similar story

'

mai?a from

Ch. II

]

Varna
'

:

br&hmanas

37

we read that king alone who places brahma first ( i. e. honours him dwells happy in his house, for him the earth always remains prosperous and to him all the people ( or Brahmanas 8S are kingdoms ) bow down of their own accord Tai. S. I. 7. 3. 1 ); there are two gods that are directly seen kinds of gods for indeed the gods are gods and the brahmanas who have studied and teach the sacred lore are the human gods'
50.8
)
*

In Bg. IV.

'.

'

*

(

;

Br. ( S. B. E. vol. 12 p. 309, vol. 26 p. 341 ). In the Atharvaveda V. 17. 19 there is an assertion of the pre-eminence of brahmanas and the consequences of harming them or fteir * cows/ Therefore the brahmana is the foremost ( Tai. S. II. Therefore the brahmana shows his might by 6. 2. 5, V. 2. 7. 1 ). his mouth, since he was created from the a moutty' ( Tandy Br. XI. 1. 2 ). 86 In the Ait. Br. ( 33. 4 ) Varuna, when he was told that a brahmana boy would be offered In place of the son of the king Hariscandra, is made to say a brahmana is indeed preferable to a ksatriya '. The mere fact of birth as brShmana's son is represented here as giving to the boy pre-eminence over a king's son. On the other hand the Sat. Br. says (V. 1. 1 . 12 ) a brahmana 87 is not adequate to ( competent to manage ) a In the Tai. Br. it is said that playing on the vlna kingdom ( in the Asvamedha ) is to be done by a brahmana and a rajanya ( and not by two brahmanas ), since wealth does not find delight 88 in the brahmana. The Satapatha Brahmana ( XL 5. 7. 1 ) lays emphasis on the four-peattliar 'attributes^ of brahmanas viz.
Sat.
;

*

*

'

*

'.

(

brahmanya
(

(

purity of parentage as a
),

Brahmana
(
'

),

pratirupacarya
)

befitting deportment or conduct

yasas
).

jglory

and lokapakti

(

the teaching or perfecting of people

being perfected or taught by him, people privileges viz. area ( honour ), dana ( SJftjO^ajyeyata
85.

When_ the people arc endow him with four
(

freedom

<&

"i*

%3t:

wq&
.

srrsrom

i

'<T.

H.

1.

7. 3.

3*r.

n. 15 and
I

$nrqT XII. 4. 4. 6 rTfrTTfTITjjroft S^T^ 'sflM ^rftnf S^Sreff f|" ig&i wr. VI. 1. 6. Tho same idea ia expressed in the TrTWH^rf^T V.
;

86.
T

?T5r
i

ft
.

$

gr^i3r
87.

'Tr.

snroi; 33. 4.

i

m^^Jr^r

^T. XI. l, 2

;

'^snsnjft Ti^^nrT?R
fr

?iw^r V.

1.
'

1.12

;

s. B.

B. Tol. 41 p. 4.

wTirot
88.
ifl

**&

fft wFartffwft Tr^rr^^^

^. *i.

ni.

9. 14.

.5. 7. 1.

38

History of Dharma&astra

[

Cb. It

from being harassed ) and avadhyata ( freedom from being The Satapatha ( V. 4. 6. 9 ) expressly mentions beaten ). that brfthmana, rSjanya, vaisya and sudra are the four varnas. Teaching had become so much associated with the brahmanas that when the brahmana GSrgya approached king
" this Ajatasatru for the knowledge of brahma, the latter replied is contrary to the natural order that a brahmana should approach
'

a ksatriya with the idea he ( ksatriya ) will propound to me " In a separate section below alt the privileges brahma '. 89 enjoyed by the brahmanas will be set out at one place.

89.
i

*Rf.

gr.

II. 1.15.

ti

I

*RWtaf%WT. T. IV. 18.

In the Tai.

S.

IV.

5. 11. 9

we
i

read

wrsn*ft

^

<T^*T:

.

This

literally

means 'if a brahmana and a nou-brShmana come (to a man) asking him a question, then he should speak to the brahmana first that he speaks to the brabmana first is really tantamount to speaking first to One-self; when he speaks away from the brShmana (i. e. he speaks to the non-brffhmana first and then to the brahmana ) that is therefore a brSbmana should not be really speaking away to oneself spoken away ( i. e postponed to non-brshmanas ).* Manu VIII. 24 says
;
;

that a king should take up the causes of litigants in the order of the yarnae (i. e. if there are two plaintiffs coming with complaints at the same time the brShimina's complaint should be first attended to ).

Brhaspati says the same thing. Therefore the Tai. S. should be interpreted in the same way. Another meaning is possible viz. if a brShmana and a non-brahmana come to a person and ask him who is superior, the person should declare that the bra"hmana is the superior of the two (on account of his birth as brahmana probably or of his being a learned

man).
I.

This sense of *adhi
'

superior Prof. Keith in his translation of Tai. S. (to all) on this wide earth. " (Harvard Oriental Series, vol. 18 p. 203) says in a footnote it is not
)
7

99

since

as meaning 'superior brahmana when born becomes ( or

7

*

is

found
born

in

Manu

is

absolutely certain that adhibru means decide in favour 1 speak in favour of." Vide also Vedic Index ( II. p. 83
'

of
).

rather than
Dr.

(

in

*

Caste and race in India
or
It

'

p. 43 ) says

*

in a legal dispute or witness

Ghurye between

a

brahmana

non-brahmana an arbitrator

must speak in

favour of the former.'

appears that Dr. Ghurye simply follows the rather guardedly expressed view of the famous Professor, but makes the sense more emphatic than Prof. Keith puts it and does not think for
himself whether any other meaning is possible or more appropriate. Any stick IB good for beating the brahmana with. The br&hmanat were never ashamed in the smrti texts of declaring the privileges they
(

Continued on next page

)

Ch. II

]

Varqa

:

ksatriyas

39
to the br&h-

The

position of ksatriyas

and their relation

manas
*

falls to
'

be considered now.
*
'

First of all with reference

to the king several important

cases
10,

rajan

X. 97. 6. '. government often seems to hay e. been triEalT such tribes as Yadus, Turva&as, Druhyus, Anus and Purus ( Rg. I. 108. 8) being frequently mentioned ( vide Rg. VII. 18. 6 for Bhrgus and Druhyus and VIL 18, 7 for Trfcsus, VIII. 6. 46 for Yadvas ). Whether kingship was by election it is not necessary here to discuss. The king was regarded as keeping'the people within 90 bounds. When a king was crowned, it was thought that
,

passa^esjmay be cited. In some means only a noT)le or **cKePTas in Rg. X. 42. In many^p^Mlges"^ rajaiT meansjjdng The

'

a ksatriya was produced, a lord of all beingsr tftte defender of brShmanas (or of Tioly tetfcs ) and of dharma.' 91 The ' for these two ( srotriya and king ) are the Sat. Br. Says upholders of the sacred law among men* ( S. B. E. vol.41 9B That the co-operation between brahmana and ksatriya p. 106 ).
*

~

results in glory and success is frequently emphasized therefore a brahraana must certainly be approached

e.

g.

by a

ksatriya who is about to perform some act, for indeed that act ' of a ksatriya which is sped on by brahmana succeeds 93 The purohtta of a . ( Satapatha, S. B. E. vol. 26 pp. 270-271 )
Continued from last page)

(

claimed.

But they never claimed to be treated in a court of law as above truth and justice. If they had taken the Tai. S. passage in the sense in which Dr. Ghurye takes it they would never have scrupled to say so in smiti works und would have quoted the Tai. S. in support. llence the moaning is different. There is no question here of an
In JJg. I. 100. 19 there is a similar decision. * May Iiidra speak in our favour on all days (f*h^l%*^t expression S. 63. 11 and 16. X. 5 Vide for the verb 3t 3<fonfr Rg. Vsj. 3^g). vac with adhi in the sense of speak in favour of or bless.'
arbitration or judicial
* ' ' *
'

'

'

*

90.

01.
I

^.

srr.

38 and 39.

3.

Varuna is frequently called IQ&R ( e. g. ^. I. 25. 8 and 10 and once even the yajarnSna is so called (qf. I. 25. 6); the ^iff'W V. 4. 4. 5 explains 5ff. I. 25. 10 as Hy^|<| ^ ..... ^?rpr yft ^rar^ir ^ CHfT
92.
'

I

trisr

q-

^fBnrJ
(

^%

f\
*

*3*%$

^c^afr

I

same words occur
Nitrada
93

gfr

praklrnaka 42

*?(% ^"STcft Tr^rr ) express the

VIII. 1 practically the arrgnr^r Tffjcf: . Manu IX. 322 and
'.
'

In

mnT

same
^T

idea.

cTWf ^Tf%^T CT *& Rtt^HTOT'i^M tfcf
r.

^

arfSTT:

I

tf

^7^
ift?rar

ff

IV. 1.4.6; the words wfT

...

\^ occur in

XL 14.

40

History of Dharma&astra

[

Ch. II

The Satapatha ksatriya came to occupy a very high position, lays emphasis on ihe importance ( S. B. E. vol. 26 p. 270 ) of the purohita and cautions a brahmana against being the
purohita of

any king he meets with and adds

that a

brahmana

without a king, but a king should not be without a brahmana. Even the gods required a purohita, as the Tai. S.

may remain
II. 5. 1. 1.
94

Visvarup* son of Tvastr was the purohita of Sanda and Atnarka were the purohitas of the Asuras gods/ S. IV. 4 ). ( Kathaka Agni is often called purohita ( fig. I. 1. 1., I. 44. 10, III. 2. 8 ). May we, purohitas, be awake in the
says
'

'

kingdom
Ait. Br.

says the Tai. S. ( I. 7. 10. 1 ). The the purohita is half the soul of the says ( ' ksatriya and contains an eulogy of purohita in the following " words ( 40. 1 ) for indeed the gods do not eat the food of a king no who has purohita; therefore a king when about to offer a sacrifice should have a brahmana as his purohita with the
(

for its welfare
)

'

)

chap. 34. 8

95

*

idea

'

may

brahmana
it is
(

" the gods eat my food.' and the rajanya is said to
*

Tbfe

The combination of the most desirable and that

V.

1.

of both is declared in the Tai. S. eAii conducive to the^pinence 96 10. 3 ) Therefore reron a brahmana who is supported by a

rSjanya is superior to another brahmana ( not so supported ), hence a rajanya who has a brahmana ( to help him ) is superior The Satapatha ( V. 4. 4. 15 ) declares 'that to another rajanya who indeed is not powerful to the brahmanas ( i. e. who is king humble before the brahmanas ) becomes more powerful than his *7 It is not to be supposed that this attainment of the foes/
'.

supreme position by brShmapas was an affair of plain sailing. Sometimes ksatriyas claimed higher position and also paid scant In the Satapatha we read whence the respect to brahmanas. brahmana is an object of respect after the king ( S. B. E. vol. 41, hence the people here serve, from a lower po-ition, the p. 96 ); ksatriya seated above them Satapatha ( S. B. E. vol. 12 p. 94 ); 'hence when a nobleman approaches, all these people, the subjects crouch down by him on the ground Satapatha ( S, B. E. vol. 26 p. 228); 'therefore there is nothing higher than the ksatra;
'
' '
'

'

94.

95.

srqfeft

$

*rr <?<?

srf^T?qr *r?s*tfl*f:

i

$.

wi

.

34. 8;

3TT.

40. 1.
cT*

96.
*rac
i

S. H. v. 1. 10. 3.

97.

^t t ^ren yT5rqnKflqHffiV**fr

*r

^rn^c *ren* SKPW V. 4.4.

15.

Ch. II

]

Varrta

:

ksatriyas

41

therefore the
'

brahmana

sits

down below

the ksatriya in the

Rajasuya ( Satapatha 14. 4. 1. 23 = Br. Up. I. 4. 11). In the Atharvaveda several verses occur which declare the harm that results from disrespecting or injuring a brahmana or from robbing him of his cow. He who regards brahmana as food drinks of the poison of Tairaafca he who injures a brahmana, the relative of the gods, does not attain to the world of pitrs ( Atharvaveda V. 18. 4 and 13 ). Those who spat on a brahmana or those who sent to him mucus remain biting the hair in the midst of a stream by their mouth that kingdom sinks as water sinks a shattered vessel, where' they injure a brahmana; that wicked act strikes that; kingdom 98 ( Atharvaveda V. 19. 3 and 8 ).
; '
*

'

;

The stories of king Kartavlrya and VisvSmitra who respectively carried off the cows of Jamadagni and Vasistha narrated in the Mahabharata ( Santi 49 for Kartavlrya -Adi. 175 for
;

and the Puranas show how several kings were high-handed and treated brahmanas with no respect whatever. It appears that even the wives of brahmanas Mpre not quite safe at the hands of kings. The chamberlain ( ksatr ) of that king in whose kingdom the wife of a brahmana' is thoughtlessly put under restraint does not march in front of cooking vessels with a golden ornament on his neck " ( Atharva V. 17. 14 ). The somewhat mystical hymn ( Rg. X. 109 ) where brahmajaya figures prominently probably hints at the same fact ( viz. the kidnapping of the wives of brahmanas ).
ViSvamitra
)
'

*

'

'

desirous of cattle
'

the vjfj|v^^ndeed sacrifices, being Tai. S. says that * and that the gods having been defeated were reduced to the condition of being the vaisyas or Visi of asuras'; 10

The

'

the vaiSya among men, cows among beasts, therefore they are to be enjoyed (to be eaten, to be subsisted upon ) by others; they were produced from the receptacle of food ; therefore they exceed

others in numbers*.
98.

101

The

Tai. Br. says

'the vaiSya class is

^srr?src
II

i

arrsror

*nr fihrr%

awf

V. 19. 3 and

8.

99.

sro^V.
100.

17.

H.
i

Mffifwt *?rg ^ft trsfr *5HOTnRi*.^.n. 3.7.1.

*r

II. 5. 10.2

:

101.

:il.?r.Vll. 1.1. 5
H. D. 6

42

History of Dharmaiastra

[

Oh, II

said to have been born from rk verses, they declare the Yajurveda as the origin of the ksatriya, the Samaveda is indeed the ' 108 The same Brfthmana further says the source of brahmanas vi& go away from ( reside separately from ) the brahmanas
f
.

The Tandya Br. says 108 Hence the vaisya, though being eaten ( i. e. subsisted upon ) by others is not exhausted, since he was created from the prajanana ( from the sexual parts of Prajapati ) therefore he has numerous cattle, he has all the gods ( as his patrons ) and was produced with the
and ksatriyas
'.
;

'

JagatI metre, his season

is

the rains, therefore he is to be eaten

by the brahmana and the rajanya, since he was created as The Sat. Br. ( S. B. E. lower (than those two classes)'. He thus assigns to the Maruts a share vol. 26 p. 335 ) says therein after Indra, whereby he makes the people ( vi& ) subser04 vient and obedient to the nobility V According to the Ait. Br.
'

who is the food of others, who pays These passages show that vaidyas were entitled to sacrifice, reared cattle, were far more numerous than the other two classes, they had to bear the brunt of taxation, they lived apart from brahmanas and ksatriyas and were
35.

3 the vaisya is one

taxes to others.

obedient to them.

in the period

The system of the four varnas had taken such deep roots when the Brahmana works were composed, that
it

we

even

often meet with Vedic passages saying that to the gods, Agni and Brhaspati being the

extended

brahmanas

Yama being the ksatriyas; and Devas Visve Maruts being the vis, the Vasus, Rudras, 105 and Pusan being the sudra. the Similarly it is said
among gods;
Indra, Varuna, Soma,
*

brahmana

is really spring, the ksatriya are the rainy season.'

summer, and

the

vis

102.

jm

i

S. wr.

HI.

12. 9

;

*rcm$[

argwyr srersr f^sfa^rsrofHofh

i

.

ITT.

1. 6. 5.

103.

VI.

1.

10.

104.
I

5RHWT IV.

3. 3. 10.

Vide Maitr5ya9l Sam. I. 10. 13, ^aUpatha 14. 4. 2. 23-25 which ia the same aa Br. Up. I. 4. 11-13, Br. 9. 5 and Ait. K^feaki Br. (34. 5). Compare $nfcro$ 20d. 23-25 for Amtyas being kgatriyas, Maruts as Vai^yaa, Asrins ai
105.

bidalakara ( worker in wicker-work ). sailusa ( actor ). 8. samgrahltr ( treasurer ). mrgayu. caste according to the dharmasutras ( vide below ).3. and samgrahltr were high In the Sat. 26-28 and these and a few more in Vaj. 32. VII. 44 p. names ( which The Atharvaveda mentions rathakSra ( III. 142. The Satapatha Br.1-2 mentions among the ratnas ( the jewels ) sflta. karmara or karmara ( iron-smith ) in X. S. ( III. nisada. tasta ( a carpenter or maker of chariots ) in ftg. kulala (potfcer).2. IX.1. tvasta (a carpenter ) in VIII.5-13 and in Kathaka SamhitS 17. kaulala. 112. Br. speaks of vaptS ( barber ) in X.9. karmara. ayastapa (heater of iron or copper). 112. rebha. 30. mrgayu ( hunter ) and svani ( those who lead packs of hounds ). bhagadugha ( collector of aksavapa ( superintendent of gambling ). magadha (bard). II ] Varna : various crafts in the Vedas 43 That there were other professions and crafts with specific in later times at lease became castes ) even in the times of the Samhitas is quite clear. I. 102.6) - with Purusamedha) we have ayogu. This latter is a pratiloma Aviksita as an ayogava king. XIII. 5. taksan. 7. f taxes gramanl. 5. manikara.4 brave persons hold up the kingdom eight I.2 ) 106 mention is made of ksatr ( royal chamberlain or doorkeeper ). rajjusarga.Ch. the crowned queen. taksan ( carpenter ) and rathakara ( maker of chariots). officers of state and not 106. S. VIII.1 and the following anuvakas that deal (III.5.8.4.1. In the Tandya Brahmana ( 19. 5.1 and 3. 4. 1 the king's brother. mentions also rajaputra potter's wheel ).13.1.5. 72. ). 5 among the - IV. isukrfc ( maker of arrows ). isukara. X. 397) speaks of Marutta ugra.4. vapa (sower or barber). Whether in The the the Satapatha that word has the same sense is doubtful. 1. 8.6 ). ' ' Tai. 2.4. sarhgrahlfcr. ksatr and samgrahltr '. Vide also Tai. bhisak ( medicine man ) in IX. kitava ( gambler ). the king's son. 61. 8. In the Tai. ( IV. the Therefore it looks suta. ksatr.7). dhanvakara. is said that likely that ksatr castes. 4. E. kantakakara. The Rg.20. karmara and suta (III. In the Tai. bblmala. B. the purohita. punjista (fowler). 5. 119. rathakara. the gramapl. These also occur in the Vajasaneya-samhita 16. jyakara ( maker of bow-string ). dhanvakrt ( maker of bows ). Br. viz. karraara. suta. speaks of kaulala-cakra ( the The Tai. XI. 5. III. . ) it Br. 8. The Satapatha (S.38.2 and IX. Br. 5. 4. 112. I. Vol. carmamna ( tanner ) in Rg. svani surakara (vintner).

4. gramanl. The Sat. 107 This means probably that they are the king-makers). It is hardly possible to say with assurance that all these had become petrified into castes in the modern sense. In the Chandogya Up. 15-19 arranges brShmapa. 12. suta or sthapati. 18) the sutas and gramanls are said to be no kings and yet are rajakrt ( i. The paulkasa ( in 30. V. sajftta in a descending scale of powerfulness. 10. . principal persons on whose support the king depends. 25-26 ) about giving one's ucchifta did not allow a brahman* to give bis ucohi^ta to one not a brshmana. (I. '. knowing thus were to give the leavings of his food to a cndala that would in his case be an offering made into the 107. humpbacked ( kubja ). Manu IV. 108. of Kiratas ( who were and are non. particularly when several persons associated with these in the Vaj. S. &p. the impotent ( kllba ). 17) speaks of Paulkasa ginal tribes). an important So the suta appears to have been originally officer. . (Ill. frrsr. times of and Brahmanas these were groups founded on occupations that had become castes or were in The Tandya Br. 11. In the same passage mention is made of a hundred In another guardians who were the sons of sutagramariis. 14 and III 4. I 14. There were strict rules to another. 7. unless certain rather obnoxious things were done to it. V. 31. TOT $ *T#tSTF3n*ft TTST^f: frciijm^: 13. II * guards of the horse lei. (30. ' ' passage of the same brahmana (XIII. WW* XIII.Aryan and were abori108 The Vaj. 2. ( V. 18.4. king's brother. in connection with blbbatsa ( nauseating filth ) and of candala with vayu ( wind ). 2. J6. dwarf ( vamana but most It is of the avocations and crafts referred to above have corresponding castes and subcastes for therefore possible to say that in the hundreds of years. S. 17 the Samhifcfis (respectively). I n.7 ) 10 the candala is ' Therefore even if one ranked with the dog and the boar. 10. S. Br. 5. Dh. 109. e. 4. speaks process of developing into castes. loose in the Advamedha there were a hundred sons of ksfitra-samgrahltrs carrying clubs As the word 'ksatra' is prefixed to * samgrahltr it follows that ' sarhgrabltrs were officers who may have belonged to any varna. tf.44 History of Dharmatastra I Oh. and elsewhere were not castes such as the thief ( taskara ) ). king. Vide ffFTO *T. 2.21 ) in connection and candala occur in Tai. 4. Br. 8TO^ X. 2. 30. 125 allows it to be given to a dudra who is a dependant. 80 forbids the giving of ucohi^a to a 4odra (who ie not a dependant) while Manu X.

compounded with ^rsf^.2. 97.. Just as a p&sya or vaideha. | *rf". 4) and that the rathakaras are the caste called Saudhanvana which of the three higher ones. According to Baud. Dh. ' You The rathakara and nisada deserve a passing notice. 1. the sutas and headmen of the village make ' arrangements for him with food and drink and with pavilions. S. the vaisya in autumn. 24. This shows that the candala was the lowest in the social scale. 2. 8. W4 sfc K^*i i on 10. t^fW^tvC I. I. 29 ) ugra it an anuloma caste sprung from a brahmana father and dudra wife. the ksatriya in summer. 4. Up.Cfi. ' 112. The question arises whether is a member of the three higher castes who has taken in economic distress to the profession of making chariots or is a person belonging to a caste other than the three higher varnas. pratyenasas ( thief catchers ). 1 for the same rule..' ugra occurs destroy disease just as an ugra Tai. 3.' Here ugras seem to be a group of nobles subordinate to the king. In later literature ugra is the offspring of a ksatriya from a sudra woman ( Yaj.37 it is said 110 that just as when a king pays a visit. ( II. 44 and 50. 5. In the Br. IV. Viavariipa n8 (on Pnini VI.. 4 after stating that the brahmana should consecrate sacred fires in the spring. Jaimini in his Parvamlmansa-siltra ( VI. 31 -^H in si quoted in *tehlW*l*l that thii P- 399 which says WOT* if different. 6. ordains that the rathakara should consecrate sacred fires in the rainy season. 12 the word X who is a mediator or arbitrator ( removes dispute ). after having made his bow * Self as Fire strung &c. Br.22 mention is made of both candala and paulkasa and in IV. 60 teaches the accent of the word X^JT^ when 110. that the mantra for the consecration of rathakaras is rbhftnam tva (Tai. It may only mean a ' formidable chief or king. 1. III. the ugras. 44-50 ) the rathakara discusses this question and establishes 111 that the rathakara is a member of a caste other than the three higher varnas.' What ugra means here cannot be said with certainty. 91 ). 1. II ] ' Forria : caridala and others 45 Chandogya V. Up. The I. that he has on account of the express words in the iruti the privilege to consecrate sacred fires with vedic mantras. In the Rg. II. ..' Br. 1. Vide HR^M^HU has w*p% aii^im^MH 1. or the son of an ugra. . *r4Hi4*jchK<t4Jimto?tr tiiVUicqi^ tfi^^iitu ^HWI**WIK VI. 111.. but is is neither gftdra nor one * ' slightly inferior to the three higher varnas. Br. 3. 2. The A M i ^. 1.

18. an isti offered to Rudra a Vedio text says a nisadasthapati perform this isti. or selagas (thieves) or evil-doers seize a wealthy man in a forest and throwing him in a well run away with his wealth/ The Sahkhayana Br. WT. but adds that this dictum of the smrfci is due to mistake. 12-14 ) says * is a nisada can offer a cam of this offering is to be made in ordinary ) Gavedhuka cc^n to Rudra. *ft 114. 1. - 113. ( Uttara- IV. Br. 1. *%mffii3tyi4: *<li*y*^Twfa^ *TT I j[<ivft. 115. 7. The established conclusion is that the isti is to be performed by a nisada who is a chieftain though he be beyond the pale of the whether this authorises a nisada chieftain (who is three varnas. 1.' The discusses the question Purvamlmansa sntra ( VI. The com. explains $ra*rr: as *rfaffaqraTT: i ftqrr^t wri^ftWVna: ^n*?^^' *iv*l*^i i rfifiii t ift. it being misled by the fact that he is allowed the privilege of Sdhana 113 ( consecration of sacred fires ). VI. was allowed the privilege of upanayana. % V.e. 1. But according to Satyasadba I17 -kalpa III. ( 1 ). The Katyall6 that the chieftain who yanasrauta-sutra ( 1. In modern times the members of the carpenter caste in certain parts of the Deccan at least are in the habit of performing the upanayana and wearing the sacred thread. . WTO. on Isv. The * Ait. (37. 15 ) allows one who had performed the Visvajit sacrifice ( in which everything is given away ) to stay in a settlement of nisSdas whose food is the lowest that he is allowed to take. Sr.46 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. 12-14. TOT f ^T f^ H*nqi 9TCiTl^ ?fttk ftvwmq 7. ( 25. 1 both the nisada and the rathakara are entitled to perform isti Raudra does not entitle him to Agnihotra and Dara-purnamftsa. 6 ^% . 1. 7) says 11S just as the nisSdas. consecrated with Vedic mantras the permission to offer perform Vedic consecration of fire ( ftdhana ). I 9-10 also. 51. 3. HI. 1. 51-52 ) With reference to 1 one should make m who is himself a chieftain or a a member of the three higher varnas) of nisadas. vide TO^TTinwfa T. 37. 1. II 1. 116. but fire ( and not in the fires i. as the Karmadharaya compound is the proper way of dissolving the compound and not the genitive Tatpurusa. 10) notices that in some smrfci the rathakara though not belonging to the three higher varnas.

33. Sabaras. One very important question is whether the theory of the four varnas with their peculiar privileges and duties described in the dharmasutras and other smrfcis was merely a theory even in the most ancient times. Manu further adds das. there is the authors nothing to show that the same difficulties were felt by of the Vedic hymns and the Brahmanas. it appears to me that they speak of facts existing in their times and nob merely of a theory which was to be striven for as an ideal.Ch. 43-45 ) is prepared to regard the Paundrakas. that the various castes that are outside the ( influence of the ) four varnas are all known as dasyus whether they speak the language of Mlecohas or of Aryas. Vaisya and Sftdra or when the Satapatha Brahmana expressly says that they are four varnas. Pahlavas. Rgveda speaks of When the Purusasukta of the Brahmana. Pulindas and Mutibas who are the lowest of society and are mostly composed of dasyus. when they did not agree to his proposal to treat Sunahsepa ( Devarata ) as his son. which according to the authors of the smrfcis were 6ruti. but later on reduced to the position of sudras by the nonperformance of Vedio sarhskaras (like upanayana) and by the absence of contact with brahmanas. M frg X. KirStas. the Odras. Clna. Rajanya. among It is Pundras. II ] Varna 47 The AitareyaBrahraana 118 narrates that Vtevamitra cursed sons. . Tirey tried to approximate the stafce of society existing in their times But to the varnas which they held were of hoary antiquity. Dravi- m Kambojas. eternal and infallible. Daradas and Khasas as being originally ksatriya castes. that they would associate with the lowest castes and that they became the his senior fifty Andhras. Yavanas. The manner in which they refer to the privileges and disabilities of the several varnas have such a deep ring of actuality that one must concede that the varnas spoken of in them represented the f. Paradas. Sakas. 43-45. Srnrfci writers try to place all their dicta in the frame-work of the varnas because the four varnas and their duties and privileges had been more or less clearly defined in the times of the Vedas and Brahmanas.6. probably owing to this legend that the Manusmrti ( X.

. to be regarded as superior to the ksatriya that even such low castes as c^ndalas and paulkasas (6) had been evolved long before the end of the Vedic period . (2) (3) that the sudras were the dasyus so subjugated and . division of labour arose and numerous arts and crafts had been developed and (7) that they were in process of contributing to the complexity of the system by creating numerous sub-castes based upon occupations . (5) that ( by the time of the Brahmana Literature.48 History of DharmaiGstra [ Ch. if not cent percent. the Sryas and their opponents the dasyus or dasas\ that the difference between the two was based on difference of colour and culture and was thus more or less racial and cultural that in the literary records there . earliest times about which we have were only two varnas. men supposed to be devoted to learning and priest- ksatriyas ( kings. That this theory of four varnas was well-known to Buddhist literary works is shown by Fick chap. noblemen and some warriors ) and vaisyas ( the artisans and common people ) had become separated into groups more or less dependent on birth and that the brahmana 18 had come by the fact of birth . have been originally ksatriyas but fallen 120. II real divisions of society at least to a very great extent. the rathakftra had been evolved (9) that there were certain to non-Aryan tribes which were supposed later on. 17 ( the only difference being that in the Buddhist works the ksatriya is put first and the brShmana after him ). p. (8) that besides the four varnas intermediate castes like . owing to cultural advance. that centuries before the samhifca period closed the dasyus had been conquered and were given a position subservient to the ftryas . brahman as hood ). The preceding discussion renders the following propositions most probable (1) . made subservient (4) that the spirit of exclusiveness and pride of superiority existing among the Sryas with reference to dasyus soon extended to groups among the aryas themselves . II.

How much earlier it may be placed not possible to say. the Tandya The meaning of some of Br. S... the Ait. 0. 4. the words is not quite clear and it is possible that some in the list were not at all castes or professions. the Atharva-veda. before the close of the Vedic period. 13 ). ). Kathaka Sam. ) Naisada Karmara Kari ( dancer ?) Kitava Kirata Pumicalu Punjis^a or Paunjistha ( Klna^a cultivator ? ) Pundra Pulinda Paulkasa Kulala or Kaulala Kevarta KoSakSrl (blower of bellows) Bainda (catching fish in nets) Bhisak Ksatr Bhl mala ( fcimid ? ) Gopala Carmamna Candftla Manikara Magadha ( ? ) Jambhaka Jyftkara MargSra Mufciba Taksan I. ( 17. Ajapala ( goatherd ) Andhra Ayastapa Dasa Dhanuskara or Ayogu or Ayogu Dhanvakara or AvipSla ( keeper of ewes ) Anda(?) Isukara Dhanvakrfc Ugra Kantakakara or KantakIkarl ( Dhaivara Nisada or in Vaj. Up. and The following is a list of persons engaged in professions which had probably become castes or were in the process of becoming castes. They are arranged in the alphabetical order of Sanskrit (though transliterated). as seen from the Vaj. Mrgayu D.. II ] Varya: crafts in Vedic times 4(F The later it is close of the Vedic period is here taken as being not than about 1000 B. Where the meaning is doubtful a question mark has been made. S. 7 . and Tai. the Chandogya and the Br.Ch. Br. Tai. The meanings of most of them have been given above. ( III. S. crafts. Br.

some propositions are clearly deducible therefrom. (6) overseers. (3) neatherds and shepherds. 40 ff) that the whole (4) population of (1) philosophers. 4 to sudras . He states (pp.50 History of DharmaiUslra I Oh. Megasthenes' further statement ( pp. assessors. husbandmen. Though Megasthenes was confused in his statements about the caste system as prevalent in his day. existing fragments of the work of Megasthenes on India. 2-3 to vaisyas. though there must have been exceptions of which he was not informed. He probably regards them as castes because the offices of the adhyaksas and amatyas were generally hereditary or at least he gathered that they were so. 43-44 ) that no one is allowed to marry out of his own caste or to exercise any calling or art except his own* shows that the prevailing tendency was that caste had become exclusive and mostly occupational in his day. The divergences ( and they are . 6th and 7th correspond and amatyas ( as in Kautilya's Arthasastra ) and are not really castes but occupations. (5) military. artisans. II Main&la (catcher of Eajayitrl ( fish ? ) Vidalakarl or BidalaVrafcya dyer ) Rajjusarga or-sarja Sahara Sabalya Sailusa ( Rathakara Rajaputra ? ) Rebha ( ? ) Svanin ( or Svanita ) Vamsanartin Samgrahltr Surakara Vapa ( barber ) VSnija Vasah-palpull ( ) Suta a washer- Selaga woman Several Hiranyakara the Christian era there centuries before were This follows not only from the dharmasutras but also from the ancient Buddhist works and from the meagre several castes. (7) councillors Out of these 1 and 5 correspond to brahmanas and and to adhyaksas ksatriyas. There is unanimity on the theory that the numerous castes actually found in the country arose from the unions of males of different varnas with women belonging to varnas differing from their own. (2) India was divided into seven castes. * The ancient writers on dharma&astra strive very hard to account for the bewildering ramifications of the caste system from the four varnas that were spoken of in the sruti ( revelation ).

vaisya and siidra. ' 121. ksatriya. 7-9) aays ii ^orffor W^THPUT: srarr $rf^[Kfa*i[*fsr . several castes the accepted was only indicative of the author's view or of view about the social status of those castes in There is particular localities. that the social status of the several castes or might have varied from country to country to epoch. the smrti view of the derivation of from the mixture or confusion (samkara)of the four varnas as purely hypothetical and imaginary. that the peculiar avocations and means of livelihood assigned to the various castes reflected the real from epoch The element of hypothesis and speculation lies only in the theory of a particular sub-caste having sprung from the union of two persons belonging to two particular varnas or castes.Gh. if born in lawful wedlock of parents both of whom belong to that varna . here. Sffntiparva (297. There is a third proposition advanced by many writers that a man belongs to a particular varna or jati by birth only i. as a matter of fact. (1) that the four varnas. the criticism is true only partially. brahmana. it must be admitted that the numerous castes mentioned in the smrtis did exist at the time of the srartis. Therefore. great divergence of views among the several authors. The smrtis were composed in different parts of India at different times and they were meant to supply a popular want. the separate existence of numerous castes and sub-castes that had varying claims as regards social status and that were based in popular estimation on birth alone. e. Therefore. 121 This description of the origin of the state of things. II ] Vartja and castes derived therefrom 51 many) among The srarti writers the several srartikaras relate only to details. to guide the people and to reflect the criticizes when one numerous castes prevailing state of society and popular feeling. are arranged in a descending scale of social status and ( 2 ) that marriage is or was permissible between a male of a higher varna with a woman of a lower varna. but the union of a woman of a higher varna with a male of varna lower than her own is reprehensible and not permitted. but they were at the same time quite cognisant of the realities in society viz. had before them the hoary theory of four varnas vouched for by infallible Vedic authority. In the first place all writers on dharmasastra start with the propositions viz.

) S. it is said to be pratiloma ( against the hair. * The mlrngnsaka position : stated by the qybmnfaf on $. 28 ) teaches the ( in the days of the Upanisad ). 462. ( outside marriage ) ( 18? that a man must marry a virgin 3-4) lays down of his own varna with the rites prescribed by the iastras and only the son born of such a marriage is entitled to the privileges and occupation of his father. One important question whether the theory of anuloma or pratiloma castes presupposes a marriage or only a union of a man and a woman. grmwr quoted *rsrrft in snffcrqm. 1 ) q ^F3TTraR TOt H"!pMJ tiffin: * . 1. 1. 14-15 ). 8 ). IV. ( II. ' ti^iT^^n^T^HSdl^fr TIJ5 ipsgwj oif?aft ^$j^ sftaz i ^1^1 1?*nfat -H*W* V^^K $* v* a?nr. 95 and other is smrfci works.p. II This is the view held by all medieval writers and and it is expressly said that a man belongs to a caete by birth and no actions of his can alter that fact. 5. Dh. ( I. formation of words from anuloma and pratiloma. 7 ). that sexual intercourse with a woman who has been married by another or on whom the proper ceremonies of marriage are not performed or who II. Dh. 1 p. Ro^jfcnfe^T 16. I. 122. 90. I. They occur in Gautama ( ( IV. When a male of a higher varna marries a woman of a lower varna. ). X. 18 f is this it may possibly be inferred that pratiloma and anuloma might have been employed with reference to marriages also Panini ( IV. 4. t ^. 1 ( . the 12 - 61-52 ) says n i 3Tft ?rm srrft 123. i. in the natural order ) and the offspring is said to be anuloma when there is a union of a woman of a higher varna with a male of a digests . 1. taki Br. Baud. 8. v. 2. *TT. S. e. 6. II. lower varna. Vasistha ( 18. Manu X. Up. Up. is JT|. hardly ever occur 15 ) and KausI- 4 in note 89 above ) the word ( quoted to the applied procedure adopted by a br&hmana pratiloma From of going to a ksatriya for knowledge about brahman. \ Oh. the marriage is said to be anuloma ( lit. 6. In the Br. 13. 13 Yaj. These two words anuloma and ) pratiloma ( as applied to marriage or progeny in the vedic literature. (I. 3 and 4. or proper order ) and the children of the natural the against union are said to be pratiloma.52 or History of Dharmaiastra IM jSti. with the hair. 13. The 5. . that several castes are like the species of animals and that caste attaches to the body and not to the soul (vide Sutasamhita ).

Manu ( X. when they speak 124. mahisya. The the murdhavasikta and other anuloma sons and those born of anuloma castes are dvijUtis and are entitled to samsk&ras as dvijatis. Commentators like Kullfika ( on Manu X. as no marriage is legally possible between a woman of a higher varna and a male of a lower Smrtyarthasara p. 1 ). 12-13 ). 3JT* *lyiiir: I 9?rfer*T HI. flWT jn^Rb'miiq<aiim'9U*'9 isi^icH: H ftyfmUlK p. 20) says that all pratilomas are dhar?hahina which is interpreted by the Mit. 41 ) says ( that the six anuloma castes are entitled to the rites samskaras like upanayana ) performed for dvijas. 125. 13 says that varna. nisada. Ill. 122. murdhavasikta. Yaj. Vasistha. on Yaj. ugra. of prafr7omas. e. 55 and 57 ) prescribe that a person should by preference marry a girl of his own varna but also allow the his marriage of a person with a girl of another varna lower than own. Devala 185 (quoted by ParaSaramadhavlya I. ^R5 quoted I in <m. I part p. Manu ( III. m. 122 ) says that pratilomas are outside the pale of the system of varnas and are patita. Visnu says that they except cSndalas are are condemned by all Aryas. BaudhSyana and several others do not make it clear whether. . (I. though they are amenable to the rules of morality and entitled to perform vratas &udpraya&cittas. Vasistha ( I. 3. and karana are so called only when they are the offspring of women married by men of higher varnas. dvijas performed 184 Kautilya for ( them. but that the pratiloma castes are like sudras ( i. It is no doubt true that most ancient writers like Gautama ( IV. He is entirely silent about anuloma and pratiloma castes. Ysj. ) though both parents are III. 2. So Apastamba looked with disfavour even on marriages called anuloma. ( I. even when a pratiloma caste springs from a brahmana woman and a ksatriya or vaisya male they cannot have upanayana and other rites of dvijas ). II ] Var^a : anuloma and pratiloma castes 53 belongs to another caste is condemned and that the son ( and not the daughter ) born of such an union is condemned (through the sin of the parents ). all the pratilomas are born outside lawful wedlock. p. 24 ). 92 ) expressly says that the six anuloma castes. 7 . ambastha. 7 also says that all pratilomas like sudras. 262 as meaning that 9 they cannot have upanayana and similar samskaras of dvijas performed for them.they contemplate offspring of legal ^T ^sgtit|iHU?l 16. 11 ) say that. Gautama (IV.tin.

The idea of varna was as we have seen based originally on race. according as there is a marriage between the two or it is only a clandestine. 12-48) where a similar distinction is made between the children of marriages and clandestine unions. while Visvarupa on Yaj. cha. Bui will be seen from the list appended below that Usanas and Vaikhsnasa almost always make a distinction between the offspring of the union of parents of different varnas. I. e. caste assigned to the . The Mit.. 118 ) does not accept this view and holds that even kanlna and sahodha may be held to be brahmanas ( if the begetter can be proved to have been a brahmana). while the offspring of a clandestine union between a brahmana woman and a ksatriya male was called rathakara. Vide Yaj. I..W it tlistory of DharmaiUstra [ Oh. The ideal of varna even in the smrtis lays far more emphasis on duties. 90 says that such progeny as kunda and golaka ( Manu III. I. Apararka ( on Yaj. II.. m A few words must be said about the word jati.. illegitimate or adulterous union..WTT: S^flf&T: T^TT^vv. kanlna. the offspring is called suta. II marriages or only of illegitimate and adulterous unions. 174 ). entitled to the . culture. It takes account mainly of the moral and intellectual worth of man and is a system of classes which appears more or less natural. on Yaj. These several kinds of secondary sons will be treated under inheritance. 12. 126 that when there is a marriage For example. 2-5. Usanas says between a ksatriya male and a brShmana female. racter and profession. and anulomajat are sat ( good ) i. 92 p. *1i$iu*jf 127. So these two authors held that there could be a legal marriage when a woman of a higher varna married a male of a lower varna. 135 ) is also to be so treated. 133 says that kanlna and gudhaja must be deemed to belong to the mother's caste as the begetter may not be known and that sahodhaja ( II. It . 95 which saya that pratilomaja* are I atat (condemned ) tmsklrti. Tf^nw*fr3. There were several other works like the Sutasamhita ( Sivamahatmyakhanda chap. sahodhaja ( who are all not due to intercourse in wedlock ) are different from savarna? anuloma and pratiloma and are to be treated as sudras and that the ksetraja son is to be treated as in a different category (since niyoga is allowed by the smrtis and by the usage of sistas ) and belongs to the caste of his mother. on a high standard of effort for the community or society rather than on the rights and privileges of birth. The system of jatis (castes) lays all emphasis on 126.

361. 41 and Yaj. 3rc < XII. 1. Here the word krsnajatlya occurs with reference to a woman of the sudra caste. II. 213). 1. Almost these 189 where for krsnavery words occur in Vasis^ha ( 18* 17-18 ) krsnavarna is substituted. 31 the word varna is used in the sense of mixed castes Conversely the word jati often appears to be used tc (jatis). Vide Manu III. Therefore. ' ' Even when anuloma marriages were allowed there is no unanimity among the sages and the smrfcis as to the status of the progeny of such unions. 6. But very often they are confounded. the use of the word jati in the sense of caste can be traced back at least to the times of the Nirukta. rama is so called because she is approached only for pleasure and not for ( accumulation of ) merit. 9. i 17-18. VIII. ft*^T on 56. III. II. a man should not approach a rama (for sexual intercourse). 40. In Manu X. 7. 4. 9 ) 1S1 teaches the formation of words like brahmanajatlya' derived from words I. 3. The first view is that if a male of one varna married a female of the varna immediately after it. 177. 3. 118 and VIII. jatlya the word 1S quotes these words as a brahmana ( yad-ucyate etc. the words 129. .^ f%c?TT i . 69. The word jati in the sense of caste 1M hardly ever occurs in the vedic literature. II birth ] Varna.. Vasistha I. ' ( ending in 'jati' (in the sense of caste). she is of a dark casfce*. 141. 97 ). and jati are sometimes clearly distinguished as in Yaj II. S.> occur in *TT *rrf$r f%wrr TnTRjfa'TrC ir^^Jif fT*ri wiAc qna<KdQm 21. the progeny belonged to the varna 128. ar. v. 69 and 206. . and jati 55 and heredity and tends to create the mentality of clinging to privileges without trying to fulfil the obligations correspond' ' ing to such privileges. Manu ( IV. 206. X. 2. 41 and the word jati ( caste ) occurs also in Ap.Oh. 17 and XIX.. Dh. IX. 95. farm. 1. 13. T unfa IR. In the Nirukta is said 'after it 13) (XII. Narada Varna ( rnadana 288 ) and in the vartika on Panini IV. I 89 ( in which latter sajati appears to mean savarna ). agnicayana (the building of the fire altar). U gjWiquffar TOTT <*Wl*l<frt<ld fft *I4I I4T3: I 130. ( I. 86 and 335. X. Visvarupa on Yaj. indicate 'varna'. 137. Panini (V. Yaj. 56 text. 4. 15. 27. 7. The expression 'jatidharma* rules of castes ) occurs in Gautama XL 20. Three different views are found. II. 11. 18. ) but there the word is krsnavarnlya. I. Manu 1.

sffig ijgrr: <H4|uiM^cHI& iwir: I 6 and I. 6 sages declare the sons begotten by dvijas on wives of varnas immediately next to theirs as similar ( to the fathers. Sankha by saying that the offspring of anuloma marriages such as murdhavasikta are not really different from ksatriyas.. 54-57 ) shows that even according Sddra wife. 3J3c?fam$J JTTf^&rf: I f^roj 16. Gautama IV. History of Dkarmafastra 188 [ Ob. 9. but not the offspring of a ksatriya male from a vaisya wife or of a vaisya male from a Fick ( pp. Baud. that they have the same samskaras but they do not become ksatriyas etc. I. 15 as interpreted by Haradatta appears to say that the off-spring of a brahmana from a ksatriya wife is called savarna. I. e. 4. 6 from a wife who was not savarna says that Pandu. * the family of the mother does not to the Bhaddasala Jataka matter. on Yaj I. 106 ) . 16. 2 and Sankha ( prose ) quoted by the Mit. but not of the same varna with the fathers ) but tainted by the inferiority of their mothers. ( I 8. *rr. The AnuSasanaparva 48. 91 and Apararka (p. The second view is that the progeny of anuloma unions is in status lower than the father.. 7 ) say the same. 6 and I. The pratilomas^ as said above.56 of the father. 91. ?iHc) 3T35TWT ^8. e. but higher than the mother. S. and are dubbed by these names to indicate their mixed origin and come to form separate sub-castes.. ^Ti. vrnH^citA i^Mt** 5<Tiiic*m<f Ti^ncSif^i-nl "M^I: . tar. The Mit. explains the words of ' m * '. Narada ( strlpurhsa 106 ) and Kautilya ( III. ' 2. 3 ) says that sons born to a person of a savarna wife or a wife of the varna next to his own are savarna i. e.' The third view (and this is the common view) is that the progeny of anuloma marriages is of the same varna as regards its privileges and obligations as the mother's .. 8. g. the son of a br&hmana from a wife of the k?atriya varna is a br&hmana. . i TJ in ftm. Dh. S. vide Visnu Dh. on 134. the family of the father alone is important'. 3. Dhrtaras^ra and Vidura being ksetraja sons took the caste of their mothers. g.. IJ a g. 132. 4 I . 118). A classical echo of this view is found 154 where king Dusyanta exclaims in the Sakuntala of Kalidasa aside to himself would that this girl were born of the sage Medhatithi on Manu X. are lower in status than any of the two parents. 9. m$4 QI$if3h<*fnM*titl'' 133. Manu X.

Yaj. 95 defines rathakara as the offspring of a mahisya male and a karana female. 135. e. on Yaj. All the smrbis taken together hardly mention more Ap. Manu X. one and eight others according to the view of some. Manu X.8 . The . The Mit. The number X. S. mixture between two anuloma castes. i fferr.Oht II ] Varna and the enumeration of castes 57 The ancient dharmasutras mention only a few mixed castes. and ayogava. nisada and ugra. *3fiNrfitem i trai iijrf^(^wfT%grTft5ns^ fit^rm: u *^J*m p. cSndala. it is a further suta. Further sub-castes are said to arise from the unions of the anulomas and pratilomas with the four varnas and of the male of one anuloma and the female of another. on *n. I. 11-12 and 16-17 and Yaj. from the union of pratilomas among themselves and from the union of a male or female of an anuloma caste and the female or mate of a pratiloma caste. The primary pratilomas also are six ( vide Manu X. 95 . Gautama names five anuloma castes. I. 91-92 ). ksatr. ( XVI ) that for the first time dilate upon the avocations of the mixed castes.D. 19 says that svapaka is the offspring of a ksatr male ( a pratiloma ) with an ugra female ( an anuloma ). mSgadha. viz. . 33 defines maifcreyaka as the offspring of a vaidehaka male and an A ftydfcava female (i. 6 pratiloma and 20 doubly mixed castes and states the avocations of about 23 Ysj. from parents who are both pratiloma). i.e. names only 13 castes (other than the four varnas). Vasistha names even a smaller number than Gautama and Baudhayana. 13* H. Usanas names about 40 and gives their peculiar avocations. It is Manu ( X ) and Visnu Dh. vaina and kukkuta. For example. mentions only candala. Dh. ambastha. from the union of a brahmana with anuloma caste girls ). vaidehaka. but Manu names only three of them. 93-94) viz. Manu refers to 6 anuloma. I. paulkasa and vaina. I. 10. than about one hundred castes. 13 ) say s the same from the union of a brahmana says that avrta and abhlra spring with an ugra girl and an ambastha girl respectively ( i. rathakaraj svapaka. of primary anulotnas is only BIX ( vide Manu Yaj I. six pratiloraa. 95 says that upanayana and other samskaras are performed for the offspring of anuloma persons marrying among themselves. 15 Smrtyarthasara ( p. e. 135 Similarly Manu X. Baudhayana adds to those mentioned by Gautama a few more viz. S.

58 History of Dharmaiastra [Ch. ti cmti cnJi the m. qrTT. the avocations of the pratilomas ( should be understood from the smrtis of own day ( first half of 94 189 expressly says that about which Yaj. I. says that the further mixed Similarly Visnu Dh. S. even though mediately. This shows that before the time of the Visnudharmasutra ( i. their or avocations in 12th century The Mit. doubly. n??fcrr H mid quoted by faTOT on *rr. 95 says that there u 24 are six an lorn as. 94. 6 pratilomas and 24 doubly mixed castes ( due to the unions of 6 pratilomas with four varnas) i. USanas and Manu. 95 observes that since the castes springing from the double intermingling of varnas are innumerable. Medhatithi on Manu X. We six different names even so early as the present Manusmrti. 7 castes arising from the unions of mixed castes are numberless. *TT I. Mitfiksara 158 on Yaj. Similarly the prakirnaka topic of vyavahara secWon. II 4 188 smrti verse quoted by Vi6varQpa on Y&j. It is quoted also by . 126 and both say that these are tnmvrnffs further samkaras are 137. 31 speaks of 60 mixed castes along with the four varnas and adds that by the interThe mingling of these endless sub castes are formed. 136. . *t^^^^sjfitfHiui*i' **Tis7n+^flNwuri s 139. I. at least about 2000 years ago ) numberless castes and sub-castes had been formed and the writers on dharma^Sstra practically gave up in despair the task of deriving them. is silent ) its I. *r says that *gW<^ <4 [: I {ttajgWH^Sf 16. There was great diversity of opinion among the smrtikaras about the derivation and status of the several subfind that the same sub-caste is known under five or castes. 16. 7. e. e. 95. part 2 p. on Yaj. I. from the primary varnas. its Krtyakalpataru in when dealing with names ). castes. iifort *r JFNT sfopffr *i*r ^ WT> ftm* on irr. Medieval ment writers on dharma^astra usually ignore the treatin detail of the numerous sub-castes and content themselves with dilating upon the duties of the four varnas. mixed castes ( due to the union of the six anulomas with the four varnas ). it is impossible to describe or enumerate them. The same state of things was continued and was rather aggravated by the time of the m rdbandhakdras. in all 60 and further mixtures of these among themselves give rise to innumerable sub-castes. i 138. I. merely quotes several passages from the smrtis and does not add a word of its own about the castes.

16) says that those who are born of 140. JT^OTTO^^tiift. Baud. 40). This shows that according to most writers castes in the times of the smrtis were predominantly occupational. One word castes that frequently occurs in connection with and sub-castes is varnasamJcara ( or only samkara ). 9.Oh. 3. 143. protection. 16. Visivarupa on Yftj. In Manu 12 and 24 the word varnasarhkara is used in the plural in the sense of mixed castes. * Gautama on the two employs the word samkara and says ( the brahmana and the king ) depends the prosperity ( of men ). . VIII. 89 ) the X sense of 'mixture or ( intermingling of varnas'. 3 ) ' Brhaspati quoted in the Krtyakalpataru appears to apply the word varnasamkara to both anuloma and pratiloma castes. i wfitefrfer ^rspiT fr ^ft *ro?*fajT: m^f ( ftsw 102 ) ) Wff^at w in ^^^^hcr'Ad^ 144. vide also qTT5lT*TTO*frr 3 141. X. ( ni? ) ^*^CT ?rSr? Brr?Tnrr|T?"?Vfirar: i ^t. I. (I. Vasistha ( 18. 3J5f I tr^ ^J?fcTC qfc tMm^it *f i^^n^t^\ Ttf^i *f IM [ T $T: tHK^Trft*^* <VIH I. 140 another difficulty. ( accumulation u3 Narada ( strlpumsa 102 ) says to be born from a union in 9 the inverse order of varnas amounts to wrriasamkara. For the same sub-caste different names are given in different smrtis (vide under krfca and ramaka). ^^^^RW^r part 2 p. 9. 40 word samkara seems to be used in the ( and in V. % I. II ] Vanja and sub-castes 50 Manu X. 29 laid down that men's sub-caste was to be known from their actions and occupations. the prevention of mixture ( of varnas ) and the UB of ) merit ( or the observance of dharma ). u7cM I Ml^R^ 142. 92-93 . It became difficult to assign any peculiar derivation for groups of 141 people and so Manu (X. while VIII. v. The same name given to a caste is differently derived by different writers ( vide under nisada and pftra&ava below ).7 ) and AnusSsanaparva 148. 92 explains that these different names are due to difference of locality. 144 Dh. . while in Manu X. 23 gives There is 22 gives seven names for the same caste and Manu five for another. 120 ( I. S.

the ancient caste observances and family observances are subverted. . 25 ). to the * ' sin. T quoted in MS. '. 8. 146. 88. 41-43 ). if the proper order of varnas ( i. intermingling of varnas arises leads the whole family and the destroyer of the family to hell. The Mifc. of 147. 9-10 ' says i frno on *rg.' On of varnasamkara the smrtis ordain that account of the great emphasis laid on the prevention it is one of the principal duties of the king to punish people if they transgress the rules prescribed for varnas and to punish men and women if guilty of varijasamkara. e. 1. ( offspring) is entitled to be regarded as belonging trictions ( male of higher system of varnas. Even in such a philosophical treatise as the Bhagavad-gltS * when women become corrupt ( or demo( I. on Y&j I. desires. yet as they have the privileges of the caste of their mothers. greed. varna marrying a woman of a lower varna) is the followed. 145 on Manu V. I 147 remarks that one's varna * varnasamkara arises from wealth. V. it is said samkara necessarily ralised ). by marrying women who ought not to have been married of the duties peculiar to ( such as a sagotra girl ) and by neglect The Anu^asanaparva 48. but if the reverse order is followed it is Manu ( X. protect the varnas the king should and asramas according to the Sastras and he should make them conform to their duties when they swerve ( ) Gautama XI. 96 applies the word yarnasamkara to both anuloma and pratiloma progeny. . By reason of these transgressions of the destroyers of families which bring about varnasamkara. II varnasamkara are called vratyas.$8 History Of Dharmaiastra Cfa. even Manu himself does not apply the word samklr^ayoni to them as 146 seen above ( Manu X. uncertainty about the varna ( of a person ) or ignorance about varna '. 24 ) says mixed castes arise by members of one varna having sexual intercourse with women of another varna. 88 says that the word saihkarajata' Medhafcithi indicates pratilomas like ayogava and that even though as regards anulomas there is intermingling ( of varnas ). Yama quoted in the Krtyakalpataru says Varnasamkara arises by the violation of the res* ' ' about marriage ) .

31-33. offer the sacrifice '. ' Yudbisthira of all l49 "It appears to all ascertain the caste of varnas . 31-33 ) follows from the following words which are despairingly put in the mouth of I. srrr^* *Tfurf irg*^ *w**& ' ^farcrwhnJTRt fwr^te^ II fc II *f& n Pd I ^T^T TTT: ^rSjTSJ'nwt ^1T H^f ^ ^TH ^"Tn^ ^TT^ ^tf^l^ cRJTT^lft^ JTOT^IJ fS^cft^flR. III. though in his day varnas and asramas had become disorganised and unstable as to their dharmas. These passages have given rise to some divergence of interpreta148. ' ' when a brfihmana woman goes astray a candala is born from a dudra male ( and the brahmana woman ) therefore the king should specially protect women from sarhkara '. Hence those who We. whohave seen desired. S. me that it is very difficult to human beings on account of the confusion sorts of men are always begetting offspring speech. first centuries of the that king Vasithlputa Siri Pujumayi is extolled as having prevented the mixture of the four varnas ( E. 3. I. 149. *T3P*ft TO ( vide also STR^T i vftfa 2-6 ). 33 remarks that. Narada ( strlpumsa 113 ) 148 says . 64-65 ) and Yaj.' That varnasamkara had gone too far in the opinion of the author of the Mahabharata ( Vanaparva 180. n ] Varqa and varnasamkara ' 61 from them . and death-these are common scriptural authority ( for this view ) in the words ever we are. 18C. being born to all human beings and there is . 63 say the same. Matsyapurana 215. It is on . 150. the families should make the king paying attention observances of countries." the truth regard character as the principal thing Samkaracarya in his bhasya on Vedantasutra I. vinivatitacatuvana-sakarasa ). 1. 7-8 ' ) and should punish them when they go astray Visnu Dh. ^riu^icjY *\m3 y#i^ 113 . 18-19 ). since otherwise the sastras laying down regulations for them would have to be deemed purposeless or futile. that was not the case in other ages. castes and the four varnas conform to their duties ( 19. sexual intercourse. we see VIII pp. ( I. Markandeyapuarna 27. 361. 3 and Yaj. to all Vasisfta these viz. 96 ) speak of a peculiar doctrine called Jafyutkarsa and Jatyapakarsa. * from all sorts of women. account of this that so early as in the Christian era vol. Manu ( X. 3 33* . 180 Gautama ( IV. 60-61.Oh.

In S. This is called jatijutkarsa (rise in status as a caste).. This is marry When a brahmana marries explained by Haradatta as follows a ksatriya woman the daughter born of this marriage is called : if this latter is married to a brahmana and a daughter born and this latter is again married by a brahmana and if this continues in the same way for seven generations. II. the child born belongs to the ksafcriya varna ( though in all the preceding generations the father was higher than ksatriya and the mother only was a ksatriya ). a case rise IB possible oven in . Though this and pancame.62 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. The if same ( g. in such the 5th generation ). marrying a vaisya female and a vaisya marrying a sudra female. Gautama ( IV. e. On the other hand. then the child of savarna ( offspring of 151. whatever child is savarna . B. is born of that union belongs to the brahmana varna (though in the preceding generations only the fathers were brahmanas and the mothers were all not strictly brahmanas. then the child of the 7th girl ( in descent ) from a savarna male becomes a savarna ( rises in status ) on the other hand if a ambastha among anulomas also Gautama ) marries an born who again marries . vol. IV. when a brahraana marries a ksatriya girl and a son is born who is called savarna. e. brahmana male and ksatriya female ) marries an ambastha girl and a son is born and that son marries an ambastha girl and their son marries an ambastha girl and this goes on for seven generations. then that son marries a ksatriya girl and has a son and this is continued fox five generations^ then when the fifth son ( in descent ) marries a ksatriya girl. differently i.. then when the 7th girl in descent marries a brahmana. who explains that the option allowed by 7 the use of * v5 in the sUtra applies only where there is pre-eminence of character and learning (i. 18-19. but only savarnas if at all ). II 1SI ) lion. 196-197 the sutras are arranged ' the first ends another sUtra. 18 says that according to the acSryas the anulomas when they in such a way that the bridegroom in each stage is higher or lower than the bride they rise to a higher or go down to a lower varna in the 7th or 5th generation ( respectively ). but their general sense is clear. a savarna rule applies as defined by a girl and a daughter is savarna and this continues for seven generations. pp.ry3h method makes a good sense it is opposed at ' saptame is to the explanation of Haradatta. e. E. This is jatyapakarsa ( fall in status as a The same rule holds good as regards a ksatriya caste ).

Manu X. Btihler compares Ap.Ch. E. 119 ). 64) 152. In the second place according to Gautama the 8th in descent seven generations from the first anuloma marriage secures jatyutkarsa. 10-11 with Gautama p. 5. Be&jdes. Anut&sanaparva (chap. X. there will be jatyutkarsa ). It will be seen that this differs from first Gautama and in several respects. Further Manu is silent about jatyutkarsa when the original parents are anulomas. Conversely. f&dra In the higher and higher in successive births. In the place for both jatyutkarsa are while in prescribed. ) 63 the 7th ma] born of an ambastha wife becomes an ambas^ha there is jatyapakarsa as to 158 anulomas ). B. vol. Medh&tithi and Kulluka extend these express words of Manu further by explaining that if a brahmana marries a vaisya female and a daughter is born and she again marries a brahraana then in the fifth generation there will be jatyutkarsa son is conversely if a born from a brahmana and a vaisya wife. then the seventh generation will be a brahmana ( i. does not speak of progeny of mixed marriages rising to higher status or being degraded he rather speaks of a to lower status after several generations . the 7th secures it. IV. S. and he marries . II ] arya and jatyutkafsa 3nt ( i. e. II * ' II. the commentators of Manu shorten the period for rise or fall in jati as stated below. 5-6. the 7th generation becomes a mere fiudra ( there is jatyapakarsa jafcyapakarsa ). 64 when a brahmana marries a According to Manu sudra woman. e. Ap. 65 extends the same rules to the offspring of the marriage of a ksatriya with a vaisya woman and of a vaisya with a sudra woman. But the'great scholar is not accurate here. Sarvajna-nSra"yana understands it to mean yugma '( pair of spouses ). In the S. and if this parasava daughter marries a brahmana and the daughter of this latter union marries a brahmana and this continues for seven generations. 28. and Kullnka to mean 'janma'. 22. 6-13) it is said that after numberless births dudras and others become vaidyas and so on. I. 11-12 ) gives expression to the same idea rising - u-12 - . the daughter born is parasava. * ' The wcr-d yuga is understood by MedhStithi (on Manu X. 27. The meaning (yuginaj is attached ' to yuga by AparSrka on Yaj. Dh. 96 ( p. while according to Manu. Gautama they are 7 and 5 respectively (according to Haradatta). if a brahmana marries a sudra woman and a son is born.10. 196 Dr. he is a parasava and that son marries a sudra woman and their son again marries a sudra woman and this goes on for 7 generations. Vanaparva ( 212.

' . but should not he must follow the avocations peculiar to the higher varnas however revert to his proper avocation when the difficulty is m . II a vateya female and this goes on. If a vai&ya married a sudra woman. then the child of the 6th girl (in descent ) becomes a brahmana ( he being 7th in descent ) similarly if a brahmana Yajnavalkya I 96 or jatyapakarsa viz. I. If a ksatriya married a vaisya woman. marries a vaisya woman and a girl is born. 153. then the fifth girl in descent has a child ( from a brahmana husband ) which is the 6tb in descent from the original anuloma marriage and which then becomes a brahmana. if a ksatriya married a Sudra female and a daughter was born. then jatyutkarsa by marrying a higher male took place in the 6th generation. areftwi 22-23.' This is elaborated by the MitaksarS as follows If a brahmana marries a sudra woman and a daughter is born she if this latter marries a brahmana and a daughter is is a nisadl born and she in turn marries a brahmana and this goes on for six generations. I. 154. Similarly. she is an ambastha . . the daughter of the marriage is a karanl and if she marries a vaisya. ( 152 ) speaks of two kinds of jatyutkarsa one due to marriage ( as in Manu and Gautama ) and another due to the avocation followed. then in the fifth generation be a vaisya ( i. there will be jatyapakarsa ) Similarly if a brahman a marries a ksatriya woman then there the son will is jatyufckarsa or jatyapakarsa in three generations. It should be understood that there is rise in caste in the ?th or even in the 5th generation if there is inversion as to the avocations. e. 96. 91 ) and she marries a brahmana. then there is corresponding similarity (of varna in the 7th or even 5th generation ). . if the latter marries a brahmana and a daughter is born and this goes on in the same way. If a brahmana marries a ksatriya woman and a daughter is born who is called murdhavasiktS ( Yaj. then that child becomes a brahmana. ^n^rt^^f^ *r4farff gRimftSvi i r 5 g> .&4 Mistary of junarmamstra \ un. then the fourth in descent marrying a brahmana has a child (5th in descent). then in the fifth Certain peculiar generation there would be jatyutkarsa. : . the daughter born was a mahisya and jatyutkarsa took place in the 5th generation. Each varna may in times of difficulty follow the occupation peculiar to the caste immediately below it. avocations and activities are prescribed for the four varnas. she was called ugra. .

13-14. the 5th or 6th becomes respectively a vaisya or ksatriya ). Baud. 118-120. the 7th becomes a sudra ( by caste ). then the fifth generation becomes free of the taint of a sudra status. Similarly if a vaisya takes to the work peculiar to sudras. Gautama X. 156. It would have been impossible to remember descent in a particular way for five or seven generations. but hardly anything further . 65 over (vide Vasistha 13-23. Yftj. II ] Varna and jatyapakarsa II. who does the same and this goes on continuously for seven generations. occur in the literature on dharma-sastra or in inscriptions. Similarly if a ksatriya follows the avocation of a vaisya or sudra and this goes on continuously. then the 5th or 6th ( respectively ) becomes a sudra or vaisya. If a br&hmana begins to follow the avocations peculiar to a vaisya or a ksatriya then in the 1-7 &c.). Vide my paper published in the Jour Dal portion of 38 Bombay Law Reporter on * Inter-caste marriages in modern India. I. though it might have originally some slight basis in fact. The want of unanimity among the original 6mrtikras and the commentators also points in the direction that the method advocated.' the casfce system based purely ) can have a These provisions would considerably lessen the rigour of on birth. D. was only a hypothesis and an ideal. jstyutkarsa. If II. of ( I. But one feels grave doubts whether such a method of jatyutkarsa or jfttyapakarsa ( particularly the one based on occupation ) was or could be ever enforced in actual life. 5th or 6th generation respectively there is fall in caste ( i. 8. In ""the inscriptions we have authentic cases of intercaste marriages 158 From the Talgupda only. 15. He ' him and his son ( 6th from the original nisada pair vedic sacrifice performed for him. he can have upanayana performed for S. 13-14 ) gives another illustration says if a nisada ( fche son of a br&hmana from a sudra wife ) marries a nisadl ( and this goes on continuously ). 1. 9 . e. Visnu Dh. A % *. Hardly any examples of j&tyutkarsa in the way set out by Manu or Yaj. then the fifth generation becomes sudra.Oh. 8. a brShmana begins to follow the avocations peculiar to a sudra and has a son. H. S. king Kakusthavarman of the Kadamba family we learn that the Kadambas were originally of brahmana lineage. in the smrtis and epigraphic records/ where several instances of inter-caste marriages are cited. that the founder of the family was a brahmana pillar inscription of 155. 155 Dh.

puga> gana. 30 speaks of Vlfcahavya. I. 669. f^. * f brahmana family came to look upon itself as ksatriya by virtue of pursuing the profession of arms and originally governing the people. 160 These 157. Ed. Mandhata.* I !TT ^f quoted in f^riN. These are mythical sages and their rise is not stated to have been duo to the prin159 Ibbetson ( Report on the census of the ciple of jatyutkarsa stories . a king. vol. 159. 111-114. II chap. p. .66 History of Dtiarmasastra I Oh. 158. In the Puranas also there are . Kapi. P- Compare the following lucid note of the <m$TOTO3fa part 2 122 <=t**Wiiti<imit. 24. Ajamldha and others as having risen to the status of brahmanas. In the Mahabharata we meet with stories For example. 158 Punjab 1881. according to Manu II. I. vrta and sangha deserve to be carefully studied. Purukutsa. II Mayurasarman. Anusasana of kings who became brahmanas. of kings like Visvamitra. Sindhudvlpa. p. All these were called samuha (group) or varga according to Katyayana. Vadhryasva. Devapi and Visvamitra as having become brahmanas at a sacred spot on the Sarasvatl. 29. E. Arstisena. certain pp. I. 174-176 ) notes that professions became degraded brahmanas following and that the caste was changed. f. ( on nr*. 18 ). In this connection the words sreni. Samkrti. ( Vide VSyupurffna B. ) vol. as having become a brahmana similarly Salya ( 39. 36-37 ) speaks of Arstisena. That the professional castes were wealthy and well organized follows from the dharmas&stra works and epigraphic records. that his descendants applied the affix varman to their names ( as if they were ksatriyas. who became exasperated with the Pallavas of Kanclpura and took up the sword to conquer the earth. 8 p. 32 ) and Kakusthavarman ( 4th in descent from Mayura&arman ) married his 187 This shows that an daughters to Gupta and other kings .

1. 6. 1. V. V. 7. 1. ^ i 163. 52 ). 165. I 1. flTTtnrft i rfhff * 16. who are solely bent on making money or seeking pleasure. tr. 26. ^T*n^ vol. by the profession of arras and vartS ( agriculture ). 1. the wealth of associations ( gana ) and who transgresses the conventions made by them. 378 . 167 prescribes banishment for him who embezzles S. sfnnftm trrate: i f^rcTfTf^fsfemJTm^r. 2. 163. 16. 166. 53. sangha ( V. V. III. r. 3. i 1. Kasika 165 explains pugas as associations of men of different castes with no fixed professions. The Mahabhasya explains ( on Panini V. en. .Oh. *3K*$ ^nftft ft msrorac 164. Dh. 2. *TTTT- 3*T3wrenr: sWfarft^n'ft *i*w?. 52. from vrata ( V. ^n %* w*r$?T[ *TcT5% ^rfsr^ft^TJrwwc ^ift i 162. ef^TTf g*N a%5T w ^ arsramfc^ i ^ ^. V. The KausItaki Br. 10. above words are variously explained by the several common161. 2. 15 says that boundary disputes are to be settled by the evidence of the old men in the village or town or of guilds Visnu ( sreni ) when there is conflict of documentary evidence. 2. 3. i . 11 and in numerous other places. 374 ( on n. 21 ). 21 ) that vratas are groups formed by men of various castes with no fixed means of livelihood but subsisting by the might (or strength) of their The bodies (by bodily labour of various kinds). '&reni' ' occurs in the Rg. 219 ) has a similar The rule about village and local associations (sangha). gana. 26. arfo- sffafifr qrr. V. 21. but the sense is generally a group and there is no special meaning attached. p. S. i i \ arS^rm VII. 7 168 speaks of Rudra as piiga (as he is the head of the band of Maruts ). 26 18 * quotes a BrSh- mana passage about a group ( sangha ) of brahmacSrins going about for alms. 2. 21 ) fr^c $TT: ^^m on n. siww XI. srir. both vrata and garia occur in Rg. Dh. II j Varna : caste and other guilds 67 * words occur in the Vedlo literature. 2. 37. p. 163. Manu ( VIII. S. II. 2. Kautilya in one place distinguishes ( guilds ) and in another place says that the guilds of ksatriyas in Kambhoja and Sur&s^ra subsist 166 Vas. 21 V. In his time it appears the words had acquired specific meanings. Panini teaches 164 the formation of derivatives from puga. 10 lel ( like flamingoes the horses press forward in rows or groups ) . 16. Ap. Dh. between soldiers and srenis XVI.

pp. 15 ( E. ( I. gana is a group of brahmanas.' Yaj. These versea are quoted in the re. vol. vide E. 9 and No. conduct business) explains dreni ats a (of guild of sellers of betel leaves and the like and gana as of if 168 'helabukas'( horse-dealers). 426. while Yaj. ( A. 192 and Narada to the the king 2) require prevent ( samayasyanapakarma breach of the conventions of 6reni. I. TO. W.68 tators ( History of DharmaiUstra vide [ Oh. II. II 30 says that pugas and srenis had authority to investigate dis putes and that the puga was a higher tribunal than the dreni. 618-669. sahgha is a body of Bauddhaa or Jainas and bands of oandalas and . II p. vol. The Indore copperplate of Skandagupta ( of the Qupta samvat 146 ) speaks of the deposit with the guilds of the ( 167. The Mathura Brahml inscription of Huviska's reign mentions a guild of flour-makers ( samitakara. my notes to the translation of vapacas are called gulma. Hi. I. The Mit. and the or Hit. S. 97 ) refers to an investment of monies with the guild ( Sreni ) of bamboo. kuvindas ( weavers ) and carmakaras ' ' shoe-makers ) as examples of srenis. I. 55 at p. Katyayana says 'Naigarna is an association of citizens of the same city. No.. Yaj. VWfoffcpr 168. I. - while a dreni is a group of people of different castes. ganas. IV p. 361 ) directs the king to they transgress their rules punish kulas. 88 ) we are told that in the reign of the Abhlra king Isvarasena 1000 karsapanas were deposited with an association of potters as a permanent donation yielding interest. 352 Ac.( on H^i<(Wi^< p. The Junnar Buddhist cave Inscription vol.workers and of braziers kasakara ).' In the Nasik Inscription No. VIII p. gana and to confirm them in their traditional occupations. ) P. vol. 61 ). naigama. that subsist * ' by ( hedabukas tambuthe occupation of one caste and gives ' * * f likas ( betel sellers ). vrata. 12 of the inscriptions at Nasik also contain reference to deposits of money with the guild of weavers. castes. 124 ) there is a reference to one dramma for each horse given to hedavikas. In the Htrsa stone of ' Chahamana Vigraharaja ( E. II 187 Katyayana verses 678-682 of that reconstructed srarti). puga. 21 p. drenis. puga is an association of traders and the like. on this explains that puga is an association of people of diffe-* rent castes and different occupations that stay in one locality. vrata is a company of soldiers carrying various arms. qrrav3^mftftmiwn \ . 500 with a guild of oilmen and 2000 with a guild of watermen ( udaka-yantra-sreni ) for medicines to be given to sick bhiksus.

70 ). 1. ( 0. Vaik. 81 = These examples show that about the first I. 0. 36 says it was a low subcaste sprung from Vaidehaka fathei and Karavara mother and that Andhras were to live outside the village and to subsist ( X. 16. vol. is noted as Adi-Andhra ( vide Sen. to 1000 A. integrity and stability that people deposited with them thousands for permanent services to objects 169 of charity. 11-15. vol. Usanas. 1. 15 p. Radba and kumud Mukerji pp. andhraka and candala of as the lowest castes. D. the Sutasamhita ( Siva-mShatmya-khanda chap. 44 for pBga. Likhita 92. 68. smarta-sufcra X. It is hoped that the list is fairly exhaustive for the It will be noticed that many of the caste names smrti period. The Udyogaparva ( 160. I. Manu IV.30. Atri 251. Manu X. 197. vol. Ill p. Yaj. Unfoi as printed ) are wrong and not in point tunately some of the references ( 169 Vide * . References are given only to a few smrfcis. gana aangha. I. Br. Ill p. oilmen. S. According to Vas. 148. 1. O. 29-34. in a tabular form owing to numerous contradictory statements in the smrtis themselves. VIII. dreni. 103 ) mentions Andhras ( probably as people of Andhradesa ) along witb Dravidas and Kaficyas. Manu. 17 p. the principal ones drawn upon being the Dharmasufcras. In Orissa one scheduled caste ). II ] Varna and guilds 6fr oilmen of Indrapura for permanently securing a supply of two polos of oil ( 0. D. 1 ) this word is a generic appellation for all lowest castei * Local Government in Ancient India by Dr. 12 ). 13 ). so their organization. 437-38 A. in alphabetical ( Sanskrit) order. 321 ) meda. 48 ) by killing wild beasts. 194 ). Vide above note 118 quoting the Ait.Ch. centuries of the Christian era such castes as woodworkers. collected here still occur under the same forms or under slightly modified forms of the names. verse Apastamba ( III. Similarly it is said that a guild of silk weavers from Lata ( southern Gujerat ) came to Dasapura ( Dasor in Malwa ) and built a temple of the sun in the Malava year 494 i. Yaj. vol. Andhra. A. betel sellers and weavers that are at present very low in the hierarchy of castes had very efficient caste guilds. In the edicts of Asoka the Andhras are associated with Pulindas ( vide Rock Edict No. 1936 Anlya. 1. e. C. famous for shall now append a list of several castes enumerated or mentioned in smrfci and other dharmasastra works from We They are not given about 500 B. 79.. In the Nalanda plate of Devapaladevs are spoken ( E. Dh.

burada ( worker in bamboos ). This shows that these low castes had risen in social status in the medieval ages by their organization and 170. ' 260 sudra ). ITT. I. Is ifc possible that the Prakrta languages others as prakrtis were originally so called because they were spoken by these castes called prakrtis ? II dated Sake 922 ( E. III. on Ysj. 12 ) explains that srenis mean the eighteen low castes such as the rajaka. 36. p. ed. : ^ I. This verse is quoted as Apastamba's by the Mit. ^ i ^^^f^3F^ *nft ^rpe^r: Anand. Visnu Dh. II. 116. In the Sangamner plate of Bhillama vol. meda. 3. viz. 74) Pitatnaha speaks of the seven castes of rajaka and ksatr. 16.14. *TH 33 ( Some mas. 265. candala. ^ 3^3 554 tpr ).7. Il Vide the chapter on 'untouchables'. represented in the Deccan by Kdhatis ). magadha and ayogava. p. ( washermen and others meaning probably the eighteen guilds The Vlramitrodaya ( vyavahSra ). '. Dh. on Yaj. In the Mahabharata ( Santi 101. Visnu Dh. is used in the sense of III. The bahya has the same sense. called antyavasayins? 11 flesh ). word ' ' Antyaja. 279 Various enumerations of the subdivisions of antyajas are found in the smrtis. 1 and 172. T3T^wf?TW 3?f|f^( Jiv. I.in Manu IV. ). . fterro on HI. Yaj. suta. This word is applied to all lowest castes like the candala . !! part 1 p. I. 273.70 like the candala. Brhad- In Manu VIII. 220 ) a village is granted with eighteen prakrtis of p. III. bhilla. 265. vide note 202 below. read . 19 ) reference is made to antyaja soldiers and Nllakantha explains that they were the kaivartas and bhillas of the border regions. the one quoted above which it says is not so low as another group of seven. i JTTwnffcrirr 3r* ^ws^^n^ on ft ( H n^JTn| ^acc. ^("gic?: MT^f: I snn 3?ft ^Q*WH ?TT. while Aparftrka p. which are yama the ( word quoted in Mit. to grr. 61. 9. kaivarta ( fisherman ). The Mit. vide also Nftrada (rnadJna 155). S. quoted by 5^^ 20. 199. ^prr: n for 171. carmakSra ( worker in hides ). 1123 ascribes it to Atri. S. 18 says that there is a cessation of Vedic study on the day on which bahya senter a village. According to the Sarasvatlvilasa (p. dvapaoa ( eater of dog vaidehika. 260 distinguishes between two groups of antyajas. Ap. Atri 199 enumerates 170 seven antyajas viz* rajaka ( washerman ). S. viz. P 74. on Yaj. nata ( dancer caste. History of Dharmatastra [ Oh.

3. 12 ) forbids the study of the Veda in the presence of the antyavasayin. and Antavasayins ( the printed text is corrrupt ). Dh. Manu X. says that an antyavasayin is not eligible as a witness. In Pan. IV. No.Ch. 347 of 1887-91 ) say that Dom in modern times is the antyavasayin of the smrtis. VIII. 18. In Ait.Ms. 47 prescribes the profession of medicine for him and Usanas ( 31-32 ) says that he may subsist by agriculture or may be a fire-dancer or he may be a herald ( ? banner procl aimer) m 173. USanas 31. ( Ambastha same as Bhrj jakantha ). 3. derived its name from a country. 8. 91. 79 separately men' antyas and antyavasayins and Manu X. Yaj. 3 holds that the antyavasayin is the offspring of a sudra from a vateya woman. 22 ) speaks of Medas. In Baud. 12-13. 170 Ambasthya ( king ? ) is cited by Pat. * 174. The BharadvSja-srauta sutra ( XI. 14 as interpreted by Haradatta he is the offspring of a ksatriya from a vaisya woman. Br. 7 ) king Ambasthya is said to have performed an Asvaraedha sacrifice. Santi(141. I. II ] Varna and various castes in smrtis 71 wealth. 22. that he is condemned even by all bahyas ' ( Gautama 20. as an example derived from Ambastha It is a question whether the caste of Ambasthas ( a country ). S. . Manu X. The Anusftaana-parva ( 22. 39 says that the antyavasayin is the offspring of a candala male from a ' nisada female. 11 ) mentions a king Ambastha. Pulkasas untouchables ' 23. while according to Gautama 4. Manu IV. 9. 39. Abhisikta See under MurdhSvasikta. 1.O. 12-13 ) enumerates twelve by name as antyajas and adds that all those who eat cow's flesh are also antyajas. S. Karnaparva ( 6. 1. 32 mentions antyavasayin ( and -yinl ). Narada ( strlpurhsa v. 97 the word Ambastha is derived and on Pan. I. 1 and ) and stays in a cemetery. ' ' l m tions Antavasayin or Antyavasayin. castes The Veda-VySsa smrfci ( 1. Vas. 107 ) Ambastha is an anuloma sprung from the marriage of a brahmana with a vai^ya woman. 29-32 ) gives a graphic description of a hamlet of candalas and NSrada ( rnadana 182 ) calls them 'antyavasaya* ( in verse 41 ). Dh. : H H ^^T^r 12 ). ( chap. Some modern works like the Jativiveka (D.

Devala quoted by Apararka ( p. a clandestine of the Adityapurana to the same effect. probably karmakara and karmSra. 5 ( 3^VR fffa ). The Sabhaparva ( 51. II. Haradatta on Ap. p. 46-63 and 8. 19. 475 ). words . 10.I. ). 12 has almost the same live by surgery. Dh. 15 he union of a brahmana with an ambastha girl. Avarita. 16-17 ) states that the abhlras were dasym and mlecclias who attacked Arjuna after the great war in the land of the five rivers and carried away Vrsni women.2. . I. Apita. 114). According to the Sutasarhhita he is the offspring of union between a ksatriya malo and a vai^ya female. 251 (on ITT. 14 says that ambastha and salyakrnta are synonymous. 1. In the Vedio literature we have any metal ). I. 'People of India* p. bhramfca is the appellation of the speech of abhlras and the like Madras. p. Abhlra. him as a sudra along with taksan (MahabhSsya. ( is the child of the The Mahabh&rata Mausalaparva 7. 247) cites from the Smrti- kaumudl a verse Avira. I. TJT^ <H Tol. II Vaik. Vide under Patanjali on Pan. I m %TO fttfreT in g T: fterc 3WfT% P.72 History of Dliarmasastra [ Ch. 10 mentions vol. iits W^^4 p. 4. 40-41 ) says the same. Ayaskara ayastapa ( ( blacksmith heater of ayas. the Dravidas and others became fciidras by non-contact with brahmanas. 72. The Mahabhasya expressly states that the abhlras are not a subcasfce included under the genus sudra but that they are a caste distinct from The Kamasutra ( V. 92 ) says that he is born of the illegitimate connection between a married woman and a male of the same caste and he becomes a 175 sudra. According to Manu X. According to the Sufcasarhhita he is the offspring of brahmana from a Dausyantl. 118 on Yaj. 247. 30 ) names an abhlra king Dandin in his Kavyadar&a ( I. 15-16 ) says ( just as Manu X. The Baidyas of Bengal came to be and the amba$thas of Manu (vide Risley's ). 176. 5. 175. Hsrofat V^T& 118 and in i arafte ^ on rg X. 6. 43-44 do) that the Abhlras. 12 ) mentions abhlras with Paradas and the A6vamedhika ( 29. S. 36 ) says that ApaKo^taraja. The Sudra-kamalakara (p. the Sahyadri-khanda ( 26.

7). 48. e. For Vedic reference see above (p. Vide E. Ugra. 13. Manu X. Ahiwfika. 94 this is a pratiloma caste sprung from the union of a sudra male and a vaisya female. built a well ( E. II ] Vartia : Abhlra 73 in poetry. 48) is to pare wood. I. Manu X. Yaj.10 . Usanas 12. e. Avantya. while Usanas ( verse 13 ) says he is a weaver or subsists by by cultivating paddy or by dealing According to Visnu Dh. His avocation (Manu X. e. while Baud. Vide I. Same as Bhurjakan^ha ( Manu X. 1. 8 and Agnipurana (151. 68-69 ) that he works in stones and bricks. Ayogava. The Amarakosa says that they are cow-herds and that the abhlra wife of a Mahasftdra is called Ahhlrl. 235 ) and in the Nasik cave No. Dh. Enthoven's * castes of Bombay ' vol. Manu X. The Ahhlras became ahsorhed in Hindu society and we find that an Abhlra senapati Rudrabhuti in the year 103 ( 181-82 A. ) under king Rudrasirhha. 17 ff. 7. voL 8. 37 he is the offspring of a nis&da male from a vaidehl female i. S. Anusasana 48. S. p. X. Aivika. 43) from Vedio literature. 4. vol. 88. 14 say that it springs from the union of a vaisya male and a name ksatriya female. making vessels of bronze or in cloth. 5). 7 he is S. is to prevent strangers from trespassing on places where offenders are kept imprisoned. The Sahy&drikhanda says ( 26. B. Vaik. S. Tribes and J. vol. B. R. Kaut. Baud. 12 he is the child of a clandestine union between a ksatriya male and a vaisya female and deals in horses.15 ) he is to make his living by going to the stage. D. ( 18. AnusSaana an anuloma offspring of a ksatriya male from H D. 16. I. Dh. 16. X. According to Vaik. the mother was of the Mathara gotra ). Vas. 36 shows that the same caste is called Karavara when it follows the craft of a carmakara. a son of Abhlra Sivadatta and M&dharl ( i. 92. 15> Visnu Dh. III. Dh. S. According to Gaut. 45). makes pavements and whitewashes walls i. 430-433.9. 16 p. According to (1 9. According to Manu X.Ch. S. A. he is a double pratiloma Kulluka says that his avocation according to Usanas caste. Kaut III. 3 ) gives antyavasayin as the of the caste sprung from a dudramale and a vaisya female and pulkasa as the name of one sprung from a vaisya male and a ksatriya female. he is the modern Patharvata ( in the Deccan ). 12. 21 ).7. IV. son of Rudradaman. Abhlras are called ahirs in modern times. Yaj. 21 pp. I. (I. 15 there is an inscription of king Xsvarasena. 9. Vide Ayogu above (p. p.

S. 7. 4. e. 13. Vide Vaik. Vide Manu X. collection of 1887-1891 No. e. 1) he does not belong to the dvijatis. Jhalla. he is an anuloma ). is According to USanas the offspring of a clandestine union ( 45 ) and Vaik. 49 says that the ugra should subsist by catching and killing animals that hide in holes. allows a pupil to bring wealth from a 6udra or an is in distress or difficulties. ( I. ( IV. 49-51 ) says he is the same as . 18. Dh. subsists by washing clothes and is an untouchable. 44 are derived from countries. I. S. 43-44. The Ap. The Ap. he is the child of the marriage of a vaisya and a sudra woman ( i. 14 says that ugra is the offspring of a vaisya from a sudra female. Nata. Vide note on Khasa (p. 10. 2. Odra. ST. Kslrasvaral on Amara says that karana also denotes a group of officers like kayasthaa and adhyaksas ( superintendents ). Manu (X. 13 he between a vaisya and a sudra female. corn like paddy. Dh. According to Asv. 6. Khasa. Dravida. 347 ) he is called Bavut. * '. who is ) upanayana has been performed a vratya ( i. ) Gaut. Katakara. 0. 22 ) says that a ksatriya Karana. field.74 History of Dharmasattra [ Ch. for has from a similar whom no woman a child variously called Niccivi ( Licchivi? ). 1 ) says that a brahmana may accept the gift of money. Udbandkaka. Most of the names of people mentioned in Manu X. 92. sutra (II. 255) he is called Rajputa In the Jativiveka ( the D. The. Karaiia. Adiparva 115. hay for oxen from an ugra. offspring of the Upakrusta. II woman. 43 tells us that Dhrfcarastra had from a vaisya female a karana son named Yuyutsu._Malla. Vaik. According the Sahyadrikhanda and Sudrakamalakara (p. while Usanas ( verse 41 ) states that he is to be the staff-bearer of the king and to carry out the ( ugra when the teacher as explained by Haradafcta to punishments inflicted on offenders. flesh of deer. 20 ) to USanas ( verse 41 ) he is the offspring brahmana with a sudra woman. 10. 17 the view of some and acaryas) Yaj. while according of the union of a ( I. Manu X. 15 says he is the offspring of a khanaka and a ksatriya woman. but is authorised to perform the vedic rite of agnyadheya and the commentary explains that he is a vaisya following the profession of a carpenter. Sahyadrikhanda ( 26. 79 ) and see Sabhaparva 51. house. Odra is a country corresponding more or less to modern Orissa. 23. 10. According to U6anas ("verse 15 ) he is the union of a sunika and a ksatriya woman. According to Gaut.

respectively held that the kayasthas were dvijas In Subrao v. But Sankha ( prose ) quoted by Apar&rka p. 3. (51. 43 ) above. Apastamba. II ] Varya karcwa : 75 carana or vaitalika and his business is to sing the praises of kings and brahmanas and study the science of erotics. Kakavaca. A. Karmakara. 180 181 in the 12 All. L. vide Sch. II. It is Karmara. 178 I. Radha 52 Bom. K. Manu X. R. 1936 Ka/hsyakara. ( modern kamsara in Marathi) Mentioned by Narada ( rnadana 274 ) and Visnu Dh. 13 mention Kambojas with Heated controversies have raged in medi- eval and modern times about the origin and status of kayasthas and the bitterness is reflected in the decisions of the Indian the Calcutta High Emperor Court held that the kayasthas of Bengal were sudras and went so far as to hold that a kayastha could marry a Dom female. Bihari Lal m the Allahabad and Patna Ishwari Prasad v. 47 I. O. 2 ) was known Sakas. 504-506 this conflict of decisions is referred to. to Yaska Nirukta Udyogaparva 160.145. . ( 43-44. 14) mentions this caste. pp. 51 Gal. 103. Mentioned in Usanas Vide ( 50 ) as doing the work of bringing grass for horses. 4 in connection with the balance ordeal. This caste appears in the IV. Kayastha. 328. 739-743. sutras of 177 The word kayaskha does not occur in the ancient dharmaGautama. 488. 6 Patna 506. 0.Ch. 179 L. I. Baudhayana. But in Asifa Mohan v. 140. 118 ). 115 separately mentions in the same passage karmakara and karmara. For vedic references vide it. On the other hand in Tulsi Ram v. S. Drona Vide under Yavana. or Vasistha nor ' New Vide for further details my paper on 'the KSyastbaa Indian Antiquary for 1939 vol. Rai Hari Prasad courts also. Kamboja. X. 111 121. (p. 175 ). Manu In Bengal the Lohar is a scheduled caste ). In Bholanath 179 m High Courts and not sudras. v. S. Nirode Mohan the Privy Council left open the question whether the kayasthas of Bengal were and in sudras. 215 mentions ( gana kulaladi ( Pan. Visnu Dh. The country of Kamboja and Panini ( IV. 1. IV. 497 at p. most probably the same as karmara.

though in some parts of the country ( as shown by U&anas and Veda-Vyasa ) the kayasthas also had come to form a caste in medieval times. bad characters. S. 383 makes the food of a lekhaka along with that of oilmen and 185 Lekhaka is obviously a caste others unfit for a brfthmana . here. 10-11 *n. but whether it is the kayastha caste is doubtful. The Veda-Vyasa smrfci ( 1. 10-11) includes the kayastha among Madras along with barbers.fa History of Dharmafastra [ Oh. H 3. Yaj. M. Therefore both these were only officers and not members of a particular caste. 3 defines a public document (r&jasaksika) as one written in the royal court or office by a k&yastha appointed by the king and attested by the hand 188 of the superintendent of the office. Brhas- pati as quoted in the Smrfcicandrikft ( vyavahara ) speaks of the ganaka and lekhaka as two persons to be associated with a judge in a court of justice and says they were to be dvijas. ^"TOWTS . The Visnu Dh. H. potters and others. VII. jSumantu quoted in the Par. U&anas 182 ( 35 ) holds the kayasthas to be a caste and gives an uncomplimen- tary derivation of the the first letters name by saying ( that it is compounded of of kaka crow ). II part I p. 322 calls upon the king to protect the subjects from the harassment of ca^as ( rogues ). desperadoes and the like and particularly of kayasthas. 183. I. chTOigW^ TTOI<J &} wtritai ^w* H i smrsmPr S^R^It 35. explains that kayasthas are accountants and scribes. cruelty and the spoliation ( or paring ). So the k&yastha seems to be the same as the lekhaka of Brhaspati and as a mere official. These words suggest that the k&yastha was an officer and that there is nothing about a caste here. 184 characteristic of the three. ll in the Manusrarti. The Mit. Vide also Apararka p. I. In the Mrcchakatfka (Act IX) a dresthin and kayastha are associated with the judge. In the first centuries of the Christian era the kftyastha was merely an officer and the word was possibly derived from or is a Sanskrit approximation of some foreign word for an officer. 184. VII. 600. thieves. Yama and sthapati to convey the three attributes of greed. are favourites of the king and very cunning. ! p- . 182.

E. II ) Varna: kayastha officers are 77 Though numerous of the first five mentioned in the inscriptions or six centuries of the Christian era. 442 p. who was a roguish kayastha.. 25 shows that Arjuna met kiratas. The Sudrakamalakara castes of kayasthas.Oh. L vol. In the Rajataranginl ( VIII. D. ). 23 this caste springs from the union of a vratya vaisya and a similar female. I. 19 pp. 20 speaks of kiratas as men of fiery valour. Anusasana ( 35.. against kayasthas. 1. 209. Kirata. Paundras. ( pp. vol. According to later digests like the ' Sudrakamalakara he is called kahara or bhoi and holds ' ' * torches and carries umbrellas for others. According to Manu X. 19 p. vol. D. Vide Rajataranginl V. Maitra and Satvata ( according to Manu ). I. 738-39 A. ). XL p. 79 for Kayastha KSficana in Balera plates in 994-95 A. was So in the 12fch century kayasthas were only officers in Cashmir and brahmanas held such offices. Vide I. 36 he is a doubly mixed caste sprung from the union of a nisada with a vaidehl and his craft is that of a carmakara. 56 and 59. A. 43-44 ) he is a ksatriya reduced to the status of a sudra. XII. e. Veda-Vyasa speaks of him as a subdivision of sudra ( note 184 ). E. 44) for vedic references. 180-184 for a bitter diatribe strangulated in the reign of Jayasimha. The Amarakosa says that kirata. D. Vijanman. D. Dravidas. 149 for Sasanika kayastha in Naraspatam plates of 1045-46 of A. p. 46 ( dated 1328-29 A. . 131 ) kayasthas and diviras are mentioned separately and in VIII.17-18 ) says the same about Mekalas. the kayastha hardly ever figures among them. I. E. 279-280 ) speaks of three sub - Karavara* According to Manu X. D. See also E. yavanas and Mlecchas to the north with the Asvamedha horse.. ( for Vastavya kayastha ). E. E. Karusa. 45 Inscription of Hammlra ( dated 1288-89 A. I. 20. p. D. L 20 Appendix No. 25 for kayastha Suraditya who was Govindacandra's plate dated 1129-30 A. sabara and pulinda are subdivi- when proceeding sions of Mleooha castes. 213 Amoda plate dated 1161 A. D. 2383 it is stated that the brahmana Sivaratha. E. XL ' 'TBarvasastravit in p. vol. 19 pp. 73. Yavanas and others. vol. X. One of the earliest inscriptions where the word kayastha occurs is the Kanaswa Inscription Sivagana dated in the Malava era 795 ( i. La^as. 64 ( for Gauda kayastha ). for Mathura kayastha ). Karnaparva Asvamedhika 73. Vide above (p. This caste is also called Sudhanvacarya. According to Manu ( X.

337 ) include the potter among sudras. 18 says that all earthen vessels ( kaulalam Pan IV. 431. 10-11 ) and Devala ( quoted in Par. % 1. p. 8. A6v. gana kulaladi ' 32-33 ) says that he is the offspring of the clandestine union of a brahmana with a vaisya female. caste.8. IV. III. ^. Baud. but 9. M. Kuillava. 15 I. This word occurs 3. S. 15. According to Baudhayana as quoted in the Kytyakalpataru he is the offspring of an ambastha from a vaidehaka female. According 1. Kumbhakara. For Vedic references see above (p. of a According to the Sutasamhita he in the is the offspring magadha from a sudra female. 118 ).Dh. p. 7 he is the offspring of an ugra male from a nisada female. 11-12 . . 431 and Gr. A i i ft. r. p. 9. ( I. According to Adityapurana quoted in the Sudrakamalakara he manufactures swords and other weapons and engages in cockfights for the king. IV. 8 he is a pratiloma says that he is the child of the union of a sudra with a nisada woman. 118 The ) of a deceased agnihotrin should be kept by his son. 15. ^r^mR^r^m^^T^^^ f^nf*r 3j^: fctonTt s^fTR: 186. According to Manu III. II. Kulika. ( III. Vaik. exactly the reverse of BaudhSyana's view ) and he gives the name vaina to the offspring of an ambastha male from a vaidehaka female. 187 Provinces the Kumbhara is a scheduled caste. 12 ) agrees with Usanas and adds that the offspring becomes either a kumbhakara or a barber who shaves parts of the body above the navel. According to Kaut. *r. This Apararka p. 12 states that he is the offspring 188 Manu X. ^^i^fir in TO. ( Pan. ( X. In the Central Kulala. 187. 3.78 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch II to Baud. I. Usanas ( B. 8. 7 ) he is the offspring of a vaidehaka male from an arabastha female ( i. 174 he is the offspring of a clandestine intercourse between a married brahmana woman whose husband is living and a brahmana male. 3. According to Kaut. I. while 1. Dh. . 18 agrees with of a vaisya from a nisada woman. IT. n.43). 1175 ( casfce is mentioned in Sahkha quoted by where Apararka explains it as devalaka ). explains the formation of kaulalakam ( made by a potter ). TIITO) rta: gpvrarf i. Veda-Vyasa 1. e. Kukunda. Why two names arose for the caste of potters it is difficult to explain. Kukkuta. Kunda. 8. 9. According to Amara he is the same as a cSrana ( a. Gr.bard ).

43-44 he makes . who is also called mSrgava and dasa ( dasa? ) and who subsists by plying Samkara on Vedantasutra II. I. Udyoga 160. . Mentioned as one of the antyajas by Veda-Vyasa. 3. 302 notes that fishermen who work with nets and baskets were called in the Jatakas kevatta.Ch. II ] Varna : krta. Fick p. the offspring offspring of Goja (or Goda). 34 tells us that the inhabitants of Aryavarta employ the name kaivarta to denote the offspring of a nisada from an ayogava woman. Manu X. 13 and 16. this is a pratiloma caste sprung from a sudra father and ksatriya mother. In Chandogya Up. of Kha&a or khasa. Ksatr. 18. 7. 79 Krta. Yaj. 5. kaivarta &c. Khanaka. is a forester and kills wild animals. 15 he is the offspring of a vaisya from a brahmana woman. According to Vaik. 93 and others call this caste vaidehaka. 15 ) he is the offspring an ayogava male and ksatriya female and lives by digging. also rings a bell at night to remind people of the hour. 43 says that dasa and boats. 12. According to Manu X. Vide Sabba. Medhatithi on Manu X. Kaivarta. Kaut. 103. 63-66 ) says that ksatr is also called nisada and that he is an expert in catching deer by means of nets. kaivarta are the same. 49-50 ) prescribes for him the same avocation as for ugra and pulkasa. According to Baud. a charioteer. 9. Narada ( strlpumsa 112 ). 3. Dh. 2 calls him vaina. For vedic references see above. ( III. Kolika. The Sahyadrikhanda ( 26. of a According to the Sutasamhita he svapaca from a brahmana female. I. IV. 22 name for karana while in X. Pan. Koli is a scheduled caste in the Central Provinces and Kol in United Provinces. this is another the khasas a ksatriya caste originally but reduced to the status of sudras by the absence of samskaras and the absence of contact with brahmanas. According to Usanas ( 28-29 ) he is the clandestine union between a ksatriya male and female. Vide note 173 under antyaja. In the Assam valley kaibartta is a scheduled Vide under antyaja (p. caste. 52. notices the word (VI. 4. ( X. Yaj. Manu ( X. Dh. 70 ) above. S. 7 ). According to Gaut. 11). 94. In the Amarakosa ksatr is given three meanings. I. Manu X. doorkeeper and the caste described above. is Guhaka. 8 the word seems to mean only door-keeper. 7. 4 says that this is a mixed caste. S. Vas. 1. IV.

this latter. Sufcasamhita ( Siva. 44). 13) p. He is the offspring of a clandestine intercourse between a brahmana widow and a brahman * male. he is the offspring of a secret love affair between a vaisya male and a brahmana female and engages in the sale of salt and oil. Cakrl. According to the Sutasamhita he is the offspring of an ayogava from a brahmana female. This name persists to this day as cambhar ( in Western India ) or camar in all other Indian provinces. bell. S. ( Manu ). 32). oil and oil cakes. untouchable caste and the population of oarmakaras in India is very large. In the Bombay Presidency alone they are about two hundred and ninety thousand ( in 1931 ). According to Usanas ( 22-23 ) he is the offspring of a clandestine union between a sQdra male and a vaisya female and subsists by ( selling ) oil and oilcakes or salt. Vide under antyaja (p. wives must and earnings depend upon them. 279 ) be the same as tailika. He seems to Harlta ( quoted by Apararka p. This caste is often spoken of as Mochi Often the rnochis are Moslems. Apastamba ( in many verse 9. 174. (X. ( pp. II Vide note 184. mentions him. Histonj of Dharmatastra [ Ch.80 Gopa. Vide Manu III. 15 ) agrees with subsist by working on hides. 12 ). Carmdkara. 37 ) Golaka. According to Brahmapurana quoted by Aparftrka According to Vaik. ( X. 12. 218 speaks of him as cftrmavakartin According to several smrfcis he is one of the seven antyajas. He is the modern Gavli and a dfidra subcaste. According to Sankha ( prose ) and Sumantu quoted by Apararka 1175-76 ) cakrika and tailika are separate subcastes. This is an ( shoe-maker ). cutter of hides According to Amara he is a person who "rings a Kslrasvaml says that he announces the king's arrival by ringing bells and that some regard him as the same as vaitalika. Y&j. 48 says that debts contract ed by gopa be paid by their husbands as the latter's profession The Kamasiitra ( I.8 ). 14 ) he is the offspring of a love affaii between a fcudra male and a vaisya female and hie avocation is the sale of salt. 70 ) above. mentions a caste called Gopalaka. According to Vaik. According to Usanas (4). 5. . ( 51. Para^ara (VI. II. Laghu-Satatapa 105. (X. he is the offspring of a sudra from a ksatriya girl. while verse 21 says that those sprung from a vaidehaka and a brahmapa girl Vaik. Cakrika. tioned in srnrtis like IV. He is menVisnu Dh. 1177 he is one who presses sesame.

18. part 1. the offspring of a M. 15. IV. ) describes how candalas had to ( 405-411 and give notice of their approach when entering a Ql^(Jt-au*Zl fA*JH. 15-16. they have to carry the corpses of persons who have no relatives. the offspring of an unmarried girl. 188 The word occurs in the kulaladi gana ( Pan. 16. vol. II. S. Usanas (9-10) says that their ornaments are to be of lead or iron. He is the lowest among men ( Manu X. their clothes should be the garments on corpses. AGO.51-56) says that candalas and svapacas should have their houses outside the village. For Vedio references see above pp. *TT. Laghu-Safcatapa ( 59 ) has a similar verse.Oh. their ornaments were to be made of iron. vol. as Yaj. woman. S. 118 ). I. dirt of the village in the first part of the day. part 1 306 says that one born of a person who after becoming an back to the householder's life. the offspring of a sudra from a brahmana skrta. S. Anusasana 48. they should have a leather thong round their necks or a cymbal under their armpits. Yaj. Manu (X. 12. ornaments and l>eds of persons that are to be hanged. D. are who Fa Hien live apart 188 *TRT: A. 5. I. 93. they are to be hangmen when the king so orders. Dh. 9. Manu X.<j+Ic*ie*'*'*^ JWT ' S3n?5' II %5Tc? quoted in qrr. Yaj. 12 ). 44-45.11 and 14 their avocation is to be According to Visnu hangmen or to kill those offenders condemned to death and candalas have to stay outside the village and to wear the clothes on corpses. Gaut. S. they are not to enter towns and villages at night. Santi 141. II. 3. 11 he is a pratiloma caste sprung of a 6udra from a brahmana woman. 4. 9-10 ) says that there are three kinds of candalas. Ap. 103 ). union with a sagotra ascetic turns Yama quoted in Par. woman. D. 1.17 ) Matanga is called a candala because he was born of a brahmana woman from a barber. their wealth consists of dogs and asses. Veda-Vyasa-smrti ( I. p. beyond the pale of religious observances prescribed for the four varnas ( sarvadharma-bahiI. 93 says ) and often spoken of in the same breath with dogs and crows ( e. Vas. I. one born of a and one who is the offspring^ of a sudra from a woman sagotra brahmana woman are all candalas. they should remove the Dh. 7. Baud. they should take their food in broken vessels. Dh. 366. II. vessels used by them cannot be used by others ( even after putting them in fire ). II ] Varya : candala 81 Candala (or candala). they should incessantly roam. 29-32 gives a graphic description of their hamlet. 9. The classical description of a candala hamlet is in the Kadambarl of Bana. 11 . they may take the clothes. to Gaut. p. In Anusasana ( 29. H. 25. Dh. viz. g. IV.

43 ). Kulluka says that he i<3 the offspring of a brahmana from a vaidehaka woman. Very often rajaka means only a washerman ( as Amara says ). VI. Mahabharata 15. by Legge. betelnut leaves and sugar. 216.82 History of DharmaSaslra or [ Oh. Visnu II* 4. Bihar and U. (X. 23. 1197 ) puts svapaka. N Udyoga 19. He is mentioned by Manu IV. as Taksaka ( pom in Bengal. 289-394 dombas are spoken of as svapacas. According to Manu X. 13 ) distingui- quoted in Apararka p. Dh. 15 and Manu IV. Andhra. 51. S. quoted by Apararka Jhalla. ). 48 the avocation of Meda. In modern times candalas are returned as a scheduled paste in Madras and Orissa. They 51. In the Rajataranginl ( V. It appears that Visnu who separately mentions shes between the two. In RajataranginI V. 43-44 the Clnas were a ksatriya caste reduced to the status of 6udras. e. 43). 8. CuHcu. Manu Karana and Khasa. p. 279 ) also distinguishes between rajaka ( one who dyes clothes ) from * * nirnejaka ( one who washes clothes ). domba and candala on the same level. town themselves Cina. under kayasfcha. 22 says that it is another name for In Bengal Jhalo Malo or Malo is returned Dornba (or Doma) is the same as ivapaca according to Kslrasvaml on Amara. 10 . According to Vaik. 12. 192 ) dombas are spoken of as untouchables on the same level with candalas and as following the profession of singers. VI. Taksan or carpenter For vedic references see above (p. 182. According to the Mahabhasya on Pan. * ' ' ' Jalopajlvin ( subsisting by catching animals in a net ) probably the same as a kaivarta. He is] mentioned in Harlta 279. II market place by striking a piece of wood to make known so that a man may avoid them and not come in contact with them (vide 'Record of Buddhist kingdoms' tr. as a scheduled caste. p. Cailanirnejaka (or only nirnejaka)-washerman. Curicu and Madgu is to kill forest ( or wild ) animals. This caste is returned as a scheduled caste in Madras as Dombo. g. He is the same as vardhaki quoted above. Thn occurs in Visnu Dh. 354. 51. CucuJw. P. 210. S. X. 13) he is the offspring of the marriage of a vaisya with a sudra woman and his avocation is the sale and purchase of betelnut. Sabha are frequently named Vanaparva 177. in the According to Manu X. Parasara quoted by Apararka ( p. Harlfca ( * ' ' ' rajaka ( in 51.

Veda-Vyasa (1. 15 ). 5. 1. 380. *f. Pan. ( amedhya ) Usanas 43 says that taksaka is the offspring of a brahmana female from a Bucaka ( i. 15 ) says the same and calls him tamra. 10 and as excluded from sacrificial rites. Darada. 73 ) derives the word. According to Usanas (14) he is the offspring of an ayogava from a brahmana woman. Vaik. Udyogaparva 4. 37. (51. also called kuvinda. . or probably in the former status. 214. 43 ) who was allowed the vedic rite of adhana time of the smrtis the carpenter lost his 189 the offspring of a According to Vaik. the taksan was an unholy person and his touch made yajfiapatras impure ( L 1. tioned in Visnu Dh. Tailika ( oilman )-occurs in Visnu Dh. quoted above p. ( D. Tunnavaya ( a tailor ). He occurs in Manu IV. ( III. He must be the taksan kara ( ironsmifch supposed to be originally different from the rathakara ( vide Tai. S. 44 names him. Tambalika I. S. Manu X. Vide Kamasutra Bana refers to his house as stored with spices and betel. Sankha and Sumantu quoted by Apararka ( pp. dasa ( dasa ? ) and kaivarta are the same and that he subsists by plying boats. This occurs in an Upanisad passage according to Vedanta-sutra II.12-13) includes him among antyajas (vide footnote 173). p. 4. 4. 43. seems to have been a caste.Ch. 34 says that margava. he is a pratiloma ). 79. quoted by Apararka He is regarded as a sudra by the Mahabhasya on p. X. No. Manu X. ff^TlS in TO. 1178 he is the same as suci ( or saucika ). II ] Varna is : taksan 83 a sudra and on the same level with an ayasexcluded from sacrificial rites. 1175 and 1176 ). Even ) and so early as the Sat. 3. above p. Br. 14 ) ? is a taksaka who a from cucuka sucaka brahmana girl ) ( in is untouchable or a goldsmith or blacksmith or worker bell-metal. 14 N . 12 ). 347 of 1887-91 ) gives the name as tamra-kuttaka. Vide note on khasa Vide Mahabharata. ( X. S. C. According to the Brahmapurana quoted L>y Apararka p. 3. Vide under kaivarta. 13 ) and Sankha. Dasa ( a fisherman ). e. II. ( 51. 15. Tamropajliin (coppersmith). The Jativiveka ( X. 1175. Brhaspati names the taksaka as one whose food a brahmana could not eat. II. He is menTantuvaija ( a weaver ). 189. Pan.

The same as karana. Br. and Mahabharata. Probably this caste is the same as the Kolha^is or Bahurupls of modern times ( in the Deccan ) who are dancers. Dhlvara. 279 ) distinguishes Punjab. Same as kaivarta and dasa. while sailusa is one who though not a na^a by caste makes a living by going on the stage. 14. 11. According to Manu X. Harlta quoted by Apararka ( p. Kulluka on Manu X.84 Divaklrtya History of Dharmaiastra I Ch. 1177 ) says he is the same as saundika. 4. this is a ksatriya caste reduced to the status of a sudra. 14 this is an anuloma from the union of a ksatriya male and a sudra female. Drona 93. Manu X. 1176. P. P. Vide under rangavatarin for a quotation from Maitrl Up. 299 speaks . 22 says that he is the same as karana. Mocikara. brahmana male from an According to Manu X. caste sprung Dauswanta. U. This passage is not found in the printed text of Usanas. Udyoga 160. Bihar. is He Nata is knew of a Na^asutra composed by Silalin and another by Krsasva ( IV. but whether the na^as he meant were so by caste or whether he meant only actors in general is not clear. Dhimar is a scheduled caste in the Bhandara District of C. 12 Dhaivara. 15 he is the offspring of a ayogava female and according to Manu X. and above). 110 and 111 ). In the Tai. 103. 1? ) indicates that this is a pratiloma caste sprung from a vaisya male and a ksatriya female ( according to the view of some teachers ). According and napita are called divaklrti. name is Daus. 43. 49 quotes a text of Usanas that Dhigvanas subsist by working on hides and selling them and distinguishes them from karavaras. III. 22. II occurs in to Araara both candala Manavagrhya II. Dasa and Kaivarta are separately mentioned. JDhvaji ( seller of wines ) mentioned by Sumantu and Harlta quoted by Apararka p. All caught fish in different ways. 79 ). Panini Nata. but how they were distinguished it is difficult to say. one of the seven antyajas ( vide note 170 a scheduled caste in Bengal. Vide under khasa. Fiok's work p. between na^a and sailusa and Apararka remarks that nata is a specific caste. In the Jativiveka he is styled Dhigvana. according to Manu X. 4. According to the Sutasarhhita the Dravida. khasa ( vide note on khasa p.yanta. 49 he subsists by working on ( and sale of ) hides. 43-44. Gaut. The Brahmapurana quoted by Apararka ( p. ( IV. acrobats and jugglers by profession. According to Qaut. 3.

See note 189. II ] Varna : nata 85 of natakakulas mentioned in Buddhist Jatalcas and at p. but comes a napita. Nartaka. (X. C. but he shaves the hair on the body below the navel. : IWT XI. Vaisali or corporations of Licchivika. ( II. 380 ) sepasinger. Atri VII.vaisya female is called kumbhakara or urdhva-napita. Manu X. . 233 for their Tibetan affinities and I. 25 refers to him Usanas (32-34) and Vaik. vol. 178 and vol. (Artbasastra XL 1) speaks of the oligarchies 192 etc. (in cudakarma). 2 also mentions the two separately. VI. 21 ) 191 says that the offspring of a brahmana from a sudra if ( girl is called dasa if samskaras are performed on him.Ch. 22 says that this is another name for karana or khasa. rately mentions in the same verse nata and narfcaka ( both being abhojyanna to a brahmana ). 169 ). XI. ( X. Vide Indian Antiquary vol. A. (Rapson's Ancient India p. Nicchiw. like napita or kulala ) when compounded with the word grama. 192. part I p. 15 ) says that the offspring of an ambas^ha male from a ksatriya female is a napita. XII. 2. 294 he shows that in the Suruci Jataka the nata is described as throwing up a ball of rope and climbing it and performing other tricks of jugglery. Pan. Mallaka was ' the seat of this oligarchy in the 6th century B. 98 for inscriptions ' ' 190. 1. According to Usanas (19) he is the offspring of a a from vaisya woman and his profession is that of a rafijaka Brhaspati quoted in Par. while verse 32 says that the offspring of a ksatriya female from a nisada is called 4 adho-napita '. 32 p. Kaut. Vrjika. Napita (barber). they are not performed he be62 ) specially provides for the accentuation of words meaning artisan ( silpin. Parasara ( XI. M. 15) says that the offspring of the clandestine union of a brahmana male and a. The Sutasamhita (Siva chap. 12) say that he is the offspring of a clandestine affair between a brahmana male and a vaisya female and Usanas derives the word by saying 190 that he shaves the body above the navel of a person. Probably tuis is a misreading for Licchavi or Licchivi. 14 Indian Historical of this tribe and p. 9 p. Vaik. 21. The Sankhayana grhya I.

^n*rt ^nrt \ ^r wSh^Tf : ( <n*i?$re ? ) sftafa srol paraphrase of the rather . The * ' ' ' Nirukta further says that according to the Nairuktas the nisada is so called because sin ( or evil ) sits down in him from this it follows that in the times of Yaska the nisadas had come to be looked down upon with scorn as evil people and were probably some aborigines like the modern Bhils. ? ) urcsnft ( TKsre: ^fite 18. Fa Hien ( in Records of * Buddhist Kingdoms translated by Legge. 108 ) and Anusasana 48. between nisada and parasava. Usanas ( 36-38 ) says that the offspring of the marriage of a brahmana with a sudra '. 178. Narada ( strlpumsa 108 ) says that parasava is the offspring of a brahmana male and a sudra female.86 History of Dharmasastra ' [ Oh. 18. 43 and 46 ). while nisada is the illegitimate offspring of a brahmana from a sudra woman who subsists by killing wild beasts ( such as elephants ) and by is called 193. 178 ) derives parasava from the root paray ( to go across ) and the word sava ( a corpse ) meaning though living he is like ( I.5. to the com. The Nirukta 193 III. Dh. S. Manu ( X. 18 p. 7 ). Haradatta ) being the offspring of a brahmana from a vaisya woman and the latter being the offspring of a brahnuma male and a sudra female. vol. Yaj. ( ' one dead the In a corrupt passage of Vas. 4 remarks that according to Aupamany ava the five people are the four varnas with nisada as the fifth. Manu X. II Quarterly/ 1933. 53. woman worshipper of the parasava and gains his livelihood as the goddess Bhadrakall or by learning Saiva agamas or by playing on musical instruments. 2. nisada is the offspring of a ksatriya male and a sudra female and he subsists by fishing (according to the latter). Vas. Baud. I. 71 ) says that the Licchavis of Vaisali were attached to Buddha and also speaks of Ananda ( pupil of Buddha ) and the Licchavis. Niasda.8. Dh. 2.3 and II. ( IV. same derivation is accepted. S. 9. offspring of the marriage of a brahmana with a sudra woman. ( I. 8 while explaining the words pancajana mama hotram jusadhvam in B-g. Anusasana 48. p. ( II. where ^sfrrtta is a obscure words <nT*r3ra in Manu IX. Dh. 14 ) distinguishes the former ( aco. 1886.34 ).33 ). According to Baud. ( III. ' ' . S. This shows that Aupamanyava regarded them as distinct from the four varnas (including the sudras). 194. According to Narada ( sfcrlpumsa v.12. Manu IX. 9-10 ) Gaut. 8. X. 8 ) and Yaj. 91 ) say that parasava is another name for nisada. Kaut. 439 ff. 9-10. For vedic references see above ( pp. 91 the Nisada is an anuloma caste. 194 ( 18.

Paradas and other non-Aryan people 15. 33 ). Vide Manu X. The Mit. According to Manu X. were produced from the left hand of king Vona and they dwelt on the Vindhya. We have historical evidence for the name para^ava in the Harsacarita ( I. 118 ). 120-121 ) narrates that the nisadas. . In the Ramayana Guha. 14. I fNfcr. 14. of short stature. 1. Paradas are frequently mentioned in the Mahabharata. dark and dwarfish.) we are told that the king's maternal grandfather Kesava was a parasava ( vide E. I. 43-44 ) as a ksatriya caste Vide note on kha&a. 307). IV. 44-46. Nisada occurs in the gana kulaladi ( Pan. 13 ). spoken of as belonging to the caste of nisadas ( nisadajatyah ). on Yaj. The Vaik. sf^IH I ( at end ). 37 he is the offspring male from a vaideliaka woman. generally 196. occurs in Manu ( X. .Oh. The ( vol. of a candala Parada. Pandasopaka. snubnosed. self by dealing in bamboos. D. vol. In the Bhagavata-purana wo have the same story 197 ( IV. 42 ff. II ] Varna and wqada 87 13') has practically the same remarks to make about parasava and nisada. Udyoga 4. The reduced to the status of sudra. 15 at p. towards end ). ( vide S*. Bhlsma 20. Santiparva ( 59. 96-97 ) speaks of nisadas as men with reddish eyes and wifch black hair. 43-44 and note on khaSa above. 197. with red eyes and hair and that they dwelt in mountains and forests. where Bana 198 tells us that he had wifch him two paraSava brothers Candrasena and Matrsena in In the Tipperah copperplate of a chieftain called his travels. Medhatithi on is Manu X.bha 32. 3. Mahabharata several times mentions the PahJavas. Lokanatha (about 650 A. I. 195 (X. Here he is selling flesh. Vayupurana Pahlava. a pratiloma one and lives 8 does the same. and we are told that nisadas were dark like crows. helps Rama to cross the river Ganges ( Ayodhya 50. 16-17. who maintains himHe is the same as buruda. II. n mr^f IV. 91 cautions that this nisada ( the anuloma offspring of a brahmana from a sCidra woman ) is different from another caste called nisada. the king of nisadas. which by catching fish. chap.

Pingala. 5 a vaisya ) he is the offspring of pukkasa. 17. 14. 47 ). 19-20. of a According to the Sutasarhhita he is the offspring brahmana from an ayogava female. Usanas ( 16 ) says that he is the illegitimate offspring of a vaisya male f rom a ksatriya female and he lives by rearing cattle and by killing wild Anusasana beasts. According to Kaut. Udyoga 160. Drona 93. Vaik. For vedic references see above ( p. 44 remarks that the Paundrakas are spoken of as ksatriyas in the Mahabharata. Vide nisada above. 42 and 121. Pulinda. In the Vanaparva 140. II 52. Frequently mentioned in the Mahabharata among non. X. Asvamedhika 29.Aryan tribes e. IV. 21-22 mention pulindas. x. 5 ) and Visnu Dh. S. In the Adiparva 109. is Vidura scribed for sudras. Pundra or Paundraka. The word is also written as Sarhkaracarya on Brhadaranyaka Up.51. . 103. 3 as Mlecchas and non-Aryan tribes ( vide Sabha 32. 16. S. 25 Pulindas. 14) and Manu X. The Sahyadrikhanda ( 26. Dh. 25 called parasava and he is said ( in Adi. 22 says that pulkasa and paulkasa are the same. Usanas ( 17 ) find the Sufcasamhita say that he is the offspring of a sudra male from a ksatriya woman and that he makes his livelihood by manufacturing and selling 198 liquors or natural intoxicating sap. ( III. Medhatitbi on Manu X. The same is the view of some teachers according to Gautama IV.u. 14 ) says the same and adds that he subsists on the produce of the forest and by killing wild animals. Kama 73. 43) says that he is called sudra and is superior to a sudra ( in status ) and that he was to live hy the avocations preParasava. According to Vas. 8. g.88 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. while Vaik. (1. so a man may Medhafcithi they were be misled into thinking that even in the days of still ksatriyas ( but they weiM not so ). Drona 93. 7 ) he is the offspring of a nisada male from an ugra female. / . 9. 3. 44. (16. 33. They were a wild mountain tribe like the Kiratas or Sabaras. 13 ). Dh.12. Kiratas and Tanganas are spoken of as dwelling on the Himalaya. According to Baud. ( X. 18 he is the offspring of a nisada male from a sudra female. Pulkasa (or paulkasa). The Sutasamhita is of the same opinion as Vaik.12 ) to have married the parasavl daughter of king Devaka. ( 18. 15-16. Vide under Yavana. 114.

of Amara ) says that pukkasa is the as mrtapa (which see below). 2. 1. Vide Sabha. of the murder of a brahmana. 73. II ] Varna and pulkasa 89 male from a ksatriya female and the latter adds that he subsists by hunting. etc. 13 . ugra and m pukkasa. Buruda is a scheduled caste in Orissa. 21) says that this is another name of Paundraka ( or Paundra ). 44 for paundraka and note on khasa. clandestine 199. ( Yavana. avantya ( p.Aryan tribes along with Saka. (II. Bahya. are samklrnayonis. Pahlava 18 as staying in the west Santi 65. See under vandin below. Barbara. Vide note antyajas according to 170 above. Vide Pundra above. 32. . Medhatithi on Manu X. The Agnipurana ( 151. Buruda ( worker in bamboo ). . (1. 12). AnuSasana and Santi 65.Oh. 4 says that the barbaras In the Mahabharata they are frequently mentioned among no n. 35. S. 3. ( I. Vide pulkasa above. Anusasana 35. Puskara. The word is also written as Varuda occurs in the Kulaladigana varuda ( vide below ). ( Panini IV. Atri 199. 70). He is one of the Yama 33. Kslrasvaml ( com. Manu X. D. 13-14 have the form paundra.6) says that when a Brahmana. Bandin. they undergo for same some time in hell torments and then are respectively born as Candala. Ksatriya or Vaisya is guilty of the theft of gold. Ahgiras. 13. 118 ). of the antyajas. He is one of the antyajas according to Veda-Vyasa Vide note 173 above and on rangavatarin below. 17 Manu ) (X. 49 prescribes catching and killing animals that live in holes as the occupation of ksatr. Bhata. Drona 12l. . Sahara. 17 ). 15 ) says that and Harlta quoted in the Krtyapukkasas are hunters. He is one of the seven antyajas ( vide note 170 above ). Dh. Bhilla. 23 Vana 254. Vide Manu X. Yama kalpataru make him out as the offspring of a sudra male from a vaisya female. 12 ) as one Puspadha. 51. 16-17. Bhisak. Paulkasa. Ap. Mentioned in Veda-Vyasa-smrti Vide note 173 above. Paulkasa or Vaina. Vide under antya (p. According to Usanas (26) he is the offspring of a union between a brahmana and a ksatriya girl H.

According to Usanas ( 39-40 ) he is the offspring of a clandestine union between a ksatriya male female and he gains his livelihood by working and a vaisya on beads. 9. but Baud. female. tries he is called avantya or va^adhana. astrology and mathematics (verse 27). 5 makes him the offspring of a sudra from a Magadha. According to the view some teachers mentioned in Gaut. puspadha or saikha. IV. he is the offspring a brahraana male from a vaisya female. S. while according to the view of some teachers mentioned in Gaut. Manu ksatriya female. According to Gaut. is According to Yama quoted in Krfcyakalpataru he the offspring of a vaisya from a ksatriya female. of of of a ksatriya According to the Suta-samhita he woman and a vaisya male. is the offspring Mentioned in Manu X. 12. 15. According to Manu X. 21 he is the offspring In several coun of a vratya brahmana from a similar woman. 93 he is a pratiloma caste sprung from the union of a vaisya male and a ksatriya female. 13) he is the offspring of a vaisya male and a brahmanii female. Bhurjakantaka. Manikara. Bhoja. by perforating pearls and dealing in coral and conches. wild beasts. Dh. Vaik. of Jhalla etc. Bhrjjakantha ( same as ambastha ). 17. 48 as subsisting by killing Kulluka on that verse explains that according to Baudhayana he is the offspring of a brahmana from a bandin Madgu. X.90 History of Dharma&astra [ Ch. ( III. I. Malta. Vide Manu ( X. 1171) he lives by surgery and by attending upon patients. According to Brahmapurana (quoted by Apararka p. According to the Sutasarhhita he is the clandestine offspring of a vaisya male from a vaisya female. IV. 17 and Yaj. 7 ). 7 says he is the offspring of a sudra male and a vaisya female and Visnu Dh. 16. Usanas (7) and Vaik. Matsyabandhaka (a fisherman). Manu (X. II and he maintains himself by studying the Ayurveda in its eight parts. 16. 11. X. According to Usanas (44) he is the offspring of a taksaka ( carpenter ) from a ksatriya woman. or astronomy. 12 says that he is the offspring of the marriage of a ksatriya male with a vaisya female and subsists as a merchant ( srestbin ) and does not take to the profession of a warrior. I. Bhupa. S. IV. Anusasana 48. 22 ) who says that it is another name Kaut. (X. 47) prescribes trade by land routes for .

Anusasana X. This is an anuloma caste according to the view of some teachers in Qaut. According to upanayana ( 26. astrology and mathematics. Yama (12) uses the word Matanga where we ordinarily find candala in other smrtis. 1. Margava. According to the Sutasamhita he is the same as to the Sahyadrikhanda ambastha. I. 36-39 ) more details are added* . 45-46 ) he is entitled and his avocations are astrology. Panini IV. Vaik. but apparently not in the sense of a caste. Sahyadrikhanda ( 26. (X. Mahisya. Bombay Presidency there is an untouchable Mang which numbers about three hundred thousand. augury. in kalas and he is a devotee of Kalika. 48 says that they maintain inemseives on speech ( i. The Kadambarl of Bana (para 9) and Amara employ them as synonymous. (X. Vide Manu X. 60-62 ) also calls him bandin and says he is slightly superior to sudra and that he is clever in ornate prose. There are Mangs as a scheduled caste in Orissa. that he becomes the bandin of brahmanas and ksatriyas. by praise ) and are also called bandin. Same as kaivarta (fisherman). by singing or by being a messenger. he maintains himself by lauding ( the deeds of others ) or as a messenger or servant of a vaisya. IV. 70 derives the word Magadha from the country Magadha. IV. 10-11 ) quoted above in note 184. In the caste called Malakara or Mali/ca.Ch. 12) the offspring of the marriage of a brahmana with a ksatriya woman is the foremost among anulomas and is called savarna. while the offspring of the clandestine union of these two is called abhisikta. 13 ) states that even sudras cannot take food cooked by him. According to the view of some teachers mentioned in Gaut. that he is an untouchable and maintains himself by U^anas ( 7-8 ) says praise. In the Sahyadrikhanda ( chap. Manauika. 92 he is an anuloma caste sprung from the marriage of a ksatriya with a vaisya woman. of the clandestine union of a sudra According to the Sutasamhita he is the offspring male and a sudra female. I. 34. in six languages. 17 and Yaj. Matahga. otherwise he subsists by studying Ayurveda ( Medicine ) or the science of ghosts or astronomy. II ] Varna and m&gadha Magadhas. e. prognostications due to svara. 17 and Yaj. 91 sprung from the marriage of a brahmana with a ksatriya woman. Murdhavasikta. The same as candala. 26. If crowned he becomes a king. According to Vaik. Vide Veda-Vyasa ( I.

According to Manu X. I.S3 History of Dharma&astra [ Oh. IV. Vide under Andhra above and see E.' 475). Maitra. 36 says that he is the offspring flesh of dead cattle. II. 22 I. is mentioned in Narada ( vakparusya. 201. Manu X. Yavana. 43-44 Yavanas were originally ksatriyas reduced to the status of sudras ( vide under In the Mahabharata Yavanas are almost khasa above p. 4. . 23 he is the offspring of a vaidehaka male and ayogava female and his means of livelihood are belauding kings and nobles continually and ringing a The Jativiveka says that he is bell in the early morning. 2. He is one of the seven antyajas ( vide note 170 ). 23 says he is the same as Karusa. a pratiloma caste sprung from a sudra male and a ksatriya woman. and the com. andhras and medas have to sweep dirty places. vol. Vide pulkasa above. p. e. verse 11). Anusasana 22 speaks of raedas. pulkasas and antavesayins. 48 says that his business along with that of Andhra. ). XX. 130 where meda and candala are named as lowest castes in a grant of Paramardideva in samvat 1236. Nllakan^ha 201 explains that Medas are those who eat the Manu X. 10 (vol. According to Sudrakamalakara. niravasita but both are included by the Mahabhasya under sudras that are that if ( i. 4. 10 this casta is mentioned as separate from candala.and a vaisya male. II. p. In the Mahabhasya Pan. According to the Sutasamhita he is the offspring of the clandestine union of a brahmana woman. According to Manu X. is 200. cm fft *r fimf^ i i ^ ?r ft ^$fi <rrsf ^ft^n^nflJ f QWT& ^ f^^T^cTi: i HftHT'T on <n. those who are so low in the caste system is used by them for eating their food from it cannot be used by any one of the other castes even after the vessel is purified by fire &c. Maitreyaka. 79 ). II 800 on Mrtapa. of a vaidehaka male and a nisada woman. doorsteps and privies. a vessel This 22. called Dhokanakara. . Cuficu and Madgu is to kill wild beasts. MleccJia. 17 he According to the view of sone mentioned in Gaut. that he dwells outside the village and Manu X. Meda.

Udyoga 19. 3. 18 (as inhabiting the west ). 208 Rajaka U. 15) and the Sutasamhita he is the offspring of a pulkasa ( or vaideha ) from a brahmana woman. According to Vaikh. 13. Vanaparva 254. S. 10 ) includes him under siidra. 51. Yaj. 202. ( ) Apararka p. P. Drona 93. ). Dhobl ( is a scheduled caste in one of the antijajas according to several writers ( vide note 170 above). is Bihar and C. Panini (IV. to Manu IV. and in Bengal He while according to Usanas (18) he is the offspring of a pulkasa male from a vaisya girl.Ch. 19. 1. 16-17. called Dhoba). the Sakas tonsured their heads only. Patafijali in his ( the Mahabhasya ( on Pan. 14 Saakha and 17.59) derives the word YavananI from Yavana and a vartika on that sutra adds that YavananI means the lipi written alphabet ) of the Yavanas. 21. The Mahabhasya on Pan. 21 describes that the Yavanas shaved the head and also the beard. appears that Jayadratha ( king of the countries of Sindhu and Sauvlra ) had Kamboja and Yavana women in his harem. 10 ) indicates that he was prepared to regard Yavanas and Sakas as sudras but as outside Aryavarta. The Sudrakamalakara mentioned another caste of rajaka( which is the offspring of an ugra male and vaidehaka female ). Eangavatarin is distinct ( or-taraJta ). ( II. Asoka in Rock Edicts V and XIII refers to the Yonas and Kambojas as nations on the borders of his empire. vide Sabha. P. 42 and 121. because his livelihood depends on her. From Sfcrlparva 22.. 1178 ) he is a nata who goes on the stage for livelihood and from sailusa and who introduces various changes in his appearance and dress. 48 mentions him as liable to pay his wife's debts. Rangavatarin is mentioned in the Maitrl Up. According gayana. According to Brahmapurana (quoted by Apararka p. 13. Bhlsma 20. The Visnupurana IV. 4. ( washerman ). (X. 11 it 13. Santi 65. 4. mention him. II. II. along with nata and bhata. . 32. Karna 73. II ] Varna and yavana several other M non-Aryan always associated with Sakas and tribes . the Paradas allowed the hair on the head to grow long and the Pahlavas grew beards and that all became Mlecohas because they gave up their original dhannas and because brahmai^as also left them. 215 he Sankha ( quoted by 36 1175 Visnu Dh.

II. of the marriage offspring According to Yaj. if a caste pp. Vide above pp. According to in Krtyakalpataru he is a pratiloma sprung from a vaisya male and ksatriya female. Vide p. 75-76. It appears he In the Baud. ( hunter of deer ) same as vyadba. of a vaisya male with a sudra female. Narada* ( rnSdana 288 ) recommends utilising the services of an ironsmith who is so by caste in the fire ordeal. ( IV. meant vide under kayastha 08 Lohakara (ironsmith). (I) his upanayana was to be performed in the rainy season. Vandin (a bard. Ramaka* According to Vas. 45 for Vedic references. 13 ) he is the offspring of a clandestine union between a ksatriya male and a brahmana woman and he is to behave like a sudra. 1177 a vandin is one who Hrlta quoted sings the praises of men. according to Gaut. I. ( X. 18. gr. M. part 1 is p. Manu IV. II. it Rafijaka (dyer). 6 and Bharadvaja gr. He is probably the same as kayastha. 6 ) he is the lost his status gradually. Dh. he is not a twice-born ( makes his living dvija ) and cannot repeat Vedic mantras and by tending and driving horses and carts. This would be krta. written as bandin also). According to the Brahma-purana quoted by Apararka p. ( I. Mentioned by Sumantu quoted in Par. 4 he is a pratiloma sprung from the union of a vaisya male and a brahmana female. 1176. 383. He is mentioned by Harlta ( The Kamauli plate of p. vaidehaka according to Baudhayana. According to Baud. to offer sacrifices and gifts and makes his living by learning the art of taming horses. Dh. 216 mentions him. 15 ). making chariots and building According to Usanas ( 5-6 ) and Vaik. 43. IV. Lubdhaka Lekhaka. p. According Usanas (19) he is the offspring of a clandestine union between a sudra male and a ksatriya femaleto Rathakara. I. of houses. 127 ). 75 under karmara. . S. 9. the rathakara is entitled to have upanavana performed. 95 he is an anuloma doubly mixed as he is the offspring of a mahisya male from a karana female and according to a prose passage of Sankha quoted by the Mit. was Gahadavala by Lohara Someka engraved Jayacandradeva prose ) quoted by Apararka ( ' ' in sarhvat 1232 B. S. 5.94 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. . 203.

Bidalap.23 he the same as karusa. 215 says that Vena is one who maintains himself by splitting bamboos and that he is the same as buruda according to Visvarupa* For 9. II the instance varufaki ( f rom varuda). 11. 7) adds that a vainya follows the same profession as a rathakara. the offspring of a suta from a brahmana woman. 7 ). 93.Oh. of a sudra According to the Sutasamhita he from a ksatriya woman by stealth. II ] Varna : varata. Vatadhana. Vena S. S. Kaut. 7 ) makes the vaina the offspring of an ambastb a male from a vaidehaka female. I. ( III. is the offspring to Baud. Anusasana 48. Dh. 253) gives kara ( splitter of bamboo) occurs in Tai. while Kaut. Dh. 10 he is a pratiloma sprung from a vainya male and a brahmana female while according to Gaut. Kulluka on Manu IV. I. According to Manu X. 1. 95 Varata. S. Manu X. explains as meaning one^ who maintains himself by cutting and splitting bamboos. 13 he is the offspring of a Vaina see Ap. 51. vide abo'ye p. Visnu Dh. 21 he is is the same as avantya. nisada and pulkasa.13. 1. 9. bidalakarl in Vaj. Velava. Dh. varuda &c. 49 he makes his livelihood by beating musical instruments. 4. 161 has the form vaina which the Mit. IV. 6. 15 ) he is the offspring of a madgu from a brahmana woman and his avocation is to play on a vlna and on flutes. S. Visnu Dh. 16. . 19 and Baud. Yaj. According 17. the view of some acSryas Vaidehaka. The Sudrakamalakara notes that according to Adipurana vena is a drum-beater to announce royal orders and edicts. ( III. Yaj. 14. According to Manu X. Kaut (III. . (or Vaina}. S. Venuka. 12-13 ). and according to Manu X. III. 8. Vijanman. (X 14). ( 18. S. 5. 15 he is the offspring of a sudra from a ksatriya and according to Vaik. IV. According to Vas. 2) he is a pratiloma sprung from the union of a sudra male and a ksatriya female. III. ) According to Manu X. (X. 30. 97 ( vol. ( Enumerated among the antyajas by Veda-Vyasa ( 1. ( 1. Sankha ( 17. According to Usanas (4) he is a pratiloma. ( in bamboo ) also written as buruda The Mahabhasya on Pan. Narada (strlpumsa 111). Yaj. 89). 8 ). S. ( I. 38 ). and Varuda worker 89 ). while according to Vaik. Db vaidehaka male from an ambastha female. According to the Sutasamhita he is the offspring of a barber from a brahmana woman. quoted under pulkasa (p. 207 place the vena alongside of carmakara.

160. 22-1. 51. 13 ( Drona 1. According to Vaik. 32. butter-milk and ghee. Manu IV. 121. 175 Vide note 200.Yaj. ( X. tiaikha. Udyoga 13 ). curds. ( 1176 and Harlta 9. Dh. IV. 1178 ) defines him as one who finds out employment for natas 804 Apastamba 9. Manu ( X. Vianu Dh. Vide note on Yavana (p. 17. 9. ). dailusa. The Vyadha p. Mahabharata the sabaras are Anusasana 35. Pan. gr. According to Usanas ( 42 ) he is the offspring of a clandestine union between a brahmana and a sudra female and his avocation is to impale those offenders who are sentenced to be impaled. An aboriginal jungle tribe like the Bhilla. Salika. cows and ( 20-21 ) buffaloes and to sell milk. 43-44 ) mentions Sakas along with Yavanas and others as originally ksatriyas reduced to the state of sudras. 15. (4. Apastamba II. 16-17. while according to Usanas and Vaik. aka. 13 ) and Sutasamhita he is the offspring of a clandestine union between a ksatriya male and a sudra female. Saka occurs in the kambojadigana Sahara. (verse) 32. They are mentioned in the Mahabharata along with Yavana and other no n. II. ( X.96 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. 92) above. by . Harlfca quoted the by Apararka p. 10. 214. Santi 65. ( ). 48. ^ In the ( e. 47 and Agnipurana (151. 19. Dh. f ?q?Wr TOnrf g w 3 &$TO: *S*: I wgr^FT q. According to Manu X. Vide Sabha ). According to the Sutasamhita he is the same as Magadha. 51. 13 ). But in other works like Baud. 279 distinguish him from rangavatarl and Brahmapurana ( quoted by Apararka p. Suta-sarhhita says that vaideha and pulkasa are the same. 1. frequently mentioned g. 21 he is the same as avantya. 14) his peculiar work is to attend on and guard women ( in harems etc ). and other sutra works a vratya is one on whom and on whose ancestors the samskara of upanayana has not been performed. 15). (I. S. huntsman )-mentioned by Sumantu in Apararka ( quoted by Apararka p. Par. 1. 17 and Usanas (20) he is the offspring of a 6udra male from a vaisya female. the word vratya is applied to all who are born of the mixture of varnas. 21. S. 103 Bhlsma ( 20. According to Manu X. 32 ( verse ) speaks of him in the same breath with rajaka and . Vratya. S. 1. 2. 279 ). IV.Aryan tribes. II in Gaut. 13. 1. 5 According to Ap. ulika. 204. 14 ) he is to tend goats. 23.

Sankha ( quoted by^ Apararka p. Kaut. He should perform rites prescribed by the Atharvaveda. 1177 ) mention him. Vaik. Manu IV. Brahmapurana vapaca or ( Visnu Dh. 15. IV. II. have to take food in broken pots and to eat dogs' flesh and to deal in hides and armour ( or in armour made of hides ). 3. 12 ). 86. that they remove the filth of towns etc. In the Jativiveka he is identified with the Mahar and ( with the Mang of the Deccan. 23 he is the According to U&anas (vv. no distinction is made between the two). Satvata. Vide note 173 above. as karusa above. ). vapaka. 51. says that they wear the same marks that candalas have to wear under the king's order. of the legal According to Manu X. fchereon paraphrases the word by na^a. He is one of the antyajas enumerated by Veda-Vyasa ( I. he should by the king's order ride a horse. 51-56 candalas and 6vapacas follow the same avocation and are governed by the same rules Uganas ( 12 ) says that they eat the ( vide p. II ] Varrta and iailusa 97 vyadha. 13 . S. II. 48 does the same and the Mit. 19 he is the offspring of a ksatr male from an ugra female. 18 ) puts him on the same level with dogs. while Vaik. 81-83. Yaj. S. He occurs in the gana kulaladi ( Pan. 23 he is the same as same karusa above.. ( X. In the Markandeya-purana (8. Suvarruz. 55 ). H. Yaj. According to Manu X. e. 81 under candala ). have to dispose of corpses of men that leave no relatives. while according to Manu X. Dh. flesh of dogs and that dogs are their wealth. ( III. According to Baud. 96) a candala is called Svapaka ( i. It appears likely that the text is corrupt and we should read savarna for suvarna.. 24-25) he is the offspring union with Vedic mantras of a brahmana male and a ksatriya female. 1175 ) and quoted by Apararka p. According to Manu X. 48. stay near cemeteries. may act as the commander of an army or may practise as a physician. Saundika ( wine-seller 216. 7 ). Sudhanvacarya. as Manu says in X. 12-13 ). 15 ) and Sutasamhita say that he is the offspring of a candala male and a brahmana female. elephant or chariot. The Bhagavadglta ( 5. ( I. 9. p. while U6anas (11) holds that he is the offspring of a candala male from a vai6ya woman. he is the offspring of an ugra male from a female of the ksatr sub-caste.Oh. have to act as hangmen for offenders sentenced to death and to take their clothes etc. 118 ).

is 5 206. 70 The examples given by the TT^TVTF^r ia are . 9 that the suta different ksatriya male and a brahmana woman. 15). (18. $5TfT I The 9th vsrtika on Pan. him on a level with karmakara ( blacksmith ) and Manu IX. 1178 ) also equates sucl with tunnavaya. 3. 11). For the view of Vaik. 48) sutas 205. A vartika on Pan. For vedic references see above p. ). is the same as tunnavaya (for which see above p. 9.98 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. 3) also says that his business is to remind (a king) of his duties. Gaut (IV. according to the lexicon of Amara. X. VI. Yaj. Dh. Narada ( strlpumea 110 ). Yaj. Saucika. probably for fc^l^K ( au iron-smith ) while another reading ( maker of bowstrings ) also. According to Usanas ( v. In the Mahabharata it is said that after Parasurama's alleged extermination of the ksatriyas. ) 163. S. (X. Usanas (v. III. Manu (X. 6). 17 and in Tai. 1176 treat nisada. 15 ) and Usanas ( v. ( 16. 3. 292 condemns him as the worst of all sarvakantakapapistha ). is careful to add who figures in the puranas as the reciter is quite from this. According to Vaik. breaking and yoking horses). According to Vaik. 206 ( VI. rogues ( Sankha and Sumantu quoted by Apararka ( pp. 7). XXX. 201 to the Sucaka. 4 and Narada (rnadana 274 ) a goldsmith or a dealer in bronze or a bania was Manu IV. According to Visnu Dh. offspring of a vaidehaka from a ksatriya woman a tailor. Kaut. S. Visnu Dh. According to Vas. he is a pratiloma sprung from a Suta. According to Manu (X. ( X. 1175. 70 ) teaches the formation of words like sutaputri. i . S. (I. 22 ) he is a pratiloma. (I. Baud. 4. and engages in the work of sewing with a needle. 43 ) he is an anuloma born of the marriage of a vaisya male from a sudra female. 83 ) and the Brahmapurana quoted by Apararka ( p. S. Sucika or saucika or sucl one who works with a needle. to examine the balance in the balance ordeal. 215. Kaut. Suvarnakara or Sauvarnika or Hemakara (goldsmith). A is mentioned in the Vaj. 93) and Sutasarhhita. 6 ). (III. 1. According to the Karnaparva( 32. 13) he makes his liveli- hood by reminding the king of his duties and by cooking food for him.47) and Visnu the avocation of sutas is driving a chariot ( i. 14. 84. e. castes of ironsmiths some of them that escaped resorted and goldsmiths. 43. ?ftchK^chi<iQ^Tf^ frc4 *r*rrfrrn: ?npfrr< 49. and Brhaspati vide under taksan above ( note 189 ). II hiranyakara Br.

13 ) and the Sutais the practice of medicine. mother of the Cedi king ( Vanaparva 65. the middling way maintenance for him is to depend upon kings and to look after chariots. samhita expressly say that the difference between the suta and of . is included in the gana kulaladi ( Pan. The Brahmapurana ( quoted by Apararka p. 1. viz. but is entitled to do all the work of a ksatriya and that he also performs the work of a charioteer. elephants and horses an inferior way of maintenance The Vaik. IV. but is to perform menial work ( such as sham- pooing the body ) or is to subsist by catching deer etc. II. ( X. . II are fche ] Vwna and sftta 99 not carry out ( attendants of brahmanas andksatriyas and the latter need what the suta says. Harlta ( quoted by Apararka p. he is not authorised to study the Veda. would not wash the feet of anybody and would not allow any man to approach her. 279 ) speaks of him in the same breath with rajaka and carmakara. M. but she refused to eat ucchista food. he is not to be treated as a dasa ( i. 139 ) the suta was to preserve the pedigrees of kings and great men and traditions about learning or books. 1177 ) says that he is pasumaraka'. of taming elephants and of Sahyadrikhanda riding horses. Sunika or Saunika (a butcher). *r. . e. 1. pounding unguents. 383. According to the Vayupurana vol. 207. he According to Usanas (v. Sumantu 207 quoted by Par. while the latter is the offspring of a clandestine union a ksatriya male with a brahmana woman. the offspring of is ' * ' Sairindhra. II. 33-33 and vol. The (26. 3.Ch. 32 he is the offspring of a dasyu ( as defined in Manu X. p. The word From the Mahabharata we see what duties DraupadI disguised as sairandhrl had to do for the queen of Virata ( Virata-parva 9. 1. 45 ) from an ayogava woman and he makes his living by combing the hair ( of men and women ). 14) an ayogava from a ksatriya woman. According to Manu X. making Similarly DamayantI became a sairandhrl to the garlands. the rathakara consists in this that the former is the offspring of a marriage. He is the same as khatika according to the Jativiveka. 53-54) says that he is inferior to ksatriyas. 118 ). combing and arranging the hair. he has not to eat ucchista food ). According to Adipurana quoted in Sudrakamalakara he lives by hunting deer and guarding royal harems and women after delivery. 1. 68-70). makes his food unfit for brahmanas. 18-19 ).

vena etc. a verse 'know viz. Kiratas etc. 38) he is the offspring a candala male and a pukkasa female. are connected with countries ( will have been noticed that several foreign races like the Sakas. kumbhakara. 220 on Pan. 220 ) ^rfr WN^Hifl fNn . rathakara. 47-48) says the Numerous names of castes arise from the professions e. p. taksan. Dravidas. Kambojas. they follow. The Visnupurana (IV. . subsists by the profession of being hangman to those whom the king condemns to death. 44 ). Kirata and Saka. ). this to be the auspicious sign of the best of whose lore. IV. It appears that comparatively very early many among the brahmanas had given up the occupations peculiar to them and were entitled to be called brahmanas simply because of their The Mahabhasya 808 of Patanjali quotes a verse 'tapcis^ birth. actions and birth are all three holy* brahmanas. It 'rathakara* above (p. 4. Vide note on Vide Kamasutra I. and the remarks on panktipavana later on ). '. carmakara. same. II. : *TfTvrr*T on or. 6 ( vol. and birth ( from brahmana parents ) these are the causes why a person is called a brahmana he who is devoid of tapas and vedic study is a brahmana only by birth ( and not a real brahmana ) Similarly in another place Patanjali quotes .. Sabaras. p. Manu ( X. In ' 121. brahmanas followed so many different occupations almost as in modern times that the list of brahmanas who cannot be invited at sraddhas because they follow occupations other prescribed for them is rather very formidable ( vide than those Manu III. Though in the Mahabharata 208. some of the castes mentioned magadha. 363 ). 411 and II. 151 ff. ayaskara. History of Dharma&astra I Ch. Yavanas. p. Videha etc. g. Even in ancient times tailika. 37. Saduhanvana.. 45). Daradas. 5. ( vol. vedic study.. p. Magadha. II. 7 wo have TO I (tart a similar verse I. 17-18 ) were prepared to admit that in the smrtis such as ambastha. malla and vaidehaka Amba. I. were originally ksatriyas. 21-23 and 35. nata. The *Tf TWT wrgl"<J*K ulH has another verse (vol. 43-45 ) and the Mahabharata ( Anusasanaparva 33. 1. TO II.100 Svpaka.. but had been reduced to the status of sfidras by losing contact with brahmanas or by not liking the idea of being subject to the brahmanical system. II of According to Manu (X. 2.. that some others are based upon race such as Abhlra.

6 Gautama But laid the greatest emphasis on the eight qualities of the soul. 211. cT**TT^rfc*r 43. ^EcT'ff ^FRfiNTT tjrff^KTr I *nWTT% ^t 37 181. 20 ff. ) ( so I. 21. since it was created by Brahma in former ages and was evolved into varnas by actions ( or. to sentient beings. vide also cR<r<J 180. ) explains at great length what is meant by self-restraint.Oh. non-injury adherence to dAarwa-fchese always lead men to the fruition ( of ) and not caste nor family '. Itf 1 it is Varna and character 10i often said that a 809 brahmana all. i ?r H 3^4 216. 4 and 8) Truthfulness. 10. 49 ) remarks Udyogaparva brahmana by his talk he who does not depart from truth is a brahmana Vanaparva ( 216. In the Vanaparva tapas. m i 210. 3*sRmr^ flcqf ^ smrar vide also 143. 14-15 ) that sudra who is always struggling for self-restraint. (181. *T*. *r*g r: r tr^ ^cfiw&Kf: . and tapas their goal * he If these signs is known as a brahmana where these are seen. 632. but the CRT. i T ^ 4 and 8 . kindness. 212. freedom from hatred and wickedness. 209. In the Santiparva 211 (. still is so by birth alone and that he several times deserves respect from we meet with wherein there is a revolt against the caste system passages dependent on birth alone and where it is severely condemned and great emphasis is laid on the moral worth of a man. 42-43) we are told 810 truthfulness. ' * .' 200 and Vrddha that Gautama p. generosity. then the 6udra would not be a sudra and the brahmana would not be a In another place we are told 812 there is no brahmana'. 228 saya . the whole world is brahma ( the creation of Brahma ). truthfulness and dharma is a * * . constant generosity. by ) his character. are seen in a sudra and they do not exist in a brahmana. restraint. II 3f?JT?ta JTsrvrpt 3fTsr"ft 35.42-43. 813. 49. crtSH i$$ ra ^ vsr 9. 6. 108-111 It brahmana is and Yaj. |^rr WT5T"T * 14-15 : cf f%f H f^^Hp. 1 . w. ( for a Vide Vanaparva 313. brahmana in my opinion. occupations ). difference between the varnas.' ais Do not regard a person as ( 43. humility. has been seen above p.189. 632. Udyogaparva ( 43. I II 5TTT% 188. II part 1 p.

. ) several more castes are mentioned. Durbhara from an ayogava and a dhigvana in woman called Pohor in ( Dhor) modern times. Same called as modern according to Sudrakamalakara. ( tends rams and Katadhanaka Kuntalaka from avartaka and a brahmana woman. Ghclika from a Vyadha male and garudl He . called Plava in from a candala and an andhra woman. Avartaka JLhitundika from a bhrjjakantha and a brahmana woman. H in spite of those sentiments the caste system dependent on birth has continued in all its strength and rigour for ages and writers like the Par. Manyufrom Taw$ia ( a vaisya and a ksatriya female. stitute Bhasmankura from a Saiva fallen ascetic and a sudra procalled Gurava by the Jativiveka. 1. woman . from a nisada and a vaideha female . the same as napita. called . called Garudl in Marathi. Paustika from a brahmana and a nisada female modern times Kahara or Bhol (palanquin-bearer). p. called 'hadl' times. sells cooked food. II. female.i02 History of Dharma&Ustra [ Oh. Aurabhra called Dlmngar in Marathi ewes for their wool ). called thief catcher Romika from malla and an avartaka Lon&r in modern times ( manufacturer of salt ). ). called Jharekarl now ( who takes out gold particles from the dust at the doors of goldsmiths). also called Rtindhavanu. modern BandhulafTom maitreya and janghika female. is Undiramaru or (rat-killer) in the vernacular. Aghasika or Andhasika from avaidehika male and a sudra female. some of which are sot out below. 228 are emphatic in saying that between jati and character one must look principally to the eminence of the caste. Kuruvinda from a Sail. M. . D. kumbhakara and a kukkuta female. In certain medieval works called Jativivoka and in other works like the Sudra-kamalakara ( first half of 17th century A.

* 17 214. 213-214). Indian castes vol. Wilson ( 'Indian castes' vol. 9 p. in * I. Sarasvatas of Panjab having 470 subdivisions ). Odra ( Orissa ). It appears that probably even in ancient times the brahmanas of the north looked down upon the situation and other brahmanas Magadha. Indian castes vol. 16. ( ed. II ] Varna and modern castes 103 tfalakya or Sakalya from a malakara and kayastha woman . Barbara. Devarukhe etc. 31-32 above and Fick Dravida and Konkana are not to be invited at sraddhas. . female . II. Among the Dravida brahmanas. The spirit of exclusiveness and ideas of superiority that arose in vedio times gradually led on to further and further divisons and subdivisions of people owing to geographical who 81<5 causes. 99. section of the ' ^R^^TWT ) 3^^} X. five of them being Gaudas 214 and five Dravidas. those among the members of the same subcaste. Da Cunha ) vido Wilson's names slightly differ. most of which do not interdine nor intermarry. in eastern countries like (pp. Andhra ( Telingana ). 92 gives the names of these 84 subcastes adds more bringing the . pp. For example. p. called Rangarl ( dyer In modern times each of the principal varnas has numerous sub-castes. There is often a further distinction viz. 127-133. occupation. SindolaJca or spandalilca. 7 and Wilson total to 160. Desastha. II. 17 where the Shorring. 16 ) says that brahmanas who dwell in Mleccha countries. II. Vide notes The Matsyapurana ( 16. 18 ( for 216.Oh. vol. 16. Karhade. follow the priestly occupation and those who do not. in Trisanku. Takka. sect and other causes. p. brahmanas are first divided into ten classes. based upon difference of country. ( . 815 It is said that in Gujerat there are 84 subcastes of brahmanas. tiuddha-Marjalva called Mandali ( who gains by singing and playing on musical instruments ). Vide Bombay Presidency Gazetteer. 126 ) was informed that there were 460 subcastes of SaTaarata brShmanas and he enumerates these at pp. livelihood from a sudra male and a magadha ). by Dr. the Maharastra brahmanas are again subc&rided into numerous sub-castes such as the Citpavana ( orTlonkanastha ). ' 2-3 p. 215. called Maniar. vol.

Solankis 16 branches and so on. Madhava-kalpalata. I pp. call themselves to be ff. Chahmanas 26 branches. Parasurama-pratapa and other works. 65-70 mentions only 134 castes with their Sanskrit and modern Marathi names as gathered from the Jativiveka. II Among ksatriyas there are several subdivisions. such as those claiming descent from the Sun or the Moon and those that Agnikulas ( vide Sherring. The Paramaras have 35 branches. 120 and Tod's Rajasthan vol. Guhilofcs 24 branches. .104 History of DJiarma$astra [ Oh. go into these varied and complex details of the hundreds of castes that exist the caste system in in the several provinces of India. Even among comparatively * late works the total number of subcastes enumerated does not go beyond even two hundred. For example. by reason of its limited scope. Wilson in Indian castes' vol. I. p. I chapter VII for lists of royal tribes ). vol. But work cannot. It is only in the census reports prepared at great expense by the British Government after elaborate efforts and organization that the great complexity of this modern India is laid bare to the eye.

( Study ( of Vedas It has been already stated p. 1-3. 75-79. 10-15. S. 219. S. Markandeyapurfina 28. D. I. trade and money-lending are the . Baud. the person concerned was deemed to incur sin. 3 j cf*^if% T nfiforsr^pf^ i f^crr 8 on ^T. ing Vedas. which are its principal means of livelihood. teaching. each of these duties and privileges must ). II. Tg^rafaT'RW^fHSTT 3T*PJ . X. 38 ) that brahmana and learning had become indissolubly connected even We see in the Satapatha Br. DISABILITIES III AND PRIVILEGES OF THE VARNAS The duties and privileges of varnas occupy a very prominent place in all works on Dharmasastra. 50 . 14 . while a brahinana is not bound necessarily to earn his livelihood by all or any one of the three viz. 219 A few words on officiating at a sacrifice or receiving gifts. Dh. 3-8. S. quence of this bifurcation is that if the first three are nofc performed or are neglected. be said at this stage. 88-90. rearing cattle. Br. 2-5. certain that kings had attained eminence as Upanisads learned philosophers or students of brahma-vidya and then even brahmanas came to them as pupils. 10.CHAPTER THE DUTIES. 118-119. Atri 13-15. ' i X. study. Manu I. 5 ). Yaj. Balaki Gargya from 218. 7. ^W^nnnsfrfr aj^rsRtfwm* ar^sic^tm $f3*1*3%^ 3Rfte*rcSr ^ *<^w. The study ( of the Vedas ). officiating at sacrifices and receiving gifts these are the privileges of brahinanas the profession of arms and protection of the people are the peculiar privileges of ksatriyas. ^^ 5Tr*g^^j sr^ on ft. H. agriculture. vido also Ap. Vas. Dh. i i \ i i snra- x. liberality are said to be the dharmas of all dvijas the other actions such as teaching the Veda are said to be and The consevrtti or jwika ( means of livelihood ) of the dvijas. II. Vi?i?u 13-19. I. Yajnavalkya learnt from Janaka ( Sat. 10. 21. offering sacrifices and giving gifts are said to be the duties absolutely enjoined on the brahraana. of vaisyas. peculiar privileges sacrifices and the The first three viz. and in the in early Vedic periods. 5. For example. Dh. H8. XL 6. II. 5-8.* Teachprivileges. ksatriya and 18 while each of these three varnas has certain peculiar vaisya. I.

1905. V. The conclusion 1 220. Up. king of Kekaya ( Chan. In the first place these are too few passages out of the vast Upani^ad literature to found the sweeping generalisation in which the German Ch. 1 and Kausltaki Up. IV ). 13 and IV. 2. In the second place in Br. king of KasI ( Br. GL Bhandarkar in * Verhand-lungen des VII ( Continued on next page ) . 2. 11 it is no doubt stated that 'this Vidya was not known to any brShmana till then but 'this vidys' does Dot mean the whole of the philosophy of brahma. taught brahmavidyS. ho imparted it to *narr 3. 8. From this it may be inferred that some ksatriyas at least spent a good deal of time in the study of religious and 822 that is sometimes philosophical doctrines. 11 ). but only that particular doctiine which bears the name of pancagnividyS. VI. 17-19). 4. rather than tire caste of the priests. 2. V. there is no statement that brahmavidyS was known only to AjStaatru expresses surprise that a ksatriyas. 1 ) Janaka is described by 821 Yajfiavalkya as one who had studied the Vedas and Upanisads. on the contrary brShmana should approach a k^atriya for the expounding of brahma- vidyS and says that this is opposed to the natural (or usual) order of affairs. Up. In Br. i 7 that q-^rrfSFNn *IT was not *WT s[f. of transmigration in a figurative and somewhat picturesque way. 280 Jaivali ( Chan. 3 ). VI. Up. II. the real cherisher of those thoughts was originally the caste of the Over and over again we kfatriyas. This shows that AjStas'atru was an exception and that brahmanas In Kausltaki I. This vidyS no doubt propounds the doctrine ' . usually V. IV. The same views are echoed by Sir B. if eft f^5 !8 *wrT: d^ NH<4 4 T9T T^ns^Fftf^ ' I ^5. 1. ' Vide also 11 and Kau^itaki Up. V. where similar words occur about the same 221. IV. But nothing is said here about brahmavidyS being first known to ksatriyas only. In Br. 2. five brahmanas from Asvapati. Up. 2. 11 all that is narrated is that Gautama Svetaketu learnt from Citra Gargyayaui and certain drotriyas like Aupamanyava learnt Vaid- vSnaravidyS from Asvapati Kaikeya. 18-19 ) 222. Svetaketu Aruneya from Pravahana V. 1 X 'Philosophy of the Upanishads (translated by Qeden. savant indulges. II. Ill Ajatasafcru.cft ajfijsT: ^rsrsfrcT^' ^^rrf^r^f 3". 1 and IV. j^m^r Srefo arrgrors till known vide to 8 ay* in sn^r^r V. Nor can it be said that the doctrine of transmigration was not at all known before the Upaniads. Up. III. grr. rfrf^ TTff (T% $<r^n. Up. 1883. I. 2 and Ch. Up. 3 and V. 1. 3-4). 1 and Kausltaki Up. ( IV. II.106 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. ( come mation across the situation that the brtlhmana asks the k^atriya for infor' and Deussen refers only to six passages ( f Br. Up. pp. (pp. Vide Deussen's Das System dea VedSnta '. that doctrine Up. 1. and Ch. Up. But is elsewhere elaborated by brShinanas like YSjnavalkya to the brShmanas in king Jauaka's court and to Janaka himself ( vide Br. VI.

108-109 ) and in Vai^uavism and laaivism* p.S. 198 ) observes the Creator created brahmanas ) * phonetics ' for the preservation of the vedas. 9 * Ksatriyas engaged themselves in active speculation on religious matters about the time of the Upanisads and are mentioned as the original possessors of the new knowledge. contains four 824 verses ' profit dharma. 8-11. V. Barth (Religions of India p. in the Atharvaveda and in some of the Brahmana treatises. S. 47 Manu II. 206 ) do not subscribe to these views of Detissen and Bhandarkar. 3 and V.Oh. ( ( II. 65 ) and Vedic Index ( vol. 11. ( 1. 114-115 expresses the ideas of two out of them. 147 says a brahmana should etc. 16) indicates that all varnas studied the Veda since it speaks of a person not a brahmana. Internationalen Oriontalisten ' Congresses zu Wion 7 It may be stated that Hopkins ( in Ethics of India 1924 p. ) '. pp. Ill ] Study of the Veda 107 drawn by certain writers that ksatriyas or kings were the pioneers in brahmavidya cannot be accepted as correct. The Nirukta which are called Vidyasukta ). *fr SRTOT arrgrof ff5&Ti> PTISI fc^Msfla ' TOfrMJ* IX. the Veda with its six subsidiary lores ( viz. The Kathaka-Samhita 883 (IX. 225. 15 ). having studied ( Vedic ) lores and yet not shining ( by his learning ). and the learned Doctor refers only to Ch. The same four verses occur in Vas. * ' 223. II p. 29. but in different words. Dh. everything else is inferior dharma \ Yaj. ' ' . 224.II. three of them except adhyapita ye in Visnu Dh. 63 ). Manu TV. There are hardly any ancient passages to show that vaisyas devoted any portion of their time to veda study. p. Up. . The germs of the philosophy of the Upanisads are seen in the later hymns of the Rgveda. for the satisfaction of the Cotinhucd from last page ( ) ( Arische Sec. the first of which says that vidya came to the brahmana and 825 requested him to guard her as his treasure. The Upanisads are full of brahmanas who there independently propounded various aspects of brahma-vidya and is no reason to suppose that the few ksatriyas referred to as masters of the vidya were the only persons who first attained to that position. always and assiduously study the Veda alone. 16. that (Veda study) is his highest dharma. 9-10 and 30. The Mahabhasya of Patanjali quotes as an agama ( Vedic passage ) the words a brahmana should study and understand without any motive ( of to As 4 ) brahmanas the matter stands thus.

3 1 ^ ^I^cT-'qTT I %^pgr $ ^f is f^T^^R ' ^ 9*3 fTcTJqrm *n^ I <J U4gi<4 KVTFTT 10 &~6. 10. but the only service ( which as a Aruneya 1 ) Chandogya V. VII. The Tai. . ( II. Dh. Httf II. 10 and XT. vide also 5 fc 227. 1. the safeguarding of dharma. but tho last pa"da the following am^tf IV p. 2. 4. i 3n%ftt ^. ^iiiWfaMm^tt ?H ^. 103. ' WTT sr i II. but they are generally held in low esteem. ^^srm^t STT^T ^r^ ?rr^^ ^t fiwmor: . 3-. This is quoted as Yama'a by AparSrka pp. S. The story of Svetaketu ( and VI.) ^n^lcf} T *fi<H^T Vide for j^fajm Aiirfanaqa ( chap. 2. (II. Ill gods and tains the rites same idea. VI. ( V. TT*T finishes his study. 5. from the times of the Brahmana literature and in the times of the dharmasastras teaching Vedic literature was almost universally in the hands of brahmanas. Jiv. 1. 1. 25-28. the son Teaching the Veda It is probable that in very remote times was taught the Veda by his father. 229. 286. 3. the brahmana may go f^f^utl^ 1- in front 3T*I ^3. II. 2. 2. Up. 4. 888 Whatever may have been the case in very remote times. e. 25-28) lays down that the brahmana alone can be the teacher ( of a brahmana ). shows that he learnt all the pupil ) he should render to a ksatriya or vaisya teacher is to go after him ( and not shampooing his feet etc. 103. 2 ) and elsewhere. i ) ( an unworthy or bad prescribes a rite for a durbrahmana in whose family cessation of drinking soma occurred for generations and who himself desired to drink soma. 1 . The 229 Ap. 1 ) that the gods. a brahmana may learn from a ksatriya or vaisya. V. for [ Oh. #. 1. 1-2 and Br. fej^ammdfrH *ffr T9^Hfar<fNl ^npTR <pr?5r<JT: I fthrm^ 10.108 History of Dharma&astra pitrs. has the verse. 2. ^T: '*$ ^nr 228. 5 shows that instruction was oral and consisted in the pupil repeating the words uttered by the teacher. i URT.S. 4. ) and after the brahmana 226. 1. 5. i.' Atri ( 25 ) conOther 886 sages say that ho in whose family Veda ( Vedio study ) and vedl ( consecration of fires for 6rauta ) are given up for three generations becomes a durbrahmana brahmana ).449. Vedas from his father and the legend in the Br. ^: i f. 827 Rg. men and asuras learnt from their father Prajapati points in the same direction. 1. but in distress ( i. in the absence of a brahmana teacher ). VII. ST. 524. Some ksatriya teachers or philosophers are referred to in the Satapatha ( VIII. 6. Up.

could It may be admitpurohita ksafcriya ted that the Rg. It is doubtful whether the same rigid rule prevailed in ancient Vedio days. In Rg. the Ramayana says that the gods and sages would not accept the oblations. according to the Nirukfca at least. 18 . Jaimini says that. all priests in all temples and shrines are as the priestly caste very accurate statement. When Visvamitra agreed to perform a sacrifice for Trisaiiku who had been cursed to be a 831 candala. ansriTRT ^wtf^^nHRTcJ $w\* I VI. : n quoted in ^f^f$?^T II p. 2. 396. . Temple priests are comparatively a and they were generally looked down upon in 228 olden times and are regarded as inferior even in modern times. srfsnfr ^rrsreft wr ^srim ft^rw: i 232.Ch. itself does not expressly say that they were In modern times many writers often speak of brahbrothers. Manu ( III. 98. 28. 238 the sattra sacrifice extending over many days or years ) ( a could be performed only by brahmanas. ( VII. a brahmana who took 230. have brought much money or wealth to brahmanas. besides even in modern times when caste is so rigid not brahmanas. *\&u\\ ft I. 242 ) adds that a perpetual student ( naisthika brahmacarl ) should not stay as a pupil with a teacher who is not a brahmana and that a brahof jhis ksatriya teacher 241 ) mana may craft ( learn even from a sudra a useful or efficacious The profession of teaching the Veda could not ). lay down the same rules. Some brahmanas became many engaged tic rites the family priests (purohitas) of kings. 231. The Katyayana Srautasutra uses a similar argument. 1. It was the 220 privilege of a brahmana alone to officiate as a priest. 152 ) says that a devalaka i. 923. Gaut. Manu ( II. 10 ) cendants of Kuru. 450. e. II. manas or as priests. since very great emphasis was laid. X. III ] Teaching the Veda 109 ( II. a be a in Vedio times. ). as the ksatriya and vaisya cannot be priests (rtviks ). as we shall see later. on teaching without any prior agreement about payment. But this is not a All brahmanas never were nor are priests. 6. 7 it is said that Devapi was the purohita of Santanu and the Nirukta ( adds that Devapi and Santanu were brothers and desSo. as rtviks at solemn srauta sacrifices or at domes- later institution and ceremonies. 1-3 ) and Harm ( X. II. the first verse being quoted by pp.

179. (IV. C. 4 ' ' i . Very elaborate rules were laid down about gifts i. ' J ' ' is . The Mit. wbile kumbbidhffnya one who lias a store of corn for one year. 128 accepts GovindarUja's explanation. 2-3 ) and then Manu ( IV. of forsaking the active pursuit of riches and cherishing cultural preservation and advancement. 14. MedbStitbi says tbat there is no restriction to corn only one wbo has wealth either in corn or money to satisfy his needs for three years is kusnladhSnya and kurnbhidhanya arc according to GovindaiSja. Ill remuneration to perform service before the image in a temple for three years continuously was unfit to be invited at a Sraddha or to officiate in a sacrifice for gods. p. I. 5-6 ) suggests that it is only the learned who could properly accept large gifts. ( V. 179 ) pratigraha ( receiing to Yama ving gifts ) from a worthy person of the three higher varnas is m superior to the acquisition of wealth by officiating as a priest or by teaching. 1. But Manu (X. Accordquoted in the Sm. kusuladha"nya respectively those who have corn for 12 and 6 days. kusuladhanya as suggested by Manu X. what things were proper subjects In the first place.3) that even in those ancient times there were prohibitions against receiving gifts from unworthy persons and officiating as priests for the unworthy. 7. The latter two matters Here the rules about the persons to whom gifts should be made and from whom they were to be accepted will be set out. It appears from the Br. Manu lays down the general rule that when not just in distress a to sufficient brahmana should acquire wealth only maintain himself and his family. p. 7-8 ) says 234 thai. I. Up. from whom gifts may be received and on what occasions and of gift. * ' . According to Kulluka one wbo baa corn sufficient for tbreo years is called m4 S^faf %T: Tbe 4 ' . And the Br. 7.110 History of Dharma&astra [ Oh. a brahmana householder may 233. 109-11) says that pratigraha from an unworthy person ( or a sudra ) is worse than the act of teaching him or officiating as a priest for him. of plain living and high thinking. and to enable him to perform his religious duties without causing any harm to others or by as little harm to others as possible and without unduly worrying his own body ( IV. on YSj. fT^fctf g 234. Up. The third means of livelihood permitted to brahraanas was receiving gifts from a worthy or unblemished person. n *m quoted in ^{^g kumblil buve been variously words 'kusula aud explained by the commentators vide Kulluka on Manu IV. the ideal set before brahmanas was one of poverty. e. who should receive gifts. will be discussed in detail later on. ( I.

hanker after the acquisition of wealth by excessive attachment or by doing what is forbidden or by accepting gifts from any person whatever ( of blemished character etc. he should not. vol. f Rr^^t^JTF^d^lcr TT. even when last mode ) is 15. I. then he should offer a sacrifice with that wealth and he should not go on accumulating wealth in vain and that accumulation of vast 837 wealth is a calamity for a brahraana. This corn so and Manu (X. ( I. Laghu-Vyasa 63 ) (II. That this ideal of *kniubhIdliSiiya' is very ancient is shown by use of the word kumbhidhftnya in the Mahsbha^ya where is explained as follows (on Pan. p. Visnu Dh. \ I. I. 237. . 128 speaks of a fifth grade viz. e. 1. 173.P. a brahmana should subsist by collecting the ears of corn that are left in the field after the left crops are gathered or the single grains of if a brahmana cannot maintain himself he may prefer to live on the collection of fallen ears of corn or grains rather than receive gifts. 8 ). ^ T **roc M thaffojTsi^T vnET^fiH ^3^TH^ 47. Ill ] Accepting gifts 111 ) either accumulate so much grain ( but not more as kusula ( a granary ). Vyasa prescribes that a brahmana should seek to narrow down his means of livelihood and should about accumulation 828 The brahmanya. 1 ). 7. *Hfcr fa f^trf^r^ff HST^ 61. ( I. 19. 129 ) says the same thing in more concise language. Manu ( IV. S. 199 and ^f?Nr. 264) vw 236. or a kumbhi z3s or he may would fill a have as much corn as would satisfy all his needs for three days or as much as will suffice for the day that is on and that out of these four each succeeding one was superior to each preceding one i. ) and he should give up pursuits that are opposed to ( cause obstacles in ) his devotion to Vedic study. Mahabharata says that when a brahmana has more corn than he would require to satisfy his needs for three years. 17 lays in distress. one who had no more accumulation of material goods than for the day itself ( and who did not care for the morrow ) was the best brahmana. Yaj. 100 ). Yaj. . } ^T^T^STW g wT^iwNr TI. p. 5 ). and say that a brahmana snould approach a the it 235. ( 63. 22 3**fff .Ch. not hanker after excess of wealth ( if he sets of wealth he loses the glorious ) status of Gautama ( IX. 12. down that a brahmana should cultivate supreme contentment and though desirous of happiness should restrain himself ( in the pursuit of wealth ). I. 3. Yaj. I. nHfr*?rnjc i SROT^ i srf ^3 WTSJ -spfa WTO quoted in TO. 112) says that designated rfca by Manu ( IV.

Dh. 13. 13. 20-21 ). the Skandapurffna. 2 ) for his livelihood 130 ( declare that a m sudra for the performance of a sacrifice or for agnihotra. oilmen. but a brahmana should not seek gifts from a I. Ill Dh. 1.112 History of Dharmaiastra ( i. Yaj. 14. 199 for quotations from Saihvarta. 1-2 . as thereby he becomes a candala in another birth ( Manu XI. servants etc. 33 ). allowed this even for Gaut. I. Yaj. [ Oh. and about to worship gods and honour guests may accept a gift from anybody ( except a patita ). A brahmana was not to seek gifts from a king who was not of ksatriya lineage nor from butchers. I. e. 24. p. 102-103. 127 ( ). gifts from a sudra or ugra for paying a fee to one's guru at the end of the period of brahmacarya ( Ap. 216 ). If a brahmana cannot secure gifts from the above three. 57. M. from his pupil or from one who is able and willing to offer a sacrifice. Yaj. III. The Smrtis lay down i 238. 2. ( XII. nrfd^-H'^fft ^ *W3H 18. I. 251. Yaj. S. 239. the Vi^nu-dharmottara condemning the receipt of gifts from irreligious kings. A brahmana elders parents etc. 84 ). ). ). Manu IV. and Vas. fWtar* i . Manu ( IV. This implies that if the brahmana is not hungry and has sufficient wealth either obtained by inheritance or partition or in any other way he should not go about seeking for wealth and should not receive gifts ( Manu IV. 239 ( 18. Yaj. his dependants trying to support his hungry ( wife. nor from a king who is avaricious and transgresses the rules of the tastras 24 ( Yaj. brahmana when oppressed by hunger should seek for help ( or money ) from a king. 34 ). 24-25 ) allows a brahmana to receive even from a sudra as much as would enable him to finish marriage ceremonies on which he has embarked or to get materials for a sacrifice when he has begun it.. S. however. Bufc a brahmana should not receive a gift from an irreligious king or other irreligious donor. 7. king ( or a rich man ) for his yogakqema and support ). ^iqicH f^TCfirg^rsJ Vide Par. j?$RcTT*rt ^sfiif fitsncfru arrsrorr s^fa *ri^#nrrg T ' i n%r 17. When even that is not possible and the brahmana is in difficulties he was allowed to take a gift from anybody including a sudra ( Manu X. Visnu Dh. then he may do so from any other worthy dvijati. In Anusteaana 93. 94 the sages say to king 240. but should not satisfy his own hunger with that wealth (Manu IV. One may take one's own livelihood. Vas. I. S. 87 ). 1. keepers of liquorshops and of brothels nor from courtesans ( Manu IV. 24 and 42. 41 ). ). 140.

learning. XV. I. Y&j. e. 291 and 6antipaiva 294. I. I. 609-10 A. 291) on Ysj. and tapas regulated life ). Damodarpur plates in B. land. Vide quoted by AjarBrka p. 242. Yaj. 186 brahmana should not again and again gift of gold.29 *rwr i^faRfr fnr a^*i*ff>J . Vaidvadeva. D. 134 ). III. one . Agnihotra. ). Vedic study. and AparSrka (p. clothes. 12 ( E. attains to the highest worlds ( Yaj. 203. Atri 24 ) and that if a srotriya perishes through hunger in the domains of a king. 841 The ideal set before the members in his brahmanas in the matter of pratigraha ( receiving gifts ) was that he. )8-19. D. 298 dated in Katacchuri Sarhvat 361 i. M H*D. cows. descent. VIII p. being devoid of learning ( and ghee. 13 (E. 15 . 57) and Naaik cave Inscription No. Another rule about gifts is laid down in many works as follows. We find that kings followed these directions from very 241.. In Karle Inscription No. who though entitled to accept a gift ( on account of his Vedic learning and tapas ) does not take it. 113 dated 443-14 A. tapas. 1. w* *rre*rprre frnrqrfr f^jfl^ i QlT^fiR^ quoted by the Hit. horses. when a donor calls a donee to his place and makes a gift it is middling and when a donor gives if begged by a donee it 848 Manu ( IV. Vol. 9-10. and says that though entitled to accept gifts a resort to that method. p. X. Ill that ] Accepting gifts 113 it is the duty of the king to support &rotriyas ( br&bmanas learned in the Veda ) and brahmanas who are incapable of struggling for their maintenance (Gaut. VII. p. since the spiritual power ( due to Vedic study ) that he acquires is lost by accepting gifts. amrr*3ra*t qiHmgff* g qrenrq I. vol. the offering of bali and caru ( \ide Sarsavni plate of BuddharSja in B. In numerous grants of lands and villages the purpose of the grants is said to be to enable the donees to perform the five Mdhayajhaa. 6 p. 188-191 ) prescribes that a man. who is inferior. having regard to the brahmana's conduct. I. 213 ). sesame that a brahmana who. family. ancient times.Oh. that country would suffer from famine and disease ( Manu VII. is reduced to ashes like fuel if he accepts a ) Manu ( IV. Ill* 44. food. 78) king UsavadSta that he gave one lakh of cows and 16 village! ( $Babhadatta )> proclaims to brShmanas at PrabhSaa and got some of them married at his expense and that he also fed every year a lakh of brffhmanas. When a donor himself goes to the place of a worthy donee and makes a gift that is the best gift. 44 lays down that it is the duty of a king to assign a proper means of livelihood to a brShmana in distress. I. vol. desires to accept gifts sinks ( into Hell ) as who sits in a stone boat sinks in water and that therefore a brahmana who is not learned should be afraid of receiving gifts. is not learned. vol.

( I. 200-202 ). Vas. 19 (S. *. 6. 6. 344 ) thus those cows of his are given to him who is fit to receive a daksina and not to him who is unfit'. E. 215. 26 p. Ausanasa ( Jiv. " vol. ( VI. Just as a brahmana who was not learned was enjoined not to accept a gift. 29 ). acceptor/ Manu III. S.114 History of Dharmainstra \ Ch. ^f*nft sfarnprft 244. 248-249 ). S. 128. except from unchaste women. XIV. 2-11 ). E. 4. S. 11. 57. *Tg$mm* 59. 15. Many persons are mentioned in the smrtis from whom gifts ( particularly of food ) were not to be accepted ( vide Manu IV. S. 8 and VI. Thi8 is also ^ 44-45. this is emphasized as in IV. 15. Another rule about learned brahmana who is one who not near. and 31. i i STTT. I. Dh. 192-194. he incurred sin. persons guilty of raahapatakas ) Yaj. 844 The smrtis say that gifts given to a brahmana who has not studied the Veda or who is avaricious and deceitful are fruitless and lead the donor to hell ( Manu IV. ( L 201 ). III. 31 ). Vide 114) also. 26 ( 30. Ill. 26 p. The Ap. (II. Atri Manu ( XI. B. L p. Dh. . 52-53. I. impotent persons and patita ( outcastes or Ap. 7. H. 9-10. 1. 5. Dh. Even so early as the Sat. 32 ). *. * 9-10 ) prescribes one should invite for dinner in all religious acts brahmanas who are pure and who have studied the Veda III. 248-49. 31. vol. so conversely people were asked to make gifts only to learned and worthy men. 15 ( S. 11-14 ( where two verses are quoted from a Pur&na which are almost the same as Manu IV. 132 and IV. Daksa III. 3. 72. B. An exception was made in the case of gifts made without request from the donee. Manu IV. 39. 521 which is almost the same as Manu IV. S. and one should distribute gifts at a proper time and place and on occasions of purificatory rites and when there is a worthy E* 3 To the same effect are Vas. 19. Visnu Dh. Dh. S. Br. if was that a person should prefer a his neighbour for making a gift to he did not do so. snataka brahmanas who are poor are the primary objects of the while to others gift of food and fees inside the sacrificial altar food and wealth may be given outside the altar ( bahirvedi ). 205-224. Vas. 1-3 ) says that nine kinds of 152. 188). Dh. Daksa III. . Ill To the same effect are Yaj. mfc*r 35. What has been offered unasked may be accepted even from one who is guilty of bad actions. but gifts is there was no blame in passing over an ignorant or foolish 243. 6. Yaj.

the country. 85 3qeiTO IV. WlgJUIIIdchHt TlftcT tl. S. those for who are pravrtta ( i. *fihj III. engage in all sorts of activities acquiring wealth) and those who are nivrkta and verse 40 defines these latter as those who do not resort to pratigraha ( acceptance of gifts ). 245. 98. Veda-Vyasasmrfci IV. . 35-38. I. 200 also define patra similarly. VII. Manu VIII. 26 and Yaj. Gaut. S. Though could gifts pratigraha be made . % I. 37 The ( 10. 181 say that that brahmana is a patra ( worthy to receive a gift) who is pure in three respects ( viz. ( V. 5. Devala quoted by Apararka p. M. as to his parents and his guru ). viz. Santiparva 199 brahmanas are divided into two sorts. roads ft* ^fofift ). ^rm IV. It is not to be supposed that the ideal of poverty and nonacceptance of gifts except under compelling circumstances was only an ideal hardly ever acted upon at any time or in any part of . 6 says that giving to a worthy person at a proper time is the complete definition of dharma and Visvarupa adds that but the merit secured by gifts could be made by anybody making a gift depended upon the worth and caste of the donee. I. logic. e. 42. 9-10. Dh. 7 also prescribes a fine for 246. 85. 42 and Daka read ^fliiumi^itf which reading is noted by Kullaka also and VedavySaa (IV. Daksa III. I.Oh. Dh.846 Manu VII. part 1 p. Even in the 20th century rural India has villages with a considerable population of brahmanas where many srotriyas ( learned in the Veda ) and pandits ( those who study sastras like grammar. 43-47) explains the words . Veda-Vyasa IV. whose means of livelihood are slender. Yaj. 68-69. 18 ). 288 and Par. 392 ( which prescribes a fine of one masa for this ). Vas. who is tender-hearted and of restrained senses. Gobhila-smrti II 66-69. Brhaspati-smrti 60 and Laghu-Satatapa 76-79. mlmansa ) are still found who are content with what little patrimony they have got. VI. iftfltWi'fo II. who engage in the profession of teaching the Veda and sastras in accordance with ancient rules and who do not go about seeking In the gifts nor accept invitations for dinner at sraddhas. was a special privilege of brahmanas. n^^fqr 227. by anybody to anybody. 245 Vide Vas. III. 18 . Ill ] Proper donees 115 brfthmana who stays near in favour of a worthy but distant brahmana. .

24 reads before *ff^ft%. 20 . 24 further make it obligatory to give outside the sacrificial altar according to one's ability a portion of one's wealth to a brahmana. Medhatithi on Manu IV. *. Manu ( XL 1-3 ) gives practically the same rule. 249. Vide 248. II. 9. ^TfHgBiQ^ T ?T5T f ^T^" fftlT "Sf f?IHT n4f%& ^T^ 3qcf^r^I5^'>i W 94 "j ii c<) q q sj^WT'n 9W X \&v\\ Slf^T ^^^IMWl: *&?[ ^p^ Ji5!KI T T fwr^ on T3 IV. TTSPTihT^q^M KV"*T. a hundred thousand times or an infinite number of times more than 4 the merit conferred by a gift to a non-brShmana. 5. In the Yaisvadeva the householder was enjoined to give food to every one including even dogs and candalas. 247. . Gautama* * caste. (I part 1 p. 96. and when everything has been given in a Visvajit sacrifice and that one must give cooked food to all others who beg for it ( except brahmana. 4. for their own marriage. ( V. so a gift made through compassion is made irrespective of caste and that when non-brahmanas reduced to a helpless condition take what is given by others. for their sacrifice. t I W. ^. it cannot be said that they are assuming to themselves the livelihood by prati4a graha which is a peculiar means of livelihood for brahmanas. 189) quotes a verse from the MahsbhSrata > I I The idea diseased is is that qfiug is a privilege. 5 says that when a person makes a gift through compassion it is not the dana and pratigraha spoken of by the 6astra just as when a man gives instruction as to what is beneficial he does not care to see what the caste of the person to be benefit ted by the advice is. for their own maintenance ( that day ). while charity to the poor and the due to dayci ( compassion ). for a own study or journey. The Par. ^. STT*?: tj. . 5. 3er^^ HTPfa: ?nj xT fh^ u l^l ^TtTT I N^&*<l: ^ffT JJH. ^. 3. The words t^Ttsrm quoted here are from Rg III.116 History of DharmaiBstra I Oh. 19. M. to a drotriya ( or ScSrya ) and to one who has completely mastered all the Vedas ( with their subsidiary lores ) respectively confers merit which is twice. Ill 28 say that a gift given to a brahmana ( who is only so by but is not learned ). 3. 19-20 ) and Baudhayana II. before g% *}o and TOKlfih . t Ptam% 24 ftdl*ffid?3 a ifaur V. shall see later on ( . &rotriya and vedaparaga ). <|[ii<4i: I II. as we under 248 Vaisvadeva ). irotriya and veda-paraga when they seek help for giving a daksina to their teacher ( at the end of the period of studenthood ). for medicine.

Oh. Ill

]

Proper donees

117

In spite of the noble ideal set before br&hmanas it appears owing to the growth of the Brahmana population and the paucity of gifts and invitations to officiate as priests, the strict rules about dana and pratigraha had to be relaxed and in course of time it came to be said that a brahmana, whether learned or ignorant, was to be a donee and may accept gifts without any
that,

scruples.

The

first

inroad 850 was

made by

the rule that in rites

gods the character and learning of brahman as need not be deeply inquired into, but fchat such enquiry was proper only when they were to be invited for 6raddha and, other rites for the dead, the only exceptions being that a brahmana, who is a thief or is guilfcy of a mahapataka, or is impotent or an atheist was not to be invited even in rites for the gods ( vide Manu III. 149-150 ). Gradually such views as the following came to be

meant

for

The Skandapurana* as quoted by AparSrka ' 455 ) makes Siva say to ParvatI the Vedic revelation is that )raddha ( food ) should be given (to a brahmana) after inquiry ( into his learning and character ), but straightforward action is better than scrutiny. When one offers sraddha
recommended.
(

51

p.

straightforwardly without scrutiny, his pitrs are satisfied and also gods/ The Vrddha-Gautama smrti (chap. Ill pp. 512-513 and 518, Jiv. ) says Brahmanas, whether well conducted or
'

not
fire

of bad conduct, whether vulgar or of polished intellect, should be disrespected like fires covered with ashes. Just as in whatever condition
it

may

be, is

a great deity, so a

'

br&hmana is a great deity in whatever condition he may be.' llf The wise should not despise brahmanas, whether they be squinteyed, humpbacked, dwarfs, indigent or diseased, since they are

250.

miyuuvr

qfrsfcr srf^r^ft
2.

^nTwft^

i

3T35TTCPT 90.

Article

XXVI

instructive parallel may be found in of the Thirty-nine Articles of the Anglican Church, wherepriest

An

by sacraments administered by a
in efficacy.
251.

who

is

sinful

do not

suffer

quoted by
252.

amr4 p.

455.

n ft

?> fit^TTt

"

Wrem

(

chap. III. pp. 512, 513
I

)

;

vide

m$

200. 88-89

^fedlW^
*!*^!

iHT:

II

'

^IW"

^[^^

Tf^

II

118

History of Dharmaiastra

[

Oh. Ill

The Anutesanaparva ( 152. 19 ) (i. e. of Krsna)'. brahraana who not 'a is learned is a god and he is a worthy says object for gifts and is a great purifier; a learned brShmana is a

my forms

m

greater god

(

than an unlearned one

).*

already said above teaching could have brought very There was no state educational system as in modern times with stability of tenure and graded rates of
little

As

wealth.

any Copyright Act under which a learned for students and the general public. The brahmanas had no organised corporate body like the Anglican Church wifch its hierarchy of Archbishops, Bishops and other divines, nor was there in ancient India any practice of making wills whereby large estates came to the Church as in England ( where statutes of Mortmain had to be 25 * passed to prevent enormous estates from going to the Church). The emoluments of officiating priests and gifts given by charitably disposed persons must have been fitful and offered only a precarious means of livelihood, as they depended upon the volition of others and as the smrtis recommended that even in fcraddha too many brahmanas should not be invited.* 55 Besides all biahmanas could not have possessed the memory, intelligence and patience required to master the Vedic Literature
salary.

Nor was

there

man

could

make money by writing books

after intensive study for decades of years. Therefore, there is no wonder that many brahmanas were compelled by the force of

circumstances to pursue for their livelihood avocations other than the three prescribed ones. From ancient times this was recognised by the dharmasastra works. Gaut. ( VII. 6 and 7 ) says that if a brahman a cannot maintain himself by means of
the three peculiar modes of livelihood viz. teaching or officiating as a priest for even an unworthy person or by receiving gifts,

then he should maintain himself by doing the work peculiar to a ksatriya ( i. e. by fighting and protecting people ) and if even that is not possible then by following the avocations of a vaidya and Gaut. VII. 26 ordains that a ksatriya may resort to the
profession of the vaisya in similar circumstances.
253.

Baudhayana

152. 19

and

23.

p.

Vide Holdsworth's History of English Law ( 4th ed. ) rol. Ill 87 for the origin of statutes of Mortmain from 1279 A. D. to 51 and
254. 255.

52 Vio. chap. 42.

Vide

Munu

III. 125-126,

GUut.

15. 7-8, Yjj. I. 228.

Oh. Ill

]

Other means of maintenance
II. 2.

119

says the same and then it adds ( IL 2. 78 and that it should not be so as the duties of a ksatriya would be too terrific for a br&hmana and that he should pursue the avocation of a vaisya. BaudhSyana ( 1. 1. 20 ) notes that the profession of arms was practised by the brahmanas of the north. Vas. Dh. S. ( II. 22 ) lays down that

Dh.

S.

(

77

)

80) that

Gautama says

persons (of the three higher varnas) should, if they cannot maintain themselves by the peculiar avocations of their varna, resort to the means of livelihood prescribed for the varna which is immediately below their own. Manu X.^81-82, Yaj. Ill 35, Narada ( rnadana 56 ), Visnu Dh. S. 54. 28, Sankha-Likhita say the same f86 thing. It is further laid down by the same works that a person belonging to a lower varna should not resort to the modes of livelihood peculiar to a higher varna ( vide Vas. Dh. S. II. 23, Manu X. 95 ). The smrtis further ordain that when the calamity or distress ceases, the person who has taken to the avocations of another varna should perform prayascitfca, should resume his proper avocations and abandon fche wealth acquired

by him by resorting
192-193 Visnu Dh.
;

to

improper avocations

;

vide

Manu XL

S. (54.

27-28), Yaj. III. 35,

Narada ( rnadana

59-60). Manu (X. 96 ) prescribes that, if a person of a lower varna maintains himself through greed by the avocation 85T peculiar to a higher varna, the king should confiscate the wealth and should at once banish him from the country. A classical example of the keenness with which good kings were expected to prevent persons of lower varnas doing the actions allowed only to higher varnas is furnished by the

Ramayana ( VII. 73-76. ) The Uttararamacarita of Bhavabhuti echoes the same sentiments. A 6udra 858 who engaged in japa, homa, tapas or became an ascetic or repeated ( Vedio ) mantras was to be punished ( or killed) by the king and was also guilty of mortal sin. Manu ( X. 98 ) allows a vaisya, if unable to maintain himself
story of

Sambuka

narrated in the

by the
256.

pursuits peculiar to his varna, to live

by means

of the

quoted by
p. 930.

257.

r

9?rer*r fpffir wnjrT:

m$ qi*?WH

i

fTO: 9n? TT *T8f Ud0fr ft

57
258.

)

19.

136-137

(

inan.

ed. )

;

vide wnrf 150. 36

120

History of DharmaiUstra

I

Oh. Ill

serving members of the twiodby Gaut. ( VIL 22-24 ) that a brShmana may maintain himself in any way if unable to maintain himself ( by the three means specially prescribed for
actions proper for a
viz.

udra

born classes.

It

is

also said

him ), but he should
that according to

some acaryas he

when

life

itself is

not resort to the actions peculiar to a dudra, may do even those actions in danger, but that when he stoops to the

actions peculiar to sudras for maintenance he should not mix himself up with members of that varna ( by sitting on the
seat with them etc.) or eat articles forbidden to brShmanas such as leek and garlic ) and should not be a mere menial servant. Vide Manu ( IV. 4 and 6) and Narada ( rnadana 57 ).
(

same

According
the fcudra

859

to all ancient authorities the special

duty of

was to render service to the twice-born classes, to obtain his livelihood from them and serving a brahmana conferred greater happiness or benefit on the &udra than serving a ksatriya and serving a ksatriya conferred greater good than serving a vateya. According to Gaut. ( X. 60-61 ), Manu ( X. 124-125 ) and others, the sudra was to wear the old or cast-off clothes, umbrellas, sandals, mattress etc. of his patron and the leavings of food { ucchista ) were to be given to him. If he became old and unable to do work while serving anyone of the higher varnas he was to be fed by him whom he had formerly served (Gaut. X. 63). In course of time the position of the 6udra MO was unable to maintain hi. aself and improved. If a 6udra his family by serving dvijas he was allowed to maintain
t

himself by having recourse to crafts like carpentry or drawing or painting pictures etc. Narada ( rnadana 58 ) allowed him to perform the work of ksatriyas and vai^yas in times of
distress. Yaj. (I. 120) also says that, if unable to maintain himself by the service of dvijas, the sudra may carry on the profession of a vai&ya or may take to the various crafts. M1 who could not maintain The MahS-bhSrata allowed a 6udra
259. n.
1. 1.

^qgqrr
;

l.i7-8
;

^^1 ^WIK
tnnfofr
Tjfflf
i

^g^t^tai qn*ii^
'

*

X. 57-59

MarniQii

ff% izwfa 31$ ^whrM^cl frilfilMJ
&*ft
i

enr
60. 28
I.
;

I

vide also Vas.

Dh.

S. II. 20,

Manu

X. 121-123, Ysj.

1.

120,

aft. T*.
I

^.

10. 5, wsnrfr 150. 36.
8.

260.

f^KTMi-jOq

^T

$J^l

u li
I.

TSpJTeJng:

m^il"!

17 1

;

OTjn qJBurmft
261.

*n<*ro

sqpsfir

5

;

*g

X. 99-100.

295. 4

;

wm

quoted in the
22. 5.

ffhr.

I.

p. 171

j

ride

Ch. Ill

]

Position of Sudras

121

himself by the service of higher varnas to resort to the avocations of a vaidya, to rearing cattle and to crafts. Others like Laghu-A6valayana (22.5), Vrddha-Harlta ( VII. 189, 192 ) allowed agriculture to the sudra. The Kalikapurana quoted in the Gr. R. ( p. 479 ) allowed the sudra to sell all commodities except honey, skins, laksa ( lac ), wines and flesh, while Brhat-Parasara (p. 101 ) prohibited the sudra from selling

wine and flesh. Devala quoted in the Mit. ( on Yaj. I. 120 ) prescribes that the sudra should serve the twice-born and may engage in agriculture, rearing cattle, carrying loads, sale of
commodities, drawing and painting, dancing, singing and playing on musical instruments like the flute, lute, drums and 86B tabors. The foregoing will show that the sudra gradually rose in social status so far as occupation was concerned and could follow all occupations except those specially reserved for the brahtnana, so much so that sudras became even kings and

Manu

(

IV. 61

)

had expressly to enjoin upon brahmanas not to

dwell in the kingdom of a sudra. 6S The smrtis however did not like that wealth should be accumulated in the hands of the sudra (though they were quite willing that ksatriyas and vaisyas
should

command

all

wealth

).

Gaut.

(

X. 64-65

)

says that the

sudra's accumulation of wealth should be for the support and benefit of the other varnas. Manu (X. 129) says that a sudra, even

though able to accumulate wealth, should not do so, as ( on account of his pride of wealth and his ignorance ) he may cause obstructions and trouble to brahmanas. Sudras were divided into numerous subcastes. But there were two main divisions. One was aniravasita Sudras (such as carpenters and blacksmiths) and the other niravasita sudras ( like candalas ) vide note 200 above. Another division of sudras was into those who were
;

bhojyanna

( i. e.
)

brahmanas
262.

and

abhojijanna.

food prepared by whom could be partaken by In the first were included one's

t

I

TO

in

f^RTT

on

ITT. I.

120,

263.

Compare

arnr.

*T.

*.

I. 11.

32.

with *rg IV. 61. This dictum of Manu must have been pronounced at otherwise it would have no a time when sGdra kings were rare meaning and brahmanas would have been compelled to leave India. So it follows that Manu did not hold the view propounded in certain PurSnas that after the Nandas there would be no ksatriya kings and only
;

will be kings.

H, P. 16

122

History of Dharmaiastra

[

Ch. Ill

slave, one's cowherd, barber, family friend and one who shared with one the crop reared on one's land (vide Yaj. 1. 166). is worthy of note that even the Mit. adds the potter to the Ifc

above

list.

All the other sudraa were such that a

brahmana

could not take his food. A third and well-known division was into sacchudra ( well-conducted ) and asac-chudra. The former class included those sudras who followed good occupations or
trade,

served dvijas and had given up meat and drinking or

The Sudrakamalakara (p. 60 ) says that selling liquor. asat-sudras do not incur sin even if they partake of meat and liquor, provided they do not eat forbidden meat arsd that
there is no lapse if one

BW

comes in contact with a sudra that

drinks liquor.

A few words may now be said about brahmanas being allowed to follow the occupations of ksatriyas and vaisyas. From very ancient times brahmanas appear to have followed the profession of arms. Pan. ( V. 2. 71 ) teaches 26S the formation of the word 'brahmanaka* as applied to a country, which means
which Brahmanas follow the profession of arms.' Kau^. 866 (IX. 2) quotes the view of the acaryas that when there are armies
*in

composed of brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas and sudras each preceding one is better for enlistment than each subsequent, but Kaut. himself is against this and adds that the enemy may

win over the army of brahmanas by prostration before them. Apastamba was against the idea of brahmanas following the 267 a brahmana profession of arms. He says ( I. 10. 29. 7 ) hold a of for even should not catch weapon examining it ( much
*

264.

?T

gtf fl-N<JSHjJ 3TF5r%
3!
(

3ff

^

I

5T

f^FfGTTnT <* ?TOT *T^T?T ft *T

^STT
265.

WT3T section ) chap. 44. 32.
2.

Pan. V.

71

is

not commented on by Pataiijali and tho

explains the sutra as above.
a country called
Psi).

But

it is

clear that Patanjali

knew
on

BrShmanaka

as elsewhere
srrsrTOrt

ho says
*rnr

( vol. II. p. 298

IV

2.

104,

Vartika 30,

266.
l:
I

^f^ ^IICCMJ

I

STftim3*f fll^Hci <TrVsPf^rviii,
i

I

sfnf^FT IX. 2.
1. 10.

267.

gfterofire ^r^rir 5*rgtf Hij<fto
.

arrr.
J

^.

29. 7

;

VII. 25

;

wrmc^if ^r
T^nfr^^nrf
H

rmf
r.

art^TT^f

^sr^ ?n5f
^"itl ^
l

$.

II. 2.

80

;

* w\ * V4\
\

^I'w^iq^^icii*^

*

^RiB

III. 24.

Ch. Ill

}

BrUhmayas as
with
it
) '.

soldiers

123
(

less for attacking others

Gaut.

VII, 6

)

allowed a

brahmana
(

to follow ksatriya's profession in case of distress

apad ) and adds ( in VII. 25 ) that even a brahmana while still following the peculiar avocation of a brahmana may wield weapons when his life is in danger. The Baud. Dh, S. (II. 2. 80) quotes a verse for saving cows and brahmanas, for preventing
*

the mixture of varnas, the brahmana and vai^ya may take to arms from their concern for dharma. The Vas. Dh. S. (III. 24) allows a
1

brahmana

to wield a weapon for protecting himself and for preventing confusion or mingling of varnas. Manu( VIII. 3 48-349) allows all dvijatis to resort to weapons where the observance of

(

dharma ( or of the duties of varnas and asramas is obstructed by violent men ), when there is a disturbance ( due to invasion
)

etc,

) involving the twico-born classes, in evil times for protecting one's self, when there is an attack for carrying away cows or other wealth ( given as fees ) and in order to protect women

and brahmanas and he incurs no sin if he kills ( for these purposes ). Among the heroes of the Mahabharata there are great warriors and commanders like Drona, his son Asvatthaman, Krpa (the maternal uncle of Asvatfchaman) who were brahmanas. The Mahabharata says that a brahmana should fight at the order of the king. 268 The Santiparva ( 78. 18 ) calls upon persons of all varnas to wield arms when the rules for holding society together are broken and when dasyus ( robbers or U)w persons ) cause confusion. From ancient times we find brahmanas as commanders and founders of royal dynasties. The famous Senapati Pusyamitra belonged to the Sunga gotra and wrested an empire from the last of the Mauryas about 184 B. 0. His line was followed by the Kanvayanas, the founder being minister Vasudeva, a brahmana, who killed the last Sunga about 72 B. 0. We learn from the Talagunda pillar inscription of Kakusthavarman ( E. I. Vol. VIII, p. 24 ) that the founder of the Kadambas, Mayurasarman, was a brahmana. In Maratha history there were the Peshwas and other brahmana warriors and commanders.

the occupation of

brahmana in distress may follow a vaisya, there were several restrictions imposed upon brahmanas following the occupations of money-

Though

it is

said that a

lending, agriculture, trade, and the rearing of cattle, which were prescribed as the privileged occupations of vai&yas.
268.
1
1

5t^rrf 65. 42.

124

History of Dharmaiastra

[

Ch. Ill

5-6 ) allowed a ( X. and his family by agriculture, sale of commodities and money-lending only if he did not engage in these personally, but through the agency of others. Vas. Dh. S. ( II. 40 ) enjoins upon brahmanas and ksatriyas not to lend money like usurers and quotes two verses which define usury and say that a userer is a greater sinner than even
to

As

money-lending,

Gaut. 269

brahmana

to maintain himself

one who is guilty of brahmana-murder. Manu (X. 117) also forbids usury to brahmanas and ksatriyas, but allows them to charge a low rate of interest to persons engaged in low actions.

Narada

(

rnadana 111
87

)

forbids

usury to brahraanas even in

the direst calamities.

prayascitta

S. ( I. 9. 27. 10 ) prescribes a a brahmana lending money at usurious rates. 271 in the Gr. R. has a rather amusing Brhaspati as quoted

Ap. Dh.

for

verse 'sages have enumerated numerous means of livelihood, but out of all of them money-lending is pre-eminent. There
is loss in agriculture due to draught, to the fear of the exactions of the king- and the ravages of rats and others, but there is no such loss in money-lending.' It appears that this is only a

general or satirical statement and does not

recommend money-

lending to brahmanas.

tions

The obvious reasons and motives underlying these restricon brahmanas were to make them live simple lives, to insist on the necessity and high value to themselves and to society of studying, preserving and augmenting the ancient literature and culture, to emphasize the fact that a highly
spiritual life should not be
to prevent

given up for a mere secular

life,

the coarsening and hardening of the heart and emotions in a relentless and continuous pursuit of wealth or

martial glory.
Agriculture
conflict
269.

of

In the dharmasastra works there is a great views about agriculture as an occupation for
I

rmrf^I^ 3TS*q<l$d

^ft^

^

A. X. 5-6
*nratarRj

;

JHflum
'

I

*TOSr

II. 40.

Vide 4.

*r.

*.
i

I.

5.
(

93-94 for these two

verses

;

awreffi ft

*fieis

sriST^^

f ^T^

w%
i

^orrfTf

v.

Ill

)

270.

a?^nfl ?nr^
-

i^^w^fi^'
^(fftl^t

^TPnr:

^. ^. I. 9- 27. 10.

271.

s^iff

^Tf^TPTT
in ^f.
^. p.

Tft^HncTT;

it

f^?rm

488

Ch. Ill

]

Agriculture and brfihmanas

125

brahmanas. The Vedic Literature does not condemn agriculture in the case of brahmanas. The gambler's song 27 * ( Rg. X. 34 ) winds up with the exhortation *do not play with dice, do engage in agriculture, thinking highly of my words ( or of wealth ), do
find joy in wealth, in that
is
( in agriculture ) there are cows, there your wife &c.' There are frequent references in Vedio Literature to fields, ploughshares and tilling the soil ( vide Rg. X. 101. 3 = Tai.S.IV.2.5.5, Vaj. S. XII. 67, Rg. 1. 110. 5, 1. 176. 2, X. 117. 7 ). Baudhay ana 873 says (1. 5. 101) The study of the Veda tends
'

to the destruction of agriculture and ( devotion to ) agriculture tends to the loss ( of the study ) of the Veda. One who has the

capacity
is

(

to look after both
(

)

may
)

unable

to look

after

both

Baudhayana

engage morning meal and he should only coax again and again his oxen whose noses have not been pierced and whose testicles are not removed and without proddThe Vas. Dh. S. ( II. 32-34 ) has a ing them with a pointed awl
'.

further says ( II. 2. in agriculture before his

resort to both, but he who should give up agriculture '. a brahmana should 82-83 )
'

similar sutra, adds that in summer he shall water his beasts (in Manu ( X. 83-84 ) the morning ) and quotes Vaj. S. XII. 71. a brahmana or a ksatriya compelled to follow the says
'

avocations of a vaisya ( owing to difficulty of maintenance otherwise ) should by all means avoid agriculture which is full
of injury to sentient beings

and dependent on others

(

labourers,

oxen & c. ). hood but it
tip
( i.

e.

Some regard agriculture as a good mode of liveliis condemned by the good, (as) wood having an iron the plough) strikes the earth and (the insects and
*
*

ture

germs) imbedded in the earth/ Manu IV. 5 designated agriculby the word pramrta ( pre-eminent in loss of life ). Harlta
274

quoted

in Gr.

R.

p.

429

declares 'the

ploughshare
life,
it
(

(i. e.
it is
)

agriculture ) carries with it destruction of not for brahmanas ; but if he were to follow
distress he should pursue
it

therefore

agriculture
of tiding

in

only

till

his object

(

over

272.
H

^. X.

34. 13.

273.

$^
T. *T.

^. !

*>

101

;

4<l<l

i

*ft. *f.

^ H.

2.

82-83.

274.

mg^H

<3if &

126
distress) is

History of Dharmaiastra

[

Oh. lit

27S (II, 2-4, 7, 14) allows a acoomplished '. Parasara brahmana to engage in agriculture, but lays down certain The proper number of oxen to be yoked to the restrictions.
'

cruel

six being middling, four are yoked only by the and two by those who sacrifice the lives of their oxen he should not yoke an ox that is hungry, thirsty or tired, he should make the oxen work only for half the day and then bathe them in water, he should offer the five mahayajiias and other sacrifices

plough

is eight,

;

with corn raised by himself engaging in agriculture, the sin of ploughing the earth for a day with an iron-tipped ploughshare is equal to that incurred by a fisherman fishing for a year; he should give J of the corn to the king, offer S T to gods and ?\y to brahmanas and then he may not be smeared with sin*. Harlta
quoted by Apararka (p. 937) has a long prose passage on the treatment to be given to oxen by brahmanas and also Vrddha-Gau-

tama

Vrddha-Harlta ( Jiv. part 2 p. 571 ). ( VII, 179 and 182 ) that common all varnas and agriculture, is to says agriculture rearing cattle and service are not forbidden to any. The above
discussion shows

876

how

agriculture

was viewed

at different times

and by

different writers

from

different points of view.
is

Sale and barter

We

have seen above that a brahmana

allowed to maintain himself by trade in distress or difficulties But there were very great restrictions as to what things ( apad ). could be gold by a brahmana, According to Qaut. (VII. 8-14 ) a brahmana should not engage in the sale of fragrant things ( like sandal-wood ), fluids ( like oils, ghee &c. ), cooked food,
sesame,

hemp ( and hempen

articles like bags
clothes,

),

ksauma ( linen
its

),

deer-skin, dyed
(

and cleanly washed

milk and

products

like curds &c. ), roots, flowers, fruits, herbs ( used as drugs ), honey, meat, grass, water, deleterious drugs (like opium, poison), animals ( for being killed ), mon (as elave-.), barren cows, heifers and' cows liable to abortion. He adds ( Gautama VII. 15 ) that according to some a brahmana could not sell land, rice,

yava, goats
275.

and

sheep, horses, bulls, freshly delivered cows

and

TS-^rsrf^Ttrt

r
II. 2
;

Rcff

T f&cq%
(

II

<ro?R

II.

12-13.

p. 936, T$$ . ^. p. 431.

The verse
) I.

Apastamba

in verse

ascribed to ff^T(% by occurs in Atri 222-223, 22-23, HSrlta in Gr. K. p. 431.
is

This last

sreM w**fe&

VII. 179, 182.

Ch. Ill

]

Sale and barter for brcthma^s

127

oxen that are yoked to carts. These restrictions did not apply a ksatriya engaging in trade. Ap. Dh, S. 1. 7. 20. 12-13 877 has a similar list but adds among forbidden articles of sale weapons,
to
*

stalks ( tokma ), fer( slesma, like lac ), young mented liquids ( kinva ), the expectation of merit ( sukrtasa ) and says that among coma sesame and rice are on no account Baud. Dh. S. II. 1. 77-78 condemns the sale of to be sold. sesame and rice by saying that he who sells them sells respectively his pitrs ( dead ancestors ) and his pranas. This arose probably from the close connection of sesame with sraddha and tarpana. Vas. Dh. S. ( II. 24-29 ) gives a similar list and adds
sticky things

a prohibition against the sale of stones, salt, silk, iron, tin, wild animals, all fcame animals with uncloven hoofs and those that have a mane, birds and animals having fangs.
lead, all
'

quotes a verse at II. 27 ( which is the same as Manu X. 92 ) a brahmana immediately becomes a sinner by the sale of meat, lac and salt and he becomes a smdra by selling milk for three
It
878
'

Manu ( X. ( II. 1. 76 ), days '. About sesame, Baud, Dh. S. 91 ) and Vas. Dh. S. ( II. 30 ) present the same verse If a man deals with sesame in any way other than eating them or using them for bathing (i. e. applying sesamum oil to the body before a bath ) and making a gift of them, becomes a worm and sinks together with his pitrs in the ordure of a dog '. But it appears 279 that Vasistha (II. 31), Manu (X. 90) allow the sale of sesame if a man engages in agriculture and himself produces them ( but sale must be only for purposes of religious duties, according to Manu ). Yaj. (III. 39) and Narada { rnadana 66 ) say thafc sesame may be bartered for an equal measure of othar corn to raise means for religious purposes ( and for medicine also according
to Narada).

Manu

(X. 86-89), Yaj. (III. 36-38),

Narada (rnadana

give long lists of articles that Brahmanas were forbidden to sell and that include a few more than those specified above.

61-63

)

For example, Manu forbids the sale of bee's wax, kusa, indigo, while Yaj. adds soma, mud, blankets made of goat wool, hair ( of camarl deer ) and oilcakes ( pinyaka ) to things forbidden to

277.

^
-T

i

f

fqspnrro[ ww. v. ^.
i

I. 7.

20. 11-13.

278.

H3
279.

vH>aH 1*^^*11^111^ ^5 r Mc^d X, 91 ; ^qrr quoted in
sff

fiTrtt

I

*^N.

I.

180 has a similar yorse.
i

5&nt

*re ^fterrar

fiteF* foiiWtai;

sfite II. 31.

128
be
sold.

History of Dharmatostra
880

[

Ch. Ill

Sahkha-Likhita, Udyoga-parva 38. 5, S&ntiparva 78. 4-6, Harlta ( as quoted by Apararka p. 1113 ) contain long lists of things the sale of which was forbidden to brahmanas. Apart

from these negative
prescribe

rules, there are
sold.

some that

are positive

and
S.

what may be
!

For example, the Baud. Dh.

M|

prescribes the sale of grass and wood in their natural state and ' quotes a verse Oh Brahmana, these are the articles you may
sell,

domestic animals that have only one row of teeth, minerals except salt and threads ( i. e. cloth ) that are not coloured Narada888 (rnadana 64-65) states a brahmana with some dye.
viz.,
* '

may
(

sell dried

wood and
),

grass, except fragrant articles, eraka

kusa grass; cereals that get split up of their own accord, badara and inguda among fruits, cords and threads of cotton provided they are not a kind of grass
rattan, cotton, roots,

Sahkha-Likhita also (as quoted by Apararka p. 933) have the same rules as Narada and further enjoin upon the brahmana not to higgle for the price but to have a fixed price.
coloured
'.

Yaj. ( III. 40 ) says that the sale of lac, salt and meat lead to a brahmana's fall ( i. e. he loses the right to perform the duties of dvijatis) and the sale of milk, curds and liquor reduces

him

low class (i. e. of a sudra). Manu (XL 62), and Yaj. (III. 234) include the sale of forbidden articles among upapatakas and Yaj. (III. 265) prescribes candrayana and other prayascittas for it. Harlta ( quoted by Apararka p. 1113 and Mit. on Yaj. III. 265 ) prescribes various
to the status of a
S. (37.

Visnu Dh.

14)

prayascittas for the sale of various forbidden articles. LaghuSatatapa prescribes ( v. 87 ) candrayana for the sale of honey,

meat, wine, soina,
280.
T

lac, salt.

888

Narada (rnadana 67
'

)

calls

upon

TCSfffUliMiqicuttMituI

W3m c5 tfTO^i
f^Q-rf.
I.

1

4 'fW'rrt l^Tl*!^** W^jci'l
T:
1 1

quoted by
38. 5.

smi% P. H13

and

180

;

281.

STWg^iTFcT iq^^arTST^t^ff^fl^rspfi^Trll ^. ^.
gu|4hiyQ$<i
I
I

R^Hl

^.

II.

1.

81-82; sale

of minerals would be opposed to Vasi^tha 282. *T5W{*r g f^Snfr

II. 24.

64-65)

.

^Mi^lg^^
p-

quoted by surTT*
quoted in 3JtmJ>
p. 934.

934

;

Ch. Ill

]

Safe and barter for brnhmarias

129

the king to inflict a heavy fine upon a brahmana who engages in the sale of articles forbidden to be sold and strays from the

path

(

proper for brahmanas

)

in the absence of distress.

states the general rule that Ap. Dh. S. ( I. 7. 20. 14-15 ) exchange or barter also of those articles that are forbidden to be sold cannot be resorted to, but adds that barter is allowed of foods with foods, of slaves with slaves, of fragrant things with other fragrant things, of one kind of learning with

m

another.
rasas

(VII. 16-21) allows the exchange of with rasas, of domestic animals with other domestic animals, of cooked food with an equal measure of uncooked food for immediate use, but forbids the barter of salt, cooked food and sesame with other articles. Manu ( X. 94 ) allows the exchange of one rasa ( liquid like molasses ) with another (like ghee ), of cooked food with uncooked food, of sesame with an equal quantity of other corn, but does not allow the barter of salt for any rasa. Vas. Dh. S. ( II. 37-39 ) has rules similar
Gaut.
to

285

Manu and Ap. 886 Manu ( X. 116

)

m

enumerates ten means

of

maintaining

oneself in apad ( distress ) viz. learning, arts and crafts, work for wages, service ( i. e, carrying out another's orders ), rearing
sale of commodities, agriculture, contentment, alms, money-lending. Out of these some cannot be followed by a brahmana or a ksafcriya when there is no distress ( e. g. a
cattle,

brahmana cannot engage of these and adds cart*
'

in service). Yaj. III. 42 enumerates seven ( i. e. driving curts for hire ), mountain

(

subsisting on the price of grass and fuel taken from hills ), a country full of water, trees and shrubs, king ( i. e. resorting 288 to or begging from a king ). Chagaleya quoted in Gr. R. p. 449
284.

srf^ftcT^qt i^wt flftmt
t
i

i

wr.
i

*r ^.
r

1. 7. 20.

14-15.
i

285.

f^r^g
TOT

i

Trn^i

*&

T^fn ^

cF^^cnsnft:

a <ns^ tfuwff imnT
i

VII. 16-21.
I

286.
HT3J<n

T*l*fcft tfNft ^T f^fTTcf^r:
I

*$
I

qfttf II. 37-39.

287.
:
ii

fTOT firef frfa: *rg X. 116
;

^J ^TT
f^
42.

fTO^

fW^R W:

ffiflM

$ ^H^ffir 3
288.

n

TT.

HI-

in W- T. P 449. The f^%^?n VI. 138 has the first half and reads the 2nd half as 1^331 <nftft THTT ^^R. In some Mss. of the this verse occurs in VI. 5 where the readings are an^^5^T ^r^ TT3TT f^% Tf I^PTJ N. STI^FfsT may be the same as

^ ^1^^

f

130

History of Dharma&astra

[

Ch. Ill

speaks of nine means of livelihood in a season of drought, viz. cart, plot of vegetables, cows, fishing, asyandana ( maintaining oneself by the slightest effort possible ? ), forest, a
full of water, trees and shrubs, a mountain, king. Narada (rnadana 50-55) says thut three modes of acquiring

country

wealth are

common

to all, viz.

ness or affection and

what comes

inheritance, a gift of friendlito a man with a wife ( at the

time of marriage); that each of the three varnas has three special modes of acquiring wealth, viz,, receiving gifts, fees as booty in priest and fees for teaching in the case of brahmanas
;

war, taxes and fines in judicial trials in the case of ksatriyas ; agriculture, rearing cattle and sale of commodities in the case
of vaisyas.

Narada ( rnadana verses 44-47
),

)

divides wealth into

sukla
(

(

white, pure

sabala

(

dark-white, mixed
varieties.

dark

)

and each of these into seven

and krsna ) The Visnu Dh. S,

varieties

ohsp. 58 also divides the wealth of householders into these three and says that what is earned by the special modes

prescribed for each varna, inherited wealth, gifts of affection and what comes with the wife-these are Sukla ( pure ); what is

by following the special avocation of the varna immediately lower than one's own varna and what is acquired by giving bribes or by sale of forbidden articles or from one who is under one's obligations is sabala what is obtained by following the avocations of a varna other than the immediately lower one and what is acquired by gambling, theffe, violence or fraud is called krsna. Baud. Dh. S. ( III. L 5-6 ) speaks of ten kinds of vrttis ( means of livelihood ) and III. 2 explains them at length. Manu ( IV. 4-6 ) speaks of five ways of livelihood viz. rta ( i. e. subsisting on grains left in the fields ), amrta ( what comes without begging ), mrta (alms obtained by begging), pramrta ( agriculture ), satyanrfca ( sale of commodities ) and
obtained
;

forbids svavrtti

(

service,

lit.

living like a dog
live

).

Manu
means

(IV. 9)
( i.

further says that

some brahmanas

by

six

e.

adhyapana, yajana, pratigraha, agriculture, rearing cattle and trade ), some by three ( viz. the first three ), some by two (yajana

and adhyapana

)

and others again only by one

(

adhyapana

).

wealth were

The avocations practised by brahmanas in the pursuit of many and varied, so much so that from very ancient times the lists of brahmanas not eligible for invitation at sraddhas because they followed unworthy callings were very
formidable.

brahmanas and

Atri (Anan. ed.) verses 373-383 names ten kinds of briefly defines them, vis. deva-brahmana ( who

Oh. Ill

]

Classification of

brahmanas

131

daily performs bath, samdhya, japa, homa, worship of gods and honouring of guests and vaisvadeva ), muni-br. ( who is given up to staying in a forest, subsists on roots, fruits and vegetables and performs daily sraddhas ), dvija-br. ( who studies the Vedanta, gives up all attachments and is engaged in reflecting over Sarhkhya and

who engages in (who sells lac,
(

Yoga ), ksatra-br. (who fights), vaisya-br. agriculture, rearing cattle and trade ), sudra-br. salt, dyes like kusumbha, milk, ghee, honey,

meat

nisada-br. ( who is a thief and robber, a backbiter and ), always fond of fish and meat ), pasu-br. ( who knows nothing about brahma and is only proud of his wearing the sacred

thread

mleccha-br. ( who obstructs or destroys wells, tanks, ), gardens, without any qualm )and candala-br. (who is a fool, devoid of prescribed rites, beyond the pale of all dharma and cruel). Atri (384) rather 289 humorously adds those who
*

are devoid of Vedic lore, study the sastras ( like grammar, logic &c. ), those devoid of sastric lore study puranas ( and earn money by reciting them ), those who are devoid even of purana

reading become agriculturists, those who are devoid even of that become bhagavatas ( pose as great devotees of Siva or Visnu
i.

o.

become what
890

is

called in

modern Marathi buva

'

'

)/

Devala

by Apararka ( pp. 284-285) speaks of eight kinds of brahmanas ( of whom each succeeding one is superior to each preceding one) viz. matra ( one who is only born in a brahmana family but has not studied any part of the Veda nor performs the actions appropriate to brahmanas ), brahmana ( who has
quoted
studied a portion of the Veda), srotriya (who has studied one vedic sakha with the six angas and performs the six duties of brahmanas ), anucaaa (who knows the meaning of the Veda and
the vedangas, is of pure heart and has kindled the sacred fires ), bhruna ( who besides being anucana always performs yajnas and eats what is left after performing yajnas), rsikalpa (who has gained all worldly and Vedic knowledge, and has his mind
289.

^flsfais* craRf

srrei srrifar
II

WHdl
290.

H^if^cT

3Tr5T

384.

These verses about the eight kinds of arrima are quoted in
also

the

^PHc*n3IT
sr:

(MS.))
i

The

^g-israw

!

*

a lso gives brief

definitions of these eight kinds of
(

s^*. ^r^r: ?

The smrtis ( II. of truthful speech and able to curse or favour ). 20 ) requires a religious king to employ brahmanas who do not perform the morning and evening adoration ( samdhya ) in doing work appropriate to sudras. [ Ch. muni ( to whom a clod of earth and gold are the same. ). are to be treated teach that brahmanas doing certain things as sudras. II. 21-22 irnnfMfcft ft* ^"F^llfirf^ VIII. 291. S. 20 (this as sr5TT<TUr'8 by some writers. ) 293. Dh. For example. S. one who officiates for many yajamanas. III. are really not brahmanas viz. *ra*ft urf^mn ^ <?3V ^gr^g: f^r: n ). 4. The Anusasanaparva ( 33. 286-287 ) speaks of six classes of persons who. is devoid of desires and anger &c. Baud. others subsisted by begging. 23 . who has ceased from all 891 activity. some were acrobats and dancers (but it yet recomnends that brahmanas must be honoured ). 286-287 frnror in his HT^T cm $. one who does not perform saihdhya adoration in the morning and evening at the proper time. vide 10 and tf**T**o 22.132 History of Dharmai astro. this verse ia also c^^T^cTPT^ 22. . of austere life. ll also . who do not teach the veda or who do not kindle the sacred fires become reduced to the status of sudras and quotes a Manava sloka ( Manu II. khaijda 5 quotes with variations these very verses (viz. J( III. $atatapa quoted ( pp. rsi (one who is celibate. 24. S. ^f qpn H^T *wi ^ nm wuti i ^m cm ^r^> ^rsn g^- OTfJ^ftenfcjU ^t. 11 ff) shows that some brahmanas were great rogues. but the very next verse ia TO T. 168 ) that a brahmana who without studying the Veda works hard to master something else is * quickly reduced while still living to the status of a sudra together with his family/ Manu ( VIII. 1-2. ^j^rfi^Jicr^T^f^r: * . chap. 102 = Baud. ^. ^. some were thieves and others were false. one who engages in sale and by Apararka purchase (of commodities). and the preceding verae are cited *rf&S HI. 1-2 ) says that brahmanas who are not srotriyas ( learned in the Veda ). sfir 292. born though brahmanas. 4. BTT. one who is in the service of a village or town. Vas. cf: U 3?TOcfi pjp. others engaged in austerities. one who is the officiating priest for the whole village. 898 Dh. Ill under control ). . some resorted to agriculture and rearing cattle. I. 893 Dh. one who has taken service with a king.

1-2. Death desires to kill brahmanas.Cb. 10. 32-33. 5. 5. 297. 10. wbo are bereft of sarhdhya adoration X. 251. who are mere servants and money-lenders. 1-2 are r fam i ^ I . enjoins that on these occasions there is a duty to give according to one's ability and according to the worth of tbe person begging and ( that if a man afld not for pressing 294. on ' account of giving up the rules of conduct prescribed for them. Manu (V. Begging was not allowed to others except under 896 considerable restrictions. 22. frg*for3refoR i OT%^ 77. m and who do not study the veda are all sudras and that therefore one should study at least a portion of the veda if he cannot 295 sums up in one place the study the whole. in anxiety to support ouo's parents. for warding off the non-observance of the duties of a worthy person he . Vide Manu tbat a Parasara ( VIII. for a sacrifice. H^m^nrrSim: *rf% sr T ?T*FI$ TOSTT i XLI. I. 22 ) that no one wbo not a brahmacarin begs in bis kingdom. 4 ^HIHMK^ ^ srefsn^ i 296. 216. begs only for the gratification of his senses wants ) one should pay no heed to such 89? i arf&^nrorcq-Rsraru *fMfo%?ft 295. ' Ysj. which will be dealt with at length later on. Gifts of food were to be made daily while performing the five mabayajnas ( this will be treated under vaisvadeva ). *T3rsr'*rft ftsTTTO. 19-20. in tbe sale of commodities. S. for ( one's first) marriage. 1-4 recognizes that begging can properly be resorted to for the following reasons. for the teacher. wbo are artisans and actors. 92 quoted above ( p. viz. srnfotrf 165. 4) are seized reasons why brahmanas by Death before the allotted span of human life on account of not studying the Vedas. Tbe smrtis prescribe begging as specially appropriate to brahmacarins (vedio students) and ascetics (yatis). are^jwre V. II.' A few words must be said about begging. 1-4. Dh. through idleness and through the faults arising from ( partaking forbidden ) food. XI. Ill 5. The king of Kekaya is made to boast in the Mahabharata is ( Santi 77. i fn^t Rfixwi^reffireTgr ^r mmfrwiri te*r TTRTB? %*rac si^rffarfrer g fasrTOfafHxf^ r. V. compare Manu IV. 127 ). Ap. Gaut. r II. ] Brahmanas and low avocations I3i 95) asks fche king to treat as sudras brahmanas wbo engage in rearing cattle. 24 ) says brahmana wbo does not repeat tbe Gayatr! mantra is more impure tban even a sudra and tbat brahmanas who do not offer oblations to sacred fires.

nor proper time. 898 effect.R. 3. Gaut. 2-3 says that a man oppressed by hunger may beg for a lifcfcle viz.134 begging. and Parasara 20 ( I. corn or cooked food. I 3*l^<^in 299. ( 18. either from the threshing floor or from the field or from his house or from whatever place he can get it. ^ ^. Vas. R. History of Dharma&ftstra Dh. 4 It has been seen above how even during the Vedic perTod brahmanas had come to be highly eulogised as if they were The gods and held superior merely on account of birth. but a snataka should not faint through hunger. S. a sheep or ewe. Dh. begged. a cow. 28-30 ) and Yaj. Baud Dh. arepri rf irirf .) allows begging to the diseased. a cultivated or uncultivated plot. 450. is the instruction*. ' [ Ch. . 60. p. 43 are to the same Angiras for* three Manu XL quoted in Gr. he should nofc beg of a woman or of those who are minors or unable to conduct when the donor is not in a proper place or at a He should apply the alms to the purpose for which he their affairs. (p. ( p. sRiifrnTT *rt *Ntnro fit^i: *fo$ HI. S.4 and TO^TC I. 450. Vide Manu X. and at last gold. 114 for practically the same words and Visnu Dh. w 300. to one who is torn away from his family and who is on a 8" as quoted in Gr. this S. lit XII. The foregoing will show that indiscriminate begging was never allowed or encouraged by the smrtis even for brahmanas. * i ]? 457. He ) unused ( to priests or should give that portion of the alms which remains any other excellent person*. 60 ) call upon the king to fine that village where persons of the higher classes wander about begging though they are not observers of vows ( like brahmacarins ) and are not studying the Veda. 457) say when journey. much less for others. III. Vas. but he should announce his action when the owner asks. 79-80. 64 includes begging by one who has finished his course of shidenthood among actions that make a man impure (aitcikara). III. 1. the indigent. Sankha-Likhita ' a man begs he should state the purpose ( such as marriagej completion of sacrifice ) of his begging. II. 16-17 says that when a person has had no food days he may take away ( by theft even ) from one who is lower than himself in class as much corn as will be enough for one day. S.

338) prescribes for brShmanas who knowing everything are guilty of theft 64 or 100 or 128 times as much fine.3 says 'One should sacrifice in the right a brahmana the brahmana indeed is Agni-vaiSvanara'. hand of . Dh. With the This is first sutra note 85 above It may 4 be compared. they all vanish when brahmanas support them. 8. their words do not ' fail. ' The Visnu Dh. Vide Santiparva 343. the brahmana deserves everything on account of his superiority due to his descent ( from the mouth of the Creator ). as a dndra guilty of the same theft has to pay if he unknowingly commits it. Manu himself 303. 30-31 ) has the same two verses with slight . 100 ' ) declares on this earth all that brahmanas. it is 302. is a great deity ( verse 317 ). or in sacrificial rites. a mere arthavada. Likhita The same ideas of the sacredness and 31. and hyperbolical descriptions of the greatness of brahmanas are sown broadcast over all the smrfcis and the puranas. for (in VIII. two of which may be set out who would prosper if he oppresses brahmanas that. the superiority of brahmanas were carried forward and further Most exaggerated emphasized by the dharma-6astra works. whatever 802 wealth belongs to the brahmana. 84 is 'a brahmana by the very fact of his birth is Parasara (VI. 313-321 contain a hyperbolical eulogy of the power of to be untrue exists '. 2-5. Manu ( I. visible deities. VI. 52-53 ) an object of honour even to the deities. 30. 20-22. ] High eulogy of brGhmarias 135 III.' Manu IX. 301 ( 19. while the latter pays eight times as much if he knowingly commits it. Whatever words are spoken by brahmanas are spoken by the gods brahmanas have all the gods in them and therefore ' ' . 'Manu IV. 19. holds whatever defects there may be in vratas. 13-14. 8os The Mahabharata indulges in very 301. the worlds are the gods stay in heaven by the supported by brahmanas favour of brahmanas words spoken by brahmanas never come . 20-22 ) says the gods are invisible deities. Ill Tai.Ch. 7. Vas. Manu XI. 52-53. But a few passages may usefully be cited here by way of samples. It is not possible to set out even a small fraction of them. in austerities. whether learned or not. ' ' * . when angered. %udrd<T variations. means as if his '. might create other worlds and other guardians of the worlds and that might 'a ( 315 ) deprive the deities of their position as deities brahmana. but brahmanas are . 117. Br. ( I. S.

wn|i*iH 16. 22 . he is the highest tapas the sun shines in heaven on account of the salutations made by the brahmanas '. Their influence was a growth of centuries and they themselves were as much parts of the huge edifice of the caste system as the other varnas. 50. 3-4) says m a brahmana. II ^ ^|^r 33. becomes fire. wftTOrf fa? 5T5T fait *reft gftfrcT: rf 28. i 91%IKHM and 152. Anusasana-parva into a a and a deity into a make non-deity deity they may non-deity that man may become a king whom they desire to . brSLhmana did not make sacrifice ( Satapatha II. 23 and 25 for a similar idea. . they were the guardians of the culture of ages. Besides the brahmanas had no They could only succeed in military force behind them. 5 ) the refrain of Bg. 17 ) says booty and help from gods. IV. Ill frequent eulogies of brahmanas. 3. g. vast literature that had grown up. 15. 16 ) says beings. If the other classes had not themselves more or less shared these ideas. world brahmana is the highest ' being It should not be supposed that the brahmanas inserted eulogies solely these for the purpose of increasing their importance and tightening their hold on the other classes. other varnas the by persuasion and their own influencing The brahmanas were the creators and custodians of the worth. ' light. secure * 306 ( 33. and weapon a brahman a is declared to be tbe guru of all 805 a brUhmana is the highest ( 303. is not desired ' Santi ) declares In this by them may be defeated.136 History of Dharma$astra [ Ch. 17 16. 2-9 is that Indra performed his great and period ' . u wrgftfr ft qi ?h?V ^Tfr"ft 1 ft it mrf 303. tbe sun. 3-4 videanflo 81. &\$ 306.' Vanaparva . 7-9 say that a king and others for whom the purohifca offers prayers win battles. ' Adiparva (28. ( f and he who 56. no amount of iteration on the part of brahmanas would have given them the influence which they as a matter of fact wielded. c the sun would not rise if the long before e. II. they were expected to shoulder the burdens of teaching and preserving the vast literature on such gifts as were voluntarily made. when provoked. Though many among them did not 304. heroic works under the intoxication of the soma ( offered by the priests in sacrifices ). 1. 23 and 25 and I . Rg. 305. be so. poison. This and similar dicta closely follow what was expressed in the Vedic . STc^n^r 30.

r>. of leading a life of comparative poverty and of making his knowledge available to the other classes for a scanty and precarious return. Learning and tapas are more or less elusive and impalpable. Therefore that was seized upon by some writers as the principal reason for the respect to be given For centuries human societies have everywhere to brS-hmanas. It made the military caste feel that they were not all-in-all. They had further to bring up their own families and pupils and had themselves also to make gifts to In modern capitalist societies those who have brains others. 307. the idea of the division of labour. III live ] Eulogy of brahmayas 137 up to the high ideals set up for their order. but had up to some other class as superior to themselves. to look . 18 . 4-11 ) propounds parts of such gods as Indra and that a king is a great deity in human form. while birth from brahmana parents was quite an apparent and palpable thing. there must have been not a few who made as near an approach to the fulfilment of the ideal as possible. Manu 807 the theory that the king has in him the VII. They did not live in monasteries as Buddhist and Christian monks did nor were they entitled to fixed and fat salaries like the bishops in some Christian countries.Ch. they forget to take account of the circumstances under which the brShmanas were forced to sing the praises of gifts to them. It was the greatness of these latter that led to the glorification of the whole order to which they belonged. on the idea of balancing the rival claims of various it laid greatest emphasis upon the sections of the community duties of the varnas rather than It raised the but at upon their rights and privileges. The ideal before brahmanas was to lead a life of comparative poverty they were forbidden to follow many worldly pursuits and depended on the generosity of their patrons. acquiesced in the government and control exercised by small generally the elite of birth. ( generally hereditary and is so even now ) to the skies. H. the same time it placed before him the ideal of not hankering after temporal power. It must be remembered that the smrti works also extol the office of the king ( which was coteries of the elite. But selfishness and constant praises of gifts to themselves. European writers severely condemn brahmanas for their greed. who have guided the destinies of their societies on traditional lines of religious and social order. The theory of varnas as conceived by Manu and other smrfcikaras was based upon . brahmana to the highest pinnacle of reverence.

1 ) says distinguished by origin and by the system of four varnas is the special features of the ( each of them undergoes )' and quotes Rg. & ( I. its ( IV. Manu ( I. to be guru( object of reverence ) 388 of birth. thighs and feet. X. 1.e. The brahmanas never arrogated to themselves the authority to depose kings and to hand over vast territories for ever to whomsoever they liked. F. they reduce most other men to mere wage-earners who are often hardly better than helots. Dh. one should not forget that even in the 20th century when the pursuit of scientific studies is professed to have reached its zenith. I $: $*f Sf'JTcT: 3^1^ I 3TfT. 31 and 94 ) says that the Creator produced the four varnas respectively from his mouth. on account of his priority ( in birth to the ksatriya and others) and on account of possessing Vedic lore. and knowledge tend wealth is While finding fault with the brahmana writers of over two thousand years ago for the eulogies they bestowed upon themselves.138 History of Dharmaiastra \ Oh. we hear ecstatic and arrogant eulogies of the white ma$'s burden. as Pope Alexander VI by his Bull of 1493 made over the New World to Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon ( vide Dean Inge's Christian Ethics' 1930 p. 160 where this astounding Bull is set out ). 1-2. 121. . English translation by C. * has been seen already that brahmanas had the special privileges of teaching. ' Ap. all centred in their hands. Dh. sacraments Manu (X. 35. that ( I. of the great and glorious achievements of the Nordic race and the greater and more glorious future it is destined to attain ( vide the very first sentence in Spengler's 'The Decline of the West'. 12 in support. 1 1. 1. Atkinson ). arms. 1. officiating as priests and accepting gifts made as a religious duty. Ill to become financiers and capitalists. . 90. : ^m f?^ fr*ml *refif ^rRre IV. It is desirable that a comprehensive list of all the privileges claimed by brahmanas ( though not always conceded as the sequel will show ) should be set out It once for all. 1. 5 ) says Vas. S. ^r^i^t ^tf WT^raT^rfinT^T^T: 5.3) uses almost is the the master of the varnas same words as Vasistha 'the brahmana on account of the peculiar excellence ftqt 308. the mouth ) of the Creator. to all The brahmana was varnas by the mere fact (1) so. ^g. 93 ) the brahmana is by right the master of this whole world on account of his birth from the best limb (i.

17 ) say that a brahmana only honoured as a father by a ksatriya 100 years old. The brahmana was 39-41. 4. 312. XI. 2. where it is said (3) ' Gautama sl2 309. 1 H ^ TFSTT *rM$ ^U35r fft TOTrq. that kingdom is full of heroes somewhat similar to the teaching of Plato who held that philosophers that had undergone a special training were to rule and were to be politicians. III ] Brahmana.23). II. Dh. S. on Yaj. ( V. 2 ( declares that where the might of ksatriyas the control ( or direction ) of brahmanas that kingdom Br. 2. 4 explains that these words were only laudatory of the greatness of brahmanas and were not to be taken literally and that the king could punish brahmanas in appropriate cases. except brahmanas'XI. II. castes.135) and Visnu Dh. X. 5. 16. ( aristocracy out the best.4. 4. 310. Manu (11. 4. Br. *r g. . 37. 311. 4. on account of his submitting discipline ( or holding up Vedic lore) and ou account of the eminence of the sacraments ( samskaras ) in his case '. 14. 2. 4. 1 ? i SKTTO IX. cT^r *?ftn*fens. 35 ) says that the brahmaiia is superior among all of his casfce mouth of the Creator This sense of superiority was carried so far that Apa(1. The Ait. . VII. ft?n i SIN. 4. 313 Br. 23. msrow^ nft. 37. 1 and qrraqRfQtTT IX. i i in.Oh. 3 *T3n fnntf & . 40 ) and the Sat. 3. 3 and IX. This idea is prosperous. that indeed the supervisor over the people. (2) S.. stamba 309 classes. 37. These words of Gautama are a mere echo of certain passages like those in the Vaj. ) was the ideal system. wwft % *T5fT*Tlwnp3T WT. that the government of the best The problem is how to find by leaving the decision of knotty points to the learned brahmanas and the execution of the decisions arrived at by them to the king and the ksatriyas. I. 5 ) is under becomes 3U &c. ITT. all 139 ( on account of his superiority of origin ( from the himself to ). ten years old was to be ( 32. to indicate to to expound the duties of all other them proper conduct and their means of livelihood and they were to abide by his directions and the king was to rule in accordance with such directions ( Vas. 16. S.14. 313. Ancient India solved it The king was the ruler of all. Bhismaparva ( 121. the guru of ). I. .l. 3. The Mit. Manu is words of the Kathakasamhita 310 the brahmana ( This is supported by the IX. T%T on HfrftsWtf *T3T<TrTt TON $ra<W V. 16 ) and the Tai. ( IX. 16 ). II. ).

Manu IX. 10. V. II. 10. he should not be abandoned'- Gaut. II. theft of gold) the punishment of branding on the forehead with redhot iron and banishment from the country. I. he should not be driven out ( of the village or country). the king of us brahmanas to prepare '. In the Mahabharata. 43 says that there is no corporal punishment for a brahmana ( even when he being a thief comes to the king confessing his guilt and asking the king to beat him with a heavy club on the head ). Haradatta adds that even a learned brahmana is treated in this way only if he commits an offence without pre-medi- but only through ignorance or oversight. ) a<?f? w tr* ^ wi^THi'Ti^^c qggtft w?t. S. n T*RTT 8. ( chap. 18-19 5 i the verse in the q^j*fii5gff ( IX ) Rift ST wif *rg**r*i^ VIII. ^. Baud. he should not be mulcted (4) ' in fines of money. but many only indicates that Soma sacrifices had been mostly neglected by all except brahmanas. The idea was that to the they held all wealth for Soma and owed all allegiance to Soma. but only to deeply learned brahmanas described in the preceding sutras (Gaut. Vide Manu XL 99-100 also. Br. 18-19 ) first lays down that a brahmana is to undergo no beating for any offence but allows for a brahmana guilty of the mortal sins ( of brahm ana-murder. viz. 4 explains that these words are not applicable to every brahmana. Vide brahmanas had soma and offer it in sacrifices gods Ait. . 4-11 ). 4-11 ) I *?t vr. 163-164).e. Visnu Dh. T pointedly refera to *3 . 4-7 prescribe the t at ion 314. Ill Soiua i. he should not be censured.140 ' History of Dharmaiaslra is [ Oh.ft5f(er wft (ififR on *n. incest. 237 (= Matsyapurana 227. he should not have fetters put on him.. As to corporal punishment for brahmana offenders. however f kings are described as Somapaa. Further it was probably not a privilege at all. ( I. while other people owed allegiance only to the king. The brahmanas alone were to eat the sacrificial food and drink Soma ( and ksatriyas were to drink only a substitute for Soma ). 8. The king should exonerate ( the brahmana ) in the ( a brahmana ) should not be beaten ( whipped ). Gaut XII. six matters. on Yaj. * The Mit. the matter stands thus. 4 . VIII. 35 khanda 4 ). 12-13 12. S. 280. Dh. drinking liquor. 81 12-13. VIII. So the practice of not allowing the ksatriyas to drink sorna was not universally accepted.

he is liable to banishment from the town. The Mit. of theft. quoted by f^rera o ^rr. Even on this the Mit. arrgroTFT s^t '^ srrfrfr *n^ ^'II. 302 quotes guilty of rape or adultery. sr^roit Wit TTT. > f ft ia S II STiar Hgwm^ I ftrm on ^n 302 . 237) and also banishment and labour on mines. ( quoted by Visvarupa Katyayana 281 ) latter prescribes death sentence even for a brahmana when the is guilty of the destruction of a foetus. while Manu VIII. Manu ( VIII. on a verse of Manu ( not found in the extant Manusmrti ) that in the case of the brahmana corporal punishment takes the form of complete shaving of the head. he may be fined for repeating an offence ). makes an exception.Ch. 8 318. 123 ) prescribes fine and banishment for a perjured brahmana witness. ( on Yaj. verse 10 ) and Sankha 315 prescribe branding and banishment as punishment for brahmanas ( particularly in fche case of theft ). Yaj. 379-380 ) prescribes shaving of the head for brahmana offenders where others would have had to suffer the extreme penalty of death and adds that a brahmana was not to be sentenced to death whatever offence he might have committed and that he is to be banished from the country taking with him all his possessions. II. Kaut also s IV ( IV. The brahmana was never above being fined. u ^r^r. the latter half ^[^r (^^ 10). 281. Ill ] Brahmayd and tofrparal punishment 141 rarious figures that were to be branded on the forehead of a brahmana in the case of various offences. II. he may be branded on the forehead and he may be made to ride through the town on the back of an ass ( looked upon at all times as the highest form of indignity ). . IV. 316. the first half being 317. on 270. the king &c. Narada ( sahasa. e. 378 prescribes heavy fines for a brahmana 316 Yaj. he allows a brahmana to be drowned in water if he is guilty of high treason. viz. II. Manu ( VIII. of 315. But Kau^. II. quoted by the faff. 8 ) all offences but prescribes forbids corporal punishment for brahmftnas in branding on the forehead in the same way as Manu (IX. II. ( II. or of forcible entry in the king's harem or of inciting the enemies of 318 on Yaj. 270 ). 81 ) observes that it applies only when it is the brahmana's first offence ( i.

pp. even a Sessions Judge who was himself an European British * 319. to be ordained. extended to persons not ordained exorcists ( viz. 424-440 and Holdsworth's History of English Law 4th Ed. though rarely he be sentenced to death also. . Vide Pollock and Maitland's History of English Law 1895 ) vol. the clergy ) and finally to all who could read or pretended to read a few words from the Bible. I. he had Yet clergymen claimed that an ordained clerk. and relegated him to a monastery. rate as * compared 319 wifch the ' of benefit of clergy was absurd lengths to which the doctrine carried in England and other western The clergyman in England was not by birfeh. to all of whom merely assisted doorkeepers. pp. I. 426. to fines and banishment. under Sec. a monk or nun charged with serious offences called felonies could be tried only by an ecclesiastical court and this was conceded by the ordinary courts this privilege was gradually countries.142 striking a History of Dharma&astra [ Ch. readers . Ill innocent brahmana woman wifch a weapon and of woman. European British subjects British India and Europeans and Americans in general could claim in some startling privileges when charged wifch criminal offences which even the brahmanas of over two thousand years ago did not claim. Pollock and Maitland admit that the procedure in the ecclesiastical courts was little better than a vol. Even in the first quarter of the 0fch century. Ill p. Holdsworkh. 296 ). Holdsworih vol. The farce ( P and M ecclesiastic courts never pronounced a judgment of blood. . The Mit. p. pp. III. 443 of the Criminal Procedure Code of India ( as it existed before 1923 ) they could not be tried by any Indian Magistrate ( however senior and experienced ) and that in serious cases like murder. The foregoing disoussion shows that the only special privilege claimed for the brahmana in the law courts of the land was freedom from death sentence or other corporal was liable to punishment like whipping. III. 615-616. vol. or kept him in prison for life or a shorter period and very rarely whipping and branding were ordered. the bishop only deprived the offending clerk of orders. on Yaj. 294-302 for the history of ( the doctrine. He was subject to the indignities of branding and being paraded on the back of an These claims were very modeass. I. 257 thinks killing it an possible that kings sentenced brahmanas to death iu spite of the prohibition of corporal punishment and we h-we a olassidal illustration in the death sentence passed on the brahmana Carudatta by king Palaka in the Mrcchakatika (IX). For example. ) vol.

25 p. 321. Dh. ( I. S. Manu VII. 5. ^nr *T3r<JTf^ i ffcwnfayr m. England. the latter was to prescribe prayaspenances for atonement) for brahmana offenders. 10 26. 322. Ap. Vas. Dh. 133 say this. 2nd Ed. 10. S. 46 ). passages of the Sat.Oh. . Dh. . g. The brahrainas had to submit to trial in the ordinary courts and the smrfcis do not tical generally provide for trial of brahmanas in special ecclesiascourts of their own class. 42-43 ) says 44 a king ruling over his subjects according to the rules of the sastra should take the sixth part of all wealth except from brahmanas". he should be taken to the king who should hand him : cittas own purohita . the Visnu Dh. privileges in courts 143 subject could not sentence an European British subject to more than one year's imprisonment ( Section 449 ). The only approach to this western doctrine of benefit of clergy is to be found in the 2?1 whore it is said that the teacher and others who Ap. 42-43 26-27. Br. 2. 19. S. 26 says a king should 4 320. ^- ^ II. suggest that even in those times 221 S22 II. *n%sr I. vol. Any European or American could claim to be tried by a mixed jury of which not less tban one half had to be Europeans or Americans. XIII. S.. 10. If the latter did not carry out the penances then he was to break them by disciplines according to their ability except that he over to his ( ( the purohita ) was not to prescribe corporal slavery for brahmaria offenders. 10 14-18. 3TcffT: sftf*nr: I srro. 10. Dh. have authority over a brahraana guilty of transgressions should if he does not abide by their prescribe prayoscittas for him orders. Some claimed this exemption for all brahmanas e. srore 6. 26. Ill ] The brahmana and. 23. . III. CRT '^ ^ 18 r-sf frFfM qtkt *\*n3 ifnnx i TTSTT II. brahmanas were not taxed. Vas. while an Indian offender could not claim the privilege in his own country that not less than one half of the jury that tried him In England even now a peer indicted for treason or felony must be tried by bis peers and not by the tribunals that try ordinary men ( vide Halsbury's Laws of must be Indians. punishment and Most smrtis lay down that a srotriya ( a brahmana (5) Certain learned in the Veda ) was to* be free from taxes. S.

. before they attain majority ). III. compare the passage from tho 6atapatha quoted above in note 313. king's life. 136 says ' by the religious merit which the srotriya ' accumulates every day when protected by the king. Dh. ). e. the brahmana is not a source of should not be taxed by the king ) since Soma is his king and it is further declared that bliss awaits after death The Visnu Dh. 13 $T($<rdtt' 3*6. those who are for- bidden to possess wealth ( i. ) Ap. e. wealth and kingdom increase. S. the Vide Manu 8. ascetics etc. helpless 323. srotriyas. 324. ) exempts from taxation the king's servants. m ( which no fines and taxes The reason assigned was the belief that the king the religious merit accumulated by the brahmanas. 26. shared in Vas. 1 ( ) requires the officiate king at solemn to make gifts of brahmadeya lands to rtviks who sacrifices). ' I ^flrs I. The Vas. 325. but also '. the blind. 27 pays render him unto tax of the they religious merit '. 1 ' Manu VII. that will yield substantial produce and on will be levied. S. 10. those engaged in austerities and devoted to right practices. 23. the dumb -and the diseased. all boys before they show signs of manhood ( i. 11-17 exempts from taxation women of the four varnas. It is further to be noted that not only all many other persons were free from taxation. SM ( 19. This sentiment is expressed even by a great poet 85 like Kalidasa* 'forest-dwellers give a sixth part of their tapas ( merit due to austerities ) to the king and that is an inexhaustible treasure srotriyas. (i. Dh. 44-46 . 305. 44-46 ) from taxation is ( freedom explains ' secures the sixth part of the ) because he ( the king ) istapurta ( the merit due to sacrifices and performing charitable works of public utility) and it is declared ( in a BrShmana text ) tbat the brahmana enriches the Veda. Ill not recover taxes from brShraanas Kaut. I II. teachers. e. purohitas. T: ^gfrlBH qufuft sgmuii $rflr flc-hrt*!. a sudra who washes the feet ( of men of the three higher classes ).144 History of DJmrmaiastra '. [ Oh. lw ( IT. S. ( II. I <?>IIG ?<4 II. (the king who does not tax brahmanas). he relieves ( others ) from there calamities and therefore subsistence . I. those who stay with their teachers for learning ( even though they may be grown up).

they paid no taxes to the State.Oh. HI. H. According to the practice of the the clergy owed no allegiance to the secular power they were not under the laws of the land. Ill ] Taxes and brahmaws 145 persons. ) refers to tares levied even on upanayana. An inscription of Vikramaditya V. found near Gadag dated sake 934 ( 1012 A. The brahmanas who ministered to the religious wants of the people and who were to conserve the religious literature and spiritual inheritance of the country and to teach without the liberty to make a contract for fees were never entitled to raise taxes from the people for their benefit. ' A not srotriyas and who do not kindle the sacred fires render taxes and forced labour ( verse 5 ). the claim was not very excessive. vol. Those brahmanas who have mastered all the lores and who treat all equally well are called brahmasama. 394 contains a similar provision. It would take too long to 327. All benefices were put under the Roman Catholic Church . D. The Santiparva ( 76. 9. I. senile men ( above 70 ). young men. 2-10 ) contains anlnteresting disquisition on the taxation of brahmanas. A king whose treasury is empty should levy taxes from all brahmanas except 828 Even those that are described as brahmasama and devasama. Ill. m a brahmana Jiv. 64 and 70 ). 19 . Those brahmanas who have studied the Rgveda. 5. if these rules were honoured. Brhat-Para&ara (chap. Then certain brahmanas are described as ksatrasama and vaisyasama. ascetics. 113 ) says had to pay nothing to anybody '. Note 275 shows that a brahmana engaging in agriculture had to pay Jth of the produce just as others did. It engaged in agriculture is extremely doubtful whether in actual practice kings respected all these rules. * for Holy See and the Roman chancery compiled a tariff of prices which each might be bought '. marriages and vedic sacrifices ( E. part II p. and women who are recently delivered. 2-3. D. Yajurveda and Samaveda and who stick to the peculiar duties of their class are styled devasama religious king should make those who are ( verses 2 and 3 ). XX. minors. Manu VIII. u *% \\ 76. pp. g3<f<r$lT 328.

84-87. 39-40. 3. Such property was to be less is that it The general distributed among srotriyas or brahmanas. to a snataka. 133. i I t i i \ . but there was an exception in the case of an heirless brahmana. (7) S. VI. 8 Brf&j^lJfhrT3?nST^^HIdh^M^r: q'sft ^T^ ^T^TT 3 sftnfaPT *rhra VI. rule about the property of one dying heirescheats to the king.to the king. the latter half of Vana- 5.. II. 231 IX. 25-26. . S. 17. 188-189. 889 Annates. gfa^rrfr ^T sftBnri^ ^ TT^TTTI^ ST^f quoted in f%. (III. 13-14). Procurations. 84-87.146 History of Dharma&astra [ Ch. 118-122. II. \ ST^S^ ). to a woman. If a king . 21-22.S. Vide 1 1 quoted by the ft?n. 56-64). is almost the same as 57 (which reads IT$ TT^f parva 133.17. but a king was to give precedence to a 6rotriya-Gaut. ^. 5. to one suffering from a disease. Dh. he was to distribute half of it among brahmanas and was to keep for himself the other half. 13-14. 2 1-2 2. 28. I. 117. ^!^(^\^^\*i^\^^~ 5-9 . p. ^ . S. TrSrf^srR mem 28. 222 a burden should be Ap. II. I I T f| 330. himself found buried treasure. Vide Dean Inge in c Christian Ethics ' chap. (8) Manu The rule of the road If as against the king. 5. I 7. Baud. 11. Narada ( asvainivikraya verses 7-8 ). 3*Tf%TT WTgnJTFTFTTrq-^r R^f VT^. 43-45 ). Visnu Dh.cp*ir: ^T^W VTTTTTH331. 598. Yaj. Vas. tion. In the matter of treasure trove the brahmana was more (6) favourably treated than members of other classes. Vide Gautama 820 Dh. adds that one carrying given precedence and all who desire their own welfare should 329. S. S. This 11. IV pp. I 3Tfj$mr?r 104. Vas Dh. Sankha. Manu (VIII. to a very old man. Ill enumerate the other exactions of the same kind the Tithes. 39-40 T f^? f^ftc^lgtSgl-H fi<?*r^l% *lg|U|*^ TT^fl ifej *4gU4 g fi^r ^R*3C I I . on ^T. 332. Vide Gautama' (X. Dh. 1 is the same as lp. 160-161 for the enoimous greed of the Romish Church. Visnu Dh.5-6.?n5T: <p*n m3rfcwfr?*r ^TH^T g wrsror^. was in favour of brahmanas even on a road there was a crowd or obstruc- precedence was to be given to the cartman. Subsidies and Dispensations. (III. 34-35. except a sixth part which was givon to the finder if he honestly informed the king about the finding of the treasure. If a treasure was found by a learned brahmana he was entitled to keep the whole of it in other cases the treasure belonged to the king. 37-38). I.

. on Yaj I. 22. *rs^ are quoted by Qaut. The Tai. guilty. 328 ) thereby the gods redeem all sin. 117) mentions the view of some that the king has precedence over the brahmana. It will be conceded by every one that the above rules ( except the one about the precedence of brahmanas over even the king are quite reasonable and are informed by a The rule about learned spirit of humanity and chivalry. 1. * how much more B.. ' and yea. tf. 138-139 has the same list and prefers the snataka to the Sankha ( quoted in the king Yaj. ( Anu^asana 104. The Visnu Dh. pattta. even the slaying of a brahmana they thereby redeem ' whosoever kills a human brahmana here he forsooth is deemed read * ( S. E. S. ( V. strikes him ( Soma ). 3. and Vas. vol. V. 3. 117 has the same rules. \\ $. S. 25-26 ) cows. XIII. the intoxicated and lunatics and a person of a lower varna should give precedence to one of a higher varna. 5. E.. 10. 1. The Mahabharata ( Vanaparva 133.58-60) enumerates the same persons. but disapproves of it. The words *rf . 1 we m B. for Soma is The Ohandogya Up. V. Vide Brahmapurana 113. brahmanas probably owes its origin to the emphasis laid on the . The person of the brahmana was regarded as very (9) sacred from ancient times and so brahmahatya ( killing a brahmana ) was looked upon as the greatest sin.Oh. The Tai. S. Mit. Vas. 9. Br. In the Sat. 12. 1 narrates how Indra incurred the sin of brahmahatya by killing Vi^varupa and how all beings ran ' him down as brahmahan '. but of the and the superiority of which was not the brahmanas ) knowledge over mere brute force or ( military achievements. god ( S. I. gets rid of) all sins. ) importance of the diffusion of learning direct concern of the state in those days. but says that the snataka ( one who has just returned from his stay with his guru ) has precedence over the king and that the bride has precedence over all when being taken in a procession ( to the house of the bridegroom ). Manu II. Ill ] Brahmana and precedence on a road 147 give precedence to fools. e. vol. 1-2 ) says that he who performs the horse-sacrifice ( V. (13. 91 ) prescibes a fine of 25 karsapanas for him who does not give precedence on the road to one who deserves it. S. Dh. goes beyond (i. . 44 p. 9 quotes 333. 12. 3. 26 p. 39-41) has a long list which includes a prostitute and one who is an enemy. 39 fora list. so 243 who ).. a pregnant woman and a weak man. 6. The Markancleyapurana ( 34.. 1 ) adds the blind and the deaf. 19. 1-2. even the sin of brahmanamurder. II.

349-350) says 'one may surely without hesitation a man who comes down upon one as an 236 atatayin ( a desperate character or violent man ). (I. of the Veda ). 189-190 =Matsyapurana 227. on ' YSj II. Gaut. Sin. a child or an old man or a learned brahmana. VIII. Manu VIII. In killing an atatayin. S. expounder (of the one's other teachers ( IV. means brahmahs. (in such a case ) kill But Manu himself intentionally killing a brahmana. atatayin in Vaj. . ready to kill or fight). ( III. fata*yin VyavahSra pp. 9 uses the word in the sense of 'garbha (foetus). III. Yaj. 15-18 ) expressly says by killing an atatayin they say the killer incurs no sin * whatever and quotes three verses an incendiary. whether he kills him in the presence of people or alone . ( ( ' III. Vas. 21. ' question that very much exercised the minds of all smrtikaras and writers of digests 8 * 5 was whether a brahmana who was himself guilty of violence or serious offences could be killed in self-defence A by one attacked. with a weapon. 350-351= Visnu Dh. 35. Both Baud 42 quote a verse where bhrQnaha 23 gives * 8. When 334. (21. Gaufc. Vide note 290 above. 12. 227 enumerate five mahapatakas of which brahmana-murder is one. 4. there is of ( Manu XL that no expiation ( prayascitta 89 lays down that will wipe off the sin 115-117 = Vrddha-Harifea IX. while Vas. e. C. 5. Vas. (I. cows and all ) persons engaged in austerities. * ' is It. rule prohibiting himsa ( Veda). 20. Ill a verse declaring brShmana murder as one of the five mortal sins (mahapatakas). S. S. whether he be a teacher. S. 222 and the Mit. Dh. equal to brahraaha '. ). 1042-44. 16. S. 381 declares that there is no worse sin in the world than brahraana-murder. I. The word 'bhrffna' has several meanings. 1. 21. 1) places the murderer of a brahmana at the head of his list of patitas ( persons guilty of mortal sins ) 4 Manu XL 54. ' while in Gaut. Baud. The dicta of the smrtis are somewhat conflicting. 17. Dh. 162 lays down a general death or injury ) of one's teacher ( of Manu meaning ). or elders brahmanas. V. ( I 20 ) uses the word bhruriahatya** Visnu Dh. Vide VtevarUpa on Ysj. 9 bbnlnaha Dh. Dh. a poisoner. one who wrests a field or armed one * carries away one's wife these six are called atatayin. 18 and Ksj-haka-aamhita 17. Dh. Gr. wrath meets wrath 4 '. a robber. . 313-15. S. 335. S. 1 ) says that bhnlna is a to sutra mdpravacana (bhsgya ? ) brahmana learned in the Veda who has performed soma sacrifices. two meanings to it. one who goes with literally means his bow Siva is called fitrung(i. 8) says that bbruna is one who knows the whole Vedic lore of his s*skhs up Vaik. the killer incurs no sin ( or fault ). 94 and Vas. AparSrka pp.148 History of tiharmatastra [ Oh. 336. one's parents.

. If a person kills one who has studied the Veda and who is born of a good family. even though he be an atatayin. be killed sin is incurred. Santi ( 22. one to give a curse. 339. Brhaspati also says that he who would is not kill a brahmana atatayin 14 and the 337. kill him even though he be a complete master become a brahmanamurderer.. 55. Sumantu as quoted by the Mit. 17 and 19 ) we have similar verses If a brahmana approaches wielding a weapon in a battle and desirous of killing a person. I.' I87 In the Santiparva ( 34. C. VII. 315 ) 34itituPH4i<sbi ( nj. kill him even if the former ba a complete master of the brahmana atatayin who has swerved from right conduct. one who rites is who has raised his hand about to set fire or administer poison. 841 offender is of a lower caste than that of brahmana'. 19.Ch... who sets about to kill mentioned in the Atharvaveda ( e. he does not thereby . it is a settled rule that he does not incur the sin of brahm ana-murder. 117-119) is practically same effect. of may . 1-2. 340. SIS3J sisratT ?TTF&34. if a man kills in a battle a brahmana who fights like a ksatriya. Udyogaparva ( 178. g. one who violates or assaults by the magic 1.. srqrcra 5 l*flft quoted in ^fiNfo 315 ) . S. he does not thereby become a brahm ana-murderer as in that case fury meets fury. 51-52 ) says that. suktas as 19. one who is a backbiter and informs the king. S. another's wife. II. 10. ^5: 341. 21) and by Apararka ( p.. such III. one who has a weapon ready If a person kills a * to strike. because the latter is an atatayin. Katyayana ( quoted in and other digests ) declares that one should not kill a brahmana who is eminent by reason of his tapas. fury*.. r sTfrfcufiHfr ^nfa^m ftsrrr*rrac \ 3^3 in i fare. on TTT.' to the The Matsyapurana (227. 5-6 ) is to the same effect. 21. 338. This last vorse latter half of it is tho same aa Santiparva also quoted in Baud. Dh. 17. 1043 ) "says there is no sin in killing an atatayin except a cow or a brahmana SS9 This implies that a brahmana even if an atatayin should not be killed. ( V. 191-192 ) speaks of seven persons as afeatayin viz.. but if he 3* the Sm. p. Vedic study and birth. (on Yaj. 15. III ] Killing a brahma^a ( 149 kill an Statayin comes one to attack ) with the desire to does not (or harm). II. Bhrgu allows killing when the * *. The Visnu Dh. II. the latter Vedanta by so doing one m ' may Veda. arraarftft ^fc$r& rTT^^r^nrspiTcT: 9n*m*r in *stiN o ( T^T* p. 108 ).

but it is the instigator who is so the analogy of the rule that the merit or fruit of a sacrifice belongs to him on whose behalf the rtviks perform it. 21 ) says that the real purport of Manu not to ordain that a brahmana must be killed he is an atatayin. brahmana and there is really a prohibition fco kill an atatayin verses like Manu VIII. without being employed by another or who brings about the brahmana by hiring another to perpetrate the murder for money. 222 ) remarks that he is Visvarupa ( on Yaj.murder. The final conclusion of the Mit. Commentators and writers of digests differ in their interpre342 III. ( game view on Manu JMedhatithi appears to have held VIII. then the killer incurs no punishment at the hand of the kim* and has to undergo a slight prayascitta i. HI. is that if a brahmana who is an atatayin is being opposed in self-defence without any desire to kill him and if he dies through mistake or inattention. when '. 350-351 if is ( II. the real meaning being that even a guru and a brahmana who are most highly honoured ( and who are not fit to be killed at all. He further adds that the man who kills a brahmana at the instigation of another for money is not guilty death of such a of the sin of brahm ana. 343 on Yaj. II. 1043. 350-351 ). guilty on The Mit. but those two verses are only an arthavada laudatory or recommendatory dicta). 227 p. : \ f*fcn on ^r. . 351 refer to an atatayin who the is not a brahmana. ^wHTKHSTTrft ^r TO wtFafar T tf^TO ?nhr ar^snwr *nr g ^r. Ill deserving to be killed for his violence would obtain the merit of an A&vamedha sacrifice. VIII.l&O History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. may have to be killed if atatayins ( then what of others ? ). impossible to save Apararka opinion *p<rvjMiT^f on *n. a brahmana except in who of brahmana-murder kills guilty battle or except when the latter is an atafcayin. e. or who kills a brahmana ( not an atatayin nor fighting ) on his own account tations. on III. 350 as meaning that a guru or a it is brahmana is of or others 344 coming as atatayins may be killed oneself even by fleeing from thern 342. i 344. 222. 21. Kulluka explains * Manu VIII. 343.

It will have been noticed how the sacredness of the brahrnana's person went on increasing in later ages. (22. an atatayin brahmana even when about to kill a person should not be killed by that person in the Kali age. on account of the Vyavahara-Mayukha but ) prescription contained in the section on kalivarjya ( actions ' forbidden in the Kali age ) viz. 1-2 ) contains these words He who threatens a brahmana should be fined a hundred. s?f 9jsr TT r ^ r *fau?fan<3C f^f^rw differ 5 *fa. 19-27 ) has a long disquisition on this subject but space forbids us from giving even a brief summary of it. tf . 6. The Tai. 242. n. 346. i . Ill ] Killing a brahmam 151 an atatayin brahmana cannot be prevented from his wicked intent except by killing him. ( II. Therefore one should not threaten a brahmana with assault. 248 S. nor strike him nor draw his blood*. 6.Ch. who only siezes one's fields or wife should not be killed that ( but lesser harm may be done to him with impunity ) and ksatriyas and others if atatayin may be killed outright. or the severest condemnation from very ancient times. 1-2. . The Vlramitrodaya ( pp. that an atatayin brahmana other than one bent upon killing another was not be killed in all ages. The Sm. the killing in a properly ' conducted fight of brahmanas that are atatayin ( is forbidden in Kali).C. 10. 20-22) has a 345. that such a brahmana was allowed to be killed in former ages. for qfriSwyzf texts vide Appendix. he who draws blood would not reach ( er find ) the abode of pitrs for as many years as the dust particles that may be made into a paste by the quantity of blood drawn. Qaut. he who strikes a brahmana should be fined a thousand. in a long note appears to hold that an atatayin that where brahmana rushing upon a man person attacked (there for it is to kill him may be killed by the no sin and no punishment nor penance that a brahmana atatayin ( who does not come to kill ). e. without actually killing him ) there would be the sin of brahmana-murder if he were actually killed. 10. there only the 6astras allow the killing of a brahmana but where it is possible to ward him off by a mere blow ( i. The 245 adds a rider that. UFT f^T fWfa^l **nrflTH^sr p. (10) striking Even threatening a brahmana with him or drawing blood from his body drew * assault.

4. Vide Gaut. 267-268 ( but Manu prescribes a to be fined. For certain offences a brahmana received lesser (11) punishment than members of other classes. if he reviled a vai&ya it was only 25. Manu VIII. fine of twelve for a brahmana reviling a 6udra ) which are the same as Narada ( vakparusya verses 15-16 ). I TTcHT 22. 348. 21. S. not be cited as a witness ' 347. a litigant who was not a brahmana by and the king would not summon him. 349. For example. Gaut 848 'if a ksatriya reviled a brahmana the fine was one says hundred ( karsapanas ). a vaisya 16 and a ksatriya 32. . i i ifWr 21. 100 or 128. if a 6udra thief was fined eight. 4. 12-14 I 350. viz. or 17 is considers the question whether the passage in the Tai. n *rrc^ ( ^rm^rsr 158 ). Narada's view was that a sirotriya could never be cited as a witness by any litigant ( even by a brahmana litigant ). and if a brahmana reviled a sudra he was not Vide Manu VIII. imw 21. (12) S5 ( XIII. in the case of theft.' . XIII. 2 also forbid citing a fcrotriya as a witness. Gaut. 337-338. Yaj. i T^f%f^. S.152 similar* 47 History of Dharmatastra [ Ch Ill dictum. kvatvartha or purusartha. those engaged in austerities. 12-14 and m Manu VIFI. a brahmana was fined 64. 6-10. leads to hell for a hundred years ) &c. that threatening a brShmana with assault ( in wrath prevents entry into heaven for a hundred years Jaimini III. ^i^u|t:7q!>H^u|q-qvnqiqM%'^ST 7!^f9%^[ *TT. Narada ( rnadana verse 158 ) lays down that 251 6rotriyas. II. if a vaisya did so it was 150 but if a brahmana reviled a ksatriya the fine was 50. Visnu Dh. VIII. 206-207. 4 ) a brahmana could According to Gaut. But in the case of certain crimes the brahmana was to receive heavier punishment. old men. For example. provided he ( the brahmana) was not an attesting witness on a document. . are not to be witnesses because the authoritative texts ' So so prescribe but there is no cause assigned for this rule. 65. impliedly shows that even a 6rotriya could be cited as a witness by a brahmana. those who have become ascetics. 20-22.

28. Later on ten days' mourning came to be prescribed for all castes. Several other lesser privileges are enumerated by Narada (praklrnaka. 352 (15) The periods brahmanas. 588 But it has to be noted that the Rajasuya sacrifice could performed only by ksatriyas and that according to Jaimini VI. 352. 10. P. 21-22 quoted Vasi^tha (13. 1-4 prescribes ten days of mourning for brahmanas. 339. *n. 17. of mourning were less in the case of Gaut. water and the are 255 and to converse being regarded as a theft with other men's wives without being restrained ( in such like without its and the right to cross rivers without ) by others and to be conveyed ( to the fare for the any ferry-boat paying other bank) before other people. S.Ch. 20 . Vide privilege No. 6. Ill ] Minor privileges of brahmanas 153 (13) Only certain brahmanas were to be invited for dinner in raddhas and in rites for gods. Dh. I. Dh. 15. S. sacrifices could be performed only by For example. S. the right to collect fuel. 58-60) mentions nine persons about this rule. 24-26 for the proposition that of *J5. 24-26 even brahmanas of Bhrgu. so also Jaimini ^R^n. 22. they shall have to pay no toll. When nine or seven persons ( of different meet. the SautramanI sacrifice and the sacrifices called sattras could be performed only by brahraanas. 124 and 128. 353. When engaged in trading and using a ferry boat. 9. 221. 354.Ap. 5 and 9. VI. U. *. III. Vide arnr. Yaj. Sunaka and Vasistha gotras could not perform a sattra. Further privileges assigned to brahmanas free access to the houses of other people for the purpose of begging alms . (14) Certain brahmanas. 1-4. verses 35-39) 'The king shall show his face in the salute rank to ) morning before brahmanas first of all and shall them all. 6. ^. Vas. ^T37 and <rf*re gotras were not entitled to perform ^s. 8 (rule about making way ) above. 22 contain similar provisions. 22. 83. Yaj. 6. *g VIII. 355. Gauabove p. Manu III. 217. A brahmana who is engaged in travelling. II. 6. 14. while ( VI. 3. they shall first make room for the brahmana 354 pass : by. Nsrada has probably these two sntra works in view here. 27-30. who is tired and has conversation . 13 tfaniufr ^TSTOTTTT^f^r^iT: 16-23 for ^=rs and VI. eleven for ksatriyas. I . Manu V. flowers.ft. IV. Visnu Dh. III. U6 ) names seven persons. Vide Gaut. twelve for vaisyas and a month for sudras. 219. I. 7. 166. 4. H?nfcr W*rt ^r% sa rcTT<> on *n.I.

There were some disabilities also in the case of brahmanas which have been indicated in the above discussion ( viz. the rajanya with Tristubh. need not cause in his presence by the brahmanas ( the ksatriyas a very small share in that task ). VfdeifK 9 (SHmWHt4*lRUa ). Mflui*iMH4H 33 of Jaimini VI. 3. ). therefore the sudra unfit for the is known to be of the samskara of the Veda follows after 257 one should perform Upanayana of only three classes upanayana for a brahraana in spring. 16. selling articles &c.154 History of Dharmatastra ( Ch. It may : be convenient to bring together the disabilities of the 6udra (1) He was the smrtikaras and writers of not allowed to study the Veda. 356. not to study the Veda. If the brahmanas desired to keep their sacred treasure for the twiceborn classes in these circumstances. 9. commits no wrong by taking two canes of sugar or two esculent roots. for a rajanya in summer Not only was the sudra and in sarad ( autumn ) for a vaisya. Dh. 148. 23 who quotes 357. *! 1. ' on note 75 above ). an%^ 64. and is relied i *v%*3 fm^ *Mfft/3 This is the basis on by Sabara. In the 20th century there are vast created and preserved entirely contributing if at all majorities istic who are not allowed by small minorities of imperial- capitalistic tendencies to control the just and equitable distribution of the material goods produced mostly by the and labour and co-operation of those majorities and doctrines are being openly professed that certain races alone should be imparted higher and scientific knowledge while other so-called inferior races of water. Ill nothing to eat. 858. quoted by rffeft 3mr I p. . but he did not create the sudra with any metre. *ren 1. I. 1. Vide Ap.6 . ^. I. 18-19. I should be only hewers of wood and drawers WKte IVS. 5 ^rn^p4 9>3[re?T wftrs 18. Many of 256 digests quote several Vedio ' A sruti text reads ( The Creator ) passages on this point. 11 swire '^ ***ft i -413 it .1. but Veda study was not to be carried * The study ( upanayana ) Upanayana and the Veda speaks of '. S. the vaisya with JagatI. it is understandable and for those ages even excusable. created the brahmana with Gayatrl ( metre ). as to avocations. 13. 858 This attitude ( vide Vedic literature was largely The sacred wonder.

I. 58. But this far-fetched ). 34 ) the word 6udra is explained not as referring to the class. then his ears should be filled with ( molten ) lead and lac if he . . The 862 Mahabharata ( Santi 328. sudras and brahmanas ( who are so only by birth ). Gaut. 2 - sn*^t"r IV. vide %*&%te*G IX - 21 * %qrwfa SHITTO* . and 95. fff^FRgf 3&W ft^riTr S^TT^f^Hf 9fC^f^ I . ^rinf^ ctyn^rereqiTii q i4mreq^r& f% 8. 22. but as meaning that sorrow ( iuc ) arose in Janasruti on hearing the contemptuous talk of the flamingoes about himself and he was overcome ( sudra is derived from sue and dru from dru ) by that ( i. 1-2. 361. 25 . 362. p. 4. he was not debarred from hearing the itih&sas ( like the Mahabharata ) and the Puranas. In the Chandogya Upanisad IV. 353. in the addresses Janasruti as sudra and ) vidya?** Vedantasutra 860 ( I. the sage ( Vyasa ) composed the story of the Bharata out of compassion for them. The Sudraka13-14 ) cites several passages from the puranas malakara ( pp. then his tongue may be cut off ' mastered the Veda his body should be hacked S61 .^*fa. 3. ^^i^r?^5n ^nfr 1. explanation had to be given because of the practice current in the times of the Vedanfcasutras that the 6udra is not entitled to study the Veda. 17 . The Bhagavatapurana 262 says that as the three Vedas cannot be learnt by women. that the four varnas should hear the m 359.Oh. * utters the Veda. 34 vide . cig s <i*: sic^r^rf ST^tr ^3" &* W mftrf?^ i i gqCT vol. 3. e.2. 49 vide also 4 62. sr ^^ff^arTT ?f^ vide f%ffTOJTOT IV. srr^^i(t ^rHp?^ wi^TJlinicT: 5TTfnT^ 328.3. 49 ) expressly says Mahabharata through a brahmana as reader. 87. 28 ar i 364. if he has Though the sudra could not study the Veda. . 4 went so far as to prescribe if the sudra intentionally listens for committing to memory the Veda. 13. 360. we have the story latter of Jana&ruti Pautrayana and Raikva where the It Samvarga ( absorption imparts to him the appears that Janasruti was a 6udra to whom the vidya embodied in the Chandogya ( which is also Veda ) was imparted. Ill ] tiudra not allowed to study Veda 455 this There are however faint traces that in ancient times prohibition of Veda study was not so absolute and universal as the smrtis make it. 158 where thia derivation is followed. It is no doubt true thai. 3 4 . I. XII.

p. 13 ) "all will expound brahma all will be Vajasanewhen the yuga comes to a close sudras will make use of yins attain to moksa. one ancient teacher 266 It is ( Badari however interesting to note that at least S67 was found who advocated that ) 365. 3. Vide note 73 above. about the samans to be sung. 26-38 ) and Sahara.. This is follow the procedure prescribed in the grhyasutra of the Vajasaneya Sakha and a brahmana should repeat the mantra for himThis i3 probably based on the Harivarhsa ( Bhavisyat-parva. 634 The ( P- 575 p.. the word ' bhoh ). fruifc of correct knowledge. 25-38 ) elaborately discusses this question and arrives at the conclusion that the sudra cannot consecrate the three sacred fires and so cannot perform Vedic rites. . These are the redic texts relied upon I. In certain digests a smrti quotation to the effect that sudras are Vajasa865 explained as meaning that the sudra should neyins.. - ? 1 sarfo'fr'T *r<h* ^r 5fr3RT%ft?r: ) i a^Hre^: w I ^g?r ( 3>n<fo u ). . 17) the Kalpataru and other works allowed the sudra to read and repeat Purana mantras. ' in address " ( sarve brahma vadisyanti sarve VajasaneyinalL The sudras were not to consecrate sacred fires and to (2) perform the solemn Vedic sacrifices. Samkaracarya on Vedantasutra ( I. about the food to be taken when observing vrata. quotes the words Tg^T *rn3rerwr^: as from 51 says T|3Nf^ft<T % ^r r I *rera WTST^TStfTTT^ifm ffic^ TT^f^: srtft $$*: ( I. the we find . 27. Ill to the effect that the sudra could not study the smrlis and purSnas by himself. while ^frtr. * ftft^i qr^tTO***^ ws $ . . 366.156 History of Dharma&astra I Oh. 49 and says that the sudra has no adhikara ( eligibility ) for brahmavidya based upon a study of the Veda. 16 seems to suggest that only the had the privilege to listen to the Manusmrti ( and not The only privilege conceded by the Sudrakamalakara to the sudra is that he can acquire knowledge by listening to the puranas read by a brahmana (p. III. Jaimini ( I. 3. 38 ) quotes Santi 328. chap. 3.. 3. by Jaimini 367.. Among the reasons given are that in several Vedic passages only the three higher classes are referred to in the case of the consecration of fires. Even Manu II. but that a sudra can attain spiritual development ( just as Vidura and Dharmavyadha mentioned in the Mahabharata did ) and that he may dvijatis sudras ).

sfr. 'Come hither* the case of a brahmana ( ehi ) in approach ( agahi ) and * hasten hither (adrava) in the case of a vaisiya and a member * run hither ( adhava ) in that of a of the military caste and udra. Ill 1 udras not authorized for Vedic sacrifices. 369. 12 ( S. 91 ) his mother's mother is a sudra woman. B. for a woman up to the hips. 435 ) with reference to sepulchral mounds it is said for the ksatriya he may make as high as a man with upsfcretched arms. 1934 ). (XIII 8.Ch. 4. but the commentary thereon states by way of purvapaksa that there are certain Vedic texts which lead to the inference that the Sudra had the adhikara for Vedic rites e. 5 ) prescribes thafc all can perform Vedic rites except those who are deficient in a limb. The <refa*rc*rr^ a^V^^ff ?$g*3ft iqg&fr 3^3 Tgjif^m ^ . 24 n. I. E. n ^HrsifffiNTcffat *nmft mfarsnft arf^CT ' 3?r% verse 46 ft^g' verae6 OTfi^ p. i i . p. who are not learned in the 369 Veda. com.2. to Yaj. 2. parks and distribution m and gifts of food as works of charity as eclipses and the Sun's passage from into another on such occasions one zodiacal sign tithis. for a The vai&ya up to the thighs. 1. ' ' . ^. *q- 3TfpCi^r*ftBm*5^r3^ 9re<n. B. five daily sacrifices called Mahayajrias i ^r^ *qfffer wpwrnfofr^ft ^ f^r ^wroc I i V. XII. Though rites. he was i.I. tanks. viz.8) states the opinion of some that the sudra can consecrate the three sacred Vedic fires. g. 12 and the last is sicTCTO XIII. 1. 8. Br. The Katyayanaeven Madras could perform Vedic 68 srautasutra ( I. i 8.4. voi for Sop.4. 4. The first verse is quoted from the T^PTI^T and the second from ." Similarly in the Sornayaga in place of the payovrata ( vow to drink milk only ) mastu ( whey ) is prescribed for sudra sudra could perform Somayaga) ( indicating thereby that the and in Sat. ( Journal of Vedic studies. the sudra was not authorized to perform Vedic entitled to perform what is called purta-dharma the building of wells. vol. p. e. 1. E. vol. first is 5KT**! I.5. S. rites 157 : The Bh5radv&ja Srauta sutra* (V. 11. for a brahmana reaching up to the mouth. Br. temples. ' ' 4 '. 3. who are impotent and Madras. in Sat. 3. 6 says that the word 6udra here stands for rathakara because ( ace. 28 ) it is said with reference to the Haviskrt call "Now there are four different forms of this call. 370. and on the 12th and other He was allowed to perform the 368. 44. I. for a sudra up to the knee commentary on the Katyayana Srauta I. Lahore. 11.

80 ( which is the same as Vas. Vide Samskaras. 20 says about eapindikarana be performed for fadras on the 12th day ( from deathj) without mantras j^iq^H 4rddha that it may nftwi T ' The Vinu Dh. 231 ) and other works say that he should ordinary firo and that there is no Vaivahika All persons including the 6udras and even candalas were authorized to repeat the ( Ramamantra of the 13 letters Sri Rama jaya Rama jaya jaya Rama ) and ( namah Sivaya ).158 in the ordinary of the devatas 1 History of Dharmaiastra fire. . 14 and Visnu Dh. 48-52) we see one should not give advice to a sudra. he has no adhikara for ( authority to perform ) dharma nor is he forbidden from performing dharma and in IV. . 9 . [ Oh. 34^l^TSFT *T*UhKI *P^: I <TT3v*r|i: *rH?ffr 3 3^*^ V. Sakti and Vinayaka.22-31) describes the initiation (dlksS) of a 6udra as a devotee of Visnu ( as a bhagavata ). ^ <n^r^'^cT 60. he was to think ' ' loudly the word namah which was to he the only mantra in his case ( i. S. Vamana and Bhavisya Puranas are cited to show that sudras are entitled to learn and repeat mantras of Visnu from the Paficaratra texts and of Siva. on 173 III. ^ ^ *rl 121 < x33"s wgfiNs 3?flcf &T ^ n n r^ it ?m%^ 37-38. 66-67 . the Mit. ( and Yaj. i ft Fh=ffaif i cT^r ^^T T^fo^Hlf HHthK: f4fat4 T I *u. 30-31. ffnr^ 37^ ^zfTQ^/pfrvi III. 66 I ) 5* 21. S. ' * 371. he is not fit for samskaras. 18. offer oblations in the the sudra. I. I. where passages of Varaha. one (3) As to * among the authorities. According to some the 6udra could also have what is called Vaivahika fire ( i. 33. 71. 10. Dh. 8. e. 97. ^ i ffi^iQ* *rr. The Varahapurana (128.S. 127 prescribes that all religious rites for the sudra are without (Vedic) mantras. he was not to say 871 *namah'X Agnaye svaha but to think of Agni and say and ' ufcter Manu X. but on Yaj. Ill he could perform Sraddha. X. 121 ). the Madanaparijata fire for ( p. 121 i ) remarks ft. nor give him leavings of food nor of sacrificial oblations. there is some apparent conflict Manu X. of five letters the Siva Siva mantra while dvijatia could repeat Om namah Sivaya). L IP on which ( gives the view of some that the numaskSra mantra ' is ^rr. fire kindled at the time of marriage ) in Manu III 67 Medhatithi ( on the same verse). e. 126 says The sudra incurs no sin ( by eating forbidden articles like onions and garlic ). the Sun.kamalakara pp. mantra of six letters ( Sudra.

. 15 ) contains the dictum that the 6udra is devoid of any samskara. On the other hand Sankha (as quoted by Vi^varupa on Yaj. Yama quoted in Sm. he indicates that the sudra could perform the ceremony of namakarana. Ill ] The BamskUras of iudras 159 should not impart religious instruction to him nor ask him to perform vratas '. 80 is that no samskara with Vedic case. jatakarma. annaprasana and oaula are allowed but without Vedic mantras. The Sudra- kamalakara andjapa. namakarana. The Mit. 47 for several views about the samskaras allowed to sudras. I. jatakarma. 80 ) states that he deserves Manu no. ( I. but if a sudra is a friend of the family of a brahmana friendly advice or instruction can be given. 262 explains the words of Manu IV. (4) Liability to higher punishment for certain offences. III. caula. karnavedha and vivaha ) can be performed in the case of sudras. annaprasana. Laghuvisnu ( 1. 51 ) quotes a grhyakara to the effect that even in the case of the sudra the rites of niseka. religious acts mahadanas and holds that sudras are entitled to perform praya&citfcas. 14 ) says the same. mantras was to be performed in his Medhatithi on Manu says that the prohibition to give advice and impart instruction in dharma applies only when these are done for making one's livelihood. slmantonnayana. niskramana. pumsavana. Apararka on the same verse ( Manu IV. Vide Sudrakamalakara p. pumsavana. on Yaj. 17 ) prescribes that ten samskaras ( viz. 80 about vratas in the case of m fcudras as applicable only to those sudras who are not in attendance upon members of the three higher castes and establishes that sudras can perform vratas ( but without homa and muttering of mantras ). nSmakarana. 80 ) explains that the sudra cannot perform vratas in person. 38 ) vratas. but without Vedic mantras. garbhadhana. Haradatta ( on Gautama X. slmantonnayana. p. but only through the medium of a br&hmana. 127 allows religious sudras to perform all which dvijatis perform. but without homa X. fasts. Veda-Vyasa (I. ( p. C. 32 ) that the sudra should be given a name connected with service. 13 ) opines that samskftras may be performed for sudras but without Vedic mantras. So when Manu ( IV.samskara. a 6udra committed adultery with a woman of the three If 372.Ch. When Manu prescribes ( II. provided they do not use Vedio mantras. what he means IV.

I. Manu VIII. to Gaut. In the case of theft. 10 ). 9 ) and Yaj. 267 ) and if a brahraana reviled ). ). he was fined five hundred ( ( Similarly in the case of Vakparu$ya a sudra reviled a brahmana he received corporal punishment or his tongue was cut off ( Manu VIII. 270 ). 3ir*5*mrnT$ ref^rc: **rwrn In parts of America the penalty for an attempt to commit a rape on a white woman is burning alive. XII. 366 prescribe death in the case of a sudra having intercourse with a brahmana woman whether she was willing or unwilling. he was property and if he was entrusted with the duty of proto suffer death in addition. 3 lay down that when the king does not himself look into the litigation of people owing to pressure of other business. but if a ksatriya or vaisya did so they were respectively fined 100 or 150 (Manu VIII. (5) birth the sudra A sudra could not be a judge or propound what (6) dharma was. if a brahmana committed rape on a brahmana woman he was fined a thousand and five hundred if he was guilty of adultery with her (Manu VIII. 385 slander and libel ) if a sudra. S. of moral Ideas ( 1912) vol. howVide above p. Vide above p. 11 ever. e. vaisya or sudra woman. 15 among the privileges of brahmanas ). In the matter of the period for impurity on death or was held to be impure for a month.160 higher castes. a murderer belonging to the " privileged classes was generally punished with deportation only. his History of DharmaiUstra [ Oh. p. citizens . Dh. 373. he should appoint a learned brahmana as a judge. On the other hand. who was not guarded. Vas. I. 1-2 ) prescribed the cutting off of penis and forefeiture of all his guilty of this offence tecting her. Manu ( VIII. KatySyana ( as quoted fiHT%^nro^: afom 12. while a brahmana had to observe ten days' period only. 153 (No. 268 ) or nothing ( aco. the sudra was fined much less. 378) and if a brShrriana had intercourse with a ksatriya. but only if the offender has a black As to Rome vide Westermarck's * The Origin and Development skin. the brahmana was fined only 12 ( Manu VIII. Ill m ( XII. Gaut. among the privileges of brahmanas). 152 ( No. Manu ( VIII. 433 "from the beginning of Empire i i ^ ' the were divided into privileged classes and commonaltyand whilst a commoner who was guilty of uterque ordo and pleba muider was punished with death. who does not perform the peculiar but never a sudra. 21. ! when Manu VIII. 1-2. 20 ) further says that a king may appoint as his judge even a brahmana who is so duties of by birth only ( brahmanas i.

Ap. ^. 3 ) 375. I. 1 ) requires a brahmana to avoid the food of vrsalas ( sudras ). Yaj. (8) A brahmana could take 875 food at the houses of mem- the duties prescribed for them by the sastras ( according to Gaut. 23 . milk. 166. Manu IV. ( 3 ) available as a judge the king A brahmana was not allowed to receive gifts from a (7) sudra except under great restrictions. jrt i pp. ' S76 that food which is brought by an impure S. Baud. but he should carefully avoid appointing a sudra as judge. Gradually rules about taking food fro-n sudras became stricter. m. 01 tilled his field or bers of the three classes who performed own ( was a hereditary friend of the family. on Yaj. I. *ft*n7 17. I. ! 5.D. if he cannot get food from anywhere else. S. ^. The Sankhasmrti ( 13. S. I. II. 16. 19.Ch. 211 forbade in general the food of a . 13 and ^ur^iQW . adds 374. n. 1 and I 6. 223 he laid down that a learned brahmana should not take cooked food from a sudra who did not perform sraddha and other daily rites ( mahayajfias ) but that he may take from such a sudra uncooked grain for one night. 2. 22 says sudra should not be eaten by a brahmana. Vide Gaut. * 3. Parasara IX. ). but should eat it on a river bank and not in the sudra's house and the Par. 2. or his barber or his dasa. 13 the food given by sudras are Panklidusaka.21 . XVII 6 and Manu IV. 376. m the Mit. 3JHT. Dh. 4. ( II. Vide above note 239. 3* <m rtt Q* 'ijtrg &* ^nf^n^ XI. *T. 5. ^^ SRIWTC ( quoted by i wmo on TTT. 16 ). oil. the cutting of hair. 57. M. H. sfltTO^T a ^uftqg3*reT7*ra: . 253 = Visnu Dh.' but Apastamba allows sudras to be cooks in brahmana households provided they were supervised by a member of the three higher classes and observed certain hygienic rules about paring nails. but he could not take food from a sudra except when the sudra was his own cowherd. molasses and food fried in oil or ghee. 411-12. Parasara ordains that a brahmana may take from a sudra ghee. 4 ) remarks that brahmanas fattened on 577 XI. i 377. 16.sudra to a brahmana and by IV. Dh. Ill in ] Disabilities of tudras 161 says that when a brahraana is not ) may appoint as judge a ksatriya or a vaisya who is proficient in dharmasastra.

down upon that he could not touch a brahmana. (II. Ill 411-12 ) that this permission is meant to apply only when the brahmana is tired by travelling and no food from a member of another class is available. S. only in the case of very extreme calaApararka also (p. a cock.162 ( II. I tlt^T f nx*ist(j ^ 3jamH 59. [ Ch. ^[tix^^uj^MTiTn I! wr3TmwRw 1. 3. So there could have been no ban against a sudra touching a brahmana then. 6.33 ) sudra from a distance like blazing firei while he may be waited upon by a ksatriya or vaisya after touching him. P. * .' ' Apararka ( p. On this Apar&rka explains that if a man who touched a 6udra cannot bathe then he may resort to sipping water. In the kalivarjya ( actions forbidden in the kali age ) the old practice of eating the food of cowherds. 6 remarks that a brahmana could take food from a 6udra who was a cowherd &c. barber &c. according to some teachers ). 244 on Yaj. a dog. but if able he must take a bath or that on touching a sat-6ndra one may have recourse to acamana and on touching an asat-sudra one must take a bath. 1196 ) quotes two smrti texts a brahmana on touching a sudra or nisada becomes pure by acaraana ( ceremonial sipping of water ) on touching persons lower than these. 12. 33. pranayama and the strength of tapas\ on seeing a ram. e. though at one time he could bo a cook in a brahmana household and a brahmana could eat food from his house. 12 ). he becomes pure by bathing. TO. I. one should stop the rite that is being performed and on touching them one should take a bath '. 1* History of DharmaiOstra pp. I. offered to find from the Grhyasutras that in Madhuparka a snataka the feet of the guest ( even if he was a brahmana ) were washed by a sudra male or female. ( in the case of a householder who has several dasas while Apaetamba quoted in ( I. m. g. 168) says the same. a crow. ^qwn. The Ap. ftrofeitanr 18-20 ' st^d mwftft srm . In the Anus&sanaparva S79 a brahmana should be served by a it is said ( 59. Dh. was formities. 9-10) says that two sjudras should We 380 wash the feet of a guest. 134-137 and the 379. 3BO. part 1 pp. a sudra and an antyavasayin ( an antyaja ). Haradatta on Qaut. bidden. 878 The sudra gradually came to be so much looked (9) . XVII.

14-16. S. In the Anusasanaparva ( 165. 3. 10 ) we four asramas a sudra and so I have no right to resort to the In the Santiparva383 ( 63. a chameleon. On killing a ksatriya. a vaisya and a ksatriya among upapatakas . span of life left or is reduced to the 10th stage above 90 years of age ).Ch. a frog. e. an ichneumon. (11) The life of a sudra was esteemed rather low. 26.' MedhaVI. for killing a vaisya. 25. 37)* ^TT^fjrft d <3i3tt*THi3Y^ si&tntnnrf i 165. 9-10. a cakravaka. Yaj III. 63. 12-14 ) it is said. a peacock. 97 explains these words as meaning that the sudra by serving brahmanas and procreating offspring as a house-holder acquires the merit of all asramas except moksa laid ( down on as obtained Manu which is the reward of the proper observance of the duties of the fourth asrama. 1 ) says that on killing a crow. Dh. a sudra. brahmaoarya for three years and gift of 100 cows and a bull for killing a sudra brahmacarya for one year.281 (10) As the sudra could not be initiated into Vedio study. 9. Yaj. gift of 10 cows and a bull. the fruits of all asramas are ( i. ' 381. the was brahmaoarya for six years. flamingo. 12-14. who has raised offspring. who has only a short. . 14-1. (Uftonm. but the III. draught ox the piayascitta is the same as that for killing a Manu ( XL 131 ) says on killing a cat. ( I. the only asrama out of the four that he was entftled to was that of the householder. ichneumon. m ' am tithi by him ) except of the fourth. 383. XXII. prayasoittas and gifts prescribed for killing these life of the show that the sudra was not worth much. Gaut. who has done his duty. Ap. in the case of a sudra who performs service (of the higher classes ). gift cows and a bull.97. a dog. Ill ] Disabilities of iudraa 163 himself says that one sudra should wash the guest's feet and another should sprinkle him with water. sudra. 10. 126-130. CT^T <n|lr II. is read I ' '. musk-rat.Vl. . Manu XI. bhSsa. a cow and prfiyasoitta prescribed of 1000 . 382. 6. 266-267 say practically the same thing. 9. 236 and Manu XL 66 include the killing of a woman.

He could follow almost any profession except. he had to undergo no penances for lapses from the rules of the sastras.164 osa. L. iguana. R. the few specially reserved for brahmanas and ksatriyas. He was compelled to undergo no saniskara (except marriage). Those western writers who turn up their nose at the position of the sudras in ancient and medieval India conveniently forget what atrocious crimes were perpetrated by their people in the institution of slavery and in their dealings with the Red Indians and other backward coloured races. Vide Emperor vs Narayan 25 Bom. the prSyasoitta is the 884 that for killing a sudra. a History of Dkarmafatra { Ch. he had certain compensating advantages. for entering which Indians were prosecuted and sentenced in their own country. 26 for such a case. he could indulge in any kind of food and drink wine. owl and crow. If the sudra laboured under certain grave disabilities. Ill eame as frog. in his Arthasastra ( IX. Even as to the latter many sudras became kings and Kaut. 2 ) speaks of armies of sudras ( vide note 266 above). . he had to observe no restrictions of gotra and pravara in marriage. 384. in hotels and other places of public resort and how even in India separate third class compartments were reserved on railways for Europeans. The sudra was free from the round of countless daily rites. a dog. Those who are familiar with the cases decided in India in which Indian servants or coolies were kicked by European employers and died as a result and in which the offenders were either acquitted or let off on a small fine (on the ground that the deceased had an enlarged spleen) need not feel surprised at the above statement of affairs in India over two thousand years ago. how nations of Europe out of false pride of race have passed in the 20th century laws prohibiting marriages between the so-called Aryans and non-Aryans and preventing the latter from htlding state offices is and carrying on several occupations and how discrimination made against coloured men on railways.

. But it should not be supposed that this is something confined only to India.. . In the early Vedic literature several of the names of castes have that are spoken of in the smrtis as antyajas occur. 370-371 for the treatment of Bushmen in Africi and Australia and of Negroes in America. Even nations that have no caste system at all have often carried out complete segregation of certain people dwelling in their midst. 5. the Vapa 01 the VidalakSra or Bidalakara ) even in the Rg. We and Paulkasa occur in the Vftj. exclusion of Negroes from public institutions and educational discrimination. S. S. and the ( VSsahpalpuII S. Africa 1 by Mahatma Gandhi 8. of the smrfcis ) occurs in the buruda the ( corresponding to washerwoman ) correspondTai.CHAPTER IV UNTOUCHABILITY Those who have written on the Indian caste system have always been struck by the fact of the existence of certain castes that are treated as untouchables.. occupations to which Negroes had been habituated under the slave regime. 1928). Br. But there is nc the to Rajaka ing the Cfindala ( VaptS barber Vide Westermarck's 'The Origin and Development of the I. 339 ' says that in the southern States of U. XI. against Negroes took the form of and places of in the of races conveyances public separation amusement. Vide 'Satyagraha in Soutl 385. Vaj. 38 ). p. which in in India. essentials is the same as the system of untouchability The Encyclopaedia of social sciences vol. A. S. moral ideas' vol. translated by Mr. ' It is also within living memory that Mahatma Gandhi had to lead a movement of satyagraha in South Africa against the discriminating treatment of Indians and even now in Natal and other parts of British Africa there is legislation restricting Indians in the matter of residence and Durchases of land. carmamna ( a tanner of hides ? ) in the Rgveda ( VIII. Disenfranchisement and social discrimination had their economic counterpart in all branches of industry except agriculture and domestic and personal 385 service. pp. discrimination residential segregation. Valji Govindji Desaj (published by Ganesan. in the of smrtis the V5j.

I. III. The utmost that can be said is that as the Paulkasa is assigned to blbhatsa ( in Vaj. IV indication in these passages whether these. 17 ) castes. but probably only that variety that subsists on the village offal. 30. the purpose of which is to teach i. 10.4. ' Here it is clear that not unclean. vairagya and disgust wifch the transmigratory world. Br. quickly acquire birth in a good condition. and C&ndala in such a to Vayu ( in the Purusamedha ). 270 and Yaj. the ram and the dog. This passage does not enjoin anything. 259 ). This occurs in Pancagnividya. i &r? qro: *grr i itat . three varnas were commended upon as the lowest in the social to be noticed that the Sudra varna does not occur first in this passage at all. V. All that can be legitimately inferred from this is that the and that candalas were looked It is scale. The only passage of Vedic literature on which reliance can be placed for some definite statement about candalas is in the Chandogya V. 4 that 'three beasts are unclean in relation to a sacrifice viz. or a boar or a candala. This passage may be compared with another in which the sudra is said to be a walking 386. 3 ?*re isntf^w. 1. * e. viz. with the dog and the boar in this passage. Therefore this Upanisad passage does not say anything on the point whether the every boar is Candala was in its day untouchable. while those whose actions were low ( reprehensible ) quickly acquire birth in a low condition as a dog. snft 387. The VedSntastltra 8-11 deals with this passage. the Paulkasa lived way wind ( i. even if they formed were at all untouchables. e. where while describing the fate of those souls that went to the world of the moon for enjoying the rewards of Up. 7. but this leads hardly anywhere. 4. It is no doubt stated in the Sat. the among m vicious (filthy) boar.166 History of Dkarmatnstra [ Ch. XII. ifc is a bare statement by way of explanation or elucidation. 7. On the other hand the flesh of boars was said to cause great delight to the Pitrs when offered in Eiraddha (vide Manu III. as to cause disgust and the CandSla lived in the probably in the open or in a cemetery ). though lowest The candala is equated the several Sudra subcastes. 10. 1. 1. a ksatriya or vaisiya. So probably even in the times of the Chandogya the candala was looked upon as a sudra. in the condition of a brahmana. S. 4- . 388 some of their actions it is stated ' those who did praiseworthy actions here.

(III. 'tasmftn na brShmano mlecchet). Next comes the consideration of the evidence derived from But certain preliminary observations must be made to clarify the position. Samkara explains that by end of the * are meant regions where people opposed to Vedio quarters culture dwell. In the Br. Vide Ait. When in modern times the so-called untouchables are referred the sutras and smrtis.3 the story is narrated that gods and asuras had a strife and the gods thought that they might rise superior to the asuras by the Udgltha. Besides candalas might stay outside the village. literature. . 33. This description can only apply to people like the mlecchas and not to candalas who are not opposed to Vedio knowledge (but who have no adhikara to learn it). death*. and he put down the sin ) sent it to the ends of these quarters . 24 389. IV ] tTntauchability 167 cemetery. there is no reason to suppose that the ChSndogya passage indicates that to the candala was untouchable in the remote ages. 890 fifth varna. 388. 4 and AnuSasanaparva 47. Br. 2. 390. In the first place there are no peoples expressly named here. I. the theory of untouohability for Vedic times. ^jf <Th5ilf*Hti ^t TTfttf 3 <WT: I ffg 10. but they do not stay at the end of the quarters 389 ( or at the end of the arya of these devatas there ' territory Hence this passage does not help in establishing ). cr^rat The Mlecchaa were known to the Sat. 1. TO** mftTKiih 9199mm 47. ' prajSbhak^ta quoted above in note 118 for the meaning of * antah . 161-162 ). Up. 6 Canton vah. therefore one should not go to people ( outside the Aryan pale ) nor to the ' ends ( of the quarters ) thinking otherwise I may fall in with papman i. e. The theory of the early smrfcis was that there were only four varnas and there was no Vide Manu X. In this vidya occurs the passage 388 * this devata ( Prana ) throwing aside the sin that was death to these devat&s ( vak etc. 18. If the 6udra if and was not untouchable in the Vedio he was allowed to be a cook for brahmanas and wash the feet of brShmana guests in spite of that passage ( as stated in the Dharmasutras quoted above pp.Oh. 4 . Br.18. Another passage is relied upon by orthodox writers to support the theory that untouchability of candalas is declared in Vedic writings.

168 to as the tion. 41. but not 'caTLdala-mrtapamt because caridalas and mrtapas are niravasita 6udras ( and so the compound will be candalamrtapfth). bes that those who or officiate as priests for them. no one should dine with them or teaclithem. Dutt in Origin and growth of caste in India ' rol. Pan. 235-239 prescriare guilty of brahmana-murder. 105.2S 393 expressly says that the vaidehika is called 6udra by learned dvijas. Fresh castes were then added to the list of untoucha- bles by custom and usage and no warrant the spirit of exclusiveness. For example. History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. suta. vaidehika. 393 ^n^tl^^Wj^^PtfmTj^TTtn *S *wr (ton *nra spitmmn ^if^ni 297. . Vide note 200 above for the quotation from the Mah5bh*$ya. '. though there is of the Sastras for such a procedure. Gradually however. amount to grave sins. he makes it clear that he regarded candalas as included among sudras. we can have the compound * taksayaskaram meaning carpenters and blacksmiths. In the first place. 41 declares that all pratiloma castes are similar to sudras in their dharma and because the Santiparva 297. chandalas and paulkasas as the * * fifth varna 392. P. Secondly. theft of brahmana'g gold or drinkers of spirituous liquors should be excommunicated. Apararka 391. Untouchability did not and does not arise by birth alone. (1931) speaks of Nhhadas. persons were treated as untouchables simply through religious hatred and abhorrence because they belonged to a different sect or religion. g. magadha and ayogava ( that are sfidras that are not niravasita * ' pratiloma castes) among antyavasayins along with candala and fcvapaca. N. for Manu X. persons become outcasted and untouchable by being guilty of certain acts that It arises in For example. a distinction was made between Sudras and castes like candalas. and Patafijali included candalas and When Angiras ( note 171 above ) mrtapas among Madras. includes ksatr. II that is something against the smrti tradi10 and Patanjali 898 say that a Samahara- dvandva compound can be formed from several subdivisions of e. various ways. But if they perform the proper pr&yacitta they are restored to caste and become touchable. 28. I. X. p. nor should marriage relationship be entered into with them and they should wander over the world excluded from all Vedic dharmas. Manu IX. Therefore it follows that Pan. iV pancamas^ 4.

118 . on *TT. a person if he touches even his wife in her monthly period or during the first ten days after delivery or if he touches a person during the period of mourning on the death of some relative or a person who has carried a corpse to the cemetery and has not yet bathed. 398 Fourthly. M p. 923. Further the smrtis say that persons following certain filthy. persons become 1 . TV ] UntouchaUlitij 169 923 ) and Sra. if they followed certain occupations. ( I. ( p. entering Bauddha or Saiva temples *<np %^5^ ^TC H^rffT quoted by fwerr on ^rr. g. low and dis- approved avocations were untouchable 394. 359. g. mlecchas. Samvarta8 *7 quoted i qre^NFH?ri3[ r i *H^K qrnpTcit^H' OTFTPIU^ H i$H th H. 6 has . 364 for bath on ton jhing fta and III. Fifthly. 30 quotes it as from w^nn^TOT ( reading fhn^for ift^rf^ and for ^TFT ). g. 923. Thirdly. if a person touches a brahmana who is devalaha ( i. i ^cft sramfiSq. 923 quotes a verse of Vrddha-Ysjnavalkya that on touching candalas. C. vide t^nficT IX. 923 ^rrFciqiJ 76. HI. III. has been doing worship to an image for money for three years ) or who is a priest for the whole village. pukkasas. 363. Jainaa. . Bhillas and Paraslkas and persons guilty of mahSpatakas one should bathe with the clothes on. . ^M^ W^ quoted by arm^ p. became so. Kapilas ( S&mkhyas ) and br&hmanas guilty of doing actions inconsistent with their oaste one should enter water with the clothes on and also on touching Saivas and atheists It is worthy of note that Apararka p. certain races such as mleochas and persons from certain countries and the countries themselves were regarded as impure ( vide notes 40. 1196. PSsupatas. 85 ). he then has to take a bath with his clothes on ( vide Manu V. p. m m i untouchable when in certain conditions e. 922.Oh. e. 49 ). I. or a person who sells a soma plant. certain persons. e. *guN. 118 ) quote verses from the Sattrirhanmata and Brahmandapurana that 'on touching Bauddhas. Lokayatikas. p. fftm on . 30 and awtF$ p. 396. e. ami!? p. TT: i 395. 42. l faiw^feh^ ^^r quoted by 3TT<r^ p. then he has to bathe with his clothes on. though not untouchable ordinarily. 30 an amr 397.

A such as his to own mother and their wife or daughter are untouchable periods. Such occupations were thought impure. S. and as great importance came to be attached to cleanliness and the ceremonial purity of the body for spiritual purposes . The underlying notions of untouchability are religious and ceremonial purity man's nearest and dearest women relatives and impurity. These restrictions were 1 . Visnu Dh. guardians of cemeteries &c. not inspired by any hardness of heart or any racial or caste % pride as is often said. and a washerman one must first bathe and then take one's meal It is to be remarked that such texts do not expressly make a man of those castes untouchable even if he does not pursue the occupation stated. ( II. As many professions and prafts were in ancient times hereditary. 16 says . 5 ) '. IV by Apararka p. the most days when the latter is in mourning due to death in the latter's family. and emphasis was laid upon not coming in contact with persons carrying on filthy or impure pursuits. 1196 says 'on touching a fisherman. And this practice is including candalas. 11. 15. A person cannot touch his own son (whose thread ceremony has been performed ) at the time of taking meals. but they were due to psychological or religious views and the requirements of hygiene. a butcher. dogs followed even now by those who perform Vaisvadeva. 5. 22. a hunter. requires every house-holder to give food after Vai&vadeva to all and crows. 23. Dh. as it was believed that if one was to secure the final goal of liberation. a deer-hunter. but also with animals and even inanimate objects. 4. Dh. even modern Hindu notions must be warned against being carried away by the horror naturally felt at first sight when certain classes are treated as untouchable. 9. one must cultivate purity of mind as well as body. Dh. * a person touched by a dog should take a bath I. workers in hide.Ap. S. 33. but they have rather the occupation in view. In this latter case there is no idea of impurity and in most of these cases there is no idea of superiority or inferiority. a bird-catcher. tanners. S. gradually the idea arope him during monthly To him affectionate friend is untouchable for several . The ancient Hindus had a horror of uncleanliness and they desired to segregate those who followed unclean professions like those of sweepers.170 History of Dharmatestra \ Ch. wifch his clothes S. This segregation cannot be said to have been quite unjus- Besides those who are not familiar with ancient or tifiable. on Vide also Vas. Vrddha-Harlta ( chap. Ap. 69. 99-102) enumerates certain vegetables and herbs ( such as leek ) and other articles on touching which one was to bathe.

But ancient and medieval writers thought otherwise and there was also great divergence of view as to who were untouchables and to what extent. 15 and 23) says that the candala is the offspring of a sudra from a brahmana woman and that he is the most reprehensible among the pratilomas. l. . 81 ) under candala. ?$? i ^fn^rt ^ ' i arrr. IV] UntoachcMUy 1?1 that a man who belonged to a caste pursuing certain filthy or abhorred avocations or crafts was by birth untouchable. *ror -qiugk'TiMwfo shrrqwr Hrrnri *iflum'*rwor 399. a butcher. he becomes pure by washing that particular limb and by sipping water ( i. Harlta * quoted by Apararka (p. e. a washerman. on talking to him one should converse with a brahmana ( for purification ). *r.. 2. II. Ap. The only caste that is said by the most ancient Dharmasutras to be untouchable by birth is that of candalas and the word c5ndala has a technical meaning in these works as stated above (p. Medieval and modern usage had no doubt reached the stage that if a man belonged by birth to a caste deemed by custom to be untouchable he remained an untouchable whatever profession or craft he may pursue or even if he pursued no profession. a dancer ( na^a ). a fisherman or a worker in bamboo becomes pure by merely acamana (by seven antyajas are included their touch is not so 398. 39 ) stay in a cemetery. a shoemaker. oilman. 2. 8-9 states that on touching a candala one should plunge into water. Here most of the and it is expressly said that impure as to require a bath. II. S. candala and 6vapaca stay outside the village and makes the antyavasayin ( X. a fisherman. 279 ) states if a dvijati's limb other 399 than the head is touched by a dyer. 279 .. a man of actor caste. a shoemaker. a dancer ( nata ). 8-9. Dh. frfta: W i ^ %$$ ^ ^rorar srmSrsra. the same verses are quoted as imfmtpi by .. 36. That leads to the inference that other men even of the lowest castes could stay in tho village itself. Angiras 17 ) states that a dvija when he comes in contact ( verse with a washerman. on seeing him one should look at the luminaries ( either the Sun or moon or stars ). a hunter. Manu ( X. ( IV. village cock or dog. We have seen above that there were three kinds of candalas and they were all so by virtue of the circumstances of their birth. ^. meda.Oh. ^SJTO^WT ro ^TO p.. vintner. hangman. 898 1. he need not bathe )'.. Gaufc. 51 ) makes only the andhra.

Hadi. 171. shoemaker and weaver. 1196. magadha. Therefore it follows that in spite of the smrti texts tilomas the pra( notes 170. Chandala and Bhadatau.) were firmly of opinion that they were not untouchable. As to the first group he says that they intermarried except the Alberuni seems to have been fuller. if the latter stand near a temple of Visnu and have come for the worship of Visnu. 400. one who has touched a corpse. other pratilomas ksatr ). 85 and Angiras 152 prescribe a bath for coming in bodily contact with a divaklrti (a candala ). a corpse. It follows therefore that the only antyaja who was Manu 408 asprsya according to Manu was the candala. quditf' 3ij3tiftaippr: &TP on *g X. patita ( one outcasted for sin &o.13 - 401. The effect Nityacarapaddhati that even on ( p. 130 ) quotes a coming in contact with candalas and pukkasas one need not bathe. . vaidehika and Kulluka also says the same. suta. 13 is not clear. 13. 85 on which fcqr* says I l^jl^Tmril^i 403. V. D. the first of which had eight guilds ( seven of which were practically the same as the seven in note 170 above. the eighth being the weaver ) and a second group of four viz. Medhatithi is positive that the only pratiloma who is untouchable is the candala and no bath is necessary on coming in contact with the chap. sutika ( a woman after delivery ). Alberuni in his work on India ( tr. . udakya* ( a woman in her monthly period ). IV water to the ). II *g V. 402. ). 173 ) including antyajas along with the candalas. J 33 ^ft^ quoted by awrA p. such authoritative and comparatively early commentators as Medhatithi (about among 900 A. Syogava. Doma.172 sipping verse 400 History tf Dhartltotastra I Ch. misinformed as to this and what caste he means by Bhadatau 401 in his commentary on Manu X. But gradually the spirit of exclusiveness and ideas of ritual purity were carried to extremes and more and more castes became untouchable. Some very orthodox writers of smrtis went so far as to hold that on 403 Among the touching even a smdra a dvijati had to bathe. ! IX ) refers to two classes of antyajas. rl II quoted by <Tff: flfqiHmq^O I P. ( viz. by Sachau vol.

he should not take his meals ( without first bathing ) and if he comes in contact. throw away the food and bathe '. Kulluka. ' Here no reference is made to the shadow of V. 130 that on account of the word Medhatithi on Manu * ca ' in that verse the shadow of candalas it was included in the injunction of that verse. mlecchan and Paraslkas are earliest. of one's guru. the sun's rays. the horse. But so far as mlecohas are concerned these restrictions of untouohability have been given up long ago at least in public. among the seven well-known antyajas. Parana 35.21 the shadow of prescribes that one should not knowingly cross the image of a deity. a woman in her monthly course. IV ] Untouchability 173 occurrences of the word asprsya ( as meaning untouchables in general ) is that in Visnu Dh. S. 22. Similarly the washerman. (Mark. Therefore is 404. are quoted 405. ' shadow means shadow of a candala and the like '. ( 267-269 ) says * 40 patita. S. 130 the almost is same). the earth. adds on Manu IV. of the king. with these while taking his meal. 76 about talking with mlecchas and cSndalas. of a brown cow or of a man who has been initiated for a 1 Vedic sacrifice. * placed on the same level as regards being asprsya. the nata. It will have been seen from the quotations above that cSndalas. of a snataka. V. Once the spirit of exclusiveness and exaggerated notions of ceremonial purity got the upper hand they were carried to extremes. that Manu and Vide legitimate to infer the shadow of even that did not prescribe Yaj.813. 104 . dust. 783 that syTO verses 267-269. a vessel containing intoxicating drink. S. 433. on *rr II. are no longer untouchable in several provinces (though not in all ) and were not so even in the times of Medhatithi and Kulluka. Yaj. the worker in bamboo. . spray from a reservoir. mleocha. Vide Visnu Dh. 52 ) declares ' flies. the cow. 133 expressly says that a candala. however. Manu V. he should stop. 99 and by amnfr P. It does not appear from the ancient smrtis that the shadow of even the candala was deemed to be polluting. of one's teacher.Oh. 193 is a similar verse Mann IV. the wind and ' fire should be regarded as pure. I. by me ) verses by the fan. the fisherman. 133 ( which is nearly the same as Visrm Dh. the shadow ( of a man ). Atri if a dvija comes in contact with a candala. nwrg*gggUl i<Ul K ( ed. 23. KatySyana also uses the word in that sense **.

this means that a candala cannot approach within 16 cubits of a caste Hindu. HiUe{|^^!icT^I4^JMQdlHI^TiT: a7HT^ -. are rendered pure by the mere blowing of the wind over them. 30 quotes a verse in his girl entered the royal Bana Kadambarl of Vyaghrapada that if a candala or patita comes nearer to a person than the length of a cow's tail. three and four'. 197 it is stated that the mud and water on public roads and on houses built of baked bricks. Gradually some smrtis prescribed a bath for a brahmana coming under the shadow of a candala. tfk**nft on 1^5 in the amrofor remarks ^^H^^ti ^ *WT f^>wi*Tnr? ^ ^H I. dogs and crows. 8 ) describes how the candala ( para assembly-hall though she was untouchable and stood at some distance from the king. 40<J quotes a verse the shadow of a candala or patita. 552 I ) also says the same. I. ' ^^f^r: TOTOT TW quoted by part I. 275. 1195 ascribes a similar verse to ^atStapa. then the latter must take a bath and another verse of Brhaspati to the effect * a patita. is not impure But Apararka himself 407 adds on this verse the comment that this favourable rule about the shadow of a candala or patita is applicable only if he is at a greater distance from a man than the length of a cow's tail. As yuga is four cubits. 408. TTT. 194 says that they become pure by the rays of the sun and the moon and by the wind even when they are trodden by candalas. arteMm^Q ( ed. 30. p. In Yaj. 3=PTCFK p. III. 3T%T^ quoted by the fSfcfro on ^T III. Not only BO. 197 . 17. 409 405. AparSrka if it falls on a man. The Mit. . two.174 History of Dharrwiaxtra [ Oh. 'gtjVn'H i iitaP on ill. though touched by candalas. on Yaj. a^c^( verse 144 ) is almost the same. ' '. chap. IV a candsla was impure and caused pollution. 408 As regards public roads Yaj. fa&l ^ n amr^p. I. 275. 5^ ^ fjjfgJT 4N quoted by - ^3^ro. IX part 1 p. i n *rea ^rnrt ^Mi-^t^ M9<ft fsrfy <ls fir i e a*fe 288-289. p. Jiv. It appears that there was no difficulty about her entering the hall of audience or polluting the assembly by her shadow. 30 ^^T^ ' ^^n^rf^^n^^Tc?^ *&&*. a woman in her monthly period. 923. a woman freshly delivered and a candala should be kept respectively at a distance of one yuga. *4Udi<ftq quoted by 8<q<n? p.

410. adds that these verses were variously interpreted. SatStapa quoted in the Sm. The Sm. In South India also there are various grades of distances within which members of the several lowest castes cannot approach high caste Hindus. 74 ( footnote ) for details of the distance. 79. Certain provisions were to made in the smrtis by way of the general rules about the untouchability of exceptions ' Atri 41 ( verse 249 ) says there is no taint of certain castes. must leave the road to allow him passage or must shout to give warning of his presence in order to avoid pollution to the cnste Hindu. declares that there is no dosa ( lapse ) in touching ( untouchables ) in a village ( i. that an untouchable must not approach within a certain distance of a high caste Hindu. as the quotation from the Smrtyartha- quoted by 412. in marriage processions and religious processions. C. and in all festivals '. some saying that they apply only where one does not know that the man who has touched him is an untouchable. p. 119. II p. when the country is invaded. or in a religious procession or in an and the like. 1. 411. 3441411341^$ In the ^jQ-c< s?tf^f ^TS^^ ^r ' 3Wij ^ f *r% !<f ( v. pp. risen from meals The SmrtyarthasSra 4ia without washing their hands &c ). Vide Wilson's ' ' Indian Castes vol. while others hold that they apply to the touch of impure persons who are not u^chista ( i. about the use of public roads by the untouchables viz. 121-122 this is quoted aa from an(* *^I ^TH5T). affray on the public road ). 3jf% 249. in battle. and also when the whole village is involved 411 in a calamity. . Ti^rjf ^ I. IV ] Untauchability 175 These rules show that the emrfcis followed a reasonable rule about the public roads and do not countenance the restrictions maintained in some parts of South India. particularly in Malabar.Oh. or when the town or village is on fire. in sacrifices. untouohability when a person is touched by an untouchable in a temple. The first word must be taken to be formed of throe separate members s5ra will show. C. ^^o I. e. e. religious processions and marriages. 3mfc re'ntf'* ^TWir%^il5 ^ i T^n^grf?^ flrc* P. Brhaspati also remarks that there is no fault no so and prayasoitta ) if one comes in contact ( with untouch( ables ) at a sacred place.

43. IV. ( vol. on roads leading to a market. S. in calamities or invasions of the country or village. when there It is somewhat is a sudden fire or other great calamity. while Yaj. 70. in festivals. The Nirnayasindhu quotes a passage of the DevIpurSna that expressly authorizes antyajas to establish a temple of 418 X. II. I. M. II. 70. in the presence of groat persons. for the purification of 4l3 Vide Vrddha-Harlta IX. The BbSgavatapurana ' 413. 104 ) 4U prescribed that if an untouchable deliberately touched a man of the three higher castes he should be punished with beating. ing their food ( either cooked or uncooked ). Elaborate rules are laid down about The so-called untouchables were not entirely excluded from 20 ) 4 15 worship. but same rules apply to them that apply to the purification of wells remarkable that the SmrfcyarthasSra touched by untouchables. U Vfi*r^w ' X. These matters will be briefly dealt with under prSyascitta. in public p. 405-406 a well. T. in religious processions. outside such Vedic rites as upanayana. : ($3N ?re: wr: f^f^r^r V. the penance for drinkfor partaking of of or vessels from the wells untouchables. 115 ) says there is no dosa when candalas take water from a large tank as regards small reservoirs the ( used by higher castes ). not that he cannot worship the He Hindu deities nor that he is not bound by the moral code.176 ( Histani of Dharmaiastra I Oh. 43 says that even the Bhairava. 20. 414. The Visnu Dh. IV summarises the places where no blame in incurred on of mixing with untouchables viz. mcrrcmra III ( under . 416. for staying with them and for having sexual intercourse with untouchable women. 79 ) the ground temples. The Par. on the banks of large sheets of water. speaks of untouchables that entering temples. 415. ( V. 93 or Gaut. in battle. ^ he is that is the meaning that the candala is outside all dharma. 234 prescribes that if a eandala ( deliberately ) touches any one of the higher castes the candala should be fined one hundred panas. in sacrifices. II part I p. 115. *TT- vol. could worship images of the avataras of Visnu ( vide note 364 above ). part 1 p. \ I w 104. at sacred places. When it is said ( as in Y&j. 9>nre>qmg vi sTkMWRri w^ter: intt IV.

roads. restaurants and eating houses and entry in public A good deal has been done by a few zealous workers temples. by repeating the names of Hari and by contemplation on Him. Christian missionaries have been doing good work among the untouchables. 262. 417 In modern times the eradication of the system of untouchaengaging the minds of greafc leaders like Mahatma Gandhi whose fast for 21 days for effecting a change of heart among caste Hindus is famous throughout the world. much more therefore will those ( be purified ) who can see or touch your images'. on Yaj. member of the depressed The Mit. In south India among the famous Vaisnava saints classes called Alvars. but their efforts are mainly devoted to direct or bility is indirect prosely tization. HI. IV ] UntauchabUity 177 antyavasSyins are purified by listening to the praises or names of Hari. removal of restrictions about places of public resort such as public wells. The diffusion of literacy and the spread of the idea of the equality of all men before the law and in public are the only sure solvents of the evils associated with untouchability which have exis- Popular Governments in the provinces are doing their limited resources can do to ameliorate the condition of the untouchables. H.Ch. 262 remarks that the pratiloma castes (which include candala) have the right to perform vratas. what they with 417. But the total removal of untouchability is yet a matter of the distant future. III.33 . The Government of India Act ( of 1935 ) has given special representation to the Scheduled Castes (the name given to the depressed classes or untouchables ) in the Provincial and Federal Legislatures of India. TiruppSna Alvar was a and Nammalvar was a Vellala. Hardly twelve per cent of the population are literate. The Government of India Scheduled Castes Order of 1936 ted for ages. The from among the higher castes in these respects. The principal matters of concern to the so-called untouchables or depressed classes are facility for education in schools. *TT. This however shows that to the author of the Bhagavata it never occurred that an untouchable could see or touch the image of Visnu enshrined in a temple of caste Hindus.D. The greatest draw-back is illiteracy among the masses of India. 3*m <gftg^t ^fir^TOT^ ^ "^^ *n. The conscience of the educated among the higher castes has been roused.

like the Mahars and Ohambhars of tha than the ordinary cultivators in ' ' of 1863 vol. and the cause of the removal of the evils of untouchability is bound to a set-back. IV question the entry of untouchables in temples by passing such acts as the Bombay Act XI of 1938 viz. section 18 ) for Legislative recognition of their ancient rights. This is a vast problem and the appalling evils which have been growing for ages cannot be wholly removed in a day. The Provincial Governments have issued circulars to enforce the rule that no discrimination be made against the scheduled castes in places of public resort and have tackled to some extent the of depend upon the untouchables themselves. Bombay Harijan Temple Worship ( Removal of disabilities Act ) and the Madras Temple Entry Authorisation and Indemnity Act of 1939. 23 ) for the balutedars ( village servants ) whom Offices among the mahar occupies an important place and Hereditary Act (Bombay Act III of 1874. Much will out the names of the numerous scheduled oasteg in the several provinces of British India. The population of untouchables in India has been estimated at various figures from threa . public services equality in public and before the law and at the most entry into public temples.1T8 i History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. I p. Vide Grant Duff's History of the Marathas ( ed. The leaders of the so-called untouchables also should not make exaggerated claims. they may find that at least two hundred millions of caste Hindus will be dead opposed to them. The mahars are hereditary village servants in the Deccan and they recover from every householder bread every day as part of their remuneration or a certain measure of corn from the threshing floor. I know from personal knowledge that many among certain classes of untouchables better off Decoan are economically many villages. Besides it should not be forgotten that the amelioration of the condition of untouchables is bound up with the problem of the poverty of the entire rural suffer population of India. It should not be supposed that all the untouchables are the poorest of the poor. They must also throw up from among themselves selfless and capable leaders. For the present they should rest content with places. But if they indulge in the tall talk of destroying the caste system at one stroke and requiring that all caste Hindus should dine with them and inter-marry with them. As am ong the caste Hindust the Untouchables also have inter se numerous divisions and subdivisions each of which regards itself as superior to several others of them and will not condescend to mix with them in the public or dine with them.

the criterion adopted being whether pollution by touch or approach within a certain distance is caused. In the Harijans to Hindus is Muthusami vs. Heinrich . Kabla Singh 10 Lahore 372. vol. p. I part 1. 418. 419. 494. J. Seyeral books and papers have been recently published on the queation of untouchables in India. Vide "The Psychology of a " suppressed people (1937) by Rev. Vide Sohan Singh vs. The total Harijan ( the name given to untouchables by Mahatma Gandhi ) population is 14 per cent of the whole India or to the Bombay Presidency the ratio of only about eleven per cent being the lowest of all provinces and States in India. . p. The Simon Commission Report ( 1930 ) vol. population of India. Vide Census of India ( 1931 ). GK Bhagat. 40 estimated that there were about 43 millions of untoucha- bles in the whole of India. 342. while in Bengal the ratio is about 32 per cent which is the highest in India except 418 The High Courts in India have held that the in Assam. The ratio of untouchables to the total population of Hindu population varies greatly in different parts of India. untouchables are included among sudras for purposes of marriage. 419 Masilamani 33 Mad. Untouchable Claaaea * of Maharashtra ' by M. 0.Oh. IV ] Untauchdbility 179 ororea to six crores. I.

74 'To the a fixed and accepted element of life and no moral problem was involved. Wesfcermarck in his Origin and Development of the moral ideas' vol. slavery of It has been seen above (pp. however. ' f there are not many passages where the word dasa can be said 421 we to have been used in the sense of slave. 19. It Rome and also of many nations of Europe. Catholic and Protestant alike. by sending out kidnapping expeditions to Africa to collect slaves. XIV. vol. was not only recognised by Christian Governments but was supported * by the large bulk of the clergy. 38 . I (1912) p. It is possible that when the das as were vanquished in battle and taken In the Rgveda. . generally stands for the opponents of the aryas. ** was however left to such Christian nations of the West as England and the United States of America to carry on the institution of slavery in the most horrible manner possible never dreamt of by any nation of antiquity. 3 ancient Vide Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences. which at least constrained to observe in the British colonies and slave states surpassed in cruelty the ' any pagan country ancient and modern. In Rg VIII. may be confidently assumed from the fragments of Sumerian legislation upon slaves which date from the first half of the 3rd millenium '. 56. C. prisoners they were treated as slaves. Viii. mind slavery was 421.CHAPTER V SLAVERY Slavery has existed as a constant element in the social and economical life of all nations of antiquity such as Babylon. to huddle them in ships in such unspeakably filthy conditions that half of them died on the voyage. Slavery was abolished in the British Dominions only in 1833 and in British India by Act V of 1843. 711 was ' This system of slavery. viz. OT^ir^TT^^Tcf^rT^ 5. to sell them to plantation owners and others like chattel. wnfp> liU^nt raro* sRTS^jsrra. p. 1 9f- VIII. 36. 26-27) that the word 'dasa* in the Rg. Egypt. Greece. 420. That slavery already was established as a recognized institution in the Sumerian culture of the Babylonian area in the 4th millenium B.

says dasls ( girl slaves ) place on their heads jars full of water and singing this madhu and beating * their feet against the ground dance round the marjallya &o. It appears that here dasa means slaves or serfs. 5. . 6. 2. *n*i TTRTOTTSR 423. 2. 10.Oh. wives and slaves.V] read ' Slavery 181 thou madest a gift to me of one hundred donkeys. 38 the sage praises his patron Caidya Kasu the common people sit down at the feet of Caidya Kasu like men crowding round tanners of hides. H. of one hundred fleece-bearing ewes and one hundred dasas '. aTTWft ^T <FT it *t. ' Trasadasyu. 3. 19. Up.' exclaims * I make 422. 39. We read in the Chan. 1. . 4.000 elephants . Br. 1 ' a being with two rows of teeth. he tempts the inquirer ( Katha Up. S. In Rg VIII. S. . * ten noblemen ( Caidya ) who honoured me by giving me that were like gold in appearance '. Up. 36 victor. *f- VII. 23 Janaka after receiving instruction in Brahmavidya from YajSavalkya a gift to your honour of the Videhas together with myself for being your slave*. 6. 1. 4. 1 In this world they speak of cows and horses. VII. gave me fifty young women This probably refers to the gift of female slaves ( dasls ). . elephants and gold. 5. . when as cannot be secured ( ordinarily ) by men do not ask me what happens after gifted by me. 24. serve you The women referred to were probably meant to be death*. VII. 7. The Caidya KaSu. serving ( or slave ) girls who attended on a man as maids and who could dance and sing. VIII. Hare probably there is an allusion to the gift of ten captured nobles made to the sage by A sage declares in 5g. IV. 10. ( such as ) a horse or a human male on accepting an animal with two rows of teeth one should 428 offer to Vatevanara a mess cooked on twelve potsherds' The Ait. fields and houses as mahima (greatness). performing coronation.8 mentions large gifts such as 10.000 girls made by a king to his purohita ( dasl ) and 10. 23 I ITT. i ^. 25 ) Here are such handsome women with chariots and musical instruments make them. iff 3T IV. refers to the gift of a horse or a male ' He obtains a portion of himself who accepts ( in gift ) ( slave ). II. 2. 5. 428 The Tai. In the Br. son of Purukutsa. Tai. 3. the ' . ' . When the angel of Death tries to dissuade Naciketas from his curiosity to know the destiny of a person after death.

Manu ( VIII. how much more one's own children*. a menial servant. 43 and Virata 18. 13. perfectly clear makes this by saying that when a man makes a gift in the Jaimini ( VI. . In Sabhfiparva 52. ' Qi*f ^hmnffr 245. the condition of slaves. I 6. II. Up. 6 424 ) Vi^vajit sacrifice of everything belonging to himself he cannot make a gift of the 6udra who waits upon him as his duty. 7. Up. the Sudra who thus served a dvijati as a duty was not his slave. one's full brother these when guilty of wrong may be beaten with a rope ' 424. have seen how the Qrhya Sutras speak of dasas It being employed to wash the feet of honoured guests. 45. guests come. 4. the slave. 91. 34 Vainya is said to have given a thousand handsome dfisls with ornaments on to Atri. ^v^f tpfe?H3l^l< & VI. 413. Though Manu ordained ( I. Vanaparva 233. thW^TcHT'T Wft S?f sftTSTOTTO c^ fwW^T^ I 3HT. son ( as to food ) humanely. V Vide also Chan. 414 ) that the principal duty of the 6udra was to wait upon the three higher castes or that the Eiudra was created by the Creator for the service of brahmanas. In Vanaparva 185. S. In the Mahfibharata gifts of dSsas and dsls are very frequently mentioned. 7 for references These passages show that in the Vedio period men and women had become the subjects of gifts and so were in to dssls. 426. VL 2. 2 and Br. VIII. 21 gifts of 30 dasls to each of 88000 snataka brahmanas are spoken of. Vide Dronaparva 57. Ap. 299-300 ) places a slave on the same level as one's son in the matter of corporal punishment the wife. 7. V. 9. T % II. In the Anu&Ssana' 4*8 it is stated one should not sell a human being who parva is a stranger. but never a dSsa who does one's menial work ( or a dasa and hired servants ). ' Sahara in his bh$ya adds the 6udra may not desire to serve the man to whom the sacrificer gives his all if and the latter has no power over him he * is unwilling.182 History of Dharmatostra [ Oh. Dh. appears that the ideal treat the slave We placed before the masters was to one if may II 485 says that or one's wife indeed stint oneself. 5-9. the son.

middle and highest ammercements and whipping respectively ( i. He refers to several kinds of slaves viz. a relative sells or pledges a sudra ( who is not born as a slave ) or a vaisya or ksatriya or a brahmana ( all being minors ). Buddhist India I ' ( 1903 ) p. Vide Rhys Darids in c&^j|ti|4U|frt * 427. Megasthenes ( MacCrindle. bub only on the back and never on the head and punished as a a person beat them otherwise he would be ' thief.Oh. 263. III. e. He says that the mlecchas are not punishable if they sell or pledge their children. 54 ). 427 in evidence in India Slavery was probably nob much in the 4th century B. 71 ) states that of the -Indians employs slaves ( vide Strabo XV. first ammercement for sale of a sudra by a stranger and whipping for the sale of a brahmana). ahitika ). he should be respectively fined 12. One captured in war may become free by paying according to the time he has been in bondage and the work he did The child of one who sells himself or by paying half of it. when proclaiming his Law of That The Emperor Asoka Piety enjoins in his 9th Rock Edict that the Law of Piety consists ( among other things ) in the kind ( or proper ) treatment of slaves ( dasas ) and hired 428 servants. 13 ) Kautilya gives very important provisions about slaves. or the treatment of slaves in India was so good that a foreign observer like Megasthenes accustomed to the treatment of slaves in Greece thought that there slavery. 18. dhvajahrta ( who sells himself or for ). in battle ). 1. In the Arthasastra ( III. 36 and 48 panas and that if a stranger sells or pledges the above then the vendor. One who is made a slave for a fine may pay off the fine by doing work. one who is ) born to a dasl from a slave ( or those so ( made for a debt ). but an He then prescribes that if ftrya cannot be reduced to slavery. 24. But he allows the pledge of even an Srya in family distress. the vendee and the abettors will be liable to the first. was no none slavery existed then admits of no doubt. V] if Slavery 183 or a thin piece of split bamboo. init ftiig*iiWa IT . atmavikrayin ( captured udaradasa ( or garbhadasa. 428. p. One who sells himself or is pledged or is born a slave becomes a free man by paying off respectively the amount for which he was purchased or pledged or what would be a proper price. a fine or court's decree dandapranlta He then prescribes how they are set free from slavery. 0.

bhrtaka (hired servant) and dasa. NSrada ( abhyupetyasusrusS ) and KatySyana among the smrtikaras contain the most elaborate treatment on slavery. V prescribes that if a master or sweep ordure. touching ( or scratching ) private parts. in scarcity or in a famine). beats him or abuses him or violates the chastity of a female slave. one who becomes so for paying off a fine or judicial decree. an antevasin ( an apprentice learning a craft ). one captured in battle. one acquired ( by gift or other means ). I BTfpt IP? 6-7 ). 415) speaks of seven kinds of dasas. or keeps him naked. He prescribes the first ammerceinent having intercourse with a pledged slave girl against her will and middle ammerceinent for a stranger the price paid for a master doing so. one born in the house ( i. one given ted ( ( by his parents or relatives ). e. one born in the ( house. Narada mentions 15 kinds of slaves viz. e. : . They can be called upon to do only work that is pure. Manu member prescribes a fine of 600 panas for a of the dvijati castes after his brahmana making a upanayana a slave against his will. He states the general rule ** 9 that the wife. one bought.184 History of Dharmatastra free [ Ch. urine or leavings of food. The first four are is called karmakara. the son and the slave have no wealth and whatever they earn belongs to him whose wife. while a dasa may have to do impure work 430 such as cleaning the entrances to the house. one bought. dunghill heaps. taking up and throwing away ordure and urine verses 6-7 ). filthy pits (for leavings of food ). the road. son or slave they are. of a female slave ). viz. Maim (VIII. II srg VIII. remains an Srya ( makes a pledged man He slave carry a corpse by him. 416. 64 where the first half is ^q- TT3R *?rqr? ^THWIT compare verse 41. one inherias part of the patrimony ). one who becomes so for food ( i. 430. adhikarrnakrt ( a supervisor over workmen). . a who Vedic student. Narada first says that a susrusaka ( one who serves another ) is of five kinds viz. 429. doing bodily service to the master if he so desires. <TsrroqrT This is the same as $rT: $ vjg/frjirj 33. he forfeits ).

Narada ( v. ( II. one pledged 421 if the master who pledged him repays the debt. one who stipulates to be a slave ( for a certain time ).Oh. one who accepts from the I am yours '. 183 ) and Narada ( v.24 . 38 ) say that one who was made a slave by force or was carried away by raiders and sold should be set free by the king.P. is pledged becomes the slave of two till the pledge is 432. one who is a slave for food ( as long as food is given to him ). viz. II. the slave in lieu of discharge of debt by paying off the debt with interest. one pledged by the master. an apostate slavery by saying order of asceticism. one vanquished in a bet. Yaj. an 1 ' apostate 431. ^^w^^rwTi > <fi**i<^ <fi*i? r*ii*u+iiss>i M*i <|f4 39 T ). one captured in a battle. ( II. one who accepted slavery or who was captured in battle or became so under a bet is freed by giving a substitute who is equal to him in work. one who is tempted to become a slave out of love for a female slave. one who is vadavahrta ( tempted by a female slave ) by abandoning his intercourse with her ( Narada vv. that when a slave saves a master from imminent danger to the latter's life the slave becomes a free man and ( Narada adds ) that he gets a share in the inheritance as a son. 39 ) prescribe that a man can be a slave to a master only in the proper order of varnas438 i. one who is a bhakta-da^a becomes free by the master ceasing to give food. 31-34. (II. while one who sells himself is the worst kind of slave and he also does not become free from slavery ( v. the three varnas next to a brahmana may be slaves to a brahmana. One saved in a famine becomes free by giving a pair of cows. 36 ). one for a stipulated period by the lapse of the period. one discharged from a large debfc. Yaj. compare *n^ (*g. 29 ). 37). nor a vai&ya of a sudra. e. a vaisya or a 6ftdra may be a slave to a ksatriya but a ksatriya cannot be the slave of a vaisya or a 6udra. and one who sells himself. ^Swi+int I <hltq(<M quoted by 788 . V ] Slavery 185 one Inherited. one saved in a time of famine. from asceticism may be the slave of a vaisya or a 6udra A slave who redeemed. One who is an apostate from the * ( order of ascetics is a slave of the king till the former's death Yaj. H. 182 ) and Narada ( v. 183 ). H p. There is one exception viz. Narada says that the first four of these are not freed from slavery except by the favour of the master ( v. 182) state a rule applicable to all slaves. 30) and Yaj.

and Katyayana ( v. 3 ^*^ Tc'^T'TT cffT ST^J f>. he should sprinkle water mixed with whole grains of rice and flowers on the slave's head and thrice uttering the words you are no longer a slave " he should dismiss him with the ( slave's ) face to the east. cTsTrf'T . 150 and f%. TWT ^ nm^m M 724 (quoted by * p. ^if^T^H^t (jl^i^ 5ffTc*rnra >a <frw*f ^Tfcf fTTT^^f^r^ f^iifi^ I i ^rinr?*r III. 723 ) both declare that if a Kautilya master has sexual intercourse with a female slave and she is delivered of a child. from the slave's and break it.. which is very interesting persons adopted and the like on whom the sarhskaras of cuijla ( fconsure ) and Upanayana are performed by the gotra of the adopter. V 4 K&tySyana emphasizes that a brahmana ** cannot be made a slave even to a brahmana. he should take. < 435. while Katyayana 435 says that the only wealth that. 'f^tTt XR?rr^f^^5 ft. Katyayana ( v. but no impure work. free * ' make him a * The Vyavaharamayukha 4S6 quotes a verse from the K&likapurfina about an adopted son. History of Dharmaictetra [ Ch. 33 ) quoted by Apararka ( p. This verse where the reading .186 king. 42-43 mission of a slave " } describes the ceremony of the manuwhen a master being pleased with a slave shoulder. are his relatives Narada desires to ( vv. sfeftfT^nnFfa^ Hf 4 *R$ OTTcT. * v ^ ^prrTf ^TH ^r^f occurs in the ^xHvffortarT also II T^ rr^W P H4 ( of my is edition ). but if he himself chooses. he may do pure work for a brahmana endowed with character and Vedic learning. 721 ) says that when a brahmana becomes an apostate from the order of asceticism he should be banished from the kingdom and the ksatriya or vaisya apostate may become a slave to the king* Daksa ( VII. 787 ) adds that the apostate's head should be branded with the 484 mark of dog's foot.^ 717 and 719 ) quoted by 3JTTT3? p 789 and I 434. 46). become sons of ( the adopter )> whom such ceremonies are not performed otherwise the person ( on ) is held to be a slave 433. t-<i**ni H snx*n*T*T (TV. the slave can call his own is the price he received for selling himself or what the master gave as a gift through favour.13. p. a jar full of water man. both the slave and the child should be given freedom by the master. Kautilya declared that the heirs to the wealth of a slave and if none of them exist then the master.

Banaji has published a very painstaking and interesting study on Slavery in British India from 1772 to 1843 (2nd ed. just as a slave is to be fed. an apprentice. he is not fully affiliated in the family of adoption. 1937) The Carnegie Institution of Washington has published studies on several aspects such as Judicial Cases ( by Mrs. All that the Kalikapurana probably means is that when a boy is adopted into another family after his cuda" and upanayana are performed in the family of birth. a woman. documented various countries and at 437. of the KalikSpurana. . he does not become a son and so does not take the inheritance but is only entitled to maintenance in the family of adoption. a menial servant and a workman for the benefit of the family even though it was incurred in his absence. 1930 by Prof. J. Elizabeth Donnan. ( rnadana 12) and Katyayana declare that a by a Vedic pupil. a pupil. various aspects. a minor. D. V 1 Slavery 187 (of the adopter). a Narada* 37 debt contracted slave^or a hired servant may be a witness. but Manu VIII. was binding on the owner of the house. R. 12 . a slave.Oh. Dr. the wife. ft. 70 and Usanas ( quoted in VyavahSramayukha p.' The VyavahSramayGkha remarks that this passage is not reliable as it is not found in several mss. 648. but this is not one of them. a relative. ) . Nieboer's 'Slavery as an Industrial System' (1910) is a well' ' ' ' * ' study of slavery in various times. 37 ) say that when no other witness is available. Narada mentions 15 kinds of slaves. No digests have recognised such a person as a slave proper. Mr. v. Ordinarily a slave was not a competent witness. H. Catterall in 1926 ) and Documents of the history of the Slave Trade to America. There are numerous works dealing with slavery in its The latest book on the subject is * Slavery through the ages' by Sir George Mac Munn ( 1933 ). an old man. s&n wr quoted by 3mr$ p.

Haradatta explains that this does not mean that he can kill a brahmana or drink liquor. S. Dh. 28 ) also explains that a boy may ( before upanayana) eat the leavings of the food of his parents. till upanayana ) there is no action that is obligatory on him. 17-20 ) states several views on this point. 17-20. 'Up to the time when they begin to take cooked food infants do not become impure ( by the touch of a rajasvala &c. % ii. ( II. As long as his upanayana is not performed the * * 438. ). &*. to his selling what ip forbidden to a brahmana to sell. a boy may speak and eat as and what he likes ( i. 15. ^ifHic^rsx^ ^ i uferac f^rei^ *R$ * t compare f^rpf^f 28. before caula acamana need be done by it and after caula Vas. 2. e. S. 3-4 says Till a boy is eight years old he is like one newly born and only indicates the caste in which he is born. This verse occurs also in Baud. f3> f%c[ 439. or he may eat onions and garlic or stale food or may eat four or five times a day. nq-. although he be a brahmana's son. but that there is no restriction. ' % reads srow nft *TO t ^ . 1 ) says that before upanayana. 171 and 172.6. r. *r. 1. ^fS ^rftro II. Dh. 6 ) quotes a verse of Harlta to the effect up till investiture with the girdle of munja grass ( i. e. The Smrtyarfchasara gives the view of some that in case an infant touches a cSndala before it reaches the age of taking cooked food. S. ( and before upanayana ) a bath would be necessary. 15. Daksa I. ( II. only water need be sprinkled on it. 6. I. 428 Ap. another view is that till upanayana (they do not become impure )'.CHAPTER VI SAMSKARAS Gautama ( II. but he cannot eat or drink what would cause loss of caste as in that case he may become unfit to have the samskara of upanayana performed on him. Dh. may follow his inclinations ). act. 40 *n^refar*Wl fJ^T. 6 and Manu II. Aparfirka ( p.6. or they are not able to distinguish the cardinal points. as long as he is not born 48 again for Vedic study he may be in his conduct like a sudra' *. till according to some ( teachers ) up till they are one year old .

147-148 ( = Visnu Dh. i I T*^ I AparSrka (p. by imparting Vedic knowledge ). I part 2 p. . .253. as to what 44 he should or should not speak. 3 ) also says of except a man God/ Manu be born again. 1 and 51 ) (the first being his physical birth) says that the three higher classes are called dvijatis ( having two births ). says '. 1. 19) colitarns~ar fine image to illustrate this jusfc as a work of painting gradually unfolds itself on account of the several colours ( with which it is drawn). 9-11. 3-4. 45-46) convey the same idea. ag. John (3. S. x. T^T^C VIII. f^3frtfta'W*reT{*?*n ^^r3^f iHistflft: ft. % 1. : of tlTe"8am^kSra8r^lriTHI "fl2 ) says^a person is known as a brShmana by birth. ^IcWTC: frfj}{dH4l|tr4&T *T*TT T7 I. ""FarTsara (VIII. 1 442. i ^. he cannot see the Kingdom II. 404. and Vide an*. IT. 25) and as of Angiraa in JT. u. the parents produce only the body' ' 443 . ffi^r^r vd*4Hi wTgroft it<r: 'riwiftfS^r H aife 141-142 Brgr^noT reads ^JT^T. 19 quoted as Devala's by Par. 5 H quoted in ^f. Upanayana is like Baptism and St. ft f*teriH^ ^rfnrf^ 16-18. p. II. S. fitefH ^spir i asrcm^r WBTT: 5fl*l^ I i ^T^^TT^ wfi \ ft. 1. Manu ( II 169 ) speaks of three births the in theTcaiE^ the girdle is^Ie3Ti. that birth is superior. Dh. p. 443. 16-18 )/ the teacher causes him ( the boy who is initiated into Vedic study ) to be born from vidya ( i. is seoomTwhen on upanayana ) and ihe third when Jie iruiiafed for a Vedie sacrifice. 136. while the udra is only ekajati. VI] SafaJ&raa 180 boy incurs no blame as to what is allowed or forbidden to be eaten. 22. 1. p. * 440. ^r 1. he reaches the posifcionjDf ajyipra by learning (study of the Veda ) he is called jrojriy a on account . 28 ) and the second citod as from I. 1. he is said to be a dvija ( twice-born ) on account of samskaras. ( 1. in. ' \ If fff T^T^T ?hft <mi^UMM<i$?4i! it tt r quoted in smiji ( p. Upanayana is the foremost e.e. I in irn. As to prayaSoitta when a child is guilty of the commission of a mahftpStaka.on Yaj. 44a Ap. part I.see under prayascitta later on and the Mit.. . as to what should ( or should not ) be drunk.Oh. 1.III. as to telling a falsehood But this does not hold good as to mahapatakas.. 29. . 51. 6. m^ 444. The smrtis look upon upanayana as the second birth of a boy 441 Gaut. so brahmariya (the status of a brahraana) is similarly tAllJhese three 444 '. (X. 1. M. 30. 441.

2 the word samskrfca is applied to 'gharma* (vessel) 'the two A&vins do not harm the gharma that has been purified/ and Rg. 3. 4. 1. 1. ' 4 we have the word samskrfcatra 445 ' VIII.' Vide Vaj. Therefore it is now time to speak of BarhskSras. 76. 1. 33. *frcf?Twr cf to see if there bo any mistake. srcTW m. applied to proksana ( sprinkling with water ). 3. Up. and 17. 2 and 11 &c. by mind. 34 for a similar use of samskrta. on ^. IV. III. cf^ri cf^rif 446. It generally means some purificatory act in a sacrifice e. IX. 1078. 25. S. III. & smtf &*%& TTO?cTHARf I *r %*^T %fe- sr *ri w3 sreilrc^cTs i i SRTTO I. 10 speaks ranaya sarhskrfcah of preparing ( or purifying ) offering ( havis ) for the gods. 44. TF^RT IV. IX. 1. 2. 15 4. 9 has '. ^reft ^T^TTHT: f^TF: ffej p. 3 the word is applied to the actions of shaving the head. 2. in Jaimini III. 25 the word samskara is . 1. IV. 22 therefore a woman approaches a man who stands in a well-trimmed (samskrfca) house. V. 33. 1-2. 16. 1. fCl. 3. In Jaimini VI. IX. 447. washing the teeth and paring the nails on the part of the saorificer in Jyotistoma in IX 3. 4. Br. Sahara 448 samskara as that which being effected makes a explains certain thing or person fit for a certain purpose and the Tantravartika says that samskaras are those actions and rites that 445. 42. In 446 read "of that sacrifice there Chan. 22. 2. III. 9. 1. in X 2. passive participle 'samskrta* occur often enough. So in Sat.4. Vedic The word samskara hardly ever occurs in the ancient ' kr with sam and the past literature. 50 and 54. III. 2. 660 ) . by speech the Brahm& ( priest ) prepares ( or polishes ) one of them by his mind. . ' are two ways. 10. Br. IX." The word samskftra is used several times in the sufcras of Jaimini ( as in . X. 49 it is 447 applied to the shaving of the head and face. VI brought out by samskaras performed according to prescribed ' ritee. 8. 2. g.190 History of Dharmatastra [ Oh. 448. which 1. III. but the root ' * * In Rg. . we In ftg. 8. VI 28. 35. 3 ( p. *fori!r3jnrf TOgfo i 4 VI. 1. The BrahmS priest remains silent and watches the whole sacrifice he corrects by ]jr5ya^citta. 1. 1. ). 35 the word samskara stands for upanayana. 16. Sat. 4.

caula ( tonsure ) and the tying This ( human ) body is rendered fit brahma by the study of the Veda. e. the procedure of each of the samskaras and the persons authorized to perform them and the persons for whom they are to be performed. Samskaras generate fresh qualities. ).Ch. of the girdle of munja grass. while tapas brings about the removal of taints. Ap. derived from parents ) are wiped off by the homas (burnt oblations) performed during pregnancy and by jatakarma ( ceremonies on birth ). the number of samskaras. as they ( blemishes ) produce (for the sacrificer ) the experience of their own fruits that are opposed to the ( fruit of the ) sacrifice/ The Vlramitrodaya 450 ( on sarhskara ) defines * samskara as a peculiar excellence due to the performance of rites ordained ( by the 6astra ) which resides either in the ' ' and says that it is of two kinds. but Gaut. g. by the ( observance vrata called traividya. 450. by the performance of the five daily 1115 on $. The principal matters samskaras are : that fall be discussed under the purpose of samskaras. IV. 1 to ). the classification of samskaras. 9. one kind a person eligible for performing other actions ( e. of sons. 9. He who performs such sacrifices as Jyotistoma and others has certain blemishes in impart fitness him due to not doing in this down for him or doing what a previous life duties laid forbidden. by worship ( of gods. and ifc further says **' fitness is of two kinds It arises by the removal of taints ( sins ) or by the generation of fresh qualities. MWcf on ISTT^WH !! 33 . 3. Vas. homas ( oblations in fire ). by of ) vratas. ( says and the uterus ( i. 8. it occurs in the Dharraasutras ( vide 1. making upanayana renders a person eligible for Vedic study ). 1. VI ] Samskaras * ttt . for the attainment of by generation 449. 8. Dh. g. III. The word samskara does not occur in most of the grhyasutras soul or the body ( it ' occurs in Vaik. Mann ( II. VIII. . sages and manes ). Jatakarma removes the taint due to seed and uterus ). while another kind removes the evil taint that may have been generated ( e. ' of the or taints case sins ) due to seed the In dvijatis. 27-28 ) First as to the purpose of samskaras. 1. If they ( blemishes ) are not removed they obstruct the ( acquisition of the ) reward of the sacrifice even if it be entirely free from any defects life or is whatever.

) and are not intended to remove the taint of being born of sinful ( and by is solemn Vedic ( i. 66 also states that all the samskaras are also for the purification of the body. 13 makes it clear that samskaras are deemed to remove bodily defects transmitted from parents ( such as defective limbs. 13 ) that ' thus ' parents. e. blood and womb are removed by jatakarma. The samskftras had been treated from very ancient times as necessary for unfolding the latent capacities of man for development and as being the outward symbols or signs of the inner change which would fit human beings for corporate life and they also tended If to confer a certain status on those who underwent them. I. tnftaWHCT TTft: 452. Medhatithi says sead and uterus are not the causes of sin and therefore all that is meant by enas ( in Manu II. by the rite otpumsavana he makes the garbha become a male. by the ceremony of Slmantonnayana he removes from the foetus the taint derived lated taints from the parents and the accumudue to seed. I. 27 ) is impurity. we look at the list of samskaras we shall find that the purposes ( which are five ) ' 451. on *H. hJi urf . Yaj. 13 . The Mit. By these eight samskaras ( from garbhadhana ) purity arises. VI The view of ) sacrifices/ by the performance of samskftras ) the taint arising from the seed and uterus ( i. diseases &c. namakarana. The exact significance of samskaras in the development of higher human personality was left rather vague in our authorities and their treatment of the purpose of samskaras is not very elaborate or exhaustive.' Kulluka explains that blemishes of seed are those arising from intercourse in a prohibited manner and the 'gSrbhika* blemish is what arises from having to stay in the womb of an impure mother. from the physical defects of parents ) is removed. aunapradana. are variously interpreted by the commentators. I f^n. e.19* sacrifices History of Jbhartoaiastra [ Ch. cudakarana and samavartana.' These words of Manu and Yaj. Harlfca 458 Manu II. 451 on Yaj. ' as quoted in the Samskaratattva says when a person has intercourse according to the procedure of garbhadhana he establishes in the wife a foetus that becomes fit performed on a woman for the reception of the Veda. ( 1.

Gaut.13 TTT. part 2 p. annaprSfiana. : I Mrh*Jtff? T*l*iiymi*^ l*%f9r if3": ^WMdf . ays it is srihraifo^ XL 1-5 ( from the MS he had ?. those in which there is burnt offering and those in which soma is offered.:: -f ^3 Veda. Some like Upanayana served and cultural purposes. namakarana. caula. five daily 453. Vivaha (marriage) was a sacrament which broui>t about a union of two personalities into one for the purpose of the continuance of society and for the uplift of the two by self-restraint. they brought the unredeemed person into the company of the elect. at the end of this volume ). jatakarma. The forty samskaras are garbhadhana. viz. are dealt with in the 6rauta sutras. snana ( or samavartana ). annapra^ana. ^TT^^T^T^T P. Other samskaras like nSmakarana. pitr. 14-24 ) speaks of forty samskaras and eight virtues of the soul. upanayana (8 rrr-tr. and niskramana were more or less of a popular spiritual nature. purfasavana. P. sltnantonnayana had also mystical and symbolical elements. ( VIII. yajiias with burnt offerings and sacrifices in which soma is offered are called daiva ( samskaras The last two varieties. they opened the door to Vedic study and thus conferred special privileges and exacted duties.135. 452 The samskaras of garbhadhana and others which are described only in the smrtis are called brahma arid the man who is purified by performing them attains equality with sages. ). purhsavana. Ofcher samskaras like garbhadhana. < mahayajnas ( for deva. They afforded opportunities for the expression of love and affection and for festivities. by self-sacrifice and mutual co-operation. of VI ] Safiiskaras 193 samskaras were manifold. brahma and daiva. *TT. They have also psychological values impressing on the mind of the person that he has assumed a new role and must strive to observe ifcs rules. The editor of the <m. 25 ."tL': vivaha. in ail j. I. 'HcJlf'Shcli iTf^'f ^^fjf^r I yf^ I I- P. TTdiscovered). stays in the same world with them and is joined with them pakayajnas ( offerings of cooked food ).Ch. slmantonnayana. which have been left outside the purview of this work ( except in the note . manusya. There is a great divergence of views among the writers on smrtis as to the number of samskaras. 18. The samskaras were divided by Harlta into two kinds.

Visnu Dh. Angiras ( quoted in the Sarhskaramayukha. SravanI. Vide Sm. antyesti ). DarsapurnamSsa. ahuta. Visnubaii. Jatukarnya as quoted in Sam. Saihskara-praka&a p. slmanta. mauiijl 454. 6ravanl.. Yftj. five daily yajnas as one and seven pakayajiias. biliharana. (I. pratyavarohana Vide S. these sixteen. Agnihotra. Atiratra. pumsavana. SgrahayanI. Most grhyasutras. Parvana. 3. dulagava. speaks of eighteen 6arlra samskaras ( in which he includes utthSna. namakarana. Ukthya. Marga&IrsI ( same as Agrahayanl ). 13) and the SubodhinI on Mit. caula. seven pftkayajSas 4W ( viz. vaHvadeva. Apfcoryama).194 bhuta History of Dharmaiaatra [ Oh. I. which are seen nowhere else as samskaras ) and twenty-two yajfias ( i. 4 follow Gautama. pSkayajnas as huta. Utsarga and Upakarma are enumerated as the remaining samskaras by Angiras. 358 for several differing enumerations of pskayajnas. gr. 135 and other digests) mentions twenty-five samskaras.pindavardhana. .pravSs5gamana. e. C. 0. e. seven soma sacrifices ( Agnistorna. prahuta. Besides. gives the seven : and a^taka homa. I. Agrayana. Agnyadheya. Pr. Atyagnistoma. and seven soma yajnas ). seven havir-yajfias. annasrasiana. dharmasutras and smrtis do not enumerate so many. pSrvanasthallpaka. According to some the seven pskayajnas are aupSsanahoroa. S. yujl ) . oaifcrl. 455. asta^^V^^^^iicftitJnJr ). Vajapeya. The 16 usually enumerated in the digests are . In most of the digests the principal samskaras are said to be sixteen. do not give the number of samskaras but simply say that they are those from niseka ( garbhadhana ) to sma&ana ( i. p. E. jatakarma. 1. AsvayujI. B. Sankha as quoted by the Sm. They include all samskaras of Gautama from garbhadhana to the five daily yajnas ( which latter are reckoned as one samskara by Angiras ) and after namakarana niskramana is added. Caturnifisyas. Veda-Vyasa I. Agrayana. 30 p. Vol. 14-15 enumerates sixteen samskaras. 8 Sodasin. VI and brahma ) . 135 ) enumerates the 16 as garbhadhana. 6raddha. p. The Baud. sarpabali and i^Snabali. seven haviryajnas ( in which there is burnt offering bufc no soma) viz. II. Vaik. ( p. 13. pHryana ( slhallpska). Astaka. Gautama uses the word samskSra in the most extended sense. NirudhapaSubandha and Sautramanl). This last one is not treated of in Gautama and several grhyasutras. Manu. but there is some difference of opinion even as to 455 For example.

Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays. samavartana. it calls it niseka also ( VI. which exhaustively reviews in the minutest details the rites of brShmanas ( particularly in Kathiawar and Gujarat ) This work however gives hardly any references as observed at present. Vol. of comparing hoary Indian customs. rambha are conspicuous by their absence in the grhyasutras. gether ignoring what existed in Europe over though it is generally written with sympathy and understanding. 1 ) employ the word niseka as equivalent to garbhadhana. I. . L 11. Stevenson's the Bites of the twice-born' (1920). The grhyasutras deal with sarhskaras in two different sequences. Many of them begin with vivaha ( marriage ) and then proceed up to samavartana. to original Sanskrit authorities. S. ) 1 (Mrs. 123-226 (London. 10. 2 ) and describes it in III. but are added by later smrfcis and puranas. Visnu Dh. Ysj. 1. Kamalabai Deshpande's work 'the Child in ancient India (with copious references to the grhya sUtras ). vide Dr. gr. usages and the position of women with those of the West only in the latter half of the. 3 and 27. 19th century. The following is the list of all the samskaras usually so called in most of the smrti works together with a few remarks against each as to the work or works in which each is mentioned or described. 9 and garbhadhana in III. 1837). Mrs. usual with most Western writers. ( 2. 195 upanayana vratas ( four ). 2 j aw ftfrmfoiHmm U I ?ffH I. altoa few hundred years ago. pp. * permeated by the spirit of a Christian missionary and commits the mistake. 18-19 ). The samskaras are arranged in the sequence of the times at which in a man's life they are performed beginning from garbhadhana: 457 L 1 as distinct from Rtu-samgamana mentioned in Vaik. Bharadvajagrhya and Manavagrhya begin with 456 Some samskaras like Karnavedha and Vidyfiupanayana. commence* the samskaras with niseka. vivaha and antyesti. godana. 456. garbhadhana . 10-11 ) caturthlhoma takes the the rite called caturthlkarma or place of the rite called garbhadhana elsewhere and there is no separate description of garbhadhana in these and some similar For detailed treatment of some of the samskaras. Garbhadhana : Niseka : Caturthlkarma or-homa : Manu ( IL 16 and 26 ). is ' ' ' ' ' 457. ( 8. The Vaik. and Ap. VidyaTnava's on daily practices in the 20th volume of 'the Sacred Books of the Hindus may also be consulted. Some like the Hiranyake&igrhya. 10-11.Ch. ?roft tfintf ftfoPtengi 1. In the Sankhayana grhya ( 1. Par. i t*rnm VI. gr. These slightly differ from the sixteen of Veda-Vyasa. Monier Williams' Religious thought and life in India part I ( 1883 ). ( VI ] Nutnber of &uhskaras ).

men( I. occurs in almost 11 ). gr. (III. Karyavedha tioned in 12. 13-17 and 1. Gaut. E. Slmantonnayana : Yaj. Ill employ the word garbhS- dhana. 51-52 : Namakarana mentioned in all smrfcis. 19 ). Gaut. ( IV. I. VI The Baud. II. vol. . According to Vaik. 10 ) the garbhadhana rite follows niseka or rtu-samgamana ( union of married pair after menstruation ) and consists in ensuring conception. in Yaj. pp. 139 ). Sankha ( in verse. 1 ). ( I. Manu II. 13.. seems to be the same as the Anavalobhana which according to the is Asvalayana gr. 11 uses the word slmanta. ( 18 ) and in S. vol. gr. It occurs in Budhasmrti ( as quoted ( S. 18 calls (II. 13. and . gr. The Kausikasftfcra 58. E. 1 ). I.. ( I. ( gr. This occurs almost everywhere. It is called Jatakarma Utthana ah. I. ( 1. mentioned by almost every smrti. upaniskramana ). the Katbakagrhya ( VIIT. ). Visnu Dh. gr. Yaj. 5-7 ). 10 appropriately the name several other sutras omit it. Niskrainana or Upaniskramar^a or Adityadarsana or Nirnayana: Yaj. ( I. Annapra&ana Baud. Baud. while Baud. ( III. Par. 8 ). 2 ) employs the word 19. 30. gr. ( 27. 6. : Varsavardhana or Abdapurti Par. all the grhyasutras. in It Garbharaksana mentioned in the SankhSyana gr. S. Angiras. and Ksipraprasavana in Hir. Bharadvaja gr. 11 speaks of it as Niskramana. San. Veda-Vyasa : ( I.196 grhyasutras. 34 speaks of it as Niskramana. 21 ). 14 ). : Sosyanti-karma or-homa: described in Khadira and Gobbila. 10. mentioned only ( the Vaik.'gr. Vtsnubali mentioned in Baud. 25 : : This is described in all sfltras in and III. gr. : Pumsavana: Qaut. 29.11. Ap. it Nirnayana. ( 1. Vaik. B.. gr.2). ( I. gr. gr. History of Lharmaiastra [ Oh. ( I. -mentioned in GobhiU. 13). Manava gr. 1 ) occurs in the Upanisad and which described in Asv. : -omitted in almost all ancient smrtis srarti ( .. 30. smrtis. B. in Samskara-prakasa p. 210 ). p. Sosyantl-savana in Kathaka-grhya and Ksiprasuvana in Ap. It is not mentioned by Gautama and several other ancient sQtrakaras. sesa-sutra ) Katyayana-sutra a supplement to Par. 5 ) employ Adityadarsana. 17 ) as Niskramanika. 1 ).

II. 66. 13. ( nial bath Gaut. mentioned by all not mentioned in any smrti but only in Vidyarambha Markandeyapurana quoted by Apararka (p. ) gr. : Mentioned by almost : all. Vratas ( four ) mentioned by most of the grhyasutras. 15 and 31 employ the word Samavartana. S. 1.. 30 ) and Sm. yajfias mentioned by Gaut. 9. Yaj. gr. 26'). Par. gr. p. gr. I. 1. *srag. I. : : Kesanta or Oodana these two. III. 15. gr. 1. ( I. 0. Mahayajnas: five daily Angiras and others. Samavartana or Snana there is great Manu ( III. Antyesti ' It is laid down that the sarhskaras from j&takarma to cudakarma were to be performed in the case of the twice-born classes with Vedic mantras when the child was a male and that in the case of girls the ceremonies were to be performed ( but without Vedic mantras 17. 12-13. (LI) and by Angiras. II. 16 and Yaj 1. Ap. Manu II.Oh. pp. . ( yearly commencement of Veda study ) menUpaJcarma tioned as a sarhskftra by Vaik. 4 ) seems to keep snana is divergence about ( ceremonial bath after the period of studentship over ) as distinct from sama- vartana. Yaj 1. : (I. mentioned by Manu II. Utsarga : ( seasonal giving up of tioned as a sarhskara in Vaik (LI) and : Veda studies ) is menby Angiras. 7. 6. VI ] Samskaras ' 19^ Caula or Cudakarma or Cudakarana smrtis. 1. 458. 51. The sarhskaras 488 from garbhadhana to upanayana alone were absolutely necessary in the case of all twice-born persons . 14. I. vide Asv. But marriage in the case of the girls of the three higher classes was to be performed with Vedic mantras ( Manu II. 13 ). Baud. 16. rites of return from the teacher's house on finishing one's studies. 10. ( III. 73). The words ' . Yaj. 67. Dh. Hir. 13-14. 1 ). I. 6-7 ) employ the word snana for both the ceremo- and the San. 1 ). 18). gr. 6. I. mentioned by all. Vivaha : Mentioned by all as a sarhskara. while ( Asv. 2. 8. gr. Ap. (Wwo*3 p. V. 12. . It is called vratadesa in Upanayana Veda-Vyasa I.

wn&3 i^i^M^^hii ^yffi gwri III. Another question was as to what samskSras could be performed for the sudra. * ' '. namakarana. as a man was allowed to become a samnySsin ( ascetic) immediately after finishing the period of studenthood (according to the Jftbalo- panisad ).11-12) were meant for all varnas (including the Sudra). jatakarma. sf. 460. cuda and vivaha and the five daily mahaThe Sudrakrtya-tattva of Raghunandana ( p. 462. the eight samskaras from garbhadhana to caula ( in Yaj. niskramana. 461. SulapSni that in all religious ceremonies for sudras the man- from the puranas and that they are to be *6 * repeated by the brahmana priest. The Brahmapurana quoted tras are to be taken 459. 4M this very procedure quotes a verse from the Varahapurana declared in the case of sudras but has been sraddha ) (rabout without mantras for the &udra who is not entitled to repeat a mantra. from garbhadhana The view of Apararka 48 appears to be that ( or niseka ) to caula. P. 4 . 1. ) p. the sudras were entitled to perform six samskSras viz. Rupanarayana and the bhasya of Harihara as quoted in the Nirnayasindhu. 133. C I ticra ?^Ta^rzfft^ jn^f ! r { 3TTO* e P. VI the samskaras of snSna and viv&ha were not obligatory. 463. ill. 195-197 ) and discussion arrives at the conclusion that jatakarma and other samsk&ras ( impotent ) child. that the sudra is not to repeat even namah the purana mantras but has only to say The 462 mentions with approval the same view of Nirnayasindhu * cannot be performed for a kllba . annapra^ana. 634 ) yajnas. The Samskaraprakasa enters upon an elaborate as to whether jatakarma could be performed for a child that is neither a male nor a female ( pp.198 History of Dhafmaiastra I Ch. . The Baijavapa 459 grhya says that seven samskaras are allowed to the sudra viz. The view of Vedavyasa that he could have ten samskaras performed ( but without Vedio mantras ) has been stated above ( p. 25. 634. According to the Madanaratna. a brahmana repeats the mantra and then remarks that for a 6udra a mantra from the puranas is to be repeated by the brahmana priest employed. 159 ).

Owing to the rapid rise in the marriageable age of brahmana girls. ( I. : H?^T tftfarnn% fi^r: ^SC^WTC P. VI] Bafhskaraa 199 in the Sm. even the samskara of garbbadhana is falling into abeyance. The VyShrtihoma consists in offering clarified butter with the mystic syllables. It is to be noted that in modern times most of the samskaras (except garbhadhana. 0.Oh. 3. For each samskara that is not performed the penance called pSdakrcchra should be performed ( if the nonperformance is due to some difficulty or distress ). t ^rf^ f^s^ ^^[ 99 ) quotes a similar verse from ^5t i 5^ . in Bengal). 318 and fifcn thereon where ar^^p" also is explained. 30 p. after upanayana and samavartana is also performed a few days upanayana. It appears The that this state of things has continued for centuries. 464 if the samskaras ( except upa( p. upanayana and vivaha) have fallen into oblivion and are hardly ever performed even by brahmanas in the manner and at the times prescribed by the smrtis. 24 ) and other digests states that no other samskara than vivaha is allowed to the sudra. Namakarana.' Vol. ' 464. On this the Nirpayasindhu remarks that these conflicting views are to be reconciled by holding that the liberal ones apply to good ( sat ) sudras and the stricter ones to low ( asat ) sudras or that. E. Jafcakarma and annaprasana are performed on the same day in some parts (e. g. and for nonperformance of caula the penance is ardha-krochra. some holding that after the penance the samskarfts passed over should be performed all at one time. ( WrTOT p. annaprasana are performed in a popular way but without Vedic mantras or without calling a priest to In most cases caula is performed on the day of the officiate. the Vyahrtihoma should be offered and then the samskaras should be performed ( though late ).' 4 ( S. 465. B. the rules are different in different countries. 144 ). bhuvah. svah (or surah) uttered separately and then together. gr. u ' mg. 3 ) says Smrty arthasara nayana) are not performed at the prescribed times. 3. aw *teffnsfo sftagfj sTn^r^^^rgftrTc^RT^cfr^ M g *K*?UHH ' 3 ^^b^ 5^1 ^^ *W3F5*nH Qr ?^Nrftf^m i ^n^i^toi^ 3 MKI^^ 'H'+uWvi w^rnrf^ g HI I?W. If the samskaras were knowingly omitted or if there was no distress then the 465 of this/ The Nirnayasindhu quotes verses penance is double 466 to this effect and then remarks that there was of Saunaka a conflict of views. III. i ^ i i m^^ i vide 466. bhuh. Vide Sir. p. for Y5j. I.

on Gaut. pre-natal and post-natal. 1 ?*^r on *TJ.200 History of Dharmaiaslra [ Ch. The Dharmasindhu ( 3rd pariccheda. VI while others held that they should not be performed at all after undergoing penance and a third view was that if caula was left unperformed it may be performed on the same day as upanayana. Haradatta in commenting upanayanam brahmanasya astame ) remarks the teacher ( Gautama ) expounding upanayana first and passing over the samskaras like garbhadhana that precede upanayana in time conveys that upanayana is the principal samskara. ' 6 ( Therefore even if the samskaras like garbhadhana did not take place owing to adverseness of fate. upanayana/ 467 467. one prajapatya penance is equal to three Padakrcchras. but it follows that if upanayana be not performed there is no adhikara ( eligibility ) for marriage which follows only after In modern times in undergoing prayascitta for non-performance of the samskaras up to caula rupees two have to be paid to the priest ( annas four for each of the samskaras 468 not performed up to caula and annas eight for caula ). The whole life of a person was so very minutely worked out and overlaid with so much ritual in the grhyasmtras and smrtis that the tendency to This neglect and change became insistent and inevitable. tendency was helped by the accommodating spirit of the brahmana authors of later smrfcis and digests that were ready to prescribe easier and easier substitutes for non-observance of the elaborate sacraments. I. sjOTvrrf^TT TOTS H if i firs 1 * 468. I. upanayana can be performed. There being these easy substitutes (pratyamnaya as they were called ) people gradually gift of a ( of a cow ) may make the may give one niska . of the lapse cow or ( in the absence 320 gufijas ) of gold or one half or one-fourth of ib one who is very poor may give one-eighth of a silver niska or corn of that value. 141-142 for various Mc*n*srnr*upanayana for late performance or non-porformance of samskSras is: ?*&*#! Am: *m 53^ Wt*^^r^T^r^^3rra<^m^^ . 6. purvftrdha ) ( which are comparatively easy ) for For example. left off performing the several samskaras and concentrated themselves only on upanayana and uvaJia. Vide *T3TlfT3ffir p. In place of prajapatya the person guilty states various substitutes these penances. 752 for %*%TK*nwFf and Tho modern samkalpa at the time of pp.

11. from province to province able modifications were introduced and usages cropped up among the to the influence of women. 19-22 may be rendered thus: days ( after menstruation first appears ) when she ( wife ) has bathed. 3 and 5 are verses which occur in the Br. ( I. 25 appears to be a hymn intended for the garbhadhana rite. VI ] Samskaras SOI The samskSras will now be described in detail. ) daughter desires a fair. 469.. m viz. though important variations have been out in many places. gr. S. Atharva V. Up.D. clarified butter. YSjnavalkya smrtis.26 . the husband should make her pound rice ( which is then . 7. The Ap. This work does not profess to give the bewildering differences of the several s'skha's and the several pro* vinces of Modern India. 15 ) closes with the aphorism 'some teachers hold that the rest of the dharma a (not described here) may be understood from (the usages of) women and of all varnas '. 25. sntra. minute divergences among the several works being such as the Asv. but will restrict itself principally to Western India and the &v. the SamskEramayukba of Nllakautha. 20. upanayana and marriage which are in Oarbhadhana: The beginnings of this ceremony are found very early. Further. Up. At the end of three VI. of which smrtis people. ( II. pointed B. 4. passed over. Innumerage to age.. the principal digests on samakSra relied upon here are the SamskSratattva of Raghunandana. Dh.13. other important works. Atharvaveda V. Ap. The method followed will be as follows. ' boiled and eaten with various other things according as he brown or dark son or a learned son or a learned then towards morning. the dbannasHtras. to the rule of the SthallpSka performed the preparation of the he sacrifices from the Sthallpaka little by little.. tlio SaihskSrakaustubha of Anantadeva and the SaraskSraratnamttla" of GoplnStha. after having according and . gr. particularly owing and digests take no notice. one and other should never lose sight of the fact that in a vast continent like India the various items in daily rites and ceremonies have always varied from and from caste to caste. one should observe 1 them in marriage ceremonies. the SarhskSra-prakSsSa of Mitramidra. and references will be given to Only important parts of procedure can be noted.. The material contained in the sutras. 1 ) states 'various indeed are the usages of the different countries and of the different villages . Manu. VI. This was the state of things even several centuries before Christ. The idv. Besides the grhya sUtras. Greater details will be given in the case of the two chief samskaras vogue even now. 4. smrtis and nibandhas ia so vast that only very concise statements can be made here.Ch. Each sarhskara will be described from a few representative grhya and dharma sutraa gr. 21 the passage of the Br.

. The words garbham dadhstu probably suggested the name * * ' ' . may Tvasta frame your beauty. oh.. ) Up. quoted above (where four mantras used in the garbhadhana samskara by Hir. caturthlkarma is described in the ) SSnkhayana " 18-19. vol.. 32. fills a water jar and sprinkles her thrice with water saying Rise. and the mantra oh SinIvSlI. 4. may PrajSpati sprinkle and may Dhata implant an embryo into you. . gr. 1 as is explained as earth and ama 7 ' 15. 25. may the two Asvins who wear a garland of lotuses plant in thee an embryo . 7. 25. Evidently this is a reference to the Br. 32. 220-221 for Muller notes that the passage E. let us strive together that a male child may be begotten ( VI. that a similar passage (where instead of 'sa" tvam there is 'sa tram') occurs in Ait. A. 1 am Ajna. The gr... 44-46 8. X. Oh Sinlvall Oh Prthustuka implant embryo ( in her ).. Vido Appendix for text and ' the translation of the passage. X. pp. B. VI. 2= Atharva V. this is fop 1 Anumati. expressly stated that in the Upanisad the ceremonies of Garbhalambhana ( conceiving a child ). 6. Atharvaveda V. 184. I am the sky. B. 27 * and that in the ChSndogya Up. rite called S.S the earth has fire inside it. vide S. Br. Up. Thou I am the Saman. a wife with her husband/ Then he embraces her and says I am Ama.. 25. 29.. (I. . 6 where we have an invocation to Sinivsli in the words 'give us progeny'.embryo into you is Rg.. I. 13. eats it and after having eaten he gives some of it to his wife. Pumsavana ( securing a male child ) and Anavalobhana ( guarding against dangers to the embryo are mentioned.an embryo/ is Rg. thou art the Rk. svaha Having sacrificed he takes out the rest of the 9 ice. 1 ) it is the woman being taken)'. B. pp. 71. ( I. 184. oh Vi&vSvasu. s^tf ^fir f^f^f:) explains prthuftuke aa 'pxthujagbane (having large buttocks or largo mass ' of hair ). The Hir. thou art the earth. Briefly the husband has intercourse with her and repeats certain mantras may Visnu make ready your private parts. as heaven has * ' f ' 1 ! Indra inside it. 4.. 21-22 cannot be literally translated for reasons of decency ). E. as the wind is inside ( as the embryo of ) the quarters.J02 History of DharmaiUstra is for [ Ok VI saying 'This Agnl. so and so ( the name of 470 In the Asv. and other grhya sutras occur ). 5. has the above two mantras and also the mantra *as the earth &c ' (and another mantra also) which four occur in Bp. 3 (where Saras vati is read for 'prthustuke The Nirukta ( XI.. Max 'amohasmi occurs in the Atharvaveda XIV. so I plant a garbha in thee. 21-22. thou art Sa. gr. 1. 1. B. 1=* as fire. 199. svftha . vol. vol The mantra 'may Visnu. VIII. 30 p. II. art 85. seek another blooming girl. Come. as follows Three 470.. on $g. Then he washes his hands. * ' ' * * garbhSdhSna given to this rite. this is for divine Savifcr the true creator.

The mantra 25. ( III. ( 1. ( I. B. quoted above from Br. 1. The ). vol. 30. brought out of the rivers of which the divine Gandharva ( S. with the words the mouth * of the ' Gandharva Vi^vavasu art thou '. 478 The Hir. that is p.Ch. 21-22 ) then touch her. months pp. while Badarfiyana prescribed that this was necessary only at the first cohabitation and after each monthly course. vol. ( gr. S. 5 S. 30. B. 200) Adreya held that mantras were to be repeated at each cohabitation throughout life. Then he should ( murmur of the into the breath I put the sperm. 10-11. 51-52 give briefly a similar procedure. E. 25. 25. much so that according to Hir. 11. Sftrya ( the mantra being the same for all three except the name of the deity). X. pp. B. gr. M. Prajapati ( the mantra (Agni) Svistakrt. after ten Par. ! so and so the name wife ( or he repeats the verse * * as the earth has 22 ) fire inside &c. B. 2. Vl ] Samskaras-Caturthtkarma 203 nights after marriage having elapsed. be seen that the 471. Jgr. 197-200 ) gives a very elaborate rite. One of the mantras is interesting on account of its reference to the cakravftka birds L 7. 29. a son. or several other verses in this strain 471 may . 6 ). 30. Up. This occurs also in I. VI. ( 8. possessed. 7. E. 11. vol. ) Oh 4. The concord that balonga to the cakravaka birds. P. 11 ). into the quiver a male embryo enter thy womb as an arrow may a man be born here. 7. pp. 9 gr. 1.3. 1. but on the same ( lines as the above grhyasutras. 10 ). L 7. The Vaik. But in ancient times every act was sought to be invested with a religious halo so . ( $g. 23. p. vol. X. 288-290 ) also has a similar procedure. S. * I. root of Adhyanda plant and sprinkles it into the wife's nostril with two verses He should with svaha at the end of each. Aryaman. thereby we are concordant 24. gr. ". HftgreNim ' 20 ascribes these views respectively to Adnmrathya and -Slekhana ^nf^S^TTT'nf . ) calls this gr. when about to cohabit. 11 to 7. ' is * 198 ). B. To modern minds it appears strange that intercourse should have been surrounded by so much of mysticism and religion in the ancient sutras. ceremony rtusaihgamana It will and is similar to Ap. and Hir. E. g. E. 472. S. E. Ap. on the fourth the'husband makes into fire eight offerings of cooked food to Agni. 10. vol. Pusan (mantras being the to same for these three ). (S. ) 267-268 Gobhila II. but refer to mantras given in the Mantrapatha ( e. Vayu. 23. Then he pounds the is ftg. 30. 85. vol. B. Varuna. Ap. E. 1. to I. 30 pp. 121.

46 ) and Yaj. 80 (that the Mula and Magha constellations must be avoided and the moon must be auspiciously placed ) and other later smrtis. Harlta also says the same. 47 ). 79 say rites that the natural period ( for conception ) is sixteen nights from the appearance of menses. vol 30 p. 128 and Yaj. Katyayana. VI by the grhya writers as part of the was performed irrespective of the and rite the marriage question whether it was the first appearance of menses or whether the wife had just before the marriage come out of her monthly illness. The smrtis and nibandhas add many details some of which will have to be noticed. In the later smrfcis like Laghu-Asvalayana III. Astrological details were added by Yaj. i. f 3 |*ft*qiQ*4J ft ^ %mr^ ^ <msrcVH. % 9. 474 f?f. S. suggests that the 4th after the 4th day has elapsed. 9. 1 says 47S that each of the even nights from the 4th to 16th ( after the beginning of the monthly illness ) are more and more suited for excellence of (male) offspring. IV. g*rtff I%WH x* it . week473. As the marriageable age of girls came down it appears that the rite of caturfchlkarma was discontinued and the rite was performed long after the ritual of marriage and appropriately named garbhadhana. 79 ) lay down that the first four nights must be omitted. E. i quoted in ffteNn%&r ^npsftr^iTft ipr ! p- 15. Manu ( III. gr. Ap. may ( be allowed ) if there I. 17 ) and others say that a woman in her menses is purified by bathing on the 4th day. I. that new days and the 8th and 14th tithis of the month were also to be omitted. tithis. Manu 79 added further restrictions viz. 1. This indicates that it was taken for granted that the wife had generally attained the age of puberty at the time of marriage. H *m in. 1 ) says that the garbhadhana ceremony should be performed on the first appearance of menses The Sm. ( I. B. which it is unnecessary to dwell upon. Laghu-Asvalayana ( III. I. 17. Par&sara ( VII. r- Sft *. 268. but Manu ( HI. Yaj. 14-19 and in nibandhas like the Nirnayasindhu and Dharmasindhu elaborate discussions are hold about the months. full moon and moon 474 is entire cessation of the flow. C. These two appear to allow garbhadhana on the fourth night.04 caturthlkarma History of Dharmaiastra is treated [ Oh.

p. should see no one else except her husband. 241 ) and 441. I.. I. VI ] 8amskaras-aarbhadh5na colour of 205 clothes. should ( brahmanas * is set in their periods/ A debatable question is of the garbha ( whether garbhadhana is a samskSra the child in the womb ) or of the woman. 7. ( III. while according to ^jstfr ^ricit 475. I fifrfrn iti^*i*i ' lf^ ^T ^r*TT^nxisjw<?: ' ft^^r^T on ift. 1. and Yaj. Manu (III. be inauspicious for the first 9 hold that a man desirous of male issue should cohabit on the even days from the 4th day after the appearance of menses and if he cohabits on uneven days a female child is born. 11. . 30 p. 16. 48). 16 says that the garbhadhana rite with tithi mantras was performed after marriage only once at the time of the first cohabitation according to some. 11 expressly to Simantonnayana have this opinion was in consonance with the usage in his days. on !? II. 24. MedhS478 on Manu II. 1. 199 ) and Bharadvaja prescribe that a woman in her menses who takes a bath on the 4th day should attire herself in white ( or pure ) 20 ) ornament herself and talk with ( worthy ) only ).. since the child born becomes like the male whom a woman taking a bath after the period looks at. <r* ^rnr^ i in srff&ffor quoted ^fr^o (unr. gr. Women give birth to a child similar in qualities to him on whomsoever their heart clothes. The Vaik.Ch. 477. 10 indicate that it a samskara of the garbha and not of the woman. ( I. Yaj. 478. while Simantonnayana being a samskara of the woman has to be performed only once and Yaj. p. should not converse with a woman. that were deemed to appearance of menses and about the Mantis (propitiatory rites) for averting their evil effects. Hir. or a 6udra. 3WM$tf *rr ij rctoT<Ti' . 24. . vol. Sankha-Likhita convey a similar eugenic suggestion. 9 ) further adds that she should anoint herself with unguents. Visivarupa on asserts that all samskfiras except be performed again and again ( as they are the sarhskaras of the garbha ). 17 ) also holds the same view. E. Ap. 47S I. (I. 8 ( S. B. VIII. 79). 16. days. is 47t Gaut. 476 viz. Manu.. Laghu-A6valayana ( IV. *3* 3nr ft.. trrcrfMUW I 20 476. T. naksatras. gr. Vaik.. gr.. III.

p. and slmantonnayana are samskfiras of the purhsavana woman and are to be performed only once and quote Harlta in support. 0.. 17. 25 and ^Q*qo I. I. 1. T*TT 5^^c!TT: ^Jcf: I 3*T1% srr^nsftr^i^: ^^^n^Tt (wmift?) ^gr ^^HlHt ^^ft < ' 165. ?T p. 7-9 ) and one with Rg. vide fifcrf. 170-171) hold the same opinion. three with the verses Vis^ur-yonim ( Rg. * above. Sm.11). 11 where a full vorse of is quoted.. 15. 0. 165 ). X. ( I.. I. 14 ) and other works garbhadhana is not of the nature of homa. gr. their 479 About the rules for women who are rajasvala monthly course ) vide later on. ( I. p. 121. homa for garbhadhana is to be performed in the grhya fire. the Sm.ZU6 History of Dhanhafastta [ Oh. ( in According to Kulluka ( on Manu II. 407. and the Saihskara-mayukha and the Samskarapraka&a (pp. VI others it was to be performed after every menstruation till conception. The Samskarakaustubha ( p. 909) hold that garbhadhana. p. . 1 12. but there is no homa when the cohabitation takes place on the second or later appearance of menses that those in whose sutra no homa is prescribed should perform the garbhadhana rite on the proper day after the first appearance of menses by reciting the mantras but without homa. which combines the latter half of ^rficT with the half verse of i^7 quoted 480. while puihsavana is repeated at each conception. I ^^FTTTcf^T of ^H*-<(H ( p. 27 ).. (on Yftj.. three with nejamesa ( Ap. Apararka holds that slmantonnayana is performed only once at the first conception. L_ i/.. 59 ) relying on Grhyapari6ista prescribes homa in which cooked food is to be offered to Prajapati and seven offerings of ajya are to be offered in fire. 909 ) j p. the Sm. C. The Dharmasindhu says that when garbhadhana takes place on the first appearance of menses. 1-3 ). 4g|tfTu iq ^nffa^T: PI TVlfyMlQ^^*^ H . ' * ' * All sarhskaras other than garbhadhana can be performed by any agnate in the absence of the husband ( vide Samskara- praka&a 479. the Samskaratattva (p. X. In the ( III ^nj ) the verse ftm f^rnnft i ascribed . He relies on Par. Later works like the Mit. 184. 10 ( prafcpate na ). 17 ) quotes a verse of Visnu that according to some even slmantonnayana is repeated at each conception. 48 p. on *rr.

at their ends with his thumb and fourth finger. with hands turned the inside being upwards. (3) Having do which not bear a young shoot in blades with unbroken ends. e. paristarana &c. of the measure of a span. e. VI ] Sarhskaras and homa 207 As boma is necessary in numerous ceremonies and rites. . . with the rays of the Vasu ( i. vol 29 pp. to the north (in order ) in this way ( all acts like parisamuhana. I. 482 taken two kuSa purifying of the ajya is done. 3. e. to The Hjya to Agni the south of it. wiping or sweeping the ground round the fire). Then silently he should sprinkle ( water ) round ( the fire ). B. 1. 13-15. parisamuhana (i. them. (4) The strewing of kuSa grass ( paristarana ) round the fire may or may not be done in the ajya homas ( i. once with this mantra. then paristarana ( i. Vide Appendix for the text of 3*T*T %. 10. *re 3r^RlQiiMHUTfclK44 483. one to the west ( of that part of the sthandila on which the fire is to be placed ) but turned northwards. rich or good ) sun *. 3. sacrifices in which clarified butter alone is to be offered into the fire ). (2) With two ( kusa blades used as ) strainers ( pavitra ) the . ^ggfomiKNimqlvrqHpfr g is qi^srfr rerfr qfrrnr reitfir s. to the west. ) should end in the north. (5) So also the two ajya portions (6) And ( the ( may optionally be offered ) in the Pakayajnas. 481. . 8. put then he should perform ( two or three samidhs ) on the fire 44 Now wherever ( a ( person ) intends 488 should besmear . two lines turned towards the east but separately at the two ends ( of the line first drawn ) ( then he should draw ) three lines in the middle (of the two) let him then sprinkle (the sacred sthandila) with water. 482. e. offered to the north of the fire and that to Soma . the grhyasutras give a description of a model homa. establish the ( sacred ) fire ( on the sthandila ). to offer a sacrifice he with cowdung ) a sthandila ( a slightly raised square surface of sand or loose earth ) of the dimension at least of an arrow on all ( four ) sides let him then draw six lines ( in all ) on it. twice silently. he purifies the ajya ( from the west ) towards the east with (the words ) by the urging of Savitr I purify thee with this uninjured * pavitra. A&valayana a few important points of difference being added from other grhyasutras and other works. E. Therefore here also it would be well to set out the description from the 481 Grhyasutra ( I.Ch. 162-163 ). strewing darbha grass round ) to the east to the south.

In the SankhSyana procedure described is gr. vol. vol. 29 pp. 9. gr. B. 22-31 ) the more elaborate and contains some important differences. 1. gr. vide respectively srr*?. 8. 21 ). Sankhayana adds ( I. 6-7 ) to the south of the sthandila spoon are purified just as ajya is purified and then a portion of the water in the sruva is poured on to the pranlta water and the rest of the water in the sruva is called the proksanl water with which the havis. 7. 2 ( S. 1. 30pp. vol. VI employment in Pakayajnas ) of the brahmS priest is optional except in the Dhanvantari sacrifice and Sulagava sacrifice. The performer ( I. 9. B. 133 ). 7. 8. he is represented by a bundle of ku6a grass In the grhya rites ordinal ily no brahmS priest is present. 1 lays down that sruva spoon is the vessel in all grhya rites ( and not juhu as in 6rauta rites ) except where a special rule to the contrary is stated. p. 6-7 ) draws one line in the middle of the sacrificial surface from south to north and from this line only three lines are drawn upwards. Brahma. says that the seat of the brahmS priest is and he is honoured with flowers. 8. very concise manner. pp. E. The Gobhila (I. one to the south of it. B. one in the middle. 7 and IV. Sankhayana I. I.are different according to other g. 1. 138-145) describe it at great length. B. The Par. E. 9-11 ) that paristarana follows after the carrying forward of the pranlta waters. 3. and I. E. ^rff . gr. and one to the north ( i. ethere are only four lines and not six as in Asvalayana). It also adds ( I. E. 9-1. S. 8. I. the idhma ( fuel ) and barhis ( kusas ) are sprinkled. 1. 8. pp. 4. The deities are specified or indicated . 29. 30. I. 376-378 ) describe the model gr. 269-270 ) and the Khadira gr. *T5T and ^IH when none sfctras e. 1 ( S. ! 12. The sthandila should be raised to the height 484. Hir. Indra. 7 ( S. Vi6ve Devas ( all gods). the end there is an offering to Agni Svistakrfc ( vide Appendix under note 481 for the mantra ).208 History of Dharmattstra all [ Oh. 7 S. but For q*^R( 50 blades ). 1. 9. homa in a 9-11. The sthandila should be prepared on a level spot or on a spot that slopes towards the east or north or north-east ( vide Hir. 13-20. ( 1. svaha deities to '. ) . ) the detail that the pranltS waters are carried forward on the north side and ( I. I. 8. 5. vol. B. 24-25 ) that waters in the sruva Further it ( I. vol. 9. 29. (8) If there is no specific direction ( as to the 484 whom the offerings are to be made ). Prajapati. E. mgMJjjj states them to be arftf. the deities are At Agni. (?) ' He should offer the sacrifice with the words to such and such a deity.

51 ) quotes from the Adityapurffga a passage where an aratni is said to be equal to 21 angulas.D.. I.9. 905) a sinrti that a vitasti is equal to 12 is and aratni given aa five aratni a. 21 the height of a man is 1. H. The &p. describes at length the procedure common to all The following sthandila. camasa and ajyapafcra. ABCD is the sthandila of lines sand or loose earth the fire . gr. darvi and sruva. 8. 3 485 ). ij. ( ). the position of the sacrificer and of the various idbma articles required at the _ __ _East_ time of homa &c. homas. the lines figures would illustrate the position of the drawn thereon. drawn with a samidh on which is to The above ftjya figure represents the position of all materials in ( i. each side of which is given variously as being an arrow Vajk. and the sthandila is to be a square. an homa e.Vl| of SatheKOraa and finger breadths or as hama 309 as the sand or loose two or four much earth that one has brought will allow . . the materials on the north side are carusthall and proksanapatra. 1-6 are the be placed. In effRTT'nwfcr 16. g-r. offering of clarified butter ( there is darvihoma only but when offering of boiled food in a darvi or ladle ) ) . Mi T* 1*1* *i^i^H angulas equal to two vitastis. idhma and barhis 485. 3^TTT^ quotes (p. B barhis 3 Q Sjyapfftra pranaya- -c napStra sruva proksanapatra D West o C Sacrificer facing the east. paribhasa L 5.Cfo.. or 32 finger breadths or one aratni ( ( according to =21 angulas according to Baud. while t*mf? ( gcT^P'^ part 1 p.I7 . 18 angulas ) in length.

The brahma is the only priest ( out of the f oui rtviks) in sacrifices that are offered in one fire ( n grhya fire) and are called pakayajfias and the k gru ( himself the hotr priest. arranging of sthandila with sand or earth . then paristarana ( strewing darbha grass round the altar first to the east. The order of the in the homa is as follows: 487 upalepana ( smearing with cowdung ). M. gt.History of DharmaiMra ) I Oh. 1. on . each 486. 3. 1- 20. Then parisamuhana ( wiping the ground round the fire from north-east with the hand that has water in it ). 1MB is base4 on NsrSya^a'a com. keeping the ) outside the sthandila ( towards the north-east. then silent paryukfana (sprinkling of water thrice round the fire. The above is the figure of the sthandila and the lines thereon in all grhya rites according to Baudh&yana-grhya-samgrahaparisista ( Z. placing two or three samidhs on the fire. then acamana by the sacrificer ). then to the west and lastly to the north ). keeping ready of idhma (15 samidhs) and a bunch of darbha grass. ) East 5 Q seat of brahma*. and'Kumarila- 20. 487. keeping the samidh on the lines with its end towards the east. vol. D. VI 14 (according to isvalfiyana-grhya-pariSista kSrika 1 2. drawing lines on the sthandila with a samidh (fuel stick). *$&% *TO*n sfrf?*^ i tr i I. The distance between the lines running towards the east is six aiigulas and it will be noted that all the lines are only five ( and n<nlfcti~ ). 52-58. West Sacrificer faoing the east. sacrificer ) is 486 several parts sprinkling sthandila with water on its samidh ( with which lines were drawn north or east. I. then placing fire ( either produced by attrition or brought from the house of a srotriya or the ordinary one ) on the sthandila facing the performer. r. 540 ) I. 8-9 *r: 9?*4ffnft ^Tf^isr 1. Q. 35 p. then to the south. 1-9.

to put the this is for such and such ( oblation ) on fire and to say a god and not mine '.fcfcu Vl ) 8aMkUro9 and horn ill time taking water in the hand separately ). 3. then the pranlta'pa'tra is placed to the west of the fire. the several vessels to the north of the fire on darbha grass in pairs with both hands. the vessel is raised level with one's nose and placed to the north of the fire on darbhas. once with mantra and twice silently of ajya. 13. Then he takes two blades ( as described in A4v. then finally an oblation to Agni The method of offering an oblation is to repeat the Svistakrfe. the two Sgharas and the two oblations the principal oblations as directed in the various sufcras. 1. ^Tf| The fTTfTt *t **T5T. then the other vessels are turned upwards. the two pavitras (kua'a blades used as strainers are placed inside it and water is poured into the pranlta'pa'tra and sandalwood paste is mixed with it. that sfltra viz. upanayana. 3. satra II. 3. 4 ) further adds that in caula. Vide Ip. and covered with This is pStrSsSdana. two kua blades as strainers 488 ). NffrSyana mentions also other acts not specified by AdvalSyana which may be done even by a person following darbhas. TO ig^t TO -SgbSra consists in pouring in a continuous stream clarified butter for Prajapati on the fire from the north-west to the south-east once and then from the south-west to the north-east for Indra. 7 and II. 489. IX. 10) or with the vyahrtis. gr. For Sjyftbbjfga see note 483. 14. 66. I. X. TOffT* s>. the faces of the vessels being turned down. 1 and NarSyana on AST. Then ahuti mantra preceded by om and to add sv&ha at the end. 489 * The A6v. thou purifiest life &o and with the one verse Prajapati no other than thou &c ( Rg. carrying a firebrand ( burning blade of darbha ) round the clarified butter and cleansing of arwc and srwwi. 12. i i rnr spef *m'. 489 or ' * 1 ' 438. 10. 121. 4 ) o. gr. grhya-sutra ( I. I. the bundle of idhma is loosened and all vessels are sprinkled with water. ffr In offering an oblation to DhStr one would say 3R*re<rfifh i * sjf TirRn *r *Pn$hii*ft *r T: $3&r four oblations with the vyffhrtis *FR?J ^Tfr would be ^t ^TTfT. then apah-pra$a( carrying forward the water to the north of the fire ) in a vessel of bell-metal or earthenware. and throwing of the rope that tied together idhma into the fire at the end of the oblation to Sviftakrt. gr. paryuk^ana In some works pa"tra"sa~dana is taught after paristarana and It consists in placing ( Tide NSrffyana on AsV. . ).spavitraa and places them in the prok^anapStra the face of which is turned up and pours water in the prok^anapStra and thrice purifies the water with them. then ajyotpavana ( purifica- yana tion of the clarified butter wifch thrice. godana and marriage there are ( as part of these ceremonies ) first four oblations of clarified butter to be ' made with the three mantras ( Rg. 10-12 ) Oh Angi.

two auspicious kalasas ( jars ) filled ground with their with water are placed on such ornamented mouths covered with a pot. i ta^^vnw *rfro?ftg Htert^ I an*. pranayama by him. 58-59 where these rites are set out. U. i. fire is In modern times. II. after the sthandila is sprinkled with water. 9 . rite to in * tively the called 492 upanayana and marriage Samudbhava and Yojaka f ' respec- '. 491 special oblations. whiHiityi TI WTIRTO tifcrtro wcnS tt. 6. according to medieval works. matrkapujana and Nandldraddha. m After these. VI and vyahrtis according to some teachers with a combination ( of the rk verses 490 while according to others there are no such ). All rites begin with acamana by the performer. but oblations will have to bq offered to those deities that are prescribed as the deities where no special rule exists ( ride 5^v. 8 set out above at p. Vide pp. two e. Sandilya mesadhvaja mama sammukho varado bhava other acts stated above.brahmanas learned in the Vedas. One is that in samskaras one has to feed . ). *. several sarhsksras names of the fires in the and DSnakriySkaumudi (pp. i. ^. . 205-206 ) quotes from Kapila PancarStra over 80 names of the fires kindled in the several rites and ceremonies. Then follow parisamuhana and are all Just as certain matters homa is required in most grhya rites there common to almost all rites. all articles necessary for worship are placed to the north of the spot. 490. ITT. the worship of Matrs (mother goddessess) and Nandlfiraddha According to some there is only one samkalpa for all these . 3. ). established on it under various names depending on the be performed fire is e. has a piece of ground cowdunged and lines with coloured materials are drawn on a portion of the ground. 1. there will be eight oblations ( 4 with rks and 4 with nor with the vyShrtis 491. e. 15. 208 492. follow in all auspicious rifces the worship of Ganapati. gr. . Then fuel sticks already sprinkled with holy water are placed on the fire and it is fanned into a flame and prayer is offered to it in the words * agne VaiSvanara '. g. The 493. puny aha vacana . reference to the de&a ( place ) and kala ( time ) and a samkalpa rifce he is performing and for what ( a declaration of whafc purpose ). according to others there is a separate samkalpa for each of In all punyahavacana. auspicious rites the performer takes a bath first.Jlfc History of Dhamafastra I Oh. ties his topknot. there are no oblations with the 4 verses four vyahrtis. tf.

57. $. 112. Hastimukha. \ ngt i III. 1 The well-known mantra ( gananam tva ganapatim havamahe Rg. the head of an * elephant. his wife sits to his right and if the ceremony is meant. 2. 496. Dh. ) all samskaras and other auspicious rites are to be performed at certain auspicious times only. Sthula. 25 we have ' the plural ( GanapatibhyaSca vo namo ) and in 22. In Vaj. The peculiar features of Gane^a as described in the medieval works. therefore may the tusked is Grhya and Dharma sutras there of Gane&a at the beginning of contemplate In the impel us no reference to the worship We god ) '. an. 1. Varada. - * i I. viz.Oh. 30 we have the singular Ganapataye svaha '. The Ait. Vlra. 1. 83-90. anniversary sraddha &c. Ar. ( II. the brahmanas are seated a little away to the right of the wife. In the Baud. Vinayaka. 1 ) which is used to invoke Gane6a is addressed to Brahmapaspati. S. ^ & ^ vrnr f?f ^mfawrr 3 zsw* ^TT^ ^ ^3f nm snfpS I. i . 494. . facing the 494 north and the performer sips water (takes acamana). 497. all auspicious rites. In the Tai. 15 ) there is a verse 497 ( ' Vakratunda. In the Vaj. : This consists in inviting the presence of Gariapatipujana the elephant-faced god Ganesa on a betelnut placed in a handful of husked rice. (X. 1.4. the latter sits to the right of the wife . S. *r. II. IV. 4. 6. *. p. S. 23. S. 14. mouse as vahana ( conveyance ) are entirely wanting in the Vedic literature. S. Except where a religious rite is to be performed on a fixed day ( e. vide also &. vol. specially ) are said to be the Ganapatya of Rudra. nr^tj^i^ f^T^ ^7f>&"er<i *ft*jft W^f ?||^f: ( 3ffift ? ) M^Tl^M Iff U J. E. g. S. *T3T. 4 expressly says that the mantra gananSm tva ' ' is addressed to Brahmanaspati. 16. In the Tai. 8. IV. The word Ganapati is used in the ftgveda as an attribute of Brahmanaspati * ( the lord of prayer or holy lore ). pot belly. 254 ) the Devatarpana includes the propitiation of Vighna. 495. X. for his son. X. 2 and Vaj. pa6us ( and the horse 9. Indra is addressed as Ganapati in Rg. HRsrrer 1. 495 Br. 5. IIL-57 the mouse 4M is said to be the pasu ( animal to be offered to ) of Eudra. That is comparatively a later cult. ittsr IV. VI ] Preliminaries in all Sartekftras 213 wooden low stools or planks are arranged to the west of the spot so decorated. B. the performer sits on one plank faoing the east. 1.

275) says that there are four Vinayakas. 563 on Yaj. . Salakatankata and Kusmandarajaputra and describes seizure by them and its effects in the same way as the Manavagrhya. asses. smrti Here Vinayaka ( I. 271-294 ). 563. Baijavapagrhya (quoted by Apararka p. he is 498 represented not only as causing obstacles. . 6 ). Sammifca. in anrTO? p. Salakatankata. Yaj. grhya-sesasutra III. princes. Usmita and Devayajana. does not 498. These two show the first stage in the development of the cult of Vinayaka. is of History of Dharmatnstra [ Oh. SaTla and Katankata as distinct and so also Ku^m&nda and RKjaputra). The Manavagrhya then prescribes propitiatory rites to remove the effects of Vinayaka seizure. VinSyakas are at this stage malevolent spirits who cause dangers and obstacles of various kinds. When though capable. persons with matted hair or wearing yellowish seized Vakratunda. 499. . In this cult various elements from the terrific aspects of Rudra were probably first drawn upon and amalgamated with other elements drawn from aboriginal cults. Kusmandarajaputra. Ekadanta and Lambodara. Thii adds some weight to the theory that Ganerfa was taken over into the Vedic pantheon from some exotic tribe and affiliated to Budra ( 6iva ). camels. garments. 14 it is said that the Vinayakas are four viz. 10. hogs. Yaj. though endowed with all accomplishments. I. 8. enumerates the results of the seizure by Vinayaka in the same way as the Manavagrhya. It is remarkable that K^lra on Amarakoda expressly says that Heramba ia a Derfya word. All the above are the appellations of Vinayaka (vide Baud. They are evil spirits and people when seized by them have bad dreams and see in them inauspicious sights such as shaved persons. 271 ) is said to be one appoin( I. The next stage is indicated by the Yaj. but also as bringing success in the actions and rites undertaken by men. I. It is noteworthy that Yaj. cannot secure husbands married women have no children or even virtuous wives lose their children in infancy husbandmen lose their crops &c.4U Baud Dh. Though Vidvartipa and AparSrka take these to be four. The by them. do not get their kingdoms maidens. q. 285 says that Mita. Mifca. Sammita. makes them to be six ( viz. candalas. Salakatankata and Kusmandarajaputra are the 4 four names " of the one Vinayaka and that Ambika is the mother of Vinayaka. In the Manaya grhya II. Vl But this part of the doubtful authenticity. . ted by Brahma and Budra to the over-lordship of the Ganas. it ia curious that the Mit.

Kalidasa does not refer to Gane&a.Oh. Ekadanta. but this part is apocryphal as many mss. The Krtyaratnakara p. The Mahavlracarita ( II. Vide Agnipurana chap. 2 of the tusk of Ganadhip* verse Ucohvasa large ) speaks ( IV and in describing Bhairavacarya ( Harsacarifca III ) associate* Vinayaka with obstacles and learning and also indicate* that he had the head of an elephant. A. In ' Codrington's Ancient India plate XXXIX there is an image of Gape6a referable to about 500 A. viz. 23 and Anusasana 150. 52-55 ) describes how the imagei Apararka ( p. 3. Bhandarkai Bana in his Harsacarite in Vaisnavism and Saivism p. ' and also hastimukha and vighnesvara and prescribes the Thus Baudhayana is offerings of apupa and modaka to him. VI 1 Sarhskaras-GanapatipUjana 4IS employ any one of the well-known epithets of Vin$yaka. 289. In thai work (IV. The well-known characteristics of Gane&a and his worship had become fixed before the 5th 01 6th century of the Christian era. 380-384. The Gobhilasmrti ning of all rites. gr. bear affinity to the description 65. for 1898 The other references in Vanaparva pp. nearer to the medieval conception of GaneSa than even Yajfiavalkya. Qajanana. R. 72) an image of Ganesa is referred to as made use of as a pillow and the tip of his trunk is mentioned in V. 13 prescribes that at the begin- Matrs together with Ganadhipa ( the lord of Ganas ) should be worshipped. 38 ) speaks of the tusk of Heramba The Matsyapurana ( chap. Lambodara &c. Vide Dr. . 71 and 313 500. 271 quotes for the worship of Ganesa or passage from the Bhavisyapurana the 4th day of Bhfidrapada. The Gathasaptasatl has references to Ganesia. 25. 54 ) there is a fantastic legend about the birth oi Vinayaka. The Adiparva makes Gane6a write the MahSbharata ' ' * ' to the dictation of Vyasa . 260. 147.7 ) on the mahad&na callec ( the from Matsyapurana age Mahabhutaghafa. D. 6e$asutra III. 10 prescribes a somewhat different procedure for propitiating Vinayaka and styles him the lord of bhutas '. the (in verse) 1. 8. 343 ) quotes a pass of Vinayaka are to be made. In the Vamanapurane ' ' ' ( chap. in which it is said that Vinayaka should bi shown as riding a mouse. Winternitz ). Heramba. mu \ 3T3&rmr 150. 25 of 50 Vinayaka in the Manavagrhya. altogether omit this episode ( vide J. The Baud.

216 History of Dharmafastra I Oh. g-pT means gift as well ichor. ' the ' f Although many elaborate descriptions of Punyahavacana given in later digests like the Sarhskararatnamala. make ( this rite ) free from obstacles *. Dh. 1 ( ganSnam tva Ganapatim ) as a prayer and then bowing to Gane6a with the words Om MahSganapataye namo namah nirvighnam kuru ( salutations to the great Ganapati. 4. near Jejuri. S. p. 612 a scheme . p. 619 ). aft ^nETVR or * erf TR quoted ^^lUWHlWI . > the performer says ' yi^ II and the in irrgT'Ts respond p. 5^9 is the capital of the Siddis on the west coast south of Bombay. all auspicious rites ( such as marriage ) all sentences begin with 1 Om * as in saying punyaham '. n. n^ M E. 8 ) says that in ordinary life in rite. XII. 13. Morgaon. I. Theur and Siddhateka ( p. this was originally in ancient times a very simple and brief The Ap. Ojhar (where there is the shrine of Vighnedvara) is 28 miles from Poona and 8 miles from Junnar. 1$ refers to J^ITR ( about 4 miles from Khopoli). I. XII. VI 501 In modern times a verse the eight is repeated in which the shrines of Vinayakas in the Decoan are enumerated. f^r%^ refers to flr^tef ( about 30 miles from Dhond). ( I. * middle of 7th The Ganapatipujana consists in the performer repeating mantra Rg. Vol. In wf3d*U4|M the performer says aigflHi*?: HIT *T^cft wif?jf and the brahmanas reply arif ^I^T ' * ' 5 the performer says the ^TSTTS reply * aft jjuqmq. Among the earliest epigraphic references to Ganapati ( is the one in the Nidhanpur plate of Bhaskarvarman 508 century ). 23. trajT is 12 miles from gaon is three miles from Jannar. II. t<*ltn am 502 about to perform and then the brShmanas * 501. 503. flowers and tambula ( betel leaves ) and requests with folded hands 'may you declare the day to be auspicious for such and such a ceremony which I.'was framed by the Bombay High Court for the famous shrine of Maiigalanmrti at Chinchwad near Poona which has under its jurisdiction the shrines at is Poona and Lenysdri 30 miles from Poona. RSnjana* Besides these there are famous Ganapati shrines atjChinchwad and at Pujem near Ratnagiri on the sea coast. svasti \ and rddhim \ The performer of a religious rite honours the assembled brahmanas with gandha ( sandal wood paste ). 502. 73. by : this are ' * ' name so and so. In 15 Bom. Vide E. The eight places are indicated by thick type. 73.

11-20 and 38 ) ( abhls^a-devata ). there is a description of the images of some of the matrs like BrahmanI &c.. Dhrfci. 58. Bana in his Kadambarl frequently refers to the matrs. These verses are quoted in the ^ra^o The seven in the Hl&^4 are argmft. 504. A. VI. VI. ). The Kadambas are described as meditating on Kartikeya-SvamI and on the group of matrs ( I. The Matsyapurana (chap. ^ifiin^^HMi^MqTT^^nm^n * sfi^nm'* 1. 88. to their worship and to dila505 The KrtyaratnSkara quotes pidated temples'of these goddesses. a passage from the Bhavisyapurana at p. . A. The Calukyas * are often described as* cherished by the seven matrs ( I. 73 in 535 sake and E. p. 25. Kaumari. 305 and 307 quote the Devlpurana about the worship of matrs and the flowers dear to them. with it be auspicious Each punyaham and rddhim ) '. VI. Matrkapufana figure in the : sutras. 261 ( 24-36 ). 14 matrs viz. may svasti. 261 about the images of the seven matrs and pp. 25 ) 5 6 Similarly a . Padma. Jay5 Devasena. Svadha. vol. to be verse repeated thrice according to Baud. Vijaya. vol. 56 ) refers to the images of the mother goddesses. of Yama says that the brahmanas should respond without the syllable oni when the performer of the rite is a ksatriya or a * A ' vaisya. 49 ). t of mafcrs is mentioned in the Bihar Sfcone Pillar Inscription of Skandagupfea ( Gupfca Inscriptions pp.. p. 503 ) and 505. The Matrs ( the Mother Goddesses ) do not But that their worship was prevalent certainly in the first centuries of the Christian era throughout India can be proved from several sources. IX. vol. Svaha.p. Brahml. while in chap. Camunda ). * ' ( sn^*. p. desa-sutra 1. 10. ?8 * is not accurate. 11-12 ) names Gaurl. D.Oh. Fleet's translation who meditate on -the assemblage of the mothers of SvSml KSrtikeya H. gr. ' ) para 216 . STf^nT^u-iHjId^l^Md^l^iJMi^i^^ ( t4/c)tfti*i ) in para 64. Tusti and one's own deity In the Markandeya ( chap. VI 1 Preliminaries in all Saihskaras * 217 of these is respond by saying three sentences ( Om. 100 in 660 A. 47.. Sad. Pusti. The Brhat-Sarhhita of Varahamihira (chap. vol. A. 179. p. In the drama Mrcchakatika (I) Carudatta asks his friend Maifcreya to offer The Gobhila-smrti 504 ( in verse 1. 517. seven matrs have been named as Matrgana.. D. Savitrl. The worship bali to the Mfifcrs. Medha. 9-32 ) names over a hundred mother goddesses (like Mahesvarl. p. para 130 r^NgNT^>>^r 506.. I.

11.. pumsavana ( generation of should make her take three handfuls ( of curds with two beans and barley ). 2-7 describes the rite as follows effected he should in the third month of pregnancy.' B1 ' ' '. On his asking ( the woman ) what dost thou drink ? after she has fasted. place pumsavana after slmanton3T$Ttf *TH *TTcR* 507. gr. 14. There Hir. 1. VI is said to have been ereoted by Mayftraksa. 509. gr. VII and pp. IX. and Bharadvaja gr. In this way ( he ) a male ). 4 the seven mothers are said to regulate soma when it is being prepared ( the seven mothers are probably the seven metres or the seven rivers ). p. ^. the spouse of Siva. 1. 102. Pusya ( ) give ( thrice ) to eat to the wife. is some difference of view as to details. The Ap. D. Vi6vavarman in 480 of the Malava Era i. 102. XOIV and XOV ) shows how figurines of mother goddesses are common at Mohenjo-Daro. 423-24 A. 1 3m VI. 4. on the preceding Punarvasu constellation ) in the curds of a cow which has a calf of the same colour (wifch the cow ) two beans and one grain of barley for each handful of curds. . 11. I. : 1 lation Tisya ( i. IX. which was not described in the Grhyasutras. under the constel: ' ' * '.218 temple to the Matrs the minister of History of DharmatUalra { Ch. 508 The word 'pumsuvana* occurs in the Atharvaveda VI. 74 ). was derived it is difficult to say. : This will be dealt with under Sraddhas This rite is so called because in virtue of it a Pumsavana male is born. 13. 1 where 509 it appears to be used literally ( in the The Asvattha tree is sense of giving birth to a male child ) on top of the SamI tree. * what dost thou drink ? '. e. 9 . ^K 166-167. ^tfwjea 3<ua<g^gr &5*nf %*% Vide Appendix for text. ^tiqiRrc) en*i*iiil<< ^*T tft*tM on WT. 510. e. That shows that the cult prevailed in the remotest antiquity and was probably taken up by the followers of the Vedic religion and ( affiliated to the worship of Durga. she should thrice' reply pumsavana '. 608. gr. frqWIUId iStf fl^ I 3?. Gupta Inscriptions p. Whence the cult of matrs. there the birfch of a male has been The A&v. 50T NandUraddha later on. In 5g. 49-52 and plates XII. Sir John Marshall in his famous work on Mohenjo-Daro ( vol.

says it may be performed when pregnancy becomes apparent. Mrgadiras and Pu?ya the SamskSra-mayakha adds that the NSradiya mentions Bohini. if one of the same colour could not be had. 46 ) says that the rite may be performed on Tisya or Sravana. ( I. ( I. Yaj. Khadira prescribe the third month. . 14 and Jatukarnya (Sam. the male nak^atras are Hasta. after the 5th ) and the Manava gr. p. In the Ka^haka gr. 14). San. 10 every time with two boans and a grain of This is made clear III. e. Mnla. According to a verse quoted in Sm.Pr. gr. of Kathaka gr. M. 27. E. . Sravana. while the BharadvSja gr. 11. tn$?f^T on f%r^T ^[< I* 1* 5 saya 8pGT . S. VI ] Puihsavana 219 nayana and Ap. ) say that pumsavana should be performed before the foetus begins to move or throb in the worab. she is to lick the curds barley . Par. I. vol.. 29. 11 also has '3Ti}{m^WnfHNI i^ 512. Asv. Punarvasu. says that it should be performed in the 8th month of pregnancy.. ) says the usage of months 511. 2 and Brhaspati ( quoted in the Sin. gr. gr.Ch. 11. AnurSdhS and A4vinl * also as male nak$atras. he requires the bringing of a shoot of the branch of a nyagrodha tree which ( tree ) points eastward or northward and which has two ( fruits that look like ) testicles and the pounding of the shoot and fruits by a girl who has not attained puberty between two upper stones of ( two mills ) with water. 512 Par. 2 the proper time is said to be when the greater number of pregnancy are past ( i. San.O. PilrvSbhSdrapadS and UttarHbhadrapadS also as male naksatraa and that Vasiftha regards SvSti. 22 ) says that it may be performed on Tisya or Hasta or Anuradha or Uttara" or Prosthapada Paraskara and Baijavapa say it should be performed when the moon is in conjunction with a male naksatra. P.. Gobhila. B. ?wn*Fr TJT MI^Txfl WT gr. 20. 14. 14 ). He further notes that the curds may be of a cow the calf of which is of a different colour. ( I. NSrSyana says that in this rite one has to perform at first the sthalipaka intended for PrajSpatt up to the offering of the two Sjyabhffgas and then one should perform what is specially prescribed bore. Devapala ( com. 1. 167 ) and Baijavapa ( ibid. by p. S. C. 32. The curds are to be poured from the vessel of curda on to the woman's band thrice. Visnu Dh. He then prescribes that the wife should lie down on her back to the west of the fire herself facing the east and that the husband should insert in her right nostril the pounded substance with his thumb with the formula (pumsavanam-asi) found in Ap. Hir. (II. Instead of two beans and a barley 511 grain in curds. ) say that the rite should be performed in the 2nd or 3rd month of pregnancy. p. the beans and barley grain are suggestive.

as already said. X. This latter rule applies to Slmantonnayana also. XIIL 4 ( Rg. it should be performed in ordinary kitchen fire ( p. Paraskara ( S. vol. vol.171) says 'He performs the pumsavana and anavalobhana the in the fortnight of the waxing moon on an auspicious day when moon is in conjunction with a naksatra ( deemed to be ) a This shows that both were performed on the same day. 121. 17. E. the Ka^haka gr. III. 9. Asv. 46) prescribes the four verses Rg. male Another sutra of Baijavapa quoted in the Samskaramayukha 5M says that the two are to be performed in the 2nd or 3rd month '.. 29. ) says that the usage is to perform it in the 7th or 8th month of pregnancy. vol. 4. 29. ( quoted in the Sarhskarapraka&a p. 815 ). The mantras repeated when inserting the substance in her nostril are different according to most siltras. I.. 394) mentions Mantra-Brahmana I. . quotes Kathaka Samhita. 1 ) and XXXI. for pumsavana Anavcdobhana or Garbharaksaria : This rite was apparently part of Pumsavana. elements. B. 2 and IX 3.280 History of Dharma&Bstra [ Oh. B. p. 9. by a chaste brShinana woman. 513. E. 14 ) it is difficult to say. gr. Khadira gr. 29. VI of Vistas is to perform it in the 8th month and Brahmabala another com. symbolical or suggestive (the drinking of curds with beans and grain of barley ) and medical ( inserting some substance in the woman's nostrils ). Later works like the Samskararatnamala prescribe a homa also and remark that when in the absence of the husband. The several sutras of the Black Yajurveda show the greatest divergence It among themselves. For what purpose the placing of the v bile of a tortoise on the woman's lap was prescribed by Paraskara alone ( 1.E. V. B. p. separately men tions pumsavana and anavalobhana as referred to in the Upanisad. 4. The Baijavapa gr. 292) prescribes Vaj. 1. religious would be clear that the pumsavana rite has several (homa and son's importance from ancient times).p. Most of the grhyasutras refer to the ( 513 pounding of the shoot of the Nyagrodha tree (or some other plant) and inserting fche pounded substance in the wife's right nostril. Sankhayana (S. According to the KSthaka gr. 8. with svaha at the end of each verse. the pounding ia to be done by a virgin or a brahmacarin or 514. S. ( S. the husband's brother or other relative performs the rite. 37 . 3.

The an.Oh. p. with the verges ( Bg. 162 ) with svaha uttered at . X. 2 <?i^TO *T $1313. put in the nostril silently or to the accompaniment of two mantras. in Prajapati. *T . that I understand. what is hidden in thy heart. ' ' : from thy eyes. removal of disease ( . ( I. first is practically the same as 4. gr. 23. the 2nd is an*. : according to some ( teachers ). really anavalopana from the root lup with ava ). with the verse Oh thou whose hair is well parted. 29. The <nI. B. besmearing her limbs with clarified butter at each verse. VI ] Anavalobhana 2Jt of pregnancy. Having offered a sacrifice of cooked food to Prajapati he should touch the region of her heart is which not faded 515 . 163. 162 is to be there is abortion and on X. According to the Smrfcyarthasara it "is to be performed in the fourth month. According to Saunaka-karika ( Ms. gr. 51 6. ( mayst thou understand ) me who know that. 47 ) speaks of a ceremony called Garbharaksana ( protection of the foetus ) " In the fourth month the garbharaksana offering six oblations into fire from a mess of cooked food with the six verses of the hymn brahmanagnih 517 ( Rg. According to Laghu-A6valayana IV. e. 163 that it is meant for when repeated 517. 515. The flap is They lift are : an if frrcT: M sircrtg swift t an ^nrf^rf^rg 3**K ^r^T 5^rf i^^T^t wrc^ srsrt fjwg ^C^TT^TT^ i f^ * i III. in Bombay University Library. thy nose the end of each verse. It will be seen that the inserting of nostril. may not injury to the ' son be my lot '. gr. X. 21. 6th or 8th month of pregnancy and verses 6-7 give the same details as in Asv. ' ' " NftrSyana explains that the herb is dSrvS according to usage. X. ?? sp The AnukramanI says that the hymn Rg. 7. He then inserts in her right 5-7 ) describes it as follows nostril in the shade of a round apartment the ( sap ) of an herb 13. dUrvarasa in the woman's touching her heart and prayers to the gods for the safety of the foetus are the principal features of this rite in Asv. E. it is ( I. 1-6 ). folio 13a ) that rite is called anavalobhana whereby the 516 foetus remains undisturbed or does not fall out. which are respectively of the sago PrajSvat and Jivaputra. 1-3. Asiv. with the Prajavat and Jivaputra mantras. l"i%. This rite is so called because by virtue of its performance the f oecus does not fall out or is not destroyed (i. vol. 1-2 anavalobhana and slmantonnayana were to be performed in the 4th. S.

1. 2-3 ). the three ' savanas. 2. Bharadvaja 15. ' ' and having spread to the west of the neck to the east and the hair outside. 'I invoke Raka* ( Rg. : gr. 12. 5. gr. He then three times parts her hair upwards ( beginning from the front and proceeding backwards ) with a bunch of an even number of unripe 518 fruits with a porcupine quill that has three white spots ( or rings ) and with three bunches of ku&a grass. bless the human race. Manava gr. II. 184 and Ap. 1-12. According to A&v. San. X. Most other writers would hold that like pumsavana it is to be performed only once. Ap. The porcupine quill with three white spots is mentioned OTcn in the Tai. 4-5 ). 6. with the two ( verses) may Dhatr give to his worshipper ( Atharvaveda VII. 18 ) call this sarhskara simply slmanta '. 1. 1-8. Kathaka 31. 1-9. ( I. 14. 10. 7. gi. 1 ). VI This seems to be another version of anavalobhana. " as follows In the fourth month of ( 1. while his wife sits on it ( hide ) and takes hold ( of his hand ). 1-9 ) describes it should be performed ). 11 ). no one other than you ( Rg. He should shave his head with a porcupine quill with three white spots since in the case of the gods three are auspicious things. 5 ) this be repeated on every conception. 32. in the following gr. e. Hir. M.222 History of Dharmainstra { Oh. (1. Baud24-28. Veda-Vyasa ( 1. our king. the three metres. 12. om or he does so four times. P. bhuvah. Gobhila II. II. 14. ) performs the details of homa up to offering of ajyabhagas fire a bull's hide with its he makes eight oblations ( of ajya. and Bhara- dvaja gr. clarified butter ). gr. ( They ' sing this gatha ) may soma. : This is I. while Gobhila ( II. ) ^n ffc hfnt >. rite is to Slmantonnayana: sutras I. 121. 1-5. karikas of Kumarila (I. with the two verses. 1. He gives orders to two lute players sing ( praise of ) king soma. as an auspicious thing. X. Par. II. 17. pregnancy the Slmantonnayana ( then he establishes fire ( i. 2). 1. 21. 6. with the three (verses) called 'nejamesa' ( a khilasukta after ftg. * ' * ' ' ' 518.when the moon may be in conjunction with a naksatra that is ( regarded as ) male ( or the name of which is of the masculine gender. treated 22. viz. 14. rc[tftr -sftfa *T**nrRf ^n Vide Appendix for the text of &s>. with the words bhur. Ap. 1-9. 10 ). 7. * This word literally means parting of the hair ( of a woman ) upwards. 12. The A6v. these three worlds * ( I. c Kathaka gr ( 31. 1 ) call it slmantakarana. In the fortnight of the waxing moon. . according to NSrayana). Khadira Vaikhanasa III. Asiv. svar. 14. ( 1. I. Br.' Yaj. I. 7-9 ) and with the verse Oh Prajapati. 21 ) describe it before pumsavana.

( here they take near which they dwell. This samskara was to be performed in the 3rd month bunch according to Kanaka gr. Ap. (I. the Atharvaveda and Tai. '22. Sankha. 7. ( I. ( to the II. but e. Smrticandrika ( I. 1 ). in the 8th according to Sankha as quoted hi the Vaik. in the 7th according to San. in 6th or 8th according to Paraskara. 11). Hir. There is a great divergence among the grhya sutras about the several details of this samskara and the order in which they take place. g. . some of which occur in the Rg . 6th or 8th according to Asv. giving her boiled rice mixed with mudga and ghee and asking lute players to sing indicate its festive character. A bull is the fee ( for the sacrifice ) ". The SamskSraprakasa ( pp. alone requires that the woman should be seated bull's hide.. Hir. 6fch or 8th according to Khadira. Yaj. quotes some verses from rite serves the purpose of ) driving certain female goblins that thirst for the destruction of the parting of the hair by the husband with the of unripe fruits and darbhas and tying a garland round her neck.Oh. But this rite is mainly of a social and festival nature intended to keep the pregnant woman in good cheer. . We have here first the religious part of homa and oblations with mantras.. mantrapa^ha thirteen verses are is the wheel ( dominion ) ) of this ( name in the vocative of the river devoted to this samskara in all.. require that the moon must be in conjunction with a male naksatra. 17 ) gays that it should be performed on the foetus beginning to move and up to the time of delivery. after pointing out a few divergences remarks that one should follow the rules of one's own grhya sufcra. p. gr. VI ] Simantonnayana 223 river Fixed the ) . 3). It is remark- on a able that A6v. 172-173 an Avalyana stating that this the foetus quill. There not treated is great divergence as to the number of oblations and the verses to be repeated even in sutras of the same Veda. ( 27. In the Ap. alone prescribes that the samskara should take place in a round apartment. in 3rd. and Veda-Vyasa ( I. A6vM San. Visnu Dh. A few important divergences are pointed out below. The Sm.. in the 4th month according in 4th or 6th according to Gobhila (II. oblations Iftyana prescribes eight and ASvaeight mantras. S. 2) and in the 4th. Gobhila prescribes a seat of northward pointed darbhas. MSnava . and Hir. 1 ). 0. while* Paraskara thing. 18 ). which shows that till his day such a hide was is done in modern times ) as a very unholy ( as makes her sit on a soft chair or seat. S. gr. And let them do whatever aged brahmana women whose husbands and children are alive direct.

son. 2 ) has . specifying that it was to be Udumbara fruit). Paraskara and Gobhila add the use of a Vlratara stick and a full spindle. Vaik. are silent on this point. hair the husband is to use a bunch of unripe fruit (Gobhila. prescribe a gatha in honour of king Apastamba refers to two verses. Ap. one of ( the plant ). while the second is to be recited by Some of the sutras like Asv. 4-5 . Some like Asv.224 History of Dkarmaiastra [ Ch. . Bharadvaja brahmanas. Par. Gobhila seems to prescribe it six times. say that the ballad sung must be in praise of the rice ' * ' ' * ( ruling ) king or any one else who is very valiant. VI six ( by omitting the verses Rg. Baud..spots and three bunches of ku6a grass.. Gobhila... and San. 12-13 ) are ^ 33 *nr ( Continued on next page ) n HKgisiw (I. Hir. also says that the husband should ( by way of ornament ) tie a string of barley grains with young shoots on the woman's head ( 14. prescribe that the parting must be done thrice.. 14. 11. Par. 519 Soma 519. Khadira. a porcupine quill with three white. Par. while Khadira ( II. allow that in the ballad to be sung by the lute players the river on which the woman and her husband dwell is to be invoked. and be questioned what do you see and she should be made to reply I see progeny (Bharadvaja has the reply 'sons and Almost all grhya sutras agree that in parting the cattle'). 7 ) and Vaikhanasa says that the woman is to wear a garland and have fragrant unguents applied to her body. 4-5). San. 2. 25 ) expressly says that it is to be done only once. but Gobhila prescribes that brahmana women should address auspicious words to her Be you the mother of a valiant There is divergence as to whose praise is to be sung. Gobhila. Asv. Khadira.32.* San and Par. Bharadvaja and Par. which praises king Yaugandhari and the other king Soma and prescribes that the first is to be sung for all varnas residing in the Salva countries. also seems to suggest the same. says that the unripe fruits are to be tied to a string of three twisted threads and the string is to be suspended from her neck aa a garland. Paraskara and Sankhayana prescribe the preparation of boiled rice with ghee thereon or sesame and the first three of these say that the woman should be asked to look at the ghee on the mass of SSnkhayana prescribes only 11. Many of the grhya sutras direct that lute players should sing a verse or verses. the versos from the J^TO ( II. Bharadvaja.

capital In the Vanaparva 14. say that the husband is likes. 130 and of Yaugandhari in IV. onwards spoken of by Ap. 2. says that the woman is to sing merrily and wear gold ornaments if she The A. But this is wrong. B. 133. The country of Salva was included whose name in the Kaccbadigana < Pffnini V. (in ft^m:' He also notes that according to some the actions from tying silence. B. * * ^reUcT an TO^wT: notes (in his com. IV. reads '^ *ff TFSTJTT *rrg*ffj STSTT: i qualifies ?ft^ ( loc. Here may be the vocative addressed to the river It may be inferred with some force that Ap. A KSrikS quoted by the makes Yaugandhara a division of Salva ^Rff^fflT: n '. II. Throughout this section even in tho 7th sutra grammar the performer (karts) is the husband 13 tho requires that if the kartff of tying the garland ('abadhya') husband then the karts of visrjet' also must be tho husband. says that the country of Salva is on the Jumna and that Vaidyaa are in abundance there. vol.135 and teaches the formation of Yaugandhara in IV. PSr. 1-5 it is said that the king of Salva whose was at Saubha attacked Dvoraks. 2. 1. of the Asv. . 2 speaks of parting of hair in verses Laghu-Asvalayana (IV. svah and give up his ( 1. Par. Pffnini mentions Ssiva in IV. Sudar^ana The S. reads *r^ for TJI& in the verse aa read by Bhardvaja. XXX * p. Ap. are done by the wife herself and the m^ yavft not by the husband.p.(jh. * 520. and BhSradvaja gr. P. mantrapatha and Hir. silence. VI J fftmantonnayana San. .. ) that some read the sUtras as and wife have to observe husband both then the dual).. is taken. ) or it sTT^ii-^M* 3U*fK*crt^ j3>*TJTHTr^f^ '. 1. l- ^ 14. ) 580 The Manavagrhya the marriage rite also. and MahSbhSsya. 173. 300). to observe silence that day till the stars begin to appear and then after going out of the house from the east or north. expressly state that a bull is 225 the fee in this Av. gr were composed in the Salva country on the banks of tho Jumna and the Bhffradvaja gr on tho Ganges. Haradatta explaining Ap gr. p. gives a faithful 12. 8-16) summary ( Continued from last only tho 2nd verse but reads the tast pSda as ^ffT^T *rq$ ?nr ? while Hir. B. Sari. and BharadvSja say that brahmanas are to be fed in this rite. 2. bhuvah. 7-8 are 280 translates he ties wife then she keepa barley grains with young shoots to the head of the silence until the stars appear '. he should first touch a calf and then mutter the vyahrtis ) ( bhuh. 29 . &lyaparva ( 20. vol. gr. and eamskara for the officiating priest. 1 ) calls the Sslva king lord of mleccha tribes and speaks of him as fighting for Duryodhana and as killed by Sstyaki.173. The words of the am*.

Bharadvaja and Par. 7ch or 12fch tithi of fortnight and when the moon was in the Sravana. This verse is I ( Anan. Rg. p. on the 2nd. VI say Apastamba. Rg. 154.. 16-21. Baud. VI. 22. of the ancient rite ( such as the garland of udurabara fruit According to Vasistha quoted in the this ceremony was to be performed prakasa month of pregnancy. 1-16. X. In modern times in Western India some people perform a rite in the 8th month of pregnancy ( called in Marathi Athahgulem ) which retains some vestiges ). 1-8. so much so that Manu does not even mention it by name. I. VII. ed. but that according to some it foetus and so was to be repeated at each a samskara a samskara of 521 conception. I *f flN' fe ( I. to remove harm to the foetus and for easy delivery of the woman and that it was to be performed during every conception. 178 ) the bright RohinI or Pusya constellation. Visnubali ( : Sarhskarain the 8th p. 17 ). 1-6. though Yaj. It appears however that gradually this picturesque rite receded in the back ground. 1-3. On the preceding day Nandlsraddha was to be performed and then horn a to fire was to be performed up to the offering of ajyabhagas. 104. 69. expressly that this sarhskara is to be performed only once at the first conception. a square plot should be smeared with cowdung and be divided into 64 squares with white dust and 64 offerings of boiled rice should be offered with the same mantras and in their midst one ball of rice should be offered to Visnu with the mantra loudly uttered namo ' 521. 1. sltnantonnayana is Visnu was of the of opinion that is the woman. 10 ) as qrf & read by *v* mMV ft . X. names it. Then to the north-east of the fire. 90. For the difference of view among nibandhakaras vide above ( pp. Rg. The same work quotes verses of AsvalSvana describing the ceremony and stating its purpose viz. Rg. 184. T T S*IT *T 33^ I. On account of the great divergence of details one may conjecture that this samskara was not very ancient in the times of the Grhyasutras.<> History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. To the south of the fire another sthandila of the shape of a lotus or svastika was to be drawn on which 64 oblations of boiled rice with ghee thereon were to be offered to Visnu ( some offer them on the fire itself ) with the verses of Rg. 205-206 ) on garbhadhana. 11. Rg.

7. Ke^ava. . 1-3 ). 3 = Rg. 4. so mayst thou ( foetus ) that art. Br. Par..^Madhava. come out a living being. 16-21. flowers &c. 8. the forest and the sea are in movement. Then the offering to Agni Svistakrt should be made. 16-21 ). What remains of the rica cooked in milk is eaten by the wife. may it come out with the . a very ancient rite. 3 ).Oh. 4. gr. Just as the wind. Then he announcces as offering a mess of rice cooked in milk on which ajya has been poured to the god and sacrifices ifc to him with the twelve names repeating the twelve mantras ( Rg. 11 =Rg. he doss worship (with sandal paste. 1-3. II. V. : Bharadvaja gr. om bhuvah. II.I. 2 ). I. The gods with Agni as the first are invoked unto the northern pranidhi vessel and then at the end Purusa is invoked four times with oin bhuh '. ). pra tadvisnuh ( Tai. I. II. paro matraya vicakrame trir-devah ( Tai. by saying Kesavaya namah. daksina should be distributed and branmanas should be fed. I 154. being ( now ) in the tenth month. Khadira gr. II. . ( Rg. 9. Kathaka gr. ' * ' ' ' * ' * Sosyantikarma II.. 6 = Rg. herself being " Br. to be deliveied of a child indications of this * Vide Ap. Br. VI ] Saihskaras-Viwubali ' ??T NarSyanSya and the husband and wife should partake separately of two balls of the same rice. 78. 1-6). Hrslke^a.' &o. Vamana. I 154. Br. month. 5. gr. ' * ' 13). 2. 29-30. IV. Daraodara bathes Visnu. then he Srldhara. unharmed. 7-9 givo the earliest Just as the wind moves a lake on all sides. 14. ( III. I. VI. S. V. 4. The Vaik.Govinda.' He sprinkles with water the woman who is about to be delivered ( with the mantras) 'just as the wind . * ' ' ' tad-asya priyam ( Tai. then he offers 12 oblations of clarified butter with the mantras ato deva Visnor-nu karn ( Rg.Trivikrama. 4. 16. from his mother. X. 154. 5 ). 8. 13-14. Having praised the god with mantras from the four vedas he should prostrate himself before the god after taking twelve names with the word namah at the end of each ( i. 23 also refers to this rite alive. Br. ( now ) in the tenth rite. om suvah. 154. 6. 3. Narayana. Padmanabha. 3 ). 23. and Rg. 33. 'Hiranyavarnah' (Tai. may the male child having been sleeping ten months inside his mother. then to the east of the fire he invokes Visnu on seats of darbha grass with the names. 13-15 Hir. Rg. 2. II 2. 8). I. 1-7= Tai S. so may the foetus move and come out. II. Br. 22. 81. S.Visnu. This seems to be It means a rite for a woman who is about .' ona * * ' * * bhur-bhuvah-suvah '. 1) and fche chapter boginning 'pavamanah' (Tai.Madhusudana. 1. * '. gr. ) by each of Visnu's twelve names. come out together with the after-birth. Gobhila gr. 1. 22. ( Tai. II. with mantras *ApaV (Tai.1. e. I. 13 ) describes Visnubali differently. Up.

5. 11. ) E vol. Gobhila and Khadira are very brief and say that a homa with two oblations of clarified butter is to be performed with the verses of the Mantra-brahmana I 5. P. 11. 6-7. B. 30 pp 55-56 - URTO: S. 7. m. HIT^TST I. mantra-patha II. ). 32-3*1 ( S. 11. This refers to the when a 522. 5. P. 11. cFTO^R^T 34-35. f%^nr*ftr (II. 16 ). P. 3-4 we read * a cake cooked on twelve potsherds to Vaisvanara.228 ' History of Dharmatiistra ( ( Oh. ^rr(%f II. 395 ). B. S. to mantra-patha II. 17-23 (8. II. he places TuryantI plant at his wife's feet. 78. This appears to have been a rite of hoary 525 one should S.. ^. 4 for the falling of the after-birth.7 (S. 2-U. 11. Bharadvaja is similar to Ap. B. but giveo . V. 11. B 29 p. describes the ceremony as follows : Now is described the rite to secure a rapid delivery. S. is the same as Atharva. 24. he should then touch on the head (with both hands) the woman who is in child-birth with the verse ( Ap. B. mantra-patha II. 4. This is ajimcT 35rrorft^m3 20 q$& i 3*nr. 182 ). This is with a bdlt and with a chamber for rest oh and come out. a pen 528 of Indra Indra. Ap. grurenS treated of in the following: arm. he should snr inkle her with the water ' * *. 3. (I. 11. 29 pp 49-50). 281-82 3IP*. offer In the Tai. E. V.. ( 33.15 1. 1 ) remarks that this rite is not really a sarhskara and Devapala says that this is a rite which has a seen result ( while samskaras are deemed to have an unseen result).7) and prescribes the Atharvaveda I. $er qnr ^sqf^T g 13514* 11& f*T$ft?!i$ 3TT^ Tftfl^fRT ^fTffifS' fiffaft is ). 3-4. *T. I. Adityadarsana on Kathaka gr. 11 19-20). 28-29 i 524 being almost like Rg. 2. II. 2. 4-5. but omits all verses except one ( w^. II. Vl after-birth same as Rg." : in water before he draws water in the direction of the current ( of a river or spring ). 3r?T*Tren*T 523. VIII. II. 29 p. B 30 pp. iftmff II.15 i-4. 2. Sltanre I. E. (the first recital of Jatakarma: antiquity. leave it Ap. 1-5 pp 293-297). 15 ). I I. Ap. M. M. B. womb of the woman. B. gr. IT. 16 ( S. 7 except the last pSda ). *r. 30 pp 210-214. ?ren:ren3 ?T?^TT <TU*R wuritl. 9*1ni*III. 525. 23-26. B. 29 ( S. . ( brought ) as directed above with tl ' m Hir. 16-18 ). vol. 524. B vol. If the after* birth does not come out. B.~ AO t>s that are slightly different from those of the Ap. With a cup that has not been dipped ' 78. with the foetus and after-birth. 5p. Paraskara also speaks of the sprinkling of the woman with two verses of Vaj S. should sprinkle her with the waters ( brought as above ) with the next three verses ( Ap. 14-15. 15.

The 826 Up. ( VI.'* At the end of the Br.. having poured curds mixed with ghee in a bell-metal vessel he offers oblations of the curds I " mixed with ghee with the mantras . 2 contains the following interesting passage when a boy is born they first make him lick clarified butter. 527. 3. I. qr. vol. glorious. 5. 4. 24-28 ) there is an elaborate When ( a son ) is born. 129 ) prescribes a certain rite before the navel string is cut ''regarding a new born son let him say to five brahmanas * before the navel string has been cut breathe over him in this way/ But if he should be unable to obtain them. honey together butter..2. The Sat.. kindled the fire. svaha '. The idea of muttering ( vsk ' thrice is that the father wishes that speech as manifestedjii the three Vedas may come to the boy in due course. Up. prospering in my house . ! mouth up to the right ear then of the son he should recite thrice the word speech and clarified curds. Br. I place in ' 526. VI ] Samskaras-Jatakarma 229 eon is born ( to a they perform this man) ' . I. ( S. he may even Br. 1 ' may maintain a thousand. and they make him take the breast ( of the mother ) after that.. 44 p. " himself breathe over him while walking round him ". having placed the son on one's lap. B. Bhttli. . E. full of vigour and possessed of cattle '. may the wise ( Agni ) ( called ) Svis^akrt make that well sacrificed and well offered for us. having poured he makes the (son) eat it by means of (a spoon of ) gold Then after bringing down his ' ' m f not covered with anything else with the mantras I place in theo bhuh. 5. may there I offer be no break with regard to progeny and cattle svaha to these in my mind my pranas. having description of the jatakarma. This shows that Vaisvanares^i was performed on the birth of a son. substantial in ( abundant ) food. bhuvah and svah represent the three Vedaa or earth. air and heaven. does become pure. I place in thee bhuvah. That son.Oh. I place in thee svah. for whom when born isti '. Jaimini ( IV.. 38 ) holds a discussion on this passage and establishes the conclusion that this isti is for the benefit of the son and not of the father and the bhasya of Sahara gives the further propositions that this is^i is to be performed after the jata/carma rites are finished ( and not immediately at birth ) that it is to be performed on a full moon day or a new moon and day following ten days after birth. svaha! Whatever I have done in excess in my work or whatever I may have left deficient in this ( rite ).

MaitrSvaruga is Arundhatl. Up. south. mayst thou be endowed with valiant sons. ( word speech thrice. of the details from important grhyasutras is given below sutras : 528. I place in thee all '. * sg MaitrSvarum rather expects may be One . by which thou nourishesfc all blessings. Some description. asking five brahmanas if available to breathe on the child ( from four quarters. (2) repeat- ing in the child's right ear the making the child lick curds. that knows this ". while others omit some of them. she ( the mother ) has given birth to a valiant ( boy ) . since thou hasj? made the '. however. ( name namakarana ) . east. L 164. north and one immediately above him ) or the father himself may do so. The order of these components differs in the grhyaand according to the Veda to which each sfttra is attached the mantras differ. Then he hands the boy over to his mother and gives him the breast of the mother make that with the mantra ( Rg. 49 ) Oh. Some give almost all the above seven details. that the jStakarma rite contained the following parts: (1) homa of curds with ghrta to the accompaniment of mantras. which bestows gems. west. (3) honey and ghrta by means of a * 1 golden ladle or ring ) . ' glory and brShmana spiritual eminence. It would be impossible to give in a brief compass the details from all grhyasutras. SarasvatI breast ready for being sucked.History of Dharmaiaaira I Oh. he may attain the highest station by his prosperity. ' ! ' ! ! us possessed of a valiant son. They say to him ( the newly born son) thou indeed excellest thy father. (4) addressing the child with a name which was to be his secret . ^t means earth Vasistha and or food '. which engenders happiness. There is great divergence in the grhyasutras on the different details that go to make up the jatakarma. Then he solemnly addresses the mother of the child with the 528 Oh strong one thou following mantras Oh maitravarunl art IJa. YI thee bhur-bhuvah svah. who is born as a son of such a It will be clear from the above passages of the Br. (5) The Satapatha adds another detail viz. the child to the breast putting (6) addressing the mother with mantras. excellest thy grandfather . which lies on thy body. that wins wealth and is a generous donor*. Then he gives ' him ( the boy that is born ) a name with the words thou ark Veda That becomes his secret name.

be indestructible gold called son so live a hundred autumns' and (with the mantra ) Oh Indra. III. . Na"ra"yana &ays that as to those mantras (1) some hold that the three mantras should bo repeated continuously. 530. In the S. bestow the best wealth ( ft. ' . VI ] Samsknras-Jatakarma to be performed 231 The ceremony has by the very necessities of the case immediately after birth. ( Veda ) which is produced by the god Savitr ( who urges on ) the bountiful may you have long life and may you live in this world for a hundgr. 15. 3^ ' the shoulders touched simultaneously. 7. Gobhila ( II. gr. 2 ) notes that some say that the mantra is muttered only once. I. 531. But different sutras e*> press it in different ways. gr. The com.&V. should be uttered while while the two f??$ten$' and *nrf3sr touching the left (3) the three mantras should be repeated together and ( * . ASvins wearing wreaths of lotus give to thee intelligence '. 21. Nffrffyana ( on A&v. 15. be done before any other person ( than the mother and nurse ) Par.Ch. . o. 15. follows: "When . which will be considered under Namakarana. 5SO Ho touches the ( son's ) two shoulders ( with the mantra ) be a thou art indeed Veda. when the mouth is brought near each efcr one after another. I. The following sutras ( I. be an axe. dregs of Soma ). 16 ) says it is performed before the navel string is cut off.is Soma from which the essence is taken away (i. red * child's autumns being protected by the gods Bringing near the two ears ( his mouth ) the father mutters medhajanana IM may god Savitr bestow on thee intelligence may the goddess Sarasvatl bestow on thee intelligence and may the two gods '. a son has been born. 15. others say that the mantra is recited twice. 5-10 ) lay down rules about the name. Tbe vejsc is bo cuKcd because it waa deemed to produce intelligence. he (the father) should before other persons touch him. . 17 ) and KMdira 32 say that ifc is to be performed before the navel string is cut off and the breast is given to the child. II. And let them give him a name". sj^sftq. ( 1. 2 says the rite should touches the child. 2. . 36. NSrByana prefers this last because the bhSsyakSra who went before did so. 1 ' ' 1 ! 629. g. A&v. II. while the shouldeis are touched one after the other (2) others hold that the mantra s^ftT *nr should be uttered when touching the right shoulder. 6 ) and Oh 5S1 Oh ( Indra) partaker of rjlsa Maghavan ( bountiful Indra ) bestow on us' (Rg. frtone. 10). give to the child to eat honey and clarified butter in which gold has been rubbed by means of a golden ( spoon ) with the verse *I give unto thee the Veda ( wisdom or knowledge ) of honey and ghrfca. 1-4 ) the ceremony is described as ( I. e.

( I. 15 ) calls it jatakagni ( and also Uttapaniya ). gr. gr.. is the Manava. 15. 28-31 say that a secret name for the child that is to be born is to be uttered in the Sosy anti-karma. San. So Asv.iS J History qf Dharma&stra { Oh. omits express mention of homa. e. (1. Vl It will be noticed that out of the several components of the described in the Br. Br. The Sutikagni is prepared by placing tbe broken piece of a jar OQ the kitchen fireplace and heating it with the dried dung of a bull. this fire white at the time of birth ten days after mustard seed with_small grains of rice are offered and at the morning and evening twilights for birth with certain mantras. Br. The San. 6 ) adds that a vyavah&rika name may be given on the 10th day from birth. It is prescribed before birth ( in the Sosyantlkarma ) by Gobhila and Khadira. San. prescribes mixing of curds. The Gobhila gr. II. The Vaik. and an. * III. The A6v. gr. . (II. gr. ( I. prescribes that 532. ( I. It is prescribed after the whole rite by Baud. It will have been noticed that Asv. and the brearifce thing over the child by five brahmanas or the father. gr.. 1. II. to a It adds the tying of gold and fixing it on the right hand of the child till the mother gets up from child-bed.. Bharadvaja gr. honey. Instead of ghrta and honey served with a golden spoon. 26) says that homa should be performed to Agni and other gods as stated above then the child should be made to eat honey and ghrta and then the offering be made to Agni. 2. These say that in : Homa Kanaka This prescribed by the birth. gr. and San. at the time of . 24. 13-15) and Khadira gr. both prescribe giving a secret name to the child on the day of birth and do not hempen string prescribe a separate Namakarana ceremony. probably carries on that We shall now take show how they the the several components of the rifce and are dealt with by the several grhyasutras. The Par. 16). 7. Tip. 1-12 ) also omits homa. ghrta and water or grinding together of rice and barley. the stanadana and matrabhi* mantrcwa. Hir. A6v. It is omitted by Asv. 13. tradition. gr. but refers to the father breathing over the new born child thrice. ( III. 26 ) say that the Aupasana ( i. Ap. Up. 24. parisista (1. grhya ) fire is taken away and a sutikagni set up ( which is also called Uttapanlya ) 5 * 8 near the door of the lying-in chamber. and the Sat. the address to the mother ( matrabhimautrana ). of putting the child to the breast (stanad&na).

Br. honey and gbrta. above. honey and ghrfca ten times with each of the ten mantras ( Tai. ' MSnava gr. Par. Bharadvaja speak of touching the boy twice. Vaik. This consists in muttering over the navel ('as in Par. begins his treatment with the direction that the father touches the boy with the Vatsapra anuvaka. making the child eat gold ( dust ). 9 which prescribes vak ) wMle most of the other sutras viz. II.' The Vaik. : ( vide p. 15. or Bhur rcah as in VaikhSnasa. 1. ( II. and San. Pathya plant. to the accompaniment of mantras (like bhustvayi dadhSmi in Par. 1 ) of the anuvaka beginning with 'prSno raksati visvam-ejat.D. muttering in the right ear of the boy some words or a mantra is called medhajanana in Asv. curds or pounded barley and rice. H. Two meanings are given to this. mustard seeds and ever : ' ' ' ' . Vide Asv. ' ' * ' * f Some of the sutras speak of a rite called Ayusya (3) ftyusya in the jatakarma. honey and clarisays that the Vaca Manu II. gold.. Amsabkimarkana ( touching the child on the shoulder (4) or shoulders ).. 18-29 or Tai.Stor^^ **<* 3*mren& Amara gives OTHJT and fficren as synonyms of ^i and 1 mwn ill. honey and clarified butter to the accompaniment of mantras as the central part of the rite. XI. Later works like the Samskaramayukha regard this eating of 584 honey and ghrta as the principal part of jatakarma. ). IV.Ch. 30 . Hir. S. ) or in the right ear of the boy some mantra or mantras invoking the bestowal of long life on the boy. 7 ) for 21 oblations ( this anuvaka is full of the word ' * Syusmat ' ). fort *g*ftirft. But it speaks of muttering vak thrice and making in the right ear of the boy the word the boy lick from a golden spoon or ring curds. Ap. A6v. 231 ) has such an invocation in conjunction with the eating of honey and ghrta. The Baud. respectively. The first of these viz. VI ] Saihskftras-Jatakarma 233 rice chaff are to be offered in the fire whenany body enters the lying-in chamber for ten days. 634. XII. gr. S. ghee. 7 ) prescribes the giving of curds. This Medhajanana (2) word does not occur in the Br. ( L 24. or medham te devuh as in Ap. 5. expressly 883 plant. prescribes the anuvaka Agne ayur-asi ( Ka^haka Sam. Qobhila say that medhajanana is the action of making the child eat honey.. Bharadvaja also does the same. Up. 29 seizes upon the fied butter become medhajanana. once with Vatsapra anuvaka ( Vaj. 533.

Namakararia ( giving a name to the child The Br Up. Up. (I. fiffi^ I 3'4HJH<HJ iTIHT* *inf <JWi^ ^PS H flirt. apana. and with the mantra may he grow in Bhar. History of Dharmaiastra ' ' [ Oh. prescribe the same verse for both. g. prescribes the same and gives an option ( the five brahmanas are to repeat in order from the east prana. Khadira and several others speak of giving a name to the boy on the day of birth. prescribes Vaj. Ap. ( 15. mantrapatha II. has a different verse. asks the father himself to breathe thrice over the boy with a verse referring to the three Vedas.. gr. Some sutras like San. (9) do this. 87 and 38. Par. one for which he gives elaborate rules ) and the which his parents only know till the boy's upanayana.. reverses this and says the name for which similar elaborate rules are laid down by him is the secret name and a name for common use is to be given on the IQth day A. Ap.. above ). (7) making the child Stana-pratidhana or stanapradana take the breast. 2 )t ' ' omit this. 2-3 and 8 ) says on the day of birth a name derived from the naksatra ( lunar mansion ) on which the boy is bon is given. : Par. 17. which occurs in Par. Asv. According to Gobhila and Khadira a name is to be given in the Sosy anti-karma which is to be kept secret. Vl and again with be a stone.234 2. San. . ). 15. Asv. Bhar. QlWrt reads 1 ff . together with the recitation of a mantra or mantras e. vyana.p. 4 and 10 ) prescribes the giving of two names on that date. 5 for the two breasts. use ( common for other a secret one 535. ). Many sutras Matrabhimantraria : ' is omit this. udana and samana ). 2 only for the right breast Hir. which is the secret name and then on the 10th anothei name is to be given. be an axe ( in Par. (8) where tha son Deiabhimantraricf^ (or-marsana): touching the ground is born and addressing the earth ( with one or Par. (6) Hir.. prescribe Ap. and Vaik. : We saw above that the Pafica-brahmanasthapana the the child by five brahover Satapatha prescribes breathing inanas or the father himself. Gobhila.. Several sutras omit this. and Bhar. S. Up. ( addressing addressed by the father with the verse Thou art Ila vide Br. San. The Br. : two mantras). and many of the sutras prescribe this. 13. San. Hir.. (5) mother &o * ( The the mother ).

Sudardana explains as T. ^TT^. and Vaik. and Vaik. 16. ( I. while the father repeats the two mantras be a stone &c.^TRfr gfTT^THS^n^ TTfj ( dK*lp^< flrTr ^ir^^[ i 3^rt ^Kftfir c(w"taR is 3 ^ r?fm ! Wfa ^K^^^T - TOT*T*T HI. mustard seeds eleven times in the sutikagni with eleven mantras some of which are almost the same as in Bharadvaja. indicating the desire axe and gold boy should be strong. 7-14 ). then these are to be turned upside down ( so that gold lies at the bottom and the stone is on top ) and then the boy is to be held head eastwards above the stone by a female in her two hands. * near the head of the child '. says that the jar is to be to ' the south of the woman's head 5p. Bhar. Baud. sharp and worthy like a stone. Ap.' and the mantra thou art produced from ( my ) limb ' ' by limb &o. Hir. The formula s^rrr WT daughters_equally partake occurs in Adv.. The verse 12 ) prescribes that when a * 5TT?J 5TCH3C " A P father returns from a journey he should take in his hands his son's head. Par. presence prescribe that a pot full of water should be placed towards the head ( of the woman and her child ) with a mantra 'Oh waters I 536. 6 and ffWT. The Hir. first in HKM j also.. entirely silent on this point several sutras devote large space to this topic and are full of mantras which are more are less magic. Nir. and Vaik. 23 ) also prescribes similar Hir. 13... I. gr. Hir. 4. 13. ^. gr. These two occur in Hir. . gr. and in others also. and the 537. 537 say that the axe is to be placed on a stone and gold is to be placed on the axe. 528 It would not be out of place to mention a few other subsidiary matters. requires tho throwing of offerings with several verses. quotes this verse as a rk in support of the view that sons and of the inheritance. Bhar. The II. gr. Par.Oh. recites two of such mantras. ) became transformed into a rite requiring physical of these things. Vaik. mantrapatha II. expressly say that the boy is to have a bath. have a similar verse.. Ap. uttering the mantras be a etone ' &c. III. and San. Ap.' that the This shows how what was ' once only symbolical (viz. 14. prescribes the offering of mustard seed and rice chaff in fire three times with each of eight mantras ( Ap. employs the word lirastah which ' _ 3T TT^hr^f& ^Trf^rsfnr^ M p !! I 1 33 ^P SI* ( 15 r . should smell (or kiss) the top of it thrice and then mutter this verse. VI ] Safiiskaras-Jatakarma 235 are (10) Keeping off evil spirits : Though ASv.

gradually went out of vogue. and Bharadvaja it is most elaborate and would require an unduly long time considering the state of the newly born child and the woman in There is no wonder. The Sra. The Sm. ( I. cows and corn then and that gifts of may be made and accepted. the helpless child that had already little vitality was dead owing to exposure and cold. curds and ghrta should be mixed with water and poured out in a cowstable ( and not thrown about in an impure place ). Later works like the Dharmasindhu say to eat that in jatakarma as in other rights. This ceremony is comparatively brief in Ap. the position of the planets should he observed and his future welfare or otherwise should he examined. San. s ifi?ftfr * i p. [ Ch. svastivacana. though Manu V. Jaimini to the navel cord is cut there is no impurity. Sankha. the birth 539. C. . and a few others. Vaik.. 19 an4 2Q. In modern times a few well-to-do families in Western India sometimes perform what is called 'putravana* (in Marathi ) and make the boy lick honey and ghrta by means of a golden piece or ring. and Baud. enhance his good qualities. therefore. but to receive corn or only money payment ). say that the remnants of honey. C. The author knows of an instance whore an old man jubilant over of a son from his third wife entered upon the performance of the jatakarma according to his grhyasutra and by the time the ceremony was over. gold. sesame. VI except 14 ) says that when the child's nose appears. the effect that till cites Harlta. 538. The dangers to the child of an elaborate ritual must have been apparent to all 523 people even in ancient times. Both Ap. clothes. punyahavacana and matrkapujana are necessary.. Vyasa and others to the effect that a nandlsraddha ( which will be explained under Sraddha ) should be performed in jatakarma ( brahmanas are not cooked food in this sraddha. but in Hir. This would involve some further loss of time and it is remarkable that the grhya sutras observe silence about this. Par. p. since the boy is to he so brought up as to ( watch while (people are asleep)/ None of the sufcras VaikhSnasa ) refers to any astrological details. 77 prescribes a bath on hearing of the birth of a son. that this ceremony child-bed. ( III. quotes Pracetas. ) 19 539 that the samskara may be performed till jaggery. The same work quotes Samvarta and other smrtia to the effect that the father must bathe before he can perform the jatakarma rite..236 History of Dharmaidstra .

should armed keep watch the whole night fully It must be noted here that fear springing from astrological considerations got better of even natural love and affection to such an extent that some writers advised that the child when born on certain inauspicious conjunctions should be abandoned and its face should not be seen till at least its eighth year. III. the mulahoma ( I. A61esa and Jyes^ha naksatras and certain astrological conjunctions like Vyatlpata. Vy&sa and N&rada. 18 ) and feeds the brfthmanas.Ch. then invokes Ganeda. sfcsnw&RT PP. 244-255. five oblations to Varuna ( 1. 17 ). These matters are passed over here for want of space. It prescribes that a mess of cooked food is prepared in the sutikftgni ( 540 Vide ffrgmMWim pp 846-47. Vaidhrti. as of little importance in modern times and as new departures introduced in the ancient sutra rites be by later works. Utthana . On these days the father or other male relative bathes in the first part of the night. offers oblations to Dhatr and others (as in 1. Durga ) and worships them with sixteen upacaras. the Sarhskfiramayflkha and other works are the MSrkandeyapurSna. (I. performs in the jatakagni ( purifies the house. the father shaves. e. bathes. Then tambula and dakqirfa are offered to one or more brahmanas and the members of the family keep awake that night with songs ( in order to says One text from the Markandeyapurana ). A few general remarks will made on these matters in the section on anti and Muhurta. 25 ) is more elaborate. ward off evil spirits ' men '. San. according to some) a sacrifice to the earth through belonging to another gotra. Vide Nityacarapaddhati pp. since the only verses quoted on this point in the Nirnayasindhu. Then he brings back the aup&aana grhya fire ). .(getting up from child-bed). According to Vaik. ceremonies are performed for which there is no warrant in the These probably arose in the times of the Puranas. Samkr&nti ( sun's passage from one sign of the zodiac into another ). or in the ordinary some person fire. 16). 18 on the 10th or 12th day after birth. 201-203. gr. In modern times on the 5th and 6th days after birth certain sutras. VI ] Sathskaras-Jatalcarma 237 tanti rites Medieval writers of digests give extensive descriptions of 840 performed to counteract the inauspicious effects of birth on the 14th tithi of the dark half of a month or on the am&vftsya or on Mula. and certain minor deities called Janmada on handf uls of rice and also SasthldevI and BhagavatI ( i.

great divergence of view as to the time when the in the ancient have already seen ( p.. L 91. 8-11 ( S. 232 ) thab a child was (a) addressed by a name.1) 541<* therefore practice is supported by a passage of the Sat. 26 ) also refer to utthaiia. 14. p. 8. B. 29.. p. 30 pp. 26.B. 18. 1-2 and 36. pp. Varaha gr. 19. my paper Naming a child or a person in the Indian Historical Quarterly for 1938. II. gr. E. is aWcSSTCV VI. 23-31. even in the Sosyantlkarma.238 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. Yajftadatta . VI and oblations are made to the tithi of the child's birth. i *rf wr^r vol. Several times are suggested literature and in the sutras and smrtis. II. I. Kathaka gr. S. 34. . Asv. E. II. III. pp. Kausika sutra 58. 4-10). This name a (34. gr. vol. Asv. e. ( S. ' Namakarana 841 Ap. 1. according to Gobhila and Khadira. E. 24. We . 15. 4-6 50 ).E. 8-18 (S. vol. : The ceremony Baud. In the world the parents give a name to the son when born in a closed space ( or room ) such as Devadatta. and San. B. 30. pp. child. Br. For a comprehensive treatment of the way in which nainei were given from Vedic times onwards. 13-17. 1. 30. gr. 6-15 214-215 ). their to employment ' ( of that name ' for the ". gr. Hir. Bhar. 57-53). San. even a third ( name ) '. 10th ) to Soma with Rg. vol. Vaik. II. 1. 183). ( the father gives him ) even " The MahSbhasya of Patanjali appears to refer to this view. E. vol. vol. is taken away and the Aupasana fire is brought in and oblations of ghrfca ( 12 or 8 ) are offered in that fire with the mantras beginning with dhata dadatu no rayim '. E. Up. Vide 1. There child is was named. 4. 2. gr. 541a. 214 ) and Bharadvaja Both say that the sQtikSgni (I. 3-4. Kathaka gr. (6) was given to the child on the day of birth. Manava gr. B. B. 3. Gobhila gr. 1. vol. two to Agni and then one ( i. 1. 9. 4. ( S. of naming a ). 7. 15. 29. 6-9 ( S. According to the Br. 54 * boy ) others also come know this is his appellation 541. gr. 24-44 * ' * ' may be consulted. 282-283 gr. vol. B. when a eon is born ( the father ) should bestow on him a name thereby he drives away the evil that might attach to the boy a second. 30 p. p. A summary of the points made in that paper given below together with some fresh matter. I. Hir. from * . and to three naksatras and to their presiding deities. 38.

swwf P. VI ] SaniskZras-Namakaraya Ap.Ch.. says that it should be on the 12th. 8. B. E. 30. The Mahabhasy a quotes a passage 543 from the Yajnikas that a name was given on a day after the tenth from birth. ' Vtevarupa explains Manu II. 1. 8.. on ng II. p. prescribes that the mother should get up from child-bed on the 10th or 12th and then speaks of namakarana. *fgmi8<j vol. 30 and says jusfc as jalakariii* can ba performed even when there is impurity due to birth. e. muhurta and naksatra thereafter. 545. STTH cp?rthrf^r g?^ gg?F ^PSTIT? 5*1% TTH ^htf . 3f*rfr$wF ^Kisd^dirsrrf^^T^Tsrf *rnr **rf?i \ OTT^T ' II. 1 ) allows it on llth. 12 prescribes it on the llth day after birth. 30 as when the 10th night is ' past and Kulluka does the same ( i. Manu II. Laghu-Advalftyana ( VI. 26 ) quotes grhyaparisis^a to the effect that it may be performed after the 10th night is passed or after 100 nights or a year and the Bhavisyat-purana to the effect that it may be performed after 10 or 12 nights or on the 18th day or after a month. I. after birth for (/) Gobhila ( II 8. so namakarana may be performed on the 10th and that the only essential thing is that it is not to ' ' 543. 57 ) and Khadira M * say that it should be on any day after ten nights. Medhatithi does not the addition of 'past' (atlfcayam) after dasamyam in Manu II. 1. 12th or 16th day. para. 30. vol. (d) Yaj. Baud.. while Hir. 140. . gr. It is worthy of note that Ban a in his Kadambarl ( purvabhaga para 68 ) says that Taraplda named his son Candraplda when the tenth day after birth fell on an auspicious muhurta and that the minister Sukanasa named his son Vaisampayana next day. 30 says it may be performed on the 10th or 12th day after birth or on an auspicious tithi. As Vaik. gr. 6 . prescribe the 10th day namakarana. 68 546. 239 (c) and Par. Bhar. ( II. p. one hundred nights or a year from birfch. 545 The commentators were bewildered by these differences. it follows that the ceremony was performed according to it on the lOfeh or 12feh. Apararka (p. according to him it is 548 like performed on the eleventh day ). 26. Baud. 3. 23 ) says that Namakarana may be (e) performed on the 10th or 12th. 4. 544.

X. 4. 5<H TTO *iiinf ^t urotrpufa ^^rR & 8iS*nP[ swifi^rmf *tf|<re*r *fo ^?. 18 p. immediately afterwards. VIII. took place three weeks after jatakarma 31. 6. We saw above ( note 541a ) that the Sat. I. 55. vol. 80. The same Brahmaria 549 recommends Therefore a brhmana * 547. vol. In modern times namakarana generally takes place on the 12th day after birth and no Vedio ceremony (on as prescribed in the sutras is gone through. 2. son of Jayatappears that the n&makarana candra. In Bg. 54.246 tiistary of Dharmaiaitra { Oh. X.9. 3. 9 we read when you give us a fourth name connected with ( the performance of ) a sacrifice. 1. 9 for the recital of the three tfou names of a sacrificer and rwrm ). 8. Sayana explains that the four names are : naksatranama ( derived from the naksatra on which a person was born ). ^nft s*t ft^nrfW The f^<Ntf?TW apenks of three i \ i 548.I. Vi be performed before the 10th or 12th. p. n. 129. 168 on m. 95. we long for it . *re*n^ wr^ioftsmw^ k i *w spJfa wftft Jw T 3. Vide $g. you. a secret name. 3*rr^qRi3 lited 3?. p. 4 there appears to be a reference to four names ( though Sayana takes nama here to mean the body or deed * ). In Rg. while the third would be the name due to the performance of a sacrifice ( which the parents could not foresee at his birth ). irf ^rm HI. speaks of a second or even a third name for a person given to him by his parents. 120 and B. This shows that a man could have a fourth name even in the times of Rg. X. Vide I. A vol. 1175 A. 1-2. a publicly known name and a fourth name like Somayajl (due to having performed a Somayaga ). but women assemble and after consulting the male members of the family beforehand announce the name and place the child in the cradle. fir$V*f 4. 'WSTlfoim and * third one I like ^nwreTf* man bears the name atrfr&JTOnfr The JTf CHTT when he performs vol. D. AparSrka says that there It is an option and one may follow one's own grhyasdtra. ill. I. TR 5*famiv *vg$ v$m also Bays that a ^. The two names are the naksatra name and the ordinary name. 75. names 9T$WOT. king of Kanoj. ). 84T of Harisoandra. 24. 54. IX. VIII. IX 87. 80. and the fourth was a name due to ' ' the performance of a yajna. our master. Vide 3rowr?r^r. 75. In the Kg* frequent refeience is made to the secret name of a person. In Rg. 549. IV. p. take us ( forward to glory ) 548. Br. 2 there is reference to to the parents a third name the son has a third name unknown and which is in the bright part of heaven '. read with B. X. 2. ( %rfar*r*r says they were . IX.

gives expression to the request that the ( ahavanlya ) } fire should bear the name of one who keeps sacred fires. 653. S. 89 The Tai. gr. P. In the Ait. Up. 5) Sunah^epa is spoken of as Ajlgarti ( son of Ajlgarta ) and also as Angirasa ( a gotra name ). In Rg. 8 we find Trasadasyu ( his own name ). ( V. 11. Br. 33. VI ] Saihskaras-Nftmalcaraw 241 1 when he does not prosper should give himself a second name . 31 ftviTm quoted in nffmakarana by several sStras. These are generally the ordinary name. speaks of a secret name given by the father on the day of birth. Br. 3 reads is TW. e. 89. ( XIII. This verse H. 2. 1 ) as Vaidhasa ( son of In the Vedhas ) and Aiksvaka ( descendant of Iksvaku ). In the Tai. 3. i ) Indrota Daivapa ( son of Devapi ) Saunaka ( a gotra name ) is said to have been the priest of Janamejaya. a name derived from his father and a third from his gotra ( or from the name of some remote ancestor ). ft- tf- VI. 1. . 3. g. 33. 1. Sat. while king Hariaicandra is mentioned ( Ait. i. A few examples of the three names of a person from the Vedic literature may be given here. nhrn wrspit&fi: I. 230) that the Br. 3 it is said therefore a brahmana who has two names prospers 55 The Sat. effrasff VII. 17. ( 33. 3. Br. 4. ^?r^r TT*T sprf HIT q^fo f^rsr %*rnrr**nw This i *riPr: 1 i srsr. In the Ka^hopanisad 550. tf . 11 ) says Arjuna is the secret name of Indra and the constellation of Phalgfluls being presided over by Indra they are really Arjunyah. 1. Bh5r. * mm ^ ^rg^?jis cn*f fr^ff s^r *%cft in other ^. Gairiksita (descendant of Giriksita ). Paurukutsya (son of Purukutsa ). rm swtf srra^t fan I. Sir. I. 10. 2. 5. 17. cHEm^. S. 3. But how these names were formed is not stated anywhere in the Vedic literature. Up. there is a reference to the secret name of ghrfca 552 ' '. gr. V. In the Chan. differently read nirqT^T g. 552. 3. 5. In Vaj. Br. ( II. VI. while the person 853 praying was away on a journey . o. S. How the secret name was given is not clear from the Vedic literature. Hardly any secret names are expressly mentioned in the Vedic literature except the name of Arjuna given to Indra ( and being secret they cannot be expected to be mentioned). 1 and 7 ) Svetaketu Aruneya ( son of Aruni ) is styled Gautama ( a gotra name ). ^rg^fr <m 35^ ^T* . ' '. Bba"r. 551. 26. This is quoted in 26 and other grhya sutras. 1. i.. but are called Phalgunyah in an indirect way 5S1 We saw above (p.Ch.

I. vol. as will be shown later on. Ajatasiatru Kasya (Br. 1. 7 ). 33. 19. 100. Nabhanedistha Manava ( Ait.7 ). Up. E. 6 ). ^r. . 16. VIII. In some cases a matronymic is added to a person's name e. literature Usually however a petson is referred to in the Vedio by two names. VI is and 11) Naciketas is the son of V&ja&ravasa and addressed as Gautama ( a gotra name ). having a semivowel in it. 5-6). 39. Kakslvat Ausija 554 Usik. II. Chan. of two syllables if (the father) ( 1. Hg. Ait. 1. Bharata Daussanti ( Satapatha Br. Kasu Caidya ( Rg. 23 ). Bhlma Vaidarbha ( Ait. 17 ) king Sudas is called Paijavana ( son of Pijavana. Up. B. 1 ). Balaki Gargya ( Br. 6. 9 ). III. III. Up. In the varhsa added at the end of the Br. 2. V. 1. VII. Sahadeva and Suradhas are all called Varsagira ( son of Vrsagir. 18. III. pp. 2. 1). 5. 1 Vide *%m*V vol III. 28 ).1 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. 1). IV. g. 4. 18. Rg. 149. 9 ). S. 98. of referring to a person in the to state his name along with another derived from his father's name. 8 ). I. III. Bhrgu Varuni ( Ait. ^T(&R 7 on trrfrft VI. Br. 39. 5. ' may now be set out from 182-183 ) says Let (them) give the boy a name beginning wifch a sonant. Br. Rg. 29. 1. Hiranyastupa Angirasa ( Rg. he is ( worldly ) position ( for his son ). For example. Durmukha Pancala ( Ait. Up. there are about forty sages with matronymio names. 40). . 35. Rg. The principal rules about names the grhyasutras. consisting of two syllables or of four syllables.. Ambarlsa. Vaj. 158. XIII. 15. Tai. 22. 39. S. VIII. Rjrasva. with a visarga at the end. Rg. 8. 5 ). 10). I. 1. 1. is desirous of firm if syllables 554. 10 ). Asv. VIII. of four desirous of spiritual eminence ( for his son ) . Br. 1. Up. however. 22 ). Br. 1. Rg. Samyu Barhaspatya ( Tai. g. 10 and Tai. VatsaprI Bhalandana ( Tai. 2. ( son of a woman called Prahlada Kayadhava (son of Kayadhu. 6 ). Mahidasa Aitareya ( son of Itara.842 (1. Br. 1. Cyavana Bhargava ( Ait. II. Medhyatithi Kanva ( Rg. In other cases a man is referred to by his own name and another name derived from a country or locality e. g. The practice of mentioning a man by reference gotra to his mother's till name or to his mother's father's was continued The most usual method. I. VII. X. In some oases it is his own name and a gotra name e. 37 ). X. DlrghatamsP Mamateya ( Rg. 11 ). 1. Janaka Vaideha ( Br. Devapi is Ars^isena ( son of Rstisena.' II. 1 ). 11. S. Kutsa Arjuneya ( son of Arjunl. Up. 3. 4-10. Br.37 explains the words ). 5. 13. 26. and also in other Vedic works was later times. 18.

^THRB-R That such rules arc very ancient follows from 3. of the names contain either two syllables ( e. Brahmadatta &c. Cyavana.Ch. It should be noticed that ASv. Purukutsa. are the last three letters of the five <rIs (g^iflt ). *W ^^ p. According to ASv.^ora^(yideinfWrI. VI ( ] Samskaras-Namakarawi 243 but an even number of syllables in the caae and with an uneven number of syllables in the case of women. 86 derives that word. ) that name ( the boy's ) mother and father alone should know till his 55S The San. 3J*xTW: W&*K Separate the 5th sutraaa tftrrcr^Tr^ 3^?R*?R*t (3T?*r: means mOT. birth the father should give the child a name for ordinary use which should be pleasing to brahmanas. the name for which elaborate rules are laid down is to be the ordinary name and he lays down no rule about the formawhile San. g. a quotation in tho *rsnTTnr '*m1NrT: TOI5^ I. p. Baka. (S. (1) The first rule in almost all sutras is that the name for males should contain two or four syllables or an even from Vedic literature where most deduced is This rule number. rules about Instead of quoting grhya sutras at length the principal names deducible from them may be stated in the form of propositions with a few illustrations for each. Kutsa. 29. gr. though names of three syllables ( like Kavasa. and San. . And let him find out (for the boy) a name to be employed at respectful salutations ( at Upanayana &c. B.Bharata ) and of five syllables 555. .' 3Tf3[ means that tho first syllable is not * not borne by 3?T. E. ). . lays down for the secret tion of the secret name name the same rules as A&v.' . f%3*<?n3^ that would follow the name of (one of) the three ancestors of the boy's father. 50) omits the rule upanayana' about the name ending in a visarga and allows an option of six syllables and adds that the name should be formed by a krt affix ( from a root ) and not by a taddhita\ that this name should be known only to his parents and that on the tenth day after in all oases ) with of males . 1. arfllfSreTm^ means smtfsten*: 3F$ *ra*r. vol. Medhyatithi. says about the public name that it should be pleasing. Bhrgu ) or four syllables ( Trasadasyu. does for the public one and SSn. 4. <nf3ri3 VIII. Trita. 73) and aoffarftfar means his foe. a^f means 'descent or family. differ on one very important point.

and Hir. 2. San. 24 and figures very much in Pali works ). In t ^ . . Ap. San.). TO. Examples of names with two syllables and four syllables are given vapa 556 like Nabhanedistha. VI Hiranyastupa ) are not. 1. four or any number of syllables. e.. while Vaik. 3. 556. is stated also in the ancient quotation from Yajnikas in the Mahabhasya. Sukesas ( Prasna Up. ill on mro^ 1. >1. formed from ). visarga preceded name should end in a by a long vowel (e. Bhar. 45. Baija* grhya allowed the name to be of one. 1. ^sranr: ' fart *rro efffrfS ^sr* Trot s^srt "^srgtsfwjftfatf TT swrnf? p. 15. ^t. Yajnadatta &c. . Asv. 1. 6 ). 8-9. Devadatta. These rules were probably based on such Vedic names as Sudas. . and Gobhila say that it may end in a long vowel or in a visarga.. V. 1. I. Examples are Sujata. 8.. p. Prthusravas ( that occur in the Rgveda ) and such (3) Some sufcras prescribe that the 557 names as VatsaprI first ( Tai. below. ( II. (4) Ap. 1. Hir. the being a noun and the second a verbal formation ( generally a past passive participle ). : STT^T? ( *rft srerfir f are examples of names of two syllables and ^nfrT:.. VSraha root by a krt affix a noun by an affix (6) ' ' sutras (like Par. two. Dlrghatamas. (2) Almost This all grhya sufcras contain the rule that the in the middle a name should begin with a sonant and contain semivowel. say that the name should have the upasarga su in it as a Brahmana passage says that such a name has stability in it. Up. prescribes that the name should have two parts. 27. say that the name should be formed from a and should not be a taddhita (i. TTO: *n*r%*: f53fta: ffiVir^r: of those of four syllables. This rule is probably based on such ancient names as Brahmadatta ( which occurs in Br. 25 ) of six or even eight. ' g. Gobhila. g. (5) Many grhya ) Baijavapa.244 ( History of Dharma&astra [ Oh. the MahabhS^ya %7^cT and q^qiq are the most frequent stock names whenever it predicates something about a person in general and it also says that such names are shortened as e. . three. . Sudarsana. Ap.Par.. 1 ). only mentions that it should end in a visarga. gr. allowed a name even of six syllables and Baud. wanting.

pp.2S-29. son of Varuna-Visnu. Prajapatidattaka ( or-patika ). vol. Up. It should be noticed that in modern times most names in many parts of India are the names of deities or of heroes supposed to be avataras of deities. 342 ( of 4ake 1470 ) strangely enough the engraver's name is the Same as his father's. Visnumitra ( vol. VI. A. Gobhila ( and the Yajfiikas quoted by (8) the Mahabhasya ) prescribe that the name of the boy may be the same as that of any of the ancestors of the father. 14 p. gr. VI ] (7) Sathskaras-Namakarana Baud. vol. prescribes that. The Manava gr. There are only a few exceptions such as that of Bhrgu ( in Tai. 1 ) who is said to have learnt from his father called Varuna and in the Prasna Up.. 18 ) expressly says that the father's own name should not be given. 559 Vide I. 12 quotes a passage of Sankha that the name should be connected with one's family deity. in the Eran stone inscriptions of Budhaof the of deities gupta dated in the Gupta sarhvat 165 i. D. Bhanudattaka ( or Bhanuka ) and others set out in the Mahabhasya ( vol. 425 ) exemplify the rule Manavagrhya. The names that occur Yajfiadatta. of such names. 558 The Manava grhya. I. Narada &c. father's 558.Oh. Mitra. 484-5 A. 19 ) there is a brahmana Indra-Visnu. But in the Vedic Literature persons have names derived from the names of gods. p. e. . the Probably practice began in the first centuries of the Christian From the fifth century onwards we have historic examples era. ( Gupta Inscriptions No. 559. vol.v.. II. such as Indrota ( Indra -futa. In Vedic literature hardly any human being bears the name of any of the Vedic gods ( Indra. This practice was observed in ancient times and when the child is often given his grandname. and of names taken from deities would be Visnu. 41 and 359). The Mifc. protected ). 73 where we see that Pulakesi II was grandson of Pulakesi I.. forbids the giving of a name of a deity itself. Baud.1. I. the 245 be derived name may or a deifcy or an ancestor. II. Examples of names derived from sages would be Vasistha. In the E. Pusan &c ). p.q. g. continues even today. ^?^rq^ ^grr^g *f q^frr 953wrf *mn ft *g: > i *}. e. on Yaj. Vayudatfea in the ( Mahabhasya such as Devadatta. 296 ). II. I. Brhaspatidatfcaka (or Brhaspatika ). 18. however. Par. Indradyumna. (LI) there is Saury ay ani Gargya whose name is derived from Surya. ( 1. It is difficult to say when the very names began generally to be borne by human beings. III. p. but allows the giving of a name derived from the name of a deity or a naksa- from a sage tra. Siva &c. son of Hari-Visnu.

and Manava) are agreed name is to be given to the boy by the parents. irraritanift farm* 4. *fraRT*T. 12.. 15-16 ). Khadira. but it mentions that it was the view of some that another name was to be given in NSmakarana. and Kathaka give elaborate rules about the secret name. VI The grhyasutras (except Par. 26. 1-3 and 36 ) only one on the day of birth ) and the same is used in NSmakarana ( 36. further adds that accorddeity of that naksatra. Bhara581 dvaja speaks of the giving of two names in Namakarana. only say that the secret name should be derived from the naksatra of birth. one that was (ftmt7 II. Hir.. We saw above that San. jftpfts 1 Tsr should be taken one after another viz. Gobhila ing to some teachers the abhivadanlya name was derived from According to the KSthaka grhya ( 34. . that the naksatra name was to be the secret one. Bhar. Gobhila. at birth according to some (like Asv. Gobhila prescribes that this name was to be given to the boy at the time of upanayana by the acarya and was to be derived from the naksatra of birth or from the presiding that a secret. According to them a name like Hfrnrisfi. secret given in ^t^nptfr^n? and ^TUf* appear to suggest three names. 10. the 2nd in nffmakarana Oftfrft H. in the Sosyantlkarma according toGobhila and Khadira. In 1. Varaha (5) and Manava speak of an abhivadanlya name. I. is 568 given ( 561. . one being derived by applying the intricate rules described above and the other being a naksatra name but it is not quite clear which was to be the secret name it is probable. would be the fourth name. and HTTH (ending II. Ap. i 22-25 . 10.. According to A6valayana the secret name was called Abhivadanlya ( which was to be known to the parents only till the boy's upanayana and which was to be used by the boy for announcing himself in respectful salutations ) but he does not say how it was to be derived. and Ka^haka) and according to others (like Ap. Baud. . 3 ). 7. Band 14-16 derived by means of the intricate rules specified above ) and a third in Upanayana called STiSreT^fta (*ftftc7 H. 7 it is said that in the gpqig*!^ the following names of the 562. . which rules are those of the Vy&vaharika 560 name according to Asv. qft .S46 (9) History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. 560. ) at the time of Namakarana on 10th or 12th day. 8. however. 21-25). Gobhila and Khadira give no rules about the secret name. ^T^TTTH. and Vaik. but give no further rules. and many other sutrakaras.

) ^r^. irf%^T-3ntr. I. In is the Kathopanisad Naciketes is styled Gautama and in Chan. 3. From Gobhila it appears that the acarya told the boy his abhivadanlya name. IV. 4. 2. 1. . 1 Tai. deities 1. ( and III. 2-5) and I. VI ] Sa7hskaras~N5makarar?a 247 the gotra of the boy This practice ( as e. For the position of Abhijit. vide Tai. Gautama &o. Trfton ( *TT ^^r in S. 1-3. The object of keeping the naksatra name secret seems to have been to prevent rites of abhicara ( magical practices ) against a 563. 7 Svetaketu is addressed as Gautama by Pravahana J^iivali when if But no secrecy. j& ( and $TT^fnT^W and ^^TWI& ^TTTT) ft^^f:. mT: ( T%ftm in in ^TcTWT^ ^OT (called in 3Tj|o ) ^5 in ft ^. 10. Up. g. . but the Khadira suggests that the boy already knew it( from his father or mother) and informed the teacher. as the deity of f%3TT. Some give 35=3T. to others ). 20). The oldest lists are in the Atharvaveda (19. ) verso 28.). tf ) ^ f ff *<rfo (or in & *f. based on the usage we find in the Upanisads. HI and 3*3*TT are tlie pi^sitling deities ^R^fhr ). the abhivadanlya was a gotra name there could have been in verses 25-28 enumerates 28 naksatras ( adding Abhijit after Uttarasadha and before Sravana ) and their presiding deities and adds that in sacrifices the sacrificer is to bear a name derived from the name of the presiding deity of his naksatra. tf.Oh.. 7. The nak^atras and their presiding may the modern Some of the names differ from profitably be specified here. 5. V. 5. Tai. SSndilya. 4. ). 16-17. These are ( given also in $TTynwjI 20. ir^ctt in I. 1. ft^ of $5*r <K^ft and *ft respectively. s ar^rr. where SatyakSma when about to go to a teacher for Vedio study asks his mother what his gotra was ( Chan. The deity of 3TT*T!%^ i w. Br. ff.> in aro^o ) tfw. S. In the Vedio Literature and in the VedSnga Jyotisa the naksatras are enumerated from KitlikS to Apabharani and not f rom A^vinl to Rcvati a^ in medieval and modern times.) ace. Br. Tf^^rf^ 78. The Vedangajyofcisa 562 ( of the Rg ) the latter expounded Samvarga-vidya to the former. The naksatranama was of importance in the performance of Vedic sacrifices. 9?f^TT ( wnTT :. ^WfflTW^ ( III. . In the ^Tf3^fh% ^. IV. a^r^r STI^TTT in &. 1 ) and where the teacher also asks him what his gotra was. G&rgya. ones.

we have the names Sravisthah. Svatiguta. Tisya. p. 18 ) for ( IV. 2. 32 ) and %^Tc7 on ?rn35RW ^Q<hW#^ 36. p. 1. Phalgunah &c. In VII. In the Satapatha ( VI. I. 95 ). 128 ). Pusarakhita and in the SancI inscriptions of 3rd century B. II. In IV. I. Here Asadha is probably connected with the naksatra Asadha. 231 ) speaks of boys named Tisya and Punarvasu and cites Citra. vol. 3. The giving of naksafcra names continued for centuries after the Christian era. KohinI as names of women born on these naksatras ( vol. and may have ( who cannot flourished some centuries earlier still) 'gives several rules 3. For several centuries before names were very common. This shows that in the 4th century B. We have I dated The com. Phaguna. Moggaliputta Tissa ( where a gotra name and a naksatra name from Tisya are combined ). ) the brother-in-law of Candragupta Maurya is said to have been a vaisiya named Pusyagupta ( E. VIII. g. I. Panini be placed later than 300 B. the founder of the Sunga dynasty ( vol. a name was derived from the naksafcra Pusya ( so the name was naksatrasraya ). C. 43 ). Svati. p. The Mahabhasya ( vol. PhalgunI. 564. there is For example/in the Palitana Valabhi samvat 210 (about a brahmana named Vi6akha. 34 and 123 ). pp. 1 ( from the naksatra Prosthapada ). I. 307 ) and of Caitra as a male ( vol. 177. 3. C. 4 says I . 37 ) there is an Asadhi Sau^romateya (son of Asadha and Su&romata ). II. Asada. p. Punarvasu. II.248 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch.Hasta. p. VI person. the name Prosthapadah from Prosthapada. Buddhists also had naksatra names e. C. deriving names of males and females from naksafcras. 3. 2. D. of ^%^T says ( II. In the Junagadh the Christian era naksatra ' ' to be secret and inscription of Budradaman ( 150 A. 187 and III. vol. g. plate of Dhruvasena ) 529 A. The Mahabhasya speaks of Pusyamitra. but there are hardly any names directly derived from a naksatra. 34-37 and VII. Gradually however naksatra names ceased became common. 18 he derives ). RevatI. Anuradha. p. Hundreds of names occur in the Vedic Literature. ( vol. D. II. for the effective to employment of which 564 ik was necessary know a person's name. p. p. Asadha andBahula (Krfctika) without adding any termination signifying born on ( e. Ifc appears therefore that in the times of the br&hmanas naksatra names were secret and so are not met with. a parivrajaka Potthapada in DIgha I. 34 he says that names are derived from Sravistha. ( E.

So early as in the Brhatsaihhita of 565. if he was born on Krttika ( A^ni being its devata). 237 ) say that names may be given viz. vol. Vide *j*chKic?nRraT p. Modern works like the Samskaraprakasa ( p. in Bombay University Library ) as one of Garga. Rohinlsvaml ( in the plates of Sivaraja dated 602-3 A. IX. D. g. In modern times this round-about way is given up and persons are named directly from the names of gods and avataras like ( Rama is ).Oh. d:) disapproves of these authorities namea as not baaed on any Vedio III 566.. the letters for the 27 srsrsra in 1790 A. cu. ce. naksatranama and vyavaharikanama. devatanama. man was called Agneya. of deriving names from naksatras works on Dharmasastra and Jyotisa. The Nirnayasindhu 566 quotes a verse about twelve names derived from the month in which a man was born and adds that the Madanaratna laid down thafc the names specified in the verse were to be given to the months from Margaslrsa or Caitra. Cudamani. co and la for the padas of ASvinl) from which names are derived for persons born in those padas ( e. in E. 859 and dfrhiwhlfrl pp. *yfi}^iJ$ I U uuh H trts :B 3?r5^ffV 3^ w 5i*r 'af'TT^'fJ II I 'SflRj F^TT fTT-HHI^P^^^^lct I 3?3f *Tf<Uflq} f^ fiqf^W^ TR^? HI jpW. 860-861 of the former the 112 names ( for the 4 qr^-s of 28 Even so late a work as the ^jf[%^ ( composed T^rsTB) are exemplified. Cole&a and Laksmana 565 These names are secret and for the four padas of AsvinI ). particularly in Western India. but without regard to month of birth. 32 .) VI. Each of the 27 naksatras is divided into four padas and to each pada a specific letter is assigned ( e. I. There another way set forth in medieval are even now muttered into the ear of the brahmacarl in TJpanayana and are known as the name in the daily samdhya prayer. Maitra (from being born on Anuradha). 239-240 wher all are set out from a work called ?^TM^rJ> and on pp. Cedlsa. masanSma. 288 ). The Laghu-ASvalSyana-gmrti (Snand. g. The verae quoted occurs Saunaka KSrikSs ( Ms.. Such names ( of Visnu ) are being four kinds of the given now. Another way of deriving names from naksatras was to form them from the presiding deity of the naksatra on which a person was born. D. p. The first shows that the bearer is the devotee of that devata. VI ] Safasmras-Nftrnakaraya 349 A names like Pusyasvaml.ed. 2 Speaks of HT^f beginning from in the .

307) women named . A4vini. should be pleasing to the ear. 569 Manu II. 33 prescribes that the names of women should end in a long vowel. It is remarkable that Manu altogether omits the involved prescri- rules given by the ) grhya sutras about naming a boy and rules viz. III. Narmada. raksa The 12 names are Vide amrsff 27 for quotations from $Tf f$n?ra and 568. Yasioda. p. 6esa-sutra says that it should end in a long vowel. auspicious and should convey some blessing and in III. p. vigour. wealth and lowness ( or contempt ) and that the names of brahmanas and the other varnas should have an members addition 667. uHq 569. Kaverl &c. 13 say that one should not marry a girl named after naksatras. 325. As names of Many bles. also a woman ^nff^Tf (vol. The MahBbhSsya (vol. trees. These directions of the Vsrsha gr. 31-32 two simple names of all the of the four varnas should suggest respectively auspiciousness. 18 ) to the girls. . III.. III. Tapl. Goda. Narmada). ' ' 1 ' * times girls frequently bear the India Sindhu. 184 ) and %^r%2Rf (or %TOT). The Varahagrhya adds an intricate rule that the name of a girl should have an a vowel in it and should not be after a river. p. 567 some special rules were laid down. and Varahagrhya further say that the names of girls ' Qobhila and Manava say they should end in Vasuda. that the names of girls should contain grhyasutras say an 'uneven number of syllables and the Manava gr.250 History of DharmatGstra [ Oh. should not suggest any harsh acts. ( upapada ) suggestive of sarman ( happiness ). Citrs. 568 gr. Krsna. 156) and also iTjflRT) in vol. VI Varahamihira the twelve names of Visnu are associated with the twelve months. p. expressly says that the names of girls should be of three syllaPar. ( 1. ). that the bes ( II. a naksatra or should not be the name of the sun or moon or Pusan and should not be one having the idea of given by god as in Devadatta or having the word raksita ( as in Buddharaksita ). II. p. should be perspicuous. were not observed in mentions ancient times. should be easy to pronounce. 9 Manu and Ap. Jahnavl. gr. In modern should end in ' 5 '. q-^fr^i (or named Devadatta" (vol. while the Baud. I. Revatl. rivers. ( names of the great rivers of Yamuna. da ' (as in Satyada. Sahkha-likhita dharmasutra and Baijavapa require that it should end in 'I'.

. 11) saya 2. others. his son Raviklrti ( so the upapadas datta and dasa appropriate to vaisyas and 6udras respectively were added to brahmana names ). 156 the Mandasor Ins. E.Oh. Yama quoted by Apararka ( p. VIII. III. p. On the other hand we have frequent In the Gupta Inscriptions No. of datta. . ( man of Malava year 589. I. Karkadatta and Merudatfca. . ( VI ] Safokara^Ntimakaraipa 51 protection ). but were Puranas 573 A often broken from very ancient times as inscriptions show. 150. 10. D. vol. 572. 10. 24 ) where the founder who MayuraSarman. m 13 . ) the genealogy of the brahmana ministers is Sasthldatta. but his descendants in varman ( which was appropriate to ksatriyas ).' XIX p. p. 3. XV. 35 breaches of these rules. datta and svamin. 645-46 A. pustf ( prosperity ) and presya ( service or dependence on others). Ill. p. 8. In the Inscriptions of the Saka king Damijada century A. Similar rules are given in the These rules were sometime observed. p. g. p. {^g<3^<fgT III. D. 919 quotes ftnother verse of This is ftf5J^m HI. ' 573. HsnRmr srffarHi fSTTTST** iffcrr: i arrr. vol. 9 the rfwrcm p. 115 ) among the numerous donees (who must have been all brahmanas) there are some who are named Sraddhadasa. iarma or deva^ of ksatriyas varma or trata. of YaSodharat 1. 27 ) 578 that the names of brahmanas should have the addition says centuries before the Christian era. It is significant that none of the grhya570 makes any reference to these sutras except Paraskara additions (Sar man and the like) to the names of brahmanas and Therefore this was comparatively a later development. 416 ) cites Indravarman and Indrapalita as the names of a rajanya and a vaisya. vol. 83. whose 570. This *nr is on *rffor 2 { *TTR^R?ri W ^r^nt on tnfam VIII. his son Varahadasa. I vol. In the Nidhanpura plate of Bhaskara varman ( E. In the Neulpur plate of Subhakara of Orissa ( 8th is was a brahmana styled who were kings had names ending ' ' ' ' I. 571. 4 ) we have several bhattas names end in vardhana. e. I. 0. though such additions must have been in vogue at least two The Mahabhasya 571 (vol. of vaisyas bhuti or and of 6udras dasa. striking example of the observance of these rules is contained in the Talgunda Inscription of Kakutsthavarman of the Kadamba family ( E.

A few words may be said about matronymics. p. 3. 1. This refers to tho Asv. From a Karika in the Mahabha^ya we learn the son of a Daksl. In a Scythian ' E. *^ ^m^rrt?rT ^refis^r <nior5: i USHW Ad >! vol. VIII at p. In all these cases the mother's gotra name is specially emphasized probably to convey that the mothers were of the bluest blood. 3. TOra IX. 147 i ) delivers a $dq sft. Comparatively late writers mention the gotra in which their mother was born ( e. 75 on <nfrf^ (I. p. In the Nasik Inscription No. g. all that is intended to be conveyed is that he is descended from worthy male and female ancestors. I. Valavadha ( Balavardhana ) p. p. 1. 192. <nton^ was also called ^Udigtfq (from his place $ranjr)' II ( E. e. dated Gupta era 320 i. Therefore when in certain cases a person is named after his mother or after the gotra of his mother's father. Vide E. vol. Vide trras's *til<jldfcK VI. A few examples of such names have been given above from Vedic Literature. X at page 108 ) we have mention of the son of Bhargavl '. Vl of the year 60 ( 0. for other examples of MSdharlputa and Vasithiputa. I. 88 the Abhlra king Isvarasena Inscription ( is I. . 574. 575 vol. I. 16 his ) his father is called and son Mitravadhana (Mitravardhana ). 6. 576. described as Madharlputra. VIIL p. I. and meritorious works and who can be traced to have throughout been of the brahmana class on both sides &c. I. Yaj. austerities. Bhavabhuti who flourished about 700-750 A. D. ^5T$^ *T*3%<TT f^Tt<T- The printed text reads 5TiWTfn^f which practically convoys the same sense. There is no question in such cases of matriarchy. vol. vol. I.25fc History of Dharmditistra II. 575. 649-50 Panini (IV. 54 enjoins that one should choose a girl from a great family of srotriyas. Srauta sutra where it is required that both parents of the brahmana at the time of camasabhaksana in Dasapeya should be for ten generations perfect in their learning. VIII.1. I. Asv. I. 2 ( E. 20). ^T^cf: TClcrerfa ?ngcl: wN? ft?T** The 3U*?. 1. 20 has '% S*sn^ 3n5T. that the great 576 grammarian Panini was ( Panini himself ^r IV. 5. 60) siri Pulumayi is described as Vasithlpufca and in E. ) says that in selecting a bride" groom or bride one should first examine the family. 574 (I. 62 and Nogawa plate of jp^R 1. as has been already said those who on the mother's and father's side ". says that he was a Kasyapa while his mother was a Jatukarnl ). which has been famous for ten * ' generations ( for learning and character ). vol. gr. vol. XX. [ Oh. ! 5. 94) derives the word .

does not describe Namakarana. similar rules. II. 91. 5. the ' 578 M t The Hir.OT*P)i ' in ^. S. Iff). ) prescribes that 2-9. 214-215 ) contains It prescribes twelve oblations with the mantras ' on us wealth and gives two names ( a secret naskatra name and an ordinary name ) to the boy. yana grhya ( 29. S. 3*Tf cft^nifr ( *TT?TT ^pfTg 5ft TT^r?^ 4. I. S. 1. 25. the Ua^trabhrts are 22 III. p. P. 1. 52 B. 13 in all ) which are Tai. gives several Vffrtikaa on PSnini 1. is to give a secret name to the boy and should spread huskec The later 577. 11. 4. that he is to place in the middle the oblation to the naksatra of birth and he should make two other oblations to fire with two mantras and then the 10th oblation is made to Soma with Rg. 4. H. that the father should cook a mess of food in the sutikagni. ( vide anT. VI ) Safaskaras-Namakaraya 253 for a special rule about the formation of a name man from the of his mother to convey contempt ( e. The BhSradvaja gr. ^'nrTTTS are 18 viz. f%f^W. e. gr. works state many details which it is unnecessary The mother with her child on her lap sits to the Some late writers prescribe that the fathei right of the father. vTRsrsr S- 26 ' ^r^rt ^rm *rarsft I . E. Gargah or 577 ankhSGargikah. to set out. g. III. B. vol. 4. The JT^nTOTiHT IV. The Jay as are certain mantras 1 *T. 7. prescribes the repetition of the Jaya. * gr. The father pronounces aloud the child's name and causes the brahmanas to say auspicious words. According to some a may Dhafcr bestow : thirteenth oblation to Kuhu was to be offered. 30 pp. 3 HI.Oh. 147 and the KSdikS remarks would moan wrf: 3^: 578. vol. E. The twelve oblations are as follows four to Dhatr. ( whose father was unknown I- ). Other sutras specify other mantras from their respective . 6-14. Abhyatana and Rastrabhrt mantras and the offering of eight oblations of ghrta with the eight * raantras may Dhatr bestow on us wealth ( Ap. 9 ' ( s in ^. Many of the other grhyasutras prescribe that the sutikagni is to be removed and the homa for namakarana is to be performed in Aupasana ( grhya ) fire. g. The Asv. that he is to offer oblations to the tithi of the boy's birth and to three constellations with their presiding deities. ( II. gotra name the father and mother (having bathed themselves and the child) should put on new clothes. I. four to Anumati. TTS I- 10. 4. 7. two to Sinlvall. two to Raka. from his mother's name Gargl). a rogue.

12 ) karnavedha is presbirth. then masanama ( vide note 566 above). Asv. 258 ) says that it may be performed on the 10th. The Kausltaki Br. II. has a brief note on karnavedha. but only address ( with a prose formula ). In a ifcff ^ ^Himifj. The formula for <TT. These rules have a very ancient origin. This no doubt indicates that greater value was attached to a son than to a daughter. day from birth or in the 7th or 10th month from C.' and thrice smells (kisses) his son on the head.' and takes the name of the boy and also repeats the verse asma bhava In the case of the girl there is no &c. CT5)?*r in ii+icnt w i is ' J 861. The grhyafirst parisista says that the father sits facing the east in the of the day and first addresses the right ear of fche boy ' ' half 89. ir^TT??r the verse 379 . gr. 581 The Sm. * * * ' * ' ' Karnavedha the child ). smelling of the head nor muttering in the ear. but it also shows that the daughter was not altogether neglected. to be The p. 10). with the I. may we hear bliss with our ears ( Rg. If the boy cries honey is 579. cribed in the 7th or 8fch month. : 12th or 16th birth. fl-JwrifWms H^cfri^r^ 5fh STC^t SKTU ( 3TTT. daughter 581. VI pen grains of rice in a vessel of bronze. 8 ) and then also the left ear. Ap. TT. 580. 57d sutra works add a detail immediately after NamaFor example. while Brhaspati quoted in Sarhskaraprakasa ( p. II. 14. ( piercing the lobes of the ears of In modern times this is generally done on the 12th day after In the Baud. 12 58 prescribes that on returning from a journey the father should address his son ( abhimantrana ) with the verse angad/ should smell the child on the head with the verse be thou an axe and should mutter in his right ear five mantras. mutters the verse 'angad angad &c. ( I. gr. 11 ) says when a father returns from a journey he holds in his hands his son's head. kuladevata nama ( such as Yogesvarl* bhakta ). Up. mantra Oh gods. 15. sesa-sutra ( 1. 873) quotes from p. gr. 15.254 History of Dharmaiastra I Oh. viz. For is 3JT*T. *T. Some karana. ( II. &J{f(<j^ioH'vreffr 14. 11 says that on returning from a journey the father touches the head of a son with the verse angad-angad &c. a naksatranama. *T. 3 ) the reading is and for 3T$HT vnr vide note 537 above. write thereon with a golden * fche words salutations to Sri Ganapati and then write four names of the boy. a vyavaharika^ nama. The flfrhKi^Hmwi (p.

Baud. I. II. 50. 4. generally a goldsmith is called who pierces the lower lobes of the ears with a pointed golden wire and turns it into a ring round the lobes. 4 *r aTTgon^cHfa <h<j|:^ ijMW^d u. 1. gr. VI ] Satiiskaras-Karyavedha after the rite 255 In modern given to him . 144. 4. Apararka (p. 22-23 where there is a II. B. ifc occurs in all Samhitas ) and then he should present the child turning its face towards the sun with the verse salutation to thee. 'he the haritsa sitting in pure 12=Tai. ^3f jrrftr f^rjrfot^r ^54T^rm crarftfw MKWI 1. S. 11 ) and then he worships the sun with the verse that Jatavedas ( Rg. This is a minor rite. 1-5 ( S. gr. II. remove the misfortune of my lot and endow me with blessings'. 29. 2 ). worlds' (Rg. The verse 5. 36. Vide also Gobhila II. JW^-H Hr ^ ftT^HlPTTf . 19582 This was done according to most 1-6. times. II. 8. Baud. 56-57 ). 8.r. 1. Khadira II. 10 and Visnu Dh. whenever him ( Rg. brahmanas are to be fed. Kathaka gr. 47 vide srTFcnrf 108. 583. B. 4 ). I. is i . The Manavagrhya prescribes that the father cooks a mess of food in milk and offers oblations thereof the sun with the verses ' * the brilliant sun has risen in is the east ' ( Mait. X. ^^^ nHrh II. Oh divine ( sun ) who hast hundreds of rays and who dispellest darkness. Manava gr. 28) quotes a purana that the going out of the house may be done on the 12th day or in the 4th month. S. wigim^ remarks * H 584. 30. 15.p. This verse also occurs in Vas. vol. then brahmanas are to be fed and the fee is to be a bull. gr. should be regarded as one's father and mother '. Niskramana: (Taking the child out of the house in the open ). 17. S. 3. 6. vol. f S. IV. pierces pain and yet bestowing ambrosia.Ch. 88. 30 pp.2. According to Par. the ear with without teacher who the ( ) causing truth. 24). pierced first. 396). ' ' 582. 14. authorities in the 4th month after birth. very similar verse ( *raTf ofTc*ri%$*T ) and irg These two chapters of the ^r^T^T seem to bo later additions. 17 gives the briefest description. 1-7 ( S. 40. ' 5= Mait. E. 37-3S. S. In the case of girls the left ear is ' That ears of boys were pierced even in ancient 582 He times is suggested by a mantra quoted in the Nirukta. the father makes the child 584 look at the sun pronouncing the verse that ' eye' to (Vaj. I. E. Vido Tal- 42 for this benediction* . Par. G The com.

says that seeing the sun and seeing the moon should be done respectively in the 3rd and 4th months from birth. The verse *r% *n*: i ^giftiT ^4 occurs in a^T- *?. The Samskarapraka&a pp. 19 ( S. gr. thy heart ( Mantrabrahmana I. 29 p. 586. B. Bhar. hands it with its herself passes behind the face to the north from the south to north to the father and back of the father and stands to the ' * north of him. The Gobhila and Most smrtis prescribe the 6th TT. 39. gr. gr. 29. p. Gobhila It says that on the 3rd tithi of the third bright fortnight after birth. who worships with the three verses 58S Oh thou whose hair is well parted. lets the water flow out of his joined hands Then once with the Yajus what 5. p. Pr. 250. Manava gr. Hir. vol. 1-2. San. 299-300). in the following bright fortnights. II. then the father hands back the son to the mother with the words ' that this son may not come to harm and be torn from his mother'. 1. Khadira omit this saihskara. 886-888 give an extensive description and make of this sarhskara a matter of great pomp. 183). then the mother. ( making the child eat cooked food for the Annapraiana Vide Asv. vol. vol. ' ' that eye ( Vaj. B. crcrcgtfft 3u P. 103. 1-3 ( S. E. 5. the father bathes the child in the morning. : first gr. gr. showing the boy to the sun in the courtyard of one's father-in-law or in that of another and ' ' then repeating the verse 0. VI IL 2 ) speaks of candradarSana. I. 54 ). the father filling his joined hands with water and turning his face towards the moon. I. I. Yam a 586 quoted in Sam. remarks that those in whose sakha this rite is not mentioned need not perform it. 585. 36.256 gr. gr. jfcMWMfr . 4. having dressed the child. gr. Ap. ( History of Dharmaiasfra [ Ch. the ' is ( Mantrabrahmana I. Par. Laghu-Asval&yana VII. E. 29 p. B. but only mention the seeing of the moon. 30. 30. S. time). 13 ) and twice silently. 10-12 ). prescribes a hotna with eight oblations. The Sm. B. 24 ). V. ). 51. 1-3 speaks of the performance of abhyudayika sraddha. III. 22. 250-256 and Samskararatnamala pp. Kathaka gr. 1-6 (S. It sight of the sun. except that it will be noted that both omit the does not speak of two times. 16. festivity and rejoicing. 1-2 ( S. I. worships in the evening the moon with folded hands. 216 ). 16. then reciting the sukta from 'svasti no mimltam' ( Rg. vol. II. 11 ) and asu sisanah ( Rg. E. pp. 1-6. Vaik. X. E. B. E. vol. 20. The Khadiragrhya has practically the moon ' same rules. 27. 27 283 ( S. 1 ). 13. 5.

desirous of nourishment. are entirely silent about * 18. S. 33 . holy respectively swiftness or splendour and mix one of them with curds. honey and ghee and should give it to the child to eat with the reciting of the Mahavyahrtis ( bhuh. San. 100. I. or flesh of partridge. 33 ). ( I. Manava. The procedure is very brief in all except San. 19 and then sets down the child on northward pointed kusa grass with IJg. 4-5 and him. 11 ) and the verse ' 590 ' the may vigour to-day produce for us gifts &c ( Vaj. The mother is to eat the remnant of the food thus prepared. gr. flesh. of sthallpaka and offering the two ajyabhagas and then two offerings of ghee with the mantras 'the gods generated goddess of speech &c ( Rg. Oh Agni. bhuvah. 12. 15. %fFnft***r gfi&ro'- si sr^icrrf cirRr 373? 589. . svah ). IV. i %^f ^r^rsnr^pcf %*TIR\ ff ^^TT: ^T^T Hf D. if he is lustre. II. VI ] Saihskaras-Annaprafana birth as the time for this . 66. in. After 590. 1i by 3mr& p. the end of six months. according to some 587 enjoins the sixth month from birth or the time when the child first strikes teeth. s^n tbo child's the yooative <nfpft be uttered. 22. * ( but prescribes only ona versa Annapata '. 14. and Par. says it may it Apararka says samskara but Manava be the 5th or 6th while Sankha quoted by should be performed at the end of a year or at . 588. ghee and boiled rice mixed together. prescribes feeding of brahmanas. Bhar. Av. and Vaik. lead to long life and splendour &c '. 257 month from gr. Ap. says that the method of making a child eat is the same as in Medhajanana and is Par. 28. benedictions to the child and thon making the child eat only once amess of curds. honey. IT. ^^WSRT^fsNrctf* f&$ aren-Jts'sr^r *ft l 5Tf. The father recites over the child the verse Rg. has almost the same rules as to food * ' . omitting fish 589 ) ' with the recitation of a mantra joined to the three vyahrtis singly and collectively and says that according to some the flesh of partridge may also be added. 19 ) prescribes the cooking silent about the food. 11-14. says that the father should prepare food of goat's flesh. or of fish or boiled rice. The Kathaka gr. making them give gr.Ch. - nj<rt WWaffai a*te<rt *rf srrsnmfr i firmer i am i ?^ 1 s^rt vft namo ixi i&r: ^rrrf is to ^iq-. IX. Kanaka 587. Then the father is to 588 offer oblations to fire with four verses Annapafee Rg. VIII.

8. 10-11 S. every four months. tools and utensils required in various arts and crafts. every season or every month on the nakaatra of birth Ka^haka 12 and 14 ) prescribes a homa every month after ( 36. in front of the gods worshipped in the house. 19-20 * ) says or naksatra \ 5 *2 The San. One interesting matter quoted by Apararka ( p. It sarhskara will be seen from the above that the principal part of the Some writers add is making the child taste food. 267-279 ) and Samskararatnamala ( pp. feeding of brahmanas. : In some of the sutras proviVarsavardhana or abdapurti is made for some ceremonies every month on the day of the birth of the child for one year and on every anniversary of the day of birth throughout life. For example. 28 ) from Markandeya is that on the day of this ceremony. prakasa ( pp. weapons and sastras should be spread about and the child should be allowed to crawl seizes at first should be noted is among them and what and it the child should be deemed that he destined to follow that profession for his livelihood first which is represented by the thing touched by him. gr. > EJpTlT^T *TTT*T *TT?H ^<c^K n. sion every month of the boy's birth for one year on the parva days of the year he should sacrifice to Agni and Indra. and benedictions. l gr. The Sarhskarahoma.258 History of Dharmaiastra I Oh. VI 591 and the other two prescribes the cooking of all havisya food works prescribe food cooked in milk. B. 19-20. III. he sacrifices when one year has ' domestic fire '. p. namakarana or jatakarma 591. 1-2. vol. 8. 891-895 ) have very detailed notes on this sarhskara. expired in the ( ordinary ) '. ( I. Baud. to Heaven and Earth and to the Visve devas. sngdiss^T^i^M-ci^: ^T I 5FBP^T% fifc%T \ ^. 7 59 * prescribes an offering of cooked rice for life ( ayusyacaru ) every year. 7. III. Having sacrificed to these deities he should sacrifice to the tithi and ( II. 5J. Gobhila gr. every six months. 52 ) similarly says having sacrificed in the same way every month on the tithi of the child 's birth. . E. gr. 29. Tho ^j are the amSv&syas 593. 25. for a year in the same way as in namakarana and at the end of the year an offering of the P. irc^Tc^T^C 400 quotes a vorse n > and quotes 592.

then an oblation with the vyahrti ( bhuh svaha ). 29 ) quotes verses of Markandeya to the effect that all should every year on the day of birth celebrate a festival ( mahotsava ) in which one should honour and worship one's elders. in celebration of which several ceremonies are prescribed ( which for want of space are not set out here ). Apararka (p. gods. 621 ) quotes a verse that in the case of kings the anniversary of the day on which they were crowned should be celebrated. Vaik. ^. Nityacarapaddhati ( p. one's naksatra of birth and brahmanas.^1. then It describes in detail how different cereoffering^ to Dhata. the Samskaraprakasa 281-294 gives the most elaborate treatment ) call ( which in pp. ^f|? ferret vnrra *m%% itwfa ^rit m%rcc ^fssnr snf: TrlmjHw foeraT* cT*Tc5ftfn?T f^TW HI. III. 594. 21. The Krtyaratnakara ( p. In connection with the anniversary of the marriage day. then up to finishing of Veda study. monies are to be performed up to Upanayana. the pitrs. 20-21 speaks at great length of the ceremony called 4 Varsavardhana ( increase of the years of a person ) to be ' performed on the anniversary of the birfch-day every year and lays down that in this rite the deity of the nakgatra on which a child is born is the principal one. 1. 7^ also speaks of ^?nft: pH ^IxT^fftUqrfT^ tho anniversary of the day of marriage * ' ' 595.Ch. II. er. . 594 Vaik. how ceremonies are to be performed on tho anniversary day of one's marriage. 540 ). that oblations of ghee are to be offered to that deity and naksatra and then to the other presiding deities of the naksatras and to the naksatras themselves. fatftaT: i sftig'qferer The ft^r^TCTSfft has these verses ^i: Tt^juJT^r *n& ftrsftfcf: *T&n^: CT>ftri *Tt''i*m*nOT^i *mf <TJ'*nPlfW3nrt '. The Nirnayasindhu. VI ] Safiiskaras-Varsnvardhana 259 flesh of a goat and sheep to Agni and Dhanvantari and feeding the brahmanas wifch food mixed with plenty of ghee. 621-624) quote the same verses (as Apararka does) and add that on that day one should worship Markandeya ( who is 595 The believed to be immortal ) and the seven other drajtvins. specially prescribes that whatever ceremonies women direct as done traditionally should be performed. The flnfaftr*3 quotes some verses from i the ^rf%*mirffi about flufofer. Agni. Prajapati. on the naksatra on which a person performed solemn sacrifices like Agnistoma and that if he thus lives till 80 years and 8 months he becomes one who has seen a thousand (full) moons and is called 'brahma6arlra '. the Nityacarapaddhati ( pp. snq-.

295. 1-15 (3. B. B. CO-63). 1 Vaik. say it may be performed in the 3rd year or in the year in which it is the custom of the family to perform it. 597 writers caula gr. the sikha ). We get cauda meaning a rite the purpose of which is keeping and da and la often interchange places. also refers to family usage. Caula or Cudakarma or Cudakarana cutting of ( the first This samskara is mentioned by ). I. E. 216-218). p. 30 pp. Par. (S. so : the hair on the cbild'd head ' ' * cudakarma hair is * or ( ' cudakarana means that first ' rite in which a lock * of ' kept for the 596 ' from cuda ' a lock of hair time after birth ). ' . pp. vol. So * ' * ' we get cauda ' ' or caula ' also as the name of the ceremony. 35. but mentions only family usage. V. S. 97 ) explains ^T^ a nd we know from works on poetics that is no distinction between *ba' fHrj[ (there and la in Yatnaka. 9. 301-303). Par. Baud. e. B. gr. B. II. 1-18 ( S. in the ). 30 pp. 596. They make the child cling to the principal house-post or to the post used for churning out butter from the pail of curds and water. 23 say that it may be performed in the 1st or 3rd year. VI abdapurti '. 29 pp. 23 for a treatment of this gr. Kathaka gr. B. p. gr. 16. Hir. Vide &5n.16-33 (S. 184-186 ). 1-12. Gobhila II. 877-886 ) and calls this festival ayurvardhapana '. 296 ) and Narayana ( on Asv. 1-29 ( S. II. 283-84 ). specifies no year. topic. The Samskararatanamala contains a very extensive discourse on this rite ( pp. 55-57). 362 on qr. E. 597. 29 pp. Yaj. gr. Khsdira II. 4. . gr. and Varaha gr. 3-11 (S. 17. 21. l p. third year According fco from II. The Nirnayasindhu and the this festival ' Sarhskararatnamala set out the verses that are addressed to Markandeya and others. I. gr. 1 ) say that some performed it at the time of upanayana. Baud. 1. it 4 ^JIT spTreremq ^Wfrs&qf^-^ SH^I jtf*I[3 * as ' and va ' or <Ja The *TfnTT<T (vol. was performed 4). In modern times women do celebrate every month the birthday of a child and the first anniversary of birth. many birth. gr. III. 2nd or 3rd Manu ( while Sankha-Likhita allowed it in the 3rd or 5th Apararka p. Yama quoted by Apararka (p. Sad-guru-sisya quoted in the Samskaraprakasa ( p.260 ' History of Dharmasastra [ Ch. Asv. 597-599). year. 29 ) allowed it in the first. B. 28. II. (II. Manavn gr. every writer. E. Yaik. B. 1 II. 6. B. E.&$ v. 40. III. I. 29. 17. Par. 3. E. (II. (I. 29 ). Cuda means the lock or tuft of hair' kept on the head when the remaining part is shaved ( i. paronomasia and citrakarya ). B. 29 pp. 30 pp.

. 18 place the dung to the north of the fire and Khaiira says that she sits to the north ) (3) to the right of the mother the father sits 599 of kua grass or the brahmS priest ( if holding 21 bunches there be any) may hold them (4) warm and cold water or only warm water (5) an ordinary razor or one made of Udumbara wood ( according to Khadira II. The other subsidiary matters are the performance of homa. Varaha 4 and Par. 17 or Tai. 3 says ifc should be per- when the moon is in conjunction with Punarvasu naksatra. 17.Oh. 1. . II. and San. 1. on the right side and three times on the left side and each time three ku&i bunches are required. The principal act in this ceremony is the cutting of the hair of the child. 16. 17 and Gobhila II. masa beans ( Asv. while Manava gr. 299-315 ) give very intricate rules about the auspicious times. 598. feeding of brahmanas. 2 ). awFE^i sfacsrrem ^4 fpn% *rofq WIT^T *r i %rnre 28. 9. Bhar. which rules are passed over here. VI ] Samskaras-Caula 261 Whether such a ceremony was performed in the Vedic ages cannot be ascertained with certainty. receiving of their benedictions and giving of daksina. 9. says thafc ifc should not be done on the 9fch til hi of a month. Gobhila. I. the disposal of cut hair in such a that no one can find them. 4. way The ceremony is to be performed on an auspicious day as set out in note 494 above. Ap. . but Gobhila (II. S. gr. 3. IV. say . 28 expressly 598 refers to the Vedic verse ( Rg IV. barley. gr. 5 ) ' as indicative of the practice of Caula in Vedic times where arrows fall together like boys having many tufts of hair '. 3.. . Later works like the Samskaraprakasa ( formed pp. ^ TO i 21 bunches arc required because he cuts off the hair four times 599. 75. 9. 5 and Khadira II. Manu II. The most exhaustive treatment of this ceremony in the sufcra works is to be found in Asv. The materials required in follows : this ceremony are stated as (1) To is tho north of the fire are placed four vessels each of which and sesame respectively 6-7 ) separately filled with rice. 6. 4 ) (6) a . says that they are to be placed to the east and Gobhila that these are to be given to the barber at the end of the rite (2) to the west of the fire the mother with the boy on her lap is to be seated and two vessels one filled with the dung of a bull and the other with iaml leaves are to be also placed to the west ( Gobhila II. 35 also has in view this Vedic verse. gr.

It 13 not possible for want of the mantras used in the space to set out all these different verses. and Hence it appears SSix. who puts them down on the bull dung.1) he presses a copper razor ( on the kusa blades ). I. ' '. protect him ( Tai.1. The several sutras generally cite different mantras at the time of the performance of the several acts. that later on the father performed only the homa and repeated the head. he gives ( reach ) old age saml with east the towards turned with ends their together hair leaves to the mother. ' 600. With the ' words Axe. 6.. The hair is cut with the mantra with that razor with which Savifcr. S. Then 600 on the ' right portion of the boy's hair the father puts three kusa bunches with the points towards the boy with the formula herb. having contemplated up:m Savitr. cutting of the* hair. Kathaka and Manava say that the razor is to be of which the commentator Narayana explains as coppar ). with what Cutting is done a second time with the mantra Dhata shaved ( the head ) of Brhaspati. mirror. I. cut ( the hair > of king Soma and of Varuna. VI According to Gobhila and mirror (Gobhila and Khadira). do not harm him ( Tai. in a part of the water. butter or drops of curds and apply the water to * ' moisten three times the boy's head with the mantra may Aditi cut thy hair may the waters moisten ( thy hair ) for vigour . It a snjsrfitsiw . Oh brahmanas. S. 2. Oh Vayu. I. 1. nowhere mention the barber in this ceremony. practised in ancient times. cut now his (the boy's hair). looks at the barber with the mantra here comes Savitr' ( Mantra-br. Agni and Indra for the ' * ' '. come hither ( Mantra-Br. Only are cited in order to convoy some idea of the rite as it was Aa>. mixed with sesame are to the north of the fire. According to * Gobhilaand Khadira the father. 1 ).262 History of Dharma&astra ( Ch. the principal matter (of cutting the hair)is to be begun. The father then mixes the hot and cold water and may put. rice After homa is performed. gr.. Khadira the barber. the wise. 'ifa mantras. L 2. hot water. razor and bunches of kusa grass are to the south of the fire and bull's dung and a mess of loha ( Asv. 2 ). Par. so that he may be endowed with long life and 601 the cut Each time the hair is cut. 6. while a barber was employed to shave the boy's 601. himself performed the appears that originally the father Some of the grhya sutras liko those of Baud. 1 ) and contemplating on Vayu looks at the warm water with the mantra with warm water.

fame and happiness '. and 7 with slight variations. The rite only ( without the mantras ) is performed for a 608 girl. Let Then the * him have the hair of the boy arranged according to the custom of the family. gr. again ) past ' for the sake of long life. A bath for the boy is expressly prescribed by Baud. prescribes that as the hair fall down when cut they are gathered by some friendly person. According of a bull is to several sutras. the cut hair placed in the dung buried in a cow sfcablu 603 or is thrown in a pond or in the vicinity of water ( Par. The mantras in A^v. fame and happiness all the three '. The verse ^c^for JrlnffiT is. ) or is buried at the root of the TJdumbara tree ( Bhar.. 3 fr& ^^ ^*1^ urcgrar II. 3T l <TR. with that I shave thy ( head ) for the sake of long life. says food is given to him. . 1. arrange his hair ( well ) without causing him ( the boy ) any wound '.. The Kathaka gr. . 1.. Bhffr. <ir. II.. 28. suit the caula.. Gobhila) or in the forest (Gobhila). while Vaik. some 602. ' hair is cut three times on the left side similarly.. . and Manava gr. and others. viz grrofa ir^cfr are &r*. *J. The edge of the razor is then wiped off with the mantra when thou shavest as a shaver the hair ( of the boy ) with the razor that wounds and is well-shaped purify his head.. Bhar. ^nr. The cutting is done a with what he may after nighfc ( is third time with the mantra and with that I shave thy (head) sun the see again. occur also in Manava gr. 604. 3-5 ^*r. ^rm<fr ^r *TT<TT. occur in Baud. say that the barber gets a sesame cake and a fine piece of cloth. a great divergence of views about the number of on the head and the portion of the head where they are to be left. ) or in a bunch of darbha grass ( Baud. appears to have adapted it pur- posely to 603. The Manava gr. almost the ^ ^^ samo as 3W^ VIII. JT. 17. make it 5 2. VI ] Samkaras-Caula 263 sake of their long life. Then he gives orders to the barber doing with lukewarm water what has to be done with water. and some others. but do not deprive him of life '. PSr. The cutting is done for the fourth time with mantras together. says that one or three or five 604 looks may be left on the head or according to family usage and he further says that some sages say that the locks should There is locks of hair to be left All tbe mantras in AsY gr. and &iv. i am* iftOTTTO tfte s^7F<r v<[mr$ q$*s*$ ^T ft^rcft 1^5 T%TR II- I. Baud.Ch. Bhar.

VII. ^jfj 40. 33. 2-8. 316 arranges the sutras differently and remarks 607. gr. 1 Rgveda refers to the fact that Vasisthas had a lock of hair on the right and so the rule of the Kanaka has a very hoary Up to modern times one of the characteriall Hindus was the sikha ( the top-knot ). The Kathaka gr. that persons of Atri and Kasyapa gotra ( or pravara ) keep locks both on the right and the left. stic outward signs of 605. 606. p.264 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. Vide below under marriage for pravara. p. The n. gr. 608. that the Angiras gotra keeps five looks or only a line of hair. VI be as many as the pravaras invoked by the father. 23. 605 A6v. A verse of Devala says that whatever religious act a man does without the yajnopavlta or without sikha is as good as undone and Harlta rules that a person who cuts off his sikha through hate or ignorance or foolishness becomes pure only after side of the head antiquity behind it. ) keep a 6ikha ( without any particular number of locks ) simply because it is an auspicious sign or one may 806 follow the usage of one's 807 family. 33. III. that the Bhrgus shaves the entire head. I. Visvamitra &c. says that the locks may be one. andPar. VII. Whether they mean by ' ' Vasisthas keep a lock on the right. says that the gotra and family usage.say that looks may be kept according to family usage. three. a ^ikhs of the form and of the leaf of the Vata tree. two or five pravaras^ but never four. Gobhila and Khadirasay that the locks should be arranged according to Ap. two. . gr. 23. or they gotra the number of pravaras of the gotra or some rule such as the Kathaka gives is not clear. The pravaraa or r^is of the seveial gotras arc generally throe but some gotras have one. fonrah JTT y^r ^f. 1. while persons of other gotras ( like Agastya. says that the locks may in number follow the pravara may be kept according to family usage.. These sfltras are quoted by smre? ]? 29 and by the says that The ^m^ in explaining the words size u^rS some keep tf. Vaik. 608 five or seven according to the pravaras.

verses 18-19 (Anand. 610. both quoted in *nTm*ran$T P. 2) remarks that the sikha (its position and locks) is a sign to indicate the gotra and quotes Rg.8) performing the taptakrcchra penance. 317 . ) are very similar to the 2nd verse. cited above in note 598 ). 17 ( yatra banah. children are shaved once. A Vedic 610 For is the head that has no 6ikh3 on it is unholy '. . VI. In modern times the rite of cudakarana generally takes place if at all on the day of Upanayana. Sahara (on Jaimini I. 32. %&$ fftmTi9 ' 1 vfhg^ 3 . there is a reference to the sikha of Canakya having been kept when he was angered by the Nandas. Manu ( II. particularly those receiving English education in towns and cities. Asv. 611. * %^c? 5 finsi n ^rf is n*3naror: ^ifra. 66 ) says that all the ceremonies from jatakarma to caula must be performed at the proper times for girls also in order to purify their bodies but without mantras and Yaj. are forsaking the ancient practice of keeping a sikha and follow the western method of allowing * the hair to grow on the whole head. iftftra^llr I. 3THi# 3T tjcri^U^ ?3"i?k^*i quoted by the commentators on I ^0. p. P. In some castes even in modern times girls when mere it being supposed that the first hair are impure. During recent times men. 21 ) prescribes that members of all varnas ( including fche 6udra ) should untied arrange their hair according to the fixed usage (of their family) or should shave the whole head except the 6ikha. VI ] Scuhakaras-Caula 609 265 In the Mudraraksasa (1. The grhya sutras and dharmasutras are Vidyarambha entirely silent as to what was done for the child's education : 609. 13 ) is to the same effect. 34 . &c. 17. 75. Ed. Vasistha ( II. Even such late writers as Mitramisra say that the caula of girls may hair be performed according to fche usage of fche family and that their may be entirely shaved or a 6ikha may be kept or there 811 should be no shaving at all. ( I. I. The first 4 and is quoted as ijij's in ^jf^. but no Vedic mantras were to be repeated.Oh. passage rules about the sikha of students vide later on under upanayana. 316. gr. 7. ( I. 18 ) expressly says that the ceremony of cudakarana was to be performed for girls also. 3.

VI between the third year when usually caul a was performed and the 8th year ( from conception ) when the upanayana usually took place ( in the case of brahmanas ). IP. Apararka (pp. and after his upanayana he is to study the Vedas. ). 614. 28) says that prince Aja first mastered the alphabet and then entered into the ocean of ( Sanskrit ) literBana has 61S probably the Arthasastra in view when he ature. vide para 74 about 6 and 16 years. ^Tg^fcf f^frwww 4i ar^r^ ^rftesrrs'q^ i i i *fri$r3fir anffr i arts Vide <ft!<jisffr para 69 for fisrrai^T and para 71 for the various and sciences 613. p 612. varla ( agriculture and the science of wealth ) and dandaniti (the art of government) after the up the 16th year when the godana ceremony is to be Kalidasa performed and after which year he may marry. * . 321 ) ^ says t * i 3?rmi pp. C. 30. performance of caula is to engage in the study of the alphabet and of arithmetic. It appears that at least from the early centuries of the Christian era. 5. makes prince Candraplda enter the temple of learning ( vidyamandira ) at 6 and remain there till he became sixteen and he ( like Milton in his letter to Hartlile ) tells us how extensive the ideal curriculum of studies in arts and sciences for the prince was thought to be. They state that rarely upanayana was performed even in the 5th year ( as will be Some faint light is thrown on this matter shown hereafter 618 which says that the prince by the Arthasastra of Kau^ilya. wumumvil 3W* ^ The %fc \ f^wiNTT (quoted in ft. . 'gri^HtfehiT 26) cite verses feff ^fcTrnt celebrated. 31. a ceremony called Vidyarambha ( commencement of learning the alphabet ) was and the Sm. (I. 30-31) from the Markandeya-purana m aFgsrrerpr: I. In the Uttararamacarita ( Act II ) it is said that Kusa and Lava were taught vidyas other than the Veda after their caula and before upanayana. p.266 History of DharmaiUstra [ Oh. anviksiki ( metaphysics ). till also (in Raghuvamsa III. H.

Laksml. SarasvatI. Laksml. The Samskaraprakasa quotes passages from Visvamitra.) of the alphabet. the llth of the bright half of Asadha. the ceremony of beginning to learn should be performed. The teacher should facing the east and the boy should face the West and the teacher should begin to teach the first lesson to the boy who should receive the benedictions of brahmanas. 4th. 615. e. The Samskararatnamala calls this ceremony Aksarasvlkara (appropriately enough ) and among other texts cites a long prose passage from Garga quoted in the Parijata and prescribes a homa also with ajyahutis to SarasvatI. 904-907 ) have an extensivo note. one should offer in the fire oblations of clarified butter to the above mentioned deities and should hon- our brahmanas by the payment of daksina. 9th and 14th ) and Saturday and Tuesday. . a * &c. It also quotes a verse from Nrsimha that SarasvatI and Ganapati should be worshipped and then the teacher should be honoured. Having worshipped Hari ( Visnu ). sutrakaras and one's vidya. the teacher is honoured and the boy is asked to repeat the words *om namah siddham' and to write them on a slate and * then he is taught the letters 615 ( a ' '. Thereafter sit teaching should be stopped on the days of anadhyaya will be specified later on ).Oh. VI ] Sathskaras-Vidyarambha : 2<>7 about vidyarambha as follows in the fifth year of the child on some day from the 12th of the bright half of Kartika to 1st. 8th. ( which The Sarhskara-prakasa ( pp. SarasvatI and Ganapati are worshipped. Devala and other sages and works that vidy&rambha is performed in the 5th year or in any case before upanayana. 321-325 ) and Samskararatnamala (pp. 906. but excluding the 15th tithi or rikta fcithis '( i. i <KT p. a considerable part of which is devoted to astrological matters. 6th. generally the 10th of the bright half of Asvina. Vighnesia ( Ganapati ). The modern practice is to begin learning the alphabet on an auspicious day. the sutra writers of one's sakha and the lore peculiar to one's family. Hari.

gr. ( 41. vratabandha are synonyms. 14 icmarks I * cT^J ^T 3f& I '. upanayana. *T. 5. I. <m. Comparison with the ancient Zoroastrian scriptures ( vide S. The phrases Wfjr^Prnrnst and wjr^rnfcrrR occur in the 1 vide zm. ( 41. 5T3TOI XI. 150) vido irtftraw II. vol. vol.<n.CHAPTER * VII UPANAYANA This word literally means leading or taking near But ' the important question is near what ? It appears that it ' originally meant taking near the acarya ( for instruction ) it may have also meant 'introducing the' novice to the stage of student-hood Some of the grhyasutras bring out this sense . 618 clearly e. e. . I. v II 1 . II. 285-290 about the sacred girdle and shirt ) and the modern practices among the Parsis of India tend to show that Upanayana goes back to an Indo-Iranian origin. g. But that is outside the scope of this work. A few words about the origin and development of this most important samskara would not be out.5 recalls Rg X. 1 ) says that upanaya. B. 1. . H ^r' I. Gandharva and Agni before r 4rart ^t T %^rr: X. The ftr*r. the Hir. X. E. of place here. 5. moves as a brahmacarl pervading all (sacrifices) he is only one part of the gods ( i. impelled by the ( initiate god Savitr' ". i 2 ( S. by his service to the gods ) a wife (me who subject * ' * 1 . vol. 85. 45 fT7*fr her marriage with a hunian bridegroom. Let me be a student. Confining ourselves to Indian Literature. 5. all pervading one. maunjlbandhana. ' f f . . E. Vide mf^rT on f$<uq<$f?HJ. batukarana. V. '. 5. 617. of sacrifices ) Brhaspati secured by that ( i. 4. : I ) Juhu. 1. am named 616. 30 p. we find that already in the Rg. 17. E. 2 . e. who was ( formerly ) taken by Soma 617 *. 109. 2 says "The teacher then makes ' the boy utter I have come unto brahmacarya. Lead me near me into it ). 21 ( S. B. 26 f(V I. The reference 44'^q^rT/ Every girl was supposed have been under the protection of Soma. 10. V. B. 5 the word brahmacarl occurs oh gods he ( Brhaspati ). 65 ). The Manava and Kathaka gr. 30 p. 109. 3. 1 ) also use the word upayana for upanayana and Adityadarsana on Kathaka gr. pp. to to Soma sm^ V.

g. born. This mantra is employed in the upanayana by ' several grhya sutras 618. well dressed and encircled when ( the boy by his mekhala and the post by its rasana ). I. the vaisya with Jagati *. it accepts the second explanation imparting the 6ruti ( viz. Dh. is T^^T *W1\ WST^TT %T^^T: boy is to be adorned and c. full of devotion to the gods Atisayokti ) j in their hearts and entertaining happy thoughts. thereby a samskara brought about by Gayatrl mantra ) to him who seeks it is Katyayana * the boy is Rg. S. 19. the grhya sutras ( were well known even then. 1. e. is praised as a young person classical sacrificial post yupa ) e. ^^n^r rT^fotsc f^Tt^t 3*q-Si% i ^fTTTSr VI. 8 ( who employs it for T5T p. This would mean that upanayana principally is learning gayatryupade^a ( the imparting of the sacred Gayatrl mantra ). 334. 19 says that upanayana is a sarhskara ( purificatory ' rifce ) laid down by revelation for ) him who seeks learning ( i. 3?r*.Ch. 1. This appears to be suggested by the Vedic passage quoted above (p. 20. 154 /. Such an ancient work as the Ap. * Here in un-nayanti we have the same root that we have in upanayana. the ksatriya with Tris^ubh. 356) 'he created the brahmana with Gayatrl. 35 620. 1. 20. 1. n. VII ] Upanayana 269 word 'upanayana' 618 can be derived and explained in two ways: (1) taking (the boy) near the acarya.35) propounds the view Gayatrl'. 1. 619. attains eminence wise sages. Jaimini that upanayana is a samskara and has a seen result viz. ^r 5rrF*riT^ ^rnr^R: HI. 8 is g* . 4 brought near the teacher for learning Veda. 8. 8 prescribes that the to wear new clothes i l and I. e. rhetoricians * there is in the language of the later the first kind of the figure here comes the youth. he. ^ri ^RTT: TWi5f SKIT?^ ^?. original one and when an extensive ritual came to be associated with upanayana the second came to be the sense of the word.(2) that rite by which the boy The first sense appears to have been the is taken to the acarya. ^. raise him up '. 4. 1. Asv. 8. III. or this sutra may mean '. and by Sraufca one should initiate the brahmana with 619 also (in VI. 68 is a verse that clearly indicates that some of the characteristics of upanayana described in There the ( i.

begging and a life of hard work and restraint). 1 1. I.443) and compare sWTOWf. 3 quoted aboye p.270 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. tf. deerskin. * ' ) Verse 4 states that the heaven and the earth are the samidh ( the fuel stick ) of the brahmacarl and that the brahmacarl by hi mekhala (girdle). 2. S. the words brahmacarl where debts the three to passage referring and brahmacarya occur. 622. 1. in brahmacarya to the sages. 18! 7. 12 "forsiTflsror II. verse II says that the brahmacarl offers samidh into fire ( or if fire is no available) to the sun. In the Tai. 4. * Th may . by his sarnidh and by his life of hard work fill Verse 6 tells us that the brahmacai the world with austerities. 1.TH trfct?$9T: XL 7. . Fron the reference to the beard and from the words this man ( ayan purusah)' occurring in the Atharvaveda VIII. S. Dh. mekhala. '. ! STT^T*? rWcT: ( sww XL 7.VI.*. VI the boy circumambulate ) and Par. ii gods and in offspring to the manes . 1. to the moon. Thi thus brings out most of the characteristic features of th brahmacarl and of upanay an a ( viz. OTSTF? cT<mr ifa/Sn sfr sw&f This verse is ' explained ii ^VM^HIH! igi'viiftui $ns?f the idea is found in Ap. 1. offerinj of samidh. 5 we have the f amou boy's waist ). to the wind or into waters. 1 and elsewher ' hymn * it appears probable that upanayana was performed rather late in those ancient days than in the 621. he indee< sacrifices becomes free from debts who has a son. 10. 6. XI. 5.' and wh i In the other Vedas and in the Brahmana literature there ample material to show what the characteristic features o upanayana and brahmacarya were. i^ft ^ *r wgroriirotercft ft^rfr . The whole of Atharvavedi XL 7 ( 26 verses ) is a hymn containing hyperbolical laudatioi of the 1 be cited as a sample The brahmacai very incessantly covering ( the world by his glory ) roams in the tw< worlds the gods have the same thoughts ( of grace and favour Verse 3 sayi about him he fills his teacher by his austerities the teacher leading ( the boy ) near him makes the brahmac&r * like unto a foetus ( here the word upanayamanah occurs first brahmacarl 6M verse ( Vedio student ) and brahmacarya. 5. VI. . 3. 10. II. Every brahmana when born i making that the ' * ' * sacrifice to the indebted in three debts viz. . who dwells ( with the teacher ) as a brahmacarl. 16-18 /. days of fche sutras. wears the skin of a black antelope and has a long beard. ( prescribe mantra is to be recited when tying the girdle round th 681 3.

VH ) Upanayana 871 In the Tai. 9. 11. i S. . 24 days. 5. do work ( in ments. III. 1-17. 685 Being a brahmacarl one should not eat honey. son of Manu. 11 there is the story of Bharadvaja who remained a brahmacarl for three parts of his life ( i. 22. shows 684 that he was a brahmacarl staying with a teacher away from his father's The Sat. which were endless in extent. Br. fri fipftfiTT t I rTTT ^ III. 683 10. * the teacher's house ( ). do not sleep mantra sacred to Savitr ). Br. till 75 ) and to whom Indra said that in all that long period of brahmacarya he had mastered only an insignificant portion ( three handfuls out of three mountains ) of the Vedas. I am your teacher. then at the end of six months. Br. 12 days. This story occurs also in Tai. brief A summary is set ' out below. The teacher instructs him . Then he consigns the boy to (the care of) the eledrink water. 9. let is me be a brahmacarl Then the your name then the teacher takes him near ( upanayati ) the teacher takes hold of the boy's hand with the words you are the brahmacarl of Indra Agni is your teacher. 625. complete details about the life of brahmacarms which bear a very close similarity to those taught in the grhya sutras. ar^r^iTT'nmc^T^ 5. N. who was excluded from ancestral property at a partition made by his brothers. N.WT. ( addressing the boy by his name)'. * The boy says ' . then the half and then the whole. III. on the fire ).Ch. after the boy came as a ( 623. The story of Nabhanedistha. m. put a fuel stick ( by day ). 624. e. i . 4. the teacher repeats it to him first each pada separately. ' ^. contains many and almost place. . 1. 4. have come unto brahmacarya teacher asks him ' ' and what . XL 5. * I '. 3 days but one should repeat to the brahmani boy the verse at once ( on the very day of upanayana ). narrated in the Ait.' He repeats the Savifcrl Formerly it was repeated a year ( brahmacarl ). 10.

1. Dh. 1. of merit due to istapurta. which. 1. 2. 10. should not spit about nor go $\3lT3 *T fTTj^ra *n w^r^fTH 5ra*ro XI. 3.272 ' History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. 15 further says teacher. 1 The words 'anrts^n^r' refer to 3. 2. says ' It takes upon himself a sacrificial session of long duration. 3-4. The Sat. *T. 5). 3-6 ) that the boy when entering upon studenthood approaches giving a fourth part of himself to Agni. It also says that a brahmacarl should should not roam 689 to a cemetery. III. ' S. 2) 626 17 and in the Tai. Br. about. 2.52. ' not sleep on a cot. with the idea that otherwise he 627 *. his house and might be taken away from them therefore brahmacarins protect the his cattle. II. 5. Dh. * ( lit one who dwells near a teacher occurs in the Sat. * * 627. 3 and Baud. VII ) The word antevasl Sat. the teacher and himself and that by the offering of (XL 3. 5. 2. 3. 626. Up. Janamejaya Pariksita asks the hamsas ( who were the Ahavanlya and Daksina fires ) what is holy and the latter reply 'It is brahmacarya (vide Gopatha Br. one should practise brahmacarya according to one's 628 bath. This is quoted sipping water before and after bhojana respectively with the words amrtopastaranamasi svahS and amrtSpidhSnam-asi svaha. Br. TT. 6. makes brahmacarya last for 12 years. in Baud. The 'he who takes to brahmacarya indeed samidh ( to fire ). V. 53. ( ( ed. 3. I. 629. Br. 5) ' ' ' further says Vedas is the period of studenthood for the mastery of all 48 years. wgi'yiRur 3TP^F? *frrnrf^T *TT^T$ u< 1 ^ ^jsfofoTf * i 628.' The same work says ability before taking the ceremonial that the brahmacarl should fetch samidhs every day for worshipping fire and beg and that if he does not do so continuously for seven days he has to undergo upanayana again ( 2. Vide Gopatha Br. by Gasfcra ) ) 2.2. 6 ) and that the lady of the house should daily give alms to a brahmacarin with the idea that he may not deprive her of her wealth. by begging and by doing work in the teacher's house respectively ho secures freedom from the action of the first three. d-Hiw^^rf^ 5-7. further says ( XL 3. 6.S. should not engage in singing and dancing. 3*ET^rf<NT5$ S&^igRtf cfgg wwcraHffi CTrera<4!i*4 w i%i ifiTO 2. which is the lowest limit. H<wi III. 11. being distributed among the Vedas in * four parts. Death. 2.' Vide tf*35TO^ p. Gopatha (2. . It also says that after one finishes studenthood and takes the ceremonial bath one should not beg. 15. 893. These two w?W8 occur in am. .

Up. 2. *fo*rmfr ^r $**t * mi4*ii sfa srr^T i IV. on *TT. 5. fuel. VI. the latter You have says 'fetch. upon brahmacarya and sends him to a * The same Upanisad describes the 630. % *rftn* V. and the Brahmanas the student generally went to a guru and stayed in his house (vide note 624 about Nabhanedis^ha ). 4. 35 . it is But 6SSI probable that the father himself always taught his son. Uddalaka Arum who was himself a profound philosopher of brahma asks his son Svetaketu to enter 63 teacher to learn the Vedas. furnish very valuable information. 1. S. * ting them to the rites of Upanayana began the discourse*. 1 and other Upanisads. 7 63 that when Asvapati Kekaya was approached by Pr&clna6ala Aupamanyava and four others who carried fuel in their hands (like young students) and who were grown-up he ( Asvapati ) without submithouseholders and theologians.15. 1. The word brahmacarya occurs in the Katha. Up. probably the oldest among the Upanisads. students in former ages ) approached ( the teacher for brahmacarya ) only in words ( i. ' 633. There were no elaborate ceremonies like those described in the grhya sutras.Ch. 2. 7. Similarly in the Br. I shall * not swerved from the truth ( Chando- gya IV. e. 1. e. initiate you. Up. P. it is said that former students ( i. 631. That some ceremonies were required before a young boy was admitted as a student even in Upanisadic times is clear from the statement in the Chandogya V. The would-be student oame to the teacher with a samidh in his hand and told the teacher that he desired to enter the stage of studenthood and begged to be allowed to be a brahmacarl living with the teacher. ! I STOT 634. 2. 11. T. VI. The Chandogya It appears set out and the Br. VII ] Upanaycma 27ff from the above and from the Upanisad passages immediately below that originally Upanayana was a very simple matter. When 631 Jabala tells the truth about his gotra to Gautama Satyakama Haridrumata. 7. without any 63a In the most ancient times further solemn rite or ceremony ). Chandogya VI. dear boy. 1 IS remarks ajtfirg'oi fj *f*?Hf (Qd^^^cTiHi^ STT^n T^pt 3 WTfTT I 1 T. it appears that from the times of the Tai. ^J^sJsWfa 3TTW ^W H. 7. Mundaka II. 5 ). 632. 4. Tq Vide f^. VI. 11. 7.. 1.

not expressly stated who was 12 was usually twelve (Chandogya II. taking of curds by the boy.1. Further the Vedio mantras often differ in the different sutras. 1. now turn to upanayana as described in the sutras The following matters fall to be treated under Upanayana The proper age for upanayana. 1-2) and that he had to look after the fire of his had to tend his cattle (IV. 636. 4. 23. afijalipurana. ( such as putting fuel on begging &o. . unfaT II. This refers to the i are^ q^snran*T*j*T'ri?^ I* 19. 10. the girdle and the staff the for the brahmacSrins of different varnas the yajnopavlta preliminaries of upanayana. IV. ITHTS^ WT i i|chi^^ sfiihrac \ 143) . touching the chest of the student expressive of acceptance as pupil. the garments. instruction in the famous Savitrl mantra medhajanana study of the Vedas and daily recitation of Vedic texts . 3. 10. asmarohana. though the Chandogya ( VIII. that he teacher (IV. 23. 23. special vratas of the brahmacarl Patitasavitrlka ( those whose upanayana has not been performed at all ) and rules about them. . instruction in the duties of the student fire. the principal rites of upanayana viz. handing the boy to Savitr and other gods (paridana). taking of the student's hand by the teacher* : We shall . ). (I. 1-6) says that a brahmana boy should undergo upanayana in the eighth year from birth or from conception. The same Upanisad shows that the brahmacarl had m to beg for food ( IV. . These matters will now be dealt with in order. The proper age 636 for Upanayana *s TheA6v. Chandogya IV. 4. speaks of brahmacarya for life. gr. 1. VL1. 11. is The age when upanayana was performed in the Upanisads except in the case of Svetaketu The period of student-hood ( vide note 634 above ). . 3 ) speaks of Indra's brahmacarya for 101 years and Chandogya II. . It should be remembered that all these matters are not dwelt upon by all the smrtis nor are they treated of in the same order. mortifying his body in the house of his teacher end '. and smrtis. 19.JJ74 History of Dharmaiastra ' I Oh. a vai&ya in the 635. 5 ). 5). VII airama of brahmacarya dwelling as a brahmacarl in the house of a teacher. 4. a ksatriya in the llth year. shows that the teacher till his asked the pupil his gotra ( in order that he may address him by that name ).2). the auspicious seasons for it the skin.1. such as homa.

4. 3 ) also prescribes the 5th. 37 says that if spiritual eminence ( for the boy ) is desired ( by his father ) then upanayana may be performed in the 5th year for a brahmana.. 5. employ the Parasmaipada It should be noticed that in the Atharvaveda XI. ( II. *nrfeft wTfjror sr<r^r f ft *r^fT^ffa $<r: 5rraf& i *r?row vol. the Kathaka gr. 3. ( 41. San. 5RTTr XI. in the 8th for a vai&ya if there is desire for endeavour to accumulate wealth. 2 ) and Bhar. 1 ) allows upanayana in the 8th or 10th year from conception. Ap. Khffdira (II. gr. Vide tf*3nvren?r P. 3JT. the Manava gr. i 10. pp 340-341 for discussion whether of counting the years from conception or birth in the case of k?atriya and vaidyas. view. 1. Ap. ( I. Gobhila 687 ( 10. 3. San. 57. Atmanepada *h<ui ( in the case ni takes the 36) lays down that the root of several senses one of which is ' * that the and so we should have ^MH^d only ). %<-<(T< quotes a is a mistake TOta?<Treterat&f art *TOT?*Tj n. 2-3. 3. 1) ( II. adds . Par. 14. 269 /. 1-3 ) prescribes 7th. ift. Vaik. there is option ST. 3". p. ( II. 9th years from conception for a brahmana if there is a desire respectively for WTsrq^^nfra T^RT^S nsFtf *T*STT^ 3$*nj OTT. and Manu. II. (II. IV. H. Ap. 1. 2. 1. in the 6th year for a ksatriya if there is a desire for military power. 639. Gautama (I. 1) and P5r. Vide that is found. 1. 7. 19 expressly say that the respective years are calculated from ( The Mahabhasya 6JB also refers to the brahmana's upanayana is to be performed in the 8th 639 gr. 1 ) allows ifc in the 7th or 9fch year. ( II. 9th and llth years for the upanayana of the three varnas In some smrfcis upanayana is allowed to be respectively. (1. performed even earlier or at different ages. 1. Baud. wfe^f tf. ( II. 5 and elsewhere in the Vedic texts it is the Atmanepad'a 637. and several others emp'oy the Atmanepada while Adv. 10. Yaj. n. 14 also refers to family usage. rule that a year~from in the 8th case of all varnas family usage may be followed. e. 1. 8th.339 for criticism of [ Vide s$T*TC quoted above ( p. Yaj. Psnini alone (I. 4.J2. 5. or from birth and adds that in the conception year conception. 1. 1 ). Dh. S. 619). 5. 2 ). 22. 1). grhya sutras..Clx VII ] Proper age for Upanayana &!& three varnas 12th and that to the 16th. III. 22nd and 24th years respectively for the it cannot be said that the time for upanayana has passed. <iwk? 638. g. 2 ) allows upanayana conception. 6-8) prescribes that upanayana for a brahmana is in the 8th year from conception but it may be in the 5th or 9th according to the result desired . i <rrc*ira.

should be performed in vasanta. ( full moon and new moon ) tithis are generally avoided ( 41 here though there are some counter exceptions which are not set out It is stated that upanayana should not be performed ). Hir. The Bhar.gr. 1.l 37 ) and Bhar. I.278 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. But a few words must be said as in modern times upanayana is performed only in accordance with these rules. 1. 8fch. on an auspicious naksatra. gaunatama for them. and sarad ( autumn ) for the tlaree varjpas. 14th. 3 *toSr5WH *&t*$ I 355 . 5) prescribe 7th. llth. long life and wealth. n. 1. e. in the rains for a carpenter in sisira for all. Vide Samskara-prakasa p. 10th. Dh. 1 (quoted above in /. 7th. abundant food. 33 where upanayana is denied to 6udras quotes vasante brahmanam upanaylfca as a Vedic text. 494). physical vigour and cattle. gr. ( I. when the sun ig in the first degree of any zodiacal sign. long brilliance. 15th i. . 13th. 4. Asv. particularly under a naksatra the name of which is masculine. 27. Sahara in his bhasya on ( rathakara ) or Jaimini VI. 12th life. S. For 5*1quoted in 4^> p. ^ qqfc f^far ssrm^ TTWST i I. 1 ) say should be performed in the bright half of a month. 1 ) says that upanayana for a brahmana S. gr. 4th. years respectively for one desiring spiritual eminence. p. ( I. while others say that five months from Magha are the proper ones. for a ksatriya in summer or hemanta. (II. tithis. spiritual eminence. It is neither possible nor very necessary to go into these astrological details. and Ap. 9th. B. Then 1st. gr. for a TheauspicioustimesaccordingtotheAp. I. 21 and Baud. 19. gr. that upanayana ( 1. 1 ) and Vaik. 640 1 ' Later works introduced very intricate rules about the proper months. 5. are vasanta ( spring ). grlsma ( summer ). for a vaisya in sarad. sH^feiuiMfr see note 512. 30 p. 1. Dh. the 8th. (I. while the years from 5th onwards up to llth are the secondary time ( gauna ) brahmana. The Ap. 342. Vrddhagargya* laid down that six months from Magha were the proper months fqr upacayana. vol. lltlfand 12th years from birth f orjkhejbhree time for upanayana . 9th. Vlt 1. when Venus is so near the sun that it cannot be seen. gr. 9th to 16th are secondary for ksatriya and so From 12th to 16 is gauriatara for brahmanas and after 16 on. 1. 1. E. Hir. on anadhyaya 640. gr. S. 1. days and times for upanayana. va'rnas are the principal Therefore. 1. 8th.

643. others restricted the prohibition to the paksa ( the half ) of the month in which he was born. Monday is-the least suitable. The Moon and Jupiter must be astrologically strong with reference to the boy's horoscope. Jyestha. in the 2nd. 12th place from The moon is supposed to be inauspicious. Therefore the upanayana of those who have to study these Vedas should be performed on the week days presided over by these planets. 4th. 5th. Thursday and Friday are the best. . Krttika. . 644. from that time to noon is middling and afternoon is birth. One rule is that all naksatras except BharanI. but Tuesday and Saturday are prohibited (except that for students of the Samaveda and ksatriyas Tuesday is allowed ). Punarvasu. when in the 1st.Oh. 7th. 9th. VII ] Proper times for Upanayana 27T * 42 days and on galagraha Jupiter. 643 Venus. llth zodiacal sign from the sign of birth ( calculation to be made inclusive of the sign of birth ) is auspicious. atwcft p. Citra. 27. There are other rules about the Lagna ( the rising prohibited. Magha. Mars and Mercury are respectively the presiding deities of the Rgveda and the other Vedas. Pusya. 8th. 9th or 12th place from the sign of birth. 5th. p. The rule about Jupiter probably arose from the facb that Jupiter was supposed to rule over knowledge and happiness and as upanayana was meant to be the entrance for Veda-study. 642. If Jupiter and Venus are not to be seen owing to nearness to the sun. 8th. Vi&akha. ( the tithis specified above ). 27 . I. Satataraka are good for all. p. f^cnfl^ sinref^rerifaf M \ WH f^rcri^ i (^ (5(5 3j4*r5 rnff Q^HitiMHi^Hi ftfih ii i $nifr fttft avrtrwr !? 32. Svati. Jupiter's benevolent aspect was thought to be necessary. 27. Jupiter when in the 2nd. Sunday is middling. 32 cites the first as from differently p. 10th place from the sign of birth it is auspicious after the performance of a propitiatory homa and when it is in the 4th. 3rd. Mrga&iras. 6th. Sravana and Bevatl. Among week days Wednesday. *qpf*fco i. There are other rules about ( naksatras with respect to those who follow a particular Veda which are^ passed over ). upanayana cannot be performed. it is malefic when she is Some said that a person's upanayana should not be performed in the month in which he was born. Among the naksatras 644 the proper ones are Hasta. Four hours from sunrise is the best for upanayana. Dhanistha. The fiuTq^g quotes ?TTT^ as to *Tc*!Tf . AsvinI.

5). flax or kusa grass ( cira ) or of the hair of the mountainous goat ( kutapa ) other teachers prescribe coloured garments. 41 ) 'ajina'. gr. XI. speak of avika ( made of wool ) for vaisya instead of Vas. ajina ( deerskin ). he may wear an upper garment 4 . gr. 17-20 ) on the other hand says for all the lower garment may be made of hemp. Vll zodiacal sign at the time of upanayana ) which are nofc set out here. for ksatriya the skin of ruru deer and for a vaisya of cow-skin or of goat skin. Manu A brahmacarl had part of the * ( II. S. 64-67 ! * 2 . (II.'(I. one for the lower body (vasas). * 1. flax. 29. gr. another for covering the upper part of the body (uttarlya). 5 . Pr. some teachers prescribe that the lower garment should be* of cotton but coloured reddish-yellow for brahraanas. Baud. *. S. works like the Sam. gr. Dh. Dh. what rt 1*9 3*f?T is ^ T^rT^TF^^^ II. For persons who are entitled to perform the boy. Asv. For detailed rules on these. 3.39-41-1. gr. of cow-hide as the II. 3. . Vaidhrti &o. prescribes also one made of kusa grass or he says that all should wear cotton cloth that is undyed. cow is the chief among animals. 1. 5.. vide note 480.J78 History of Dharmatastra [ Ch. 1-2. 646. Nirnayasindhu and Dharmasindhu of a may be consulted. 5. one coloured with the juice of trees for brahmanas and madder-red and yellow for ksatriya and vaisya. 19. upanayana to wear two garments. p. but for vaisya Vas. There are other prohibited astrological conjunctions like Vyatlpata. 5). 1. ( pp. 355-385 ). 5. 16 prescribes the skin of black deer for all in the same 645. 39-1. 8). 61-63). Vas. Baud. dyed with madder for ksatriyas. Par. and Asv. Dh. defined by 3j%r^ <rnnrac n 7 fq^fa ^ *cfr I. (1. srrcr: i W.' Gaut ( 1. Par. 1-2) says that the 645 garment (vasas) for a brahmana. (XI. ( II. 2. dyed with turmeric for vaisyas. (II. (XL 64-67) says that a brahmana (brahmacarl) ' ' should wear a (lower) garment which is white and unblemished (or new) and for a ksatriya or vaisya it should be the same as in Ap. ksatriya or vaisya brahmaoSrl is respectively to be made of hemp. 848 Baud. S. 16 ) say that the upper garment for a brahmana should be the skin of a black deer. quoted in ^fifar. Dh. adds that if any one cannot secure a skin suited to one's varna. prescribe only goat skin.' Par. gr. Ap.

15-i6 (this is the same as Ap. 1. i air<r. VII J Garments worn at Upanayana 279 circumstances. (1. Asv. 9-10 . Baud. gr. 3. 41. 2. That the rules about the lower and upper garments go back to great antiquity is shown by a reference to a Brahmana 648 1. &). prescribes nyagrodha or rauhitaka for for ksatriya. I. 1. Dh. 22-23 ) says thab asvattha and pllu wood staff should be used respectively for ksatriya and vaisya or of any sacrificial . 20. gr. 19. of badara or udumbara wood for a vaisya while some teachers say that the staff should be made of a tree ( which is used in sacrifices ) without reference to any varna. Par. gr. 1. 1. 13 and I. S. 1 ) says a staff of the palasa wood for a brahmana. 648.' The Ap. Ap. 4 r en*?nf sffar . compare 1 5 compare the iffawr. only ( cotton ) garments if one desires the increase of martial valour and both if one desires both '. Dh. 13. gr. ( II. 11. 7-8) gives the option to all varnas to use a sheep skin ( as upper garment ) or a woollen plaid ( kambala ). &6v. S. A vestige of these rules survives in the modern practice of tying a small piece of deer skin to the yajnopavlta of the boy when his upanayana is performed. 1. t*. Dh. and badara or udumbara vaiSya. 5. ( 1. gr. ' tree for all varnas. of udumbara for a ksatriya and of bilva for a vaisya or all the varnas may employ a staff of any of these trees. 3. of the branch of the nyagrodha tree ( so that the downward end of the branch forms the tip of the staff) for a ksatriya. 19. 2. 8-9) appears to suggest that the lower and upper garments may be of the same skin or that the lower garment may be white or coloured ( as stated above by 647 13 ) says that the upper Ap. 17 ) say that the staff of palasa or bilva should be used for brahmana and Gaut. Gaut. ( I. 38) says that the staff should be of palasa wood for a brahmana.Ch. S. There is some divergence of view about the trees of which the staff was to be made. for three varnas the should be respectively of the skins garment of black deer. ( I. The Kanaka gr. tiger and ruru deer. S. ( 41. ( I 21 ) and Baud. 3. Darifa (staff). 9 'one should wear only deerpassage in the Ap. Dh. skin of ( Yedlc as lower and upper garments ) if one desires the increase lore. Dh. 647.

Bhar. as two are recommended in a compound. 30. girdle or the yajnopavlta break or rend. Manu II. pllu and udumbara for vateya. Baud. and should have a curved tip. gr. ) boy. I 5IT. Dh. S. VII IL 5 recommends a respectively staff of palaSa. for protection when going out at night and for guidance when entering cattle of the teacher a river or the like. The staff was required ( for support. gr. The San. 2-3) prescribes that into contact with fire. the staff prescribe that in the case of the brahmana. (41. he has to undergo a penance ( same as the one for the breaking of a chariot at a wedding procession ) and that at the end of the period of brahmacarya.(41. 57 ). 24. 13. (I. ( 27.S the carrying of a has a seen result. 260 ) on the other hand reverses this ( the brahmana having the shortest staff and the vai6ya the longest ). Gaut. S. 31. Kathaka gr. 29 ) say the same thing. staff. A&v. 649 The length of the staff varied according to the I. I.280 ( History of DharmatUstra ) [ Oh. vol. ( ( ' *. ( II. (II. Manu Rg. and others prescribe that 649. Par. 29. (II. 26 says that the staff should be one not eaten by worms. 22) recommends palaSa. bilva and udumbara for the three varnas ( or any of these for all ). 2) a girdle made of munja grass should be staff A. 13. (1. gr. S. he should sacrifice in water 65 with a mantra the yajiiopavlta. Manu (11. gr. Mekhala gr. 15). and Kulluka adds that two staffs should be used by the boy. it need not be carried at alt times. Vas. ksatriya or vai&ya boy respectively should be as high as his head. 47 adds that the staff should be straight. while Manu II. for controlling the which the student was to tend ). 13). should have the bark attached to it. ( 1. 11 ). 5 ). 19. p. 55-57 ). B. ( IL 1. 19. pleasing to look at and should not have come The San. 6 ) or with the sacred syllable om 64 and Visnu Dh. va^a and khadira for ksatriya. ^ II. the brahmacarl should not allow any one to pass between himself and his staff and that if the staff. 650. 1. Ttf means . gr.45) prescribes bilva and palaSa for br&hmana. Kanaka gr. girdle ) : Gaut. forehead or the tip of the nose. gr. 12). 42. SAv. but the others having unseen results must be worn always. 5. I. E. ( varna of the XI. 46 25. the girdle and the skin to Varuna II. Gaut. according to AparSrka ( p. 21-23. Manu ( II. a&vattha and nyagrodha respectively for the three.

who wears a new garment or an antelope skin if a brahmana. 43 ) says that there may be one knot 8lt or three or five (according to family usage. Paraskara says that the string of a bow should be used for a ksatriya and of murva grass for a vaisya and adds that in the absence of these the girdle should respectively be made of kusa. 3TTT. Vide Appendix for the text of Asv. gr. 2. * . raaunjl girdle also to all. II. ruru skin if a ksatriya. In order to convey an idea of the rites of upanayana in the days of the grhya sutras the ceremony as contained in the Asv. while the other one ( the boy ) stations himself in front ( of the teacher ) with his face turned to fche west. 34-37. one made of mflrvS grass (which. the latter offers ( a homa of clarified butter oblations ) in the fire ( as described above ) and seats himself to the north of the fire with his face turned to the east. form prepared recently. ( II. Ap. 36 . red and yellow ( for a brahmana. says Kulluka ). VII J Mekhodd. asmantaka and balvaja grass ( for brahmana. 1 ) the teacher drops down the water in his own folded hinds on to the water in the folded gr. Manu ( II. sutra ( which is among the shortest ) is set out in full. The teacher then fills the folded hands of both himself and of the boy with water and with the verse we choose that of Savifcr ( Rg. While the boy takes hold of ( the hand of ) his* teacher. (1. gr. Manu (II. 5. they should have girdles and staffs ( as described above ). Dh. 42-43) gives the same rules as Par. D. ^T. goat's skin if a vaisya if they put on garments they should put on dyed ones. ( girdle ) at Upanayana 881 tied round a brahmana boy's waist. Ap. on 10 and by $*^si aa trnicft ^T^utf^ft 1ST: CT^T **w urfihn i The number of knota was probably regulated by the number 652. gr. 1. ^. Dh. V. s* I. and for a very concise 653. * ' 651. vaisya respectively ). tn*T(7 is explained ag ^pir (hemp) in the com.Oh. ksatriya. gr. 1. S.' 8* Let him initiate the boy who is decked. S.2. whose hair ( on the head ) is shaved ( and arranged ).10. of the pravara sagos invoked by a person. reddish-yellow.. Baud. g. H. 35-37) 65! optionally allows a girdle of munja grass with an iron piece intertwined in it for k^atriyaa and woollen string or the yoke-string or a string of tamala bark for vaisyas ( according to some ). ksatriya and vaisya ).is used for making a bowstring) for a ksatriya and one of hemp cords for a vaisya.) further prescribe that the girdle of munja grass should have three strings to it and the grass should have its ends turned to the right and the knot of the girdle should be brought near the navel. 82. 13 ) allows Some of the sutras ( e. Baud.

5. 10. 4. 8. 1 to Agni I Some do this (offering of and the brahmacarl belongs to a fuel stick) with a mantra stick. half verse (Rg.4. ) ( reads as in 654. TT. 29. 9jre5JT. <mf?rft occur with variations in in arnr. The words ^^r 2. f|^.II. devaaya tv5 formula occurs in ns-^mg 5. 8. 16 %^ u( ^r. 5. 11. aj. iftfvtew 46. qrc^ II. & tf. 9. with the words the third time. ft. 24 and II.28? History of of the Vharmamstra [ Ch.I. Hl^M^. 7. 17. 41. ) . * ! a band sun. to the great have brought a fuel Jatavedas . oh so and so '. The first half occurs in II.6. 3. ) in several samhitSs.) 'the young man. well attired and ' 656 hither be ( the teacher ) should cause him to dressed. 28 (%?w S*cnTO^S*TT ). having thus poured the water. III. g. $. with the arms of the two A6vins. Ill 8. Having wiped the ground round the fire the brahmacarl should put ( on the fire ) a ' fuel stick silently. Prajapati. with the hands of Pusan.22 . protect him. This TT^T occurs also in the i&X ) am. 18. ) Oh Agni and may we 57 through brahman (prayer or spiritual lore). 1 Here the boy should be addressed by ' his name. Who does initiate thee and whom ( does 655 thee to Ka ( to Prajapati ) With the he initiate ) ? I give while teacher repeats ' ! ' * '. 22. H. II 6. 31 ( arcn^T %* ^J and in HM^^J I. 2 ^ I. HfTTO. he ( the student ) thrice wipes off his face with the words increase ' 653 a. he should seize the boy's hand together with the thumb ( of the boy) with the formula 'by the urge (or order) of the god Savitr. 4 and ofhors. svaha'/ Having put the fuel stick ( on the fire ) and having touched the I fire. ob so and so a The teacher should cause ( the boy ) to look at the * ' Agni is God Savitr this is thy 654 and ( the teacher brahmacarl. 657. tf. 4 ). 3iror. 5. $rf. 6. came turn round to the right and with bis two bands placed over (the boy's ) shoulders he should touch the place of the boy's heart repeating the latter half ( of Rg. *r?sr<rre II. ai?r^ trftnn?T$ &c . II. since it is known (from 6ruti) what belongs to Prajapati is silently ( done ) '. I. nfT"nr. I seize 653 with the words Savitr has seized thy thy hand. may he not die Whose brahmacarl ? thou art the art thou further should ) say brahmacarl of Prana. The formula occurs in several connections (e. For the whole verse g*r S^THT: vide note 620 above. and a time ( the teacher seizes the boy's second so* ob so hand. VII bands with his own hand boy. 8. all ) * <TT. 2 ( 656. 3. Vide for this srrsr. in adoption etc. IT. II. A similar airg. by ( the fuel stick mayst thou increase. II. all of which have a Ion? latter half like ^ .5 A.H. 2. <rr. 655. 3. II. I. thy teacher. I.

offspring and radiance . gr. 46-47. VII ] Procedure of Upanayana ' 283 ' anoint myself with lustre . . the Savitrl '. " 8C1 The whole procedure of upanayana is more elaborately few points described in the Ap. 17 and These are based on the $ra<W passage quoted in note 625 above. . 14. 10. *r. fg* u *J*|. These words also occur in the ( whore marriage ceremony (as addressed by the husband ) vide m<^<^. insight. . occur in arnr. 1 tf. . Sir. him * recite. ^i^^ 41.. also in ^rq &c. '. embrace ( the teacher's feet) and say to offspring . <rr These words ( with some additions and omis- ' ' am. *j... offspring . . wo have ire f^3 ). These mantras occur in &. several others. 2 and III. known ( from Sruti ) for he and lustre on and vigour ( indriya ) insight. 1. it is does anoint himself with lustre*. what thy lustre is. 28. Oh Agni f may I thereby become lustrous what thy strength is. That has received by begging ) he should announce to ( which he the teacher he should not sit down ( but should be standing ) . *ft. ? l 22. as * 661. .. Sir. ' '.Ch. ' - - *w s& &c. I. On the place of the student's heart the teacher lays his hand * with the fingers upturned with the formula *I place thy heart 85 mind mind follow my unto duty to me may thy may you attend on ray words single-minded may Brhaspati appoint thee unto me Having tied the girdle round him ( the boy ) and having given him the staff. do not sleep by day. 10-16. may I thereby acquire consuming power'. . A 658. vide arr^. (the student) should bend his knees. I]C 5 62 &c $. recite. on me may the sun bestow f . and Gobhila. . <TK^^ H. 6. In some it is said simply do not sleep and this is explained in sions ) *grer*fffi &c. irf^ 3tet 5. 3. Veda has been 3j%Mq^*fiq sacrifice is to be performed after & part of the learnt. He (the teacher) should make him ( the student ) recite ( the Savitrl ) as much as he is able. Those words also occur in giWiHl* II. Having waited upon (worshipped) Agni with these formulas. iftftreTOT HI. in Hir. me may Indra bestow insight. Agni may I thereby become strong what thy consuming power is 658 Agni. 659.3. . 22. ! 1. the teacher should instruct him in 880 the observances of a brahmacarl with the words a brahmacarl art thou. 'May Agni bestow on me. do service. HI. II. depending He (the student ) Veda ( completely ) on the teacher learn the should beg ( food ) in the evening and the morning he should put a fuel stick ( on fire ) in the evening and the morning. gr. first pada by pada. HIVHJJ. Seizing the student's hands with the upper garment (of the student) and his own hands the teacher recites the Savitrl. 2 . 2. the rest of the day. 4. 3. 2. ? 660. 8. . sip water. 1. then hemistich by hemistich (and lastly) the whole verse.

( I. 7 ) say that the boy also is made to take food . According to Karka and Harihara ( on Paraskara ) 22. ( II. The origin and development of the ideas about yajnopavlta will be dealt with separately later on. 7 ) says that the here briefly. gr. 31 ) and is repeated even in the island of Bali by the pedandas. Bhar. to snfnHW II. n. 5 ) Bays that the teacher gives the upper garment to the boy with M * the verse parldam vasah '. gr. the yajfiopavlfca was given to the student by the teacher after the lying of the girdle. gr. puts Ap. g. 5. Ace. (fftf ^). 3 the an^pf says * ^fflM*fUmffl inpff^r 665. In some mss. 2. The Samskaratattva p. of P5r. Vll It is say that the the homa begins boy is given the yajnopavlta and then made to recite the well-known mantra ' the Yajnopavlta is extremely sacred* and the Vaik. 934 says the same. . 10. 2 ) prescribe a dinner to brahmanas before the ceremonies begin and receiving their benedictions. 11. Baud gr. for support. Baud gr. Jaya- rsma and Harihara say 663. ( 1. is 3?rr. S. ( II. Ap. 2. 2 ) ' * ' ' of interest and divergence may be noted remarkable that A6v.$&4 History of Dkarmaiastra [ Oh. SamskSraratnamalS ) the boy takes his meal in the same dish with his mother (for the last time) and other brahmacarins (eight in number ) are also invited at the same time for meals in the jfta %<|4j>dMg<|'H4ji^ ' ^<- ^T- H- S. 2. according to later works ( e. ( I. 6 ). the sacred thread with the mantra Yajfiopavltam and the black antelope skin with the Sudarsana on Ap.. ' <pft^ ^m: ~ this ipmq ^r^ri^T ^HTOcr^Rot T ^dft. the verse quoted aa from ^fsreft?$re in ^f^o ( I. 662 ( II. 2. boy already wears the yajiiopavlta before while Baud. gr. II. ' . 15. 7 ) and Par. 3 ) and Manava gr. 7-8 . 8 f&*Fr ^lg: is airr. 664. but it is an interpolation. ( X. 5. 1 ). Dh. and several other say a word about the sacred thread. Ap. Ap. gr. gr. smarta ( II. 5 ). gr. iTT. sufcrakaras do not few like Hir. this mantra occurs. fuel I. as Karka. (II. 202 ) prescribe the wearing of the sacred thread before the boma. 5 ). II. p. . Late works like the Samskararatnamala ( p. H. cfl5 ( X. gr. 5. gr. *f. Bhar. 5 says that mantra the eye of Mitra the boy puts on the yajnopavlta with the mantra before he takes 4 his meal ( according to some) or (according to others) before" he stick on fire and relies on 1 the the 5. while a ( I. '.

a^iRSn^^iHH^^ which is _ ?TT ilffyT^ fff^Wt ' cr?5fic*r*rqi ^rg^q^^nrr^T^ i . 10). A person was given ( as shown above at pp. 246-247 ) an abhivadanlya name either derived from the naksatra of birth or from a deity name or the gotra name. 3. after ' gr. and some others are silent. 5. S. 1-4. ( gr.12).). 2. gy. X. gr. 25 ( quoting Sa^yayanaka ). This was necessary for several purposes. It is wrong to e68 from the story of Satyakarna Jabala ( where the suppose 666. Baud. ^. gr. (41.22. Mantrapa^ha (II. 11 ). Khadira II. HTC ^. IV. The mantras repeated in the several sutras are significant 667 asking the boy to be firm like a stone. II. BhSr. the unr in a?rr. Manava gr. Baud. ( Manava 4 ) gr. ' ' Ghurye in Caste and race in India p. he had also to address him by name ( as there might be several pupils ). Vide Koay in * . 5. 'J. 3IT<T. and Khadira gr. Ancient Indian Education p. 668. (b) Manava homa (c) ' Par.23. 4-5. 6 = Tai. M^MIC? I -H ^LH rf^?WI l^'i'^^ ^4^ I ^T tflvrsi w^rmr^Tc!. The important ones are mentioned below. *f. II. 2 ). all prescribe that the boy (a) (II. gr.6-8. I. 5. There are several other matters detailed in Ap. The teacher had to know that the boy came from a good family. and Bhar. ( II. ' SIFT. T A $. and others. (1. 4. 2. II. (1. (10. 23 where he says 1 it was still the rule for br&hmanas to be received as students/ Dr. 6-8. wbich ^j. 39. 27-30). Ap.Oh. 6 says ia combated ^ ^ ff^irt ?tf ^r i srr^ f?te 2'^r^m: qt. on which A6v. The teacher also asks whose brahmacarl the boy is. this 285 company times. 7). I. gr.9). But in anoient times the shaving was done by the acarya himself as sfcated by Sudar6ana on Ap. 10. VII ] Procedure of Upanayana of the boy. 12 refer to the fact that the teacher asks the boy his name and the latter pronounces his name. fl<58 is shaved on this day done in modern times. 667. This practice also is is observed even in modern Almost (asincaula). 43 merely repeats this dictum. Ap. 10) prescribe the tasting of curds thrice after repeating the verse Dadhikravno akarisam ( Rg. fire I. 22. gr. ( 11. ?*^ on sn^r.3) and Kathaka gr.. 8 ) make the boy tread on a stone to the north of the with his right foot after homa. X. gr. tsq^i on sutra I ' says M^l <^ h< u ir?^lcflthiuinc?n^nf^^' cfcft ^TrnVcT: ' ft nd on sutra 8 i^nt. (1. gf. Ap.. 4.

All smrtis. . the 1 mantra * the time of taking the staff II. him his gotra ) that only brahmanas were admitted brahmacarya. 19 ). * 22. Later writers went on adding mantras and details. but Bhar. 10. ' ( I. while Ap. It is one thing to have a right and another to exercise it. In the Mahabharata and in the Kadambarl it is said that the princes were taught in a special house constructed for the purpose and teachers were paid handsomely to and brought there teachers. 9 ) treats of adityadarsiana almost at the end of the rites. 22.286 teacher asked History of Dharma&astra [ Oh. Bhar. to teach instead of the princes going to the want of space to show how the greatconfusion prevails as to the order of the various components of the ceremony of upanayana. gr. Besides the same mantras are employed by different sutras for different purposes. ( I. while. ). suSravali &c. 5.2). for example. Qrahamakha ( a sacrifice to the planets ) also may be performed the previous day or on any day within 7 or 10 days of the upanayana. 9 ) puts it after the instruction in the observances of brahmacarya. contemplated that the three castes had the right to learn the Veda.(II. 5. 23. while the same verse is employed at the time of tying the girdle round the boy's waist by the Manava gr. (II. treats of the tying of the girdle and the giving of the staff almost at the end of the It is not possible for est possible ceremony. gr. gr. there is the worship 'of Ganapati and of . 8. A6v. III. 8 ) and Par. Asvalayana gr. gr. puts this after horaa and immediately before anjalipurana ( filling the folded hands of both with water ) A6valayana puts adityadar&ana after the boy's hand is held by the teacher and before paridana ( handing the boy over to the deities ). at 14 and Mantrapatha by the boy ( XL while ) Asiv. ( I. ( I. ( I. places it among the earlier ones after homa. gr. Probably very few ksatriyas oared to submit their sons to the rigorous discipline of brahmacarya as laid down in the smrtis and cared much less for Veda studies. 4) employs it at the time of putting a fuel stick on fire. ( I. 17 ' ' gr. Manava gr. gr. 10 ). employs the verse yuva suvasah Rg. '( employ it in medhajanana ( on the 4th day after upanayana ) and Par. On the day prior to upanayana the Nandl6raddha was performed as said by Haradatta on Ap. A6v. Then before the actual upanayana. But a few striking examples may be given. even the latest. The Bhar. 4 ) for making the boy turn round ( first half ) and for touching the region of the boy's heart ( latter half ).' is employed by Ap.

so that . 11. 1. 5. 8. which in the main follows the sutras. 2-4) which says raising his right arm. the S.) we read wearing in the praclnavlta form he offers towards the south for in the case of . it Up 669 briefer procedure in the grhya to the act of making the boy dine with his mother thereafter of is is is the father who does everything . (I. putting the head ( into the upavlta ) he suspends it over his right . 670. For the detailed modern procedure ( prayoga ) of upanayana. 673. 145-148 for discussion on this. ( pp. three words nivlba. praclnavlta since both gods and pitrs are worshipped (in this rite) '. Br. the worship of Mates and the consecration of the mandapa-devatas. R. Among the earliest references is : * m one from the Tai. Vide ' Orion ' by the late Mr. for S. 6. 671. $. . the praclnavlta ( (in rites ) for gods he wears it in the upavlta mode (i. (I. ' in this way it hangs down along his left side he becomes pra*clnavltin a person becomes praclnavltin only C7S To the same effect is in the sacrifice offered to the Manes' shoulder. * . 2-4. The samkalpa upanayana given below Yajftopavita yajilopavlta A few words must be said on the history of from ancient times. II. the upavlta men. 11. putting the head into ( the upavlfca ) he suspends ( the cord ) over his left shou^er in such a way that it hangs down on his right side thus lie becomes yajnopavltin. Disregarding that one should wear in the upavlta form and offer in the north only. *** I. 672. 4. In the Tai. pitrs. 2. .Oh. acts are performed towards the south. may it be consulted.e. 197-210 ).Passing his left arm. VII ] Procedure of Upanayara 287 Kuladevatas. does the rest. 87a The and upavlta are explained in the Gobhila gr. 1 is the nivlta 871 is (used in actions) used in rites ) for pitrs. 669. M. thereby he makes a distinguishing sign of the gods'. II. . 5. punyahavacana. the acarya who . slung from the left shoulder ). Tilak pp. 2.

answering the calls of nature. then the pitrs approached him. says chest when and is paribhasa-sutra II. 9. 10. iT^rnrf^ % ftcnr: ' q^npr remarks 677 3TOT" f t . . II. gr. Baud. 678 Br. A. 9 . 676. p. meant " The Sat. 7 and ' 10. fn^vr(qnr^r II. being praclnavltins and bending their left knee and then men approached him covered with a garment and bending their bodies" etc/ 75 It is important to note here that men are said to have been covered only with a garment and there is no reference in their case to any mode of wearing This rather either as yajnopavlta or nivlfca or praclnavlta. 3 it is carried over the neck. 12. it is said that when vak ( speech ) appeared to Devabhaga Gautama he put on the yajfiopavlfca and fell down with the ' words namo namah food. 1. Br. suggests that men wore only garments when approaching gods and not necessarily a cord of threads. (when the sruti says it is) for men. 63. S. sj| 2. 4. sexual except when homa is to intercourse. the sun ' It seems to follow from a passage in the Tai. ^^gi ^fhr^Tcf g I^T sr^t f^T^TRr nft *&* ffr i ^. 201 ). ( II. 3. ft?ffr ^T Tfcfil'Ji feint ^c^T cff&'T s?9 II. 675. wr. 3 and 6. 10. 2. nivlfca is what hangs from the neck '. carrying a corpse and whatever other actions are only for men.288 History of Dharmatestra gr. In the Tai. gr. 5. that is niwta . both shoulders and the held with both the thumbs ( of the two hands ) The Baud/74 lower than the region of the heart and above the navel. i ^. 2. 1 ) that a strip of black antelope skin OP of cloth was used in ancient times as upavlta 677 the sacrifice of him who wears the 674. VII KhSdira 2. III. 1. B. E. ' ( II. 1. 1. he ( Prajapati ) said to them your light . 361 ) says the gods being yajnopavltins approached near. 8-9. I. bending their right * the sacrifice is your knee . 4. sarhskaras of one's children be performed. vol. paribhSsS-siitra II. your strength. Vaik. what it means is that it is for sages. [ Oh. Maim II. Kanaka in the apgrcrf&ff on ^fSr I. wr 3?r. 1. The occasions when nivlfca mode is used are : rsi-tarpana. This passage is quoted as from the 7 ( p. 2. i ^. immortality is is '.

Ar. (III. 891). if The Tantravarfcika 679 for girding up the loins and that the first is not done except in while the latter has to be resorted to in all acts in order to devote sole attention to them. it is established that the passage enjoins the wearing is of upavlfca in Darsa-Purnamasa which devakarma and that the reference to praclnavlta and nivlta is only an anuvUda intended to emphasize the desirability of the wearing of upavlta in sacri- explains that nivtta is tying the upavlta round the throat like a braid of hair (according to some). 11. 2 l. H. I- P. he raises the right hand and keeps the left down this is yajnopavlta. 11. VII ] Upanayana-yajflopavita 289 yajnopavlta becomes spread out ( prosperous. Some of the sutrakaras and commentators drop hints that garments were used or could bemused as upavlta. . wearing a yajnopavlta. S. *TT. (p. . 173 ) quotes and remarks that the Tai. quoted in/. 1) to a cord of threads but to battle. 37. 878 a portion of the above passage ( I. sacrifice or officiate at a sacrifice wifch the yajnopavlta on for securing the sacrifice of spreading of sacrifice having worn an antelope skin or a garment on the right side.' It is remarkable that here at any rate no cord of threads is meant by The Par. ' ' 678. but only a piece of skin or cloth. 1-9 and part of the same passage is discussed by Jaimini ( III. 21) it is established (with reference to the words) in the Tai.173. 1. he really ( therein ) performs a sacrifice. when this position is reversed . famous ). a piece of cloth. ( cotton ) garment. antelope skin and it is praclnavlta . whatever a brahmana studies. 2. prescribed in the sections on the Darsa-Purnamasa and not only when the SamidhenI verses are recited. viz. while according to others it is tying it round the waist as fices to gods. 1 (upavyayate etc. II. 22-23 ) says that a householder should always wear an upper garment and then adds or the sacred thread may serve This shows that originally the purpose of an upper garment. M. first ) The 4. lays down that a man becomes ah upavltin by wearing one of the two. while the him who does not wear it does not spread . Therefore one should study. upavlta. is not referring (in II. S. D. 4. . 679. 671) that one has to be an upavlfcin throughout all In the Purvamlmamsasutra sacrifice the actions.Oh. the Tai. part 1 p. 5. 4. the position called samvlta is for men. ( II. Ap. 5. n. So according to the Tantravartika. 5. I. Dh.

Dh. I. . 502 ^ mmfTTtl ) ^TTt?P^( ?TT^r*rnr: *[*ti 'a^qrm^ ftS jfo *t& ^^ ' *. ?. 2. ( I. e.290 upavlfca threads. . 12 ) partakes of sraddha dinner) should eat covered with one ( who an upper garment slung over tho left shoulder and passing under the right arm*. 8. 18-19 ) prescribes that when a student wears two garments he should wear one of them ( i. 1 History of Dhamaidztra ( Oh. 1 The Gobhila gr. 1 prescribes that a man must be yajfiopavltin at the time of waiting upon teachers. 12 Ttm^^pmsTO: ^r ^rniS^T ir^itafia $rm spfra i i 3T: I 3WT. Priori 3 ^nr: srrnj i srft *n 3?rWhnforwri i an*?. \ I 5. where g-^prT says Wtt p. ( I. under the right arm and over the left shoulder. *r. II. 8. e. ^. S. 4. Ap. part I. v. then there is another ( but inferior ) mode stated in Ap. S. % II. Dh. the upper 'one ) in the yajfiopavlta mode. S. a garment 680. 23 and wear at sraddha repast only the sacred thread ( but he must wear the garment in that fashion) and give up the sacred thread for the time. 1 ) in treating of upanayana 681 says the student takes as yajnopavlta a cord of threads. Haradatta gives two explanations of this. 19. injapa ( murmuring prayer). I. that is.2. 23 and that at other times it is not necessary to have the yajnopavlta '. ^n^^^^^^ ^r^^r i ifrfiteOT 1. Dh. tfiw<i'**n3ranr explains j ^nffcft ssfar am. 5. that one should wear an upper garment ( while dining at a sraddha) like a yajnopavlta i. 6. 2. 15. 19. a brahmana cannot rely on Ap. 2. 4. On this Haradatta says yajnopavlta means a particular * mode of wearing the ( upper ) garment.1. *ij?iu<foff T. 68 While another view is that he must wear the sacred thread and the upper garment both in the fashion of upavlta. viz. 22-23 % II. vi(ie \ 3^M^^TcT (JivSnanda. II. ^. at the time of horna. S. 2. m*n% -ftzfo f$R4 gn^^Hi ^ f : n 681. 6. Ap. 2. 15. 18-19 . * ST. 4. but when he wears only one garment then he should wear it round the lower part of the body ( and should not cover the upper body with a portion of the garment though it may be long enough for that ). 1. . Dh. elders. if one has no upper garment. at meals and in taking acamana and at the time of daily vedic study. VII meant an upper garment and not merely a cord of In another place the same sutra says (II. guests.

pp. VII ] Upanayana-yajfiopavita 291 or a rope of ku&a grass '.Oh. Vide *$^*f*m P. ( note a comparatively modern ) and in Vaik. Medhatithi comments on this that upavlfca means a particular mode of wearing a garment or a particular position of it and therefore here by upavlta is meant that which can be worn . that the sacred thread was not invariably used in the older times as in the times of smrtis and in modern times. 44 as ' '(P. 416-418 as to how the upavlta is to be manufactured and who is to manufacture it.4 and tf. that was riot an invariable rule in his day and that a garment could be employed instead. ( tl. while scores of vedic mantras are cited for the several component parts of the ceremony of upanayana. si. This indicates that though a cord of threads was considered in Gobhila's days as the appropriate yajnopavlta. that originally the upper was used in various positions for certain acts. *T^r*oT quoted in the aJi^fKi^ defines 1$ in Manu II. if not certain.2). gr. The commentator being brought up in the latter day tradition explains by saying that the sutra was lost in a forest then a garment may be worn like the sacred thread and if even that was lost a rope of kusa. from the fact that of three threads '. it is most probable. has certainly ring about it and is not cited in any well-known ancient work. 683. one interesting fact being that an upavlta prepared by a maiden was to be preferred to 682. quotes a prose passage from Bsyasrhga carry out all the purposes for which yajnopavlta is required by means of a garment and in its absence by a string From the above passages.44) says that 'the upavlta of a brahmana should be made of cotton its strands should be twined with tha right hand moved over them ( or the twist of the strands must be upwards ) and it should have three threads '. Manu (11. 0. l A few rules 662 above one prepared by a widow. 5). * ' 1 The Sm. about yajfiopavlta may now be stated here. that it laid aside altogether in the most ancient times and cord of threads came to be used first the later garment could be that the as an option and later on exclusively for the upper garment. 888 The yajfiopavlfca is to have three threads of nine strands well The mantra ^^frr^lcf *T*# &c. But this appears to be rather far-fetched as an explanation of if Gobhila's unqualified words. in that mode. is cited only in Baud. or one may many of the grhyasutras are entirely silent about the giving or wearing of the sacred thread in upanayana and from the fact 888 is cited from the Vedic Literature for the act that no mantra of giving the yajfiopavlta ( which is now the centre of the upanayana rites ). .

31 I.L 5. C. ^. yajfiopavlta. the yajriopavlta was to have only one thread of three tantus. This shows that in the 17th century A. when they kept yajnopavlta &i wore faafeijrnrwmq: i *n$r: i prrf 685. taw ^KNfo II I. p. Baud.5. Agni. S. Dh. 5). TTT.L 5. hemp. 888 many ksatriyas and vaisyas put on Kumarila also says that wearing yajnopavlfca and studying Vedas is common to all the three varnas. D.S. I. 1) say that it may be of cotton thread or of kusa grass and Devala as quoted in Sm. The remarks of the ' Samskaramayukha after quoting Manu II. 19 prescribe that the chest. 5. 2. of ksuma. 885 all gods. The number of yajiiopavitas to be to circumstances.Surya.6. Medhatithi on Manu 11. 688. that in istis. 27. p.44 says Prajapati. p. by Devala viz. 47-48 ) has a similar verse. Orhkara. but it was three-fold in three classes of ahlna. S. says that all twice-born persons should make their yajfiopavlta of cotton. Pitrs. Soma. ?i*ifh'jC i ffft i ^ffirg'.292 tfistary of DharmaSastra [ Oh. 686. Devala quoted 884 The nine devatas of the nine tantus ( strands ) . tree bark or kusa according to the availa687 bility of the material. $r A u. and sattra sacrifices as they required three fires and in the seven somasamsthas seven-fold and five-fold when viewed with reference to the three savanas and two samdhyas. Abrahmacarl was to worn differed according wear only one yajnopavlta at all. p. (ra . 44 and Visnu Dh. ekaha. 5. 0. 31 687. animal sacrifices and soraa sacrifices. 36 . f^fR?cf (VIII. p. twisted (for each thread).. should not reach beyond the navel. (I. nor should it be above 688 Manu II. t^T. viz. 2. are given Gobhila gr. 31. (1. the yajfiopavlta for brahtnana. Vayu. Vlt in the Sm. I. of wearing cotton yajfiopavlta '. Dh. ksatriya and vaisya should respectively be of cotton. 44 are interesting we do not know the origin of (or authority for) the practice of present-day ksatriyas and vaisyas. hemp and sheep wool. hair of cow's tail. Naga. also and samnyasins. Vide Baud. 32 . The yajfiopavlta should reach as far as the navel. fchimi'iH'td Q'K'TrTT^T'TT^' I S^Ht ^J^o ^ TT*Tt ^ ^ : I I.

602. 16 and 133 ) and other smrfcis the yajnopavlfca is called brahmasutra. 25. Vas. Vide %grc3 quoted in I- p. If a brahmana took his meals without wearing yajiiopavlfca. I. he had to undergo prayascitfca viz. should have a stick and a pot filled with water Kasyapa allowed a householder to wear any number up to ten. and Baud. VII ] Updnayana-yajftopavlta 293 only one. . u. Dh. 44-45. 1171. it is certain that long before the Christian era it had come to be so worn and it had become an inflexible rule that a brahmana must always wear a yajnopavlfca and have his top-knot (of hair) always tied up if he did any act without observing this rule. Whether yajiiopavita as worn in modern times was worn from the most ancient times or nofe. compare *rg. II. ear of nature without having the yajnopavlta placed on the right ( as Yaj. the first pffda is nrc^sfr f^nr^Tftrfhnr T^^^^TVTTT^T m^crrer^f 8. in tho Vide note 609 above. 4 quoted in *gfNro - I. 1173. The Mit. Several smrtis contain instructive dicta on this point. 896. . garland and kamandalu ). ( II. i % 2. > The ^HTcTSTRT jj T%c*T ^r^^^TOTOfxT^ T5fi*hfi& ^fi XII. I " ^! wre II . 13-15 has similar r verso of Vasi^tha is quoted by the Mit. p. on Yaj. 14 says snatakas should always wear a lower garment and an upper one. two yajnopavltas. 1 ) both Vas. e. 14 TCinjErrfgsT 71. ( I. Manu IV. 2. 9. $. teacher's house after brahmacarya one who has returned from the were ) and a house-holder * wear two while one who desired long life may wear more than two. to A snataka 689 ( i. 16 prescribes). 892 689. S. In Yaj. to mutter prayers and fast vide Laghu-Harlta verse 23 quoted by Apararka pp. 1. 32 and - ^^TT quoted 690. 66 forbids the wearing ( of another's yajnopavlta along with several other things such as shoes. 691. III. 292 prescribes prayascitta for answering calls '. 36. S. on Sj I.OH. 133. quoted in the cFsrsnfS'SK' p. ' . 24 . to bathe. An nayana performed interesting question is whether women ever had upaor whether they had to wear the yajfiopavlba. XII. a man that must say always wear yajfiopavlta. VIII. Rf5^^ ^^r wisrr*rA arsrcyNn^ n ^i%s 40. 402. . ornament. . Dh. IV. 891 690 it was inefficacious.

i 3?rsr. keeping fire. the mere ceremony of upanayana should somehow be In performed and then their marriage should be celebrated. in the yajiiopavlta mode ) he ( the husband ) should murmur the verse Soma gave her to Gandharva ( Rg. that as to women this is a general rule interpolated in the treatment of sama vartana and has nothing to should rather hold that Asv. ( i. according to Gobhila. X. their thighs '. dcitnWH 44n 305.294 History of Dharmaiastra \ Oh. and those that are sadyoOut of these brahmaj v&dinls have to go through upanayana. e. 85. e. a ksatriya his two arms. The commentator to whom this procedure naturally seemed strange explains yajnopavltinlm as meaning whose upper garment is worn in the fashion of the sacred thread*. Xir^cTt ^. 1. vedio study and begging in one's house ( i. those that are brahma* * vadinls vadhtis ( i. 11. " the Gobhila gr. and other digests there are two sorts of women. who straightway marry ). a m ' woman her private parts and persons who gain their liveIt is improper to say.VII says Eferlfcadharmasutra as quoted in the Sm. as some do. It is clear that the girl. 695.?flM*fiR fi*i*<j^ii<!3C 3fthj Wfaft * the com. under the parental roof ) but in the case of sadyovadhus when their marriage is drawing near. ^^l U *^& . 0. 41 ) ". ' * ' ' ' * though Raghunandana himself does not approve of this explanation. 20 ) do with the latter. students of sacred lore ) e. 896. lihood by running. 19 it is said leading forward towards the sacred fire ( from the house ) the bride who is wrapped in a robe and wears the sacred thread (slang from her left shoulder. wore the yajnopavlta as a symbol of the ribe of upanayana. a vaisya his belly. II. In the Mahabbarata a brahmana is said to have taught to the ( Vanapaiva 305. knew Vedic study and so prescribed what they should do in their samavarfcana. 8. III. says p. In the Samskaratattva of Raghunandana it is stated that Harisarma held that according to Gobhila the bride was to wear a yajiiopavlta. In the ceremony of Sanaa vartana. *r . 20. 1. ^^d^dMiN IH ' ' $ <rh r i ^renrere 694. We of women undertaking m : 693. Asv. 693 II. &i ^m srg&cR?T m*f sft i ire sreoFSTff^r. 19 . 8. on the subject of applying ointment says after having smeared the two hands with ointment a brahrnana should salve his face first. III. gr.

though there were faint glimmerings of its performance for women in former days. uncle or brother taught them and not a stranger and begging was prescribed for a maiden in the house itself and she was not to wear deer-skin or bark garment and was not to have matted hair '. Gharpure.Ch. upanayana) was desired in the case of maidens. 67 ) formed with Vedic mantras in the case of women ( in their case ) attendance on the husband amounts to serving a guru (which a student had to do) and performance of domestic duties to worship of fire (which the student had to perform by offering a fuel-stick in the evening every day ). if not his own. In Bana98 Mahasveta (who was practising tapas) is bhatta's Kadambarl. 24 ) edited by Mr. e. Harlta* 98 prescribes that in the case of women samavartana took place before the appearance of menses. Having spoken of the samskaras from jafcakarma to upanayana. upanayana for women had gone out of practice. Manu winds up ( II. * ' . but without mantras' and adds the ceremony of marriage is the only samskara per( II. e. ' ' ' ' i & stfr^F^r-H^rc^RT P 697. 0. 698. Pr. the Nirnayasindhu and others say that this practice belonged to another yuga. VII ] Uvanayanaryajftopavlta 295 mother of the Pandava heroes a number of mantras from the Atharvasiras. tying of tha girdle of munja ( i. 66 ) these ceremonies were to be performed in their entirety for women also.. then they studied Vedic lore and finished student-hood at the age of puberty. 402-403 .* described as one whose body was rendered pure by ( wearing ) a brahmasutra ( i. The yajnopavlfca came to have superhuman virtues attributed to it and so probably even women who were practising austerities wore it. yajnopavlta ) '. Relying on the words in former ages occurring in the verses of Yama quoted above medieval digests like theSm. This shows that in the day of the Manusmrfci. Yama m ' says in former ages. Manu seems to have been aware of this usage as prevalent in ancient times. p. ) sffr^oy rRift$dfrNK in para 133 of . these qr^frqfiH *ftf <sreTOR<jrfo versos are ascribed to Manu in the ^f^fr^^T ( I. they were taught the vedas and made to recite the Savitrl ( the sacred Gayatrl verse ) j either their father. but this seems to bo a misreading for TJTT ( which H \\ ^ is the reading of the Mysore ed. intfft i mravfr ^JTrf<ort f^rnft $ ! ft9**ifa& i ai wwrf fan fr wwr *rr ^wre^rsr pp. The Sam. Therefore brahmavadinl women had upanayana performed in the 8th year from conception.

Kalidasa in Raghuvamsa caste. 1. VII ( p. D. 700. and holding a formidable bow that the side of his mother ( who was a ksatriya to princess )'. daughter is to be brought. In the drama Venlsamhara ( Act III ) when Karna resented the attitude of Asvatthaman. S. while describing the irate brahmana hero Parasu- came came to him from him from *. 6. . 8) and with the Gayatrl. so so that from comparatively early times the yajfiopavlta to be regarded as the peculiar indicator of the wearer's being or at least neglected the constant much came of the brahmana ?0 * wearing the upavlta. 419. 4. the yarn is to be twisted 1-3 ). of the three mantras * ' apo hi stha ' ' ( Jig. ifcznro^fraeranJT *nf!t ^r srg^&tf sn??n %^pr\"^ts?f^f *n snSh 701. P. Tw^rar ^fh-hn* III. Br. 1-4 ) and with the anuvaka beginning with pavanianah suvarjanal ( Tai. then another 96 with bhuvah and a third 96 with svah. and said that he could not cut off his leg as by virtue of his caste ( as brahmana ) he could not be punished in that way. (XI. The Baudhayana-sutra quoted in the Samskara-ratnamala 188) says that yarn spun by a brahmana or his maiden (p. then one is to measure first 96 angulas of it with the syllable bhuh. V. with the four verses Hiranyavarnah ( Tai. ST. * ' 699. 1 and Atharva I. it appears that they often neglected wearing of yajfiopavlta. m the it Though ksatriyas and valsyas also were entitled to have upanayana performed. i ^^ . who raised his left foot for kicking Karna. Asvatthaman replied by throwing away his sacred thread with the words 'here do I give up my caste 701 That shows that in the days of the Venlsamhara ( not later than about 600 A. 64) rama says For example. 419 ) quotes a verse saying that the Supreme Being is called yajna and yajnopavlta is so called because it belongs to the Supreme Being ( or is used in sacrifices for Him ). ) the yajfiopavlta had become the peculiar indicator of the caste of brahmanas only. X. then the yarn is to be taken in the left hand and there is to be a clapping of the two hands thrice. which was the heritage that his father. 33. If the upavlta had been as constantly worn by the ksatriyas as by brahmanas in Kalidasa's day he would not have spoken of it as the peculiar sign of a brahmana. *3^r XI.296 History of Dharmasastra [ Ch. 64. then the yarn so measured is to be kept on a leaf of palasa and is to be sprinkled with water to the accompaniment 9.

The Baud. II. the deaf and dumb. Yaj. Br. vaisyas.) the ceremony briefly consists in repeating the three verses ( Rg. ' om bhQr bhuvah svah ) and then the yajnopavlta is to be put on with the mantra 'yajnopavitam parainam' (cited above in note 662 ). VI. 14. Jaimini has established that those who are devoid of a limb703 are not eligible for agnihotra. Agni (quoted above in note 685) have to be invoked on the nine strands.Cb.who are impotent. congenially blind or deaf. 28. 6. 9. the deaf and dumb &c. Dh. 17. 8. 10 ) and then the yajnopavlta is to be put on with the verse yajiiopavltam &c. 10. 2 ) and then the knot is to be tied with the formula 'Bhurbhuvah evascandramasam ca ( Tai. 1-3 ) over water ffpo hi ?tbs with which the yajnopavlta is to be sprinkled then there is the repetition of the GByatri ten times (each time preceded by the vysbttis. It is not necessary to go into these details. The next important question is as to whether upanayana was performed in the case of the blind. 41-42. 15. Ill. 1 . X. I. Gaut. 1-12 ) gives a few insignificant points of difference as to the upanayana of ksatriyas. Br. 9 ) prescribes a special procedure for the upanayana of the deaf and dumb and idiots. the idiotic &c. 201. S. For a brief statement of the mode of putting on a fresh sacred thread vide note below. 41-42. ambastha and karana ( son of a vaisya from a sudra female ). Vas. as ( ' ' .' Then there is to be a japa of the gayatrl verse and then Scaraana. But they all but only partition. then the upavlta is to be taken with the mantra devasya tva and then it is to be shown to the sun with the verse ud vayam tamasaspari ( Rg. it appears that the ceremony of upanayana was gone through as far as it could be from incurable diseases are not entitled carried out in the case of the blind. 140-141. II. Visnu. S. Similarly the Ap. As marriage is not possible for dvijatis unless upanayana precedes it. gr. 702 ' ' 1 ' ' ' ' The BaudhSyana-grhyasesasutra ( II. 32 ff. but this inability arises only when the defect is incurable. aif^f** a^prf exclusion of these from inheritance will be dealt with later* The . 2 ) and the nine deities ' orhkSra. Manu 9. 10. cripple and those who suffer to share property on a be are entitled to maintained. In modern times whenever a new yajnopavlta has to be worn because the one worn is lost or cut <&c. 52-54. sesasutra (II. III. allow even these to marry. patita. ' *wft f^rtWnmil ^. VII 1 Upanayand-yajnopavita ' ' 297 with the three^verses bhuragnira oa ( Tai. 703. 1. 50. Db. lay down that persons. The principal 702.

I ch&eHltfciKIW ^Tfactf *Tn% i . the ^gcinfcnt ( P- 4 ) H w^r^or quoted in f^ofai%*$ and quotes some of these verses. The same purana prescribes that kunda and golaka (the first being the offspring of an adulterous intercourse when the husband of the woman is living and the second when the husband is dead) should have upanayana performed in the same way as for the deaf and dumb. <?<^^^?>*wf^Tf^V*r^ II. 273-274 ) also quote the passage and explain it. Kl 705. 90. 92 ) expressly say that a person born of a brahmana from a brahmana woman belongs to the same caste only if he is born in lawful wedlock and that even the anuloma sons must be born in wedlock. The Nirnayasindhu quotes a passage from the Brahmapurana cited in the Prayogaparijafca about the upanayana of the impotent. the tying of mekhala. they should ba made to repeat the Gayatrl at least if possible and if that too is not possible. putting on a garment. 706 Ap. 13. 6. 174) defined them as above. ft 706. all the mantras are muttered softly by the acarya himself. II. 92.&P8 History of DJmrmaiastra \ Ch. Pr. treading on a stone. the deaf and others which contains rules similar to Baudhay ana's. B. then on touching them the acarya should repeat it. 14. lunatics. S. VII points in which their upanayana differs from that of others are that the offering of samidh. that the boy does not mention his name. fai^ ffikt (*: *T. if it is known that the adulterer and the woman were both of the brahmana caste. The sutra 704 says that according is to some the followed as to other parsons who are impotent. 1. ( pp. or suffering from such diseases as epilepsy. 399-401 ) and S. The kuntfa and golaka being the offspring of adultery 704. There is some difference of opinion as to kurifa and golaka. 5 ) and Yaj. Dh. the acarya himself who makes offerings of cooked food or of clarified butfcer. ( pp. 9. M. The purana 7 5 says that those who cannofc repeat the Gayatrl ( such as the deaf and dumb ) should be brought near the teacher or fire and that the teacher should then same procedure touch them and then mutter the Gayatrl himself. the giving of deer skin and staff are it is done silently. blind. Manu ( 10. Manu ( II. . ( I. I. The Sam. but that in other cases such as lunatics. white leprosy or black leprosy &c.

sesasutra II. 1. 51 ) of a and for the pratilomas no upanayana. To the west of the Asvattha tree performed. Manu ( III. ambas^ha 709 IV. gr. 707. Gaut. 95. Gharpiire's ed.10. ( II. 156 ) included the Icunda and golaka among brahmanas not to be invited at sraddha. . brahmana from a sudra woman. 92 and 95 says that the anulomas have upanayana performed according to the rules of the caste of the mother and further mixed castes arising from the six anuloma eligible for the rites of dvijas Mifc. pp. the tree being touched with Ilg. when they were not on Manu's own dictum brahmanas. 92 and ' on 709. 1. . 3?nr. xm^wrea qn&sffar. Vide *3nNf$f37T on 3?r^ . though anuloma. T^. while others repudiated the idea that those born under the 707 practice of niyoga had any taint attaching to them.. VII 1 Upanayana of the blind and others 299 would not really be brahmanas even though both parents were Thus. the sarhskaras from pumsavana are imitated is but with the vyahrtis only. sesasufcra 11. 8 gives rules for the upanayana cf ksatriyas. It ia not necessary to go into the question 41 ) of the upanayana of mixed 708 castes. says that the six anulomas are ( and so for upanayana ) and the on Yaj. 20-21 1 . castes in the anuloma order are also eligible for upanayana. Some like the author of the Samgraha held that the kun$a and golaka forbidden by Manu in sraddha were those born under the ancient practice of niyoga brahman&s. A sudra is only ekajati and not dwjati ( Gaut. 21 made an exception in the case of the son &c. 1. 1. 708. I. upanayana of a secondary kind is allowed to them. All pratilomas were like sudra according to Manu ( IV. X. t*. Manu ( X. though these two are not strictly brahmanas. 399-400. I WTT on *rr. Elaborate discussions have been held why they were so specially mentioned. 41 ) and the offspring of a brahmana from a sudra woman.Cb. vaisyas and of mixed castes like rathakara. Vide Baud.) for this elaborate discussion vide also *ft3TTOreft$T PP 307-398. ^. was like pratilomas. gr. i ^nrt ^ i ?R IV. The Baud. I. III. In modern times also rarely this upanayana is homa performed. ( as well as for the sudra) there was Upanayana was so highly thought of that some of tbe ancient texts prescribe a method of upanayana for the Asvattha tree.

the cloth is removed and then the hymn called Dhmva- sukta ( Rg. yajnopavlta. tion in Gayatrl is stated in San. Other mantras ( like Rg. prescribes that in the case of brahmana students this must be done immediately. History of DharmaiOatra ' [ Ch. II. Par. or six months. staff and deer-skin are given with appropriate mantras and lastly after touching the tree. 1-9 ) is repeated. D. 5 . trees performed by one Bachappa Sat. 5. According to most of the sutras the teacher sits to the north of the fire facing the east and in front of him the student sits facing the west and then the student requests the teacher to recite to him the verge sacred to Savitr and the teacher imparts to him first one pada at a time. just as the wife ( who being a woman had no upanayana performed ) was taught the Vedio mantras accompanying such acts as that of examining times ' 710 The same rule711 of postponing the instrucajya in sacrifices. 1. III. 62-63 ) are a] HO recited. 24. 3. The general practice however seems to have been to impart the Gayatrl that very day. the Gayatrl is repeated. Then a piece of cloth. . 22 there is a reference to the upanayana of Asvattha in 1358 A. quoted It will be seen from the passage of the above (in note 625) that the sacred G&yatrl verse was imparted in very ancient times to the student by the teacher a year. R. C. then eight auspicious verses are repeated ( mangalastaka).300 8. Manava gr. Malavalli No. It is for this reason that so modern a work as the 8. 22. gr. *r . Br. II. 9. 9. In E. 194 ) says that such mantras * as San-no devlrabhisfaye ( Rg. then two padas and then the whole. 9. gr. A piece of oloth IB held between the tree and the performer. VII 11 vanaspate '. vol. 12 or 3 days after upanayana and that the Sat. X. I. X. M. According II. Br. gr. 4 ) which have to be repeated by the brahmacSrl in the rites of upanayana should be taught to him even before upanayana. X. Bhar. 72. ( p. This ancient rule was probably due to the fact that students in those far-off Savilryupadesa : when they came to the teacher at the age of seven or eight had hardly any previous instruction and so must have found it difficult to pronounce properly and correctly the sacred verse immediately on initiation. girdle. 15.

II. g. 1.6. to begin the teaching ( of the Veda ) says om f with the idea that he may reach near brahmi.. 11 on which ?f: . Mann II. stf. ' 718 Aditya and the lord of vrafas with svaha when offering sticks of ' Various intricate modes occur in the sutras and the commentaries thereon about how this first instruction in The differences are due to Gayatri is to be carried out. *^!^ ^t 5. Vayu. 1.. vide Gobhila gr. Upanayana and the Gayatri 301 fuel 5. SW:> fT^. 81 ). i . as aw. The mystic words ^:. 6 says omkara is the door to 712. 164. ^. ' ' Tai. 5. 5. Dh. 13. ajf ffcHRg . 1. gr. 11. II.. *?^:. fttffftcl&nf ^? an ennfts'J . 40 is the same srgr i I sfrmf^ arHJrcfhf I.. 9 ). 52. 'Om is called Ap. "TTijf^ 8 J vide ^.. arrant ^fts %mo on ??g II. . * S. grcr. U. 11. II. II. to VII] Baud. * 8 .. the place assigned to the vyahrfcis713 ( bhuh. I. ?. arir a<rcra mft^r snf II. g^fa i says 'ajf ^TcHctg^^^ is I aft g^: JTiTFj this is aft i aft s^ one method. ^: is often pronounced M^ft^iti ^r: : *mf %^^T tfWt ^ aft i ^ to put the vyShrtis at the mml fWlr 5^:. 74 ^r.. The this ( Tai. another ' end e. 40.. d. They are also called simply Tho number said to be the 4th. 5^:. n^ . IT^^T: compare BhaT. 11. ' '. 34-37 the student places on the fire four the pals^a or other sacrificial tree anointed with clarified butter and repeats mantras to Agni. ^:. contains a eulogy of omkara rco aksare parame &o.13. 1. ' A ' brahmana about prayava. * Bg. . $3*":. universe )'. 3T<fV l the muym>yfl^ ( 12 ) supreme and in iftsTT^'B Sfufnra Brahma. ( I. 36-37.. I. svah ). 9. 39 in support 11 ' ' ' ' and quotes ' taking the I. while the u?TgT?Nn*T has the same five. 3nr : cT^:.Cb. Up. 4. The syllable om has been looked upon as very sacred from ancient times and is a symbol of the Supreme Being. 9 f Vaik. The them. afl q. 10. Two illustrations are set out below from Sudarsana 7U on Ap. viz ^t. and 25. ^:. but ^q 714. gr. ^ 5^: I 3H JT 5 fitft ^rt ?T: i n . : are sometimes called 713. 25. word * aksara to ) says ( syllable mean the omkara om is Brahma om is all . afrmni arr^ror: TI^J^TTOT? T^riTJir^nnf5 1 ^^^ijftf^ 27 declares ^T^^: **Fr: '. Br. whore rr^t is ^ ( of vyKhrtis is usually seven. 8. gr. II.4. ^?4 ( Vusi^tlm Gautama ( 1. W:. I.. is last. 8 ) speaks of only ave. VII. bhuvah. ^:.I. i . 24-29 ) a?fcrc is identified with the ..

should Manu ( II. 20 ). Katfiopanisad I. 9 ) Savitrl for the vaisya ' ' or hamsah sucisad ' ' ' to Satatapa quoted in the Madanaparijata ( p. Kathakam XIII. According to the Varahagrhya (5) 'yufijate manah ( Rg. Here again there is difference. with the three worlds. 35. panih savita is ( * 2) and the Jagatl ( Rg. 76 ) says fchafc the three heaven therefore one study by who is start his first repeating OM. 15-17 om is said to be the end of all Vedas. ( 41. 2.302 . Some grhya sutras prescribe the same verse for all students. 20 . 2 ) and visva rupani ( Kathakam XVI. whether brahmanas. V. devo yati savita and 5 ). IV. The sacred Gayatrl verse is Rg. ' verse ' Visva Savitrl for a ksatriya and a vaisya respectively while the commentator on San. 59-62 and in numerous other places there are hyperbolical or esoteric identifications of the three letters of om with Visnu. I. According to the commentators on the Kathaka gr. I. 23 ) the verse * Deva ' savitah' (Tai. Vayu chap. 4-6) says that the Tristubh which is to be taught as the Savitrl to the ksatriya students is a krsnena rajasa ' ' HiranyaRg. It literally means we contemplate that esteemed ' ( longed for) refulgence ( glory ) of the divine Savifcr who may inspire our intellects (or actions) '. According Bg. VII about to study the Veda. with the three In the Vedas. But others say that for brahmana the Savitrl verse is the Gayatrl. According to Medhatithi on Manu II. In the Markandeya-purana chap. 8 ) ' ' . ksatriyas or vaisyas. 74 ) says that om must be uttered at the beginning of the daily Vedio study by the student or by the house- ' letters a f ' . S. LaksmI and the jlva. with three fires &o. but it is not necessary in japa' &o. a savitrl ( verse addressed to Savitr ) in the Tristubh ( having 11 syllables in each quarter ) or Jagatl ( 12 syllables in each quarter ) should be the proper one. 81. 35. ' I. I. History of Dharma&astra [ Oh. gr. 14 ) is the savitrl for the ksatriya. but for ksatriyas and vaisyas. 10 ) and the Kathakam XVI. 8 ) are cited as the . 1. It is addressed to Savitr (the sun) and may also be interpreted as a prayer to the Source and Inspirer of everything. 5. 35. Vrddha-Harlta-smrbi VI. ' m ' 4 holder ( when performing brahmayajna ). 7. its the source of the knowledge of brahma and also symbol.' ( in om ) and the three vy ahrtis were distilled from the three vedas by Prajapati as the essence. 38 a krsnena ( Rg. the verse ' adabdhebhih savita ' rupani ( ( Kathakam IV. 74 ) prescribes the repetition of pranava at the beginning and at the end of daily Vedio study and further on ( II. 7. 42. u '. 62. 10 and occurs in the other Vedas also. III. 1 ) are the Tristubh and Jagatl meant as Savitrl for the ksatriya and vaisya respectively. 40. (II. MedhStithi on Manu ( II.

14. V. 71. 1. Why difficult to say. 3ft. &c.' (quoted in note 356 above). Ar. 1. ^gm fTT JT^T ^T?T t^JTrarr 3T^^cft qr^rrm fit^T'TH sw^t 718. 11 ) it is stated that the mystic words 'bhuh. Visnu ). and prays that it may confer long life. gr. each pada of the Savitri was as if extracted from each of the three Vedas and that ( II. IF. 32-33 ) explains the Grayatrl in various ways. That about the Savitri being in the Gayatrl. In the Tai. III. 11-17. i^f i^l^d5 TITt ^ ^HiW^T Tt??f% rl^ i f . gr. Tristubh and 715 the Gayatrl verse ( Rg. 3 allows an option viz. 14. all varnas may learn the Gayatrl or the Savitri verses in the Gayatrl. Sarhvarta verses 216-223 715. 717 The Br. on the singer. 11 ( STJTOTST means without stopping * or break*). glory. 14 ) says that their essence ).Ch.. Its fame was probably grand simplicity and to its adaptability to an idealistic conception of the world as emanating from an all-pervading Intelligence. II. ( II. T. 4. cattle &c. children. S. I. svah* are the truth (essence) of speech and that Savita in the Gayatrl means 'one who en716 Atharvaveda 19. The Gopatha Brahmana ( I. by its recital all Vedas become recited as it is Manu II. 3*13: 19. Up. 10 mentions a brahmana text to the effect that the Savitri is recited for all the Vedas ( i. or 'brahma* ). 62. 1 calls it vedamata genders glory *.) is the it. 15 ) the Savitri that together with om and the three mouth Dh. Sankhasmrti XII. and JagatI metres Ap. VII are the ] Upanayana and the Gayatrl 303 two all these rules Savitrls respectively for ksatriya and vateya. and the root trai ( to save ) and it is said came to be its famous it is due to ' ' ' * ' ' ' when the teacher repeats the Gayatrl for the benefit of the young student he thereby saves the boy's life ( from ignorance and the effects of sin ). S. i 717. Dh. nmff 716. The Ap. e. 1-6 718 contains a sublime eulogy of Gayatrl which word is there derived from gaya meaning prana '. 55. while Par. . may mean S. the Supreme Being Manu II. 55. bhuvah. S. V. gr. of Vedic lore (since Vedic study starts with ' ' mystic syllables (bhu. 1. Tristubh for the three varnas respectively are probably vary ancient follows from the text 'gayctrya brahrnanamasrajattt tristubha rajanyam &c. 10 ) JagatI respectively. 77 ( = Visnu Dh. The Asv. and some other sutras are entirely silent on the point. ( 77-83. 71. 81= Visnu Dh.. 55.

S. II 4.720 Vas. 12 ). H. some are prescribed for a very short time and some have to be : observed for all the years of studenthood. explains 7 -. p. matters connected with the GSyatri . 1. 25 quotes a verse of sifter ' * %* sft^cf: *TS ^rprft STcTHvtf ^simi** I and adds 35 : I 721. There are mantrasfor invoking the Gayatrl and for taking leave of it. or twelve nights or a year^ after upanayana Vide Siu. 33. ( where the mystical significance of each of the 24 letters of the Gayatrl is explained ) and numerous 719 other works contain hyperbolical eulogies of Gayatrl. 55. The words Apo jyotl rasomrfcara brahma bhur-bhuyah svarom' are said to be the $iras ( head ) of the Gayatrl ( vide Sankhapmrki XII. HT^M on fgiuifjhftq. ^j. 22. gr. The I ^r^o 4. S. tf. 15 prescribes that a man desirous of purifying himself from sin should repeat the divine Gayatrl 1000 times (daily) as the maximum or 100 times (as the middle way) or at least ten times. 781 or ten times with Brahmacari-dharmah Certain rules and observances are 788 . 17. 4. 22. meaning of $nTc3^nr. 7-9 prescribes that in the evening Sarhdhya adoration one should murmur the Gayatrl a thousand times. The air^rf ^H^ ace.5^rT on 3TTT. The As v. 26. 72 explains that s^r(^1gf^FR: ^Ki means such salts as tr^ri^ and ^trr means Ihtft. There is great divergence of views on the ^. Dh. C. I. f^roq on I TH. Dh. 104 ) and others prescribe that every day a brahmacari ( as well as others) must perV.364 History of Jbharmafatra [ QHT Vll Brhat-Par&sara chap. 72 explains ( WCOTT as * manufactured salt '.. on p. Parasara V Vedamata'. 145 there is a dhyana of the 24 letters of the sacred verse. I. According to NaTSyanaon I 10 * $m means certain cereals * OTCfff^TcTT: J 5 ^n on H^ V. pp. ' quoted in the ijfW^renc * 241. 1 calls it ' ' form japa of Gayatrl. 23 refers to the diras of GSyatri. *rctaraf and T Ttlft fireft 'sn^ &o.. Manu ( II. 143) and the ( I. I. 723. 722. 8. ( I. I. 5*ni*fa*n3 un^rinT ^ i<w^fy^^^:5T^r . 143-152 for lengthy remarks on seveial 719. to H ftf^ is ' quoted in f^ftHr p. 3m q*mttmi: snr snffarefan^ft w^ i nh^ 2. 15. Baud. p. I. or a hundred times with pranayama each time *om* and the seven vyahrtis. 12 on ^ i explains V. prescribed for all brahmacarins They are of two kinds. II. *n^. 17 7?3 says "for three nights. 1 II. 5. I. . . ^r HIT. 8. 720. ' 151 ) quotes from iftf^ also * *rtJTC5*traWT fi^l^^H^T wamr . 6. n. These are recited in the modern SatfidhyV also.

Par. ip. 7. These latter are briefly indicated in Manu II. S. 22. 2 ( quoted on p. 17 ) and other texts. avoidance of certain foods and drinks and other matters like singing &c. II. Hir. (quoted above in note 625 ). Mantrapatha ( II. 3. 5. 4. of not giving the remnants of his food to sudras and several other observances which he has to continue throughout the period of student-hood. samidadhana. 49-249. the 4th day after 724 ( upanayana a rite Medhajanana generation of intelligence ' was performed called ) by virtue of which 3. daily bath. vaksamyama ( silence ). sleep on the ground". BhSr. 283 above ). Before doing so some other matters will have to be briefly disposed off. II. 8.27. do work &c '. San. gr. I. gr. 11-L 2. gr. II. Par. the student is to reply with the word yes ( 'badham' or om ). Yaj. ST. VII 1 Upanay^na and brahmacaridharma ' 305 ' the brahmaoarl should not eat ksara ' and ' lavana and should The same rule is stated by Baud. 446. Manu II. ( I. first The observances K&thaka gr. II. When the teacher says in the upanayana drink water. and the duty of gr. Ill 10-40. gr. of not drinking out of an earthen vessel. sages and pitrs &c. Dh. I.Oh. arid the special vratas of the brahmaThese principal topics will be dealt with in some detail c&rl. The same are laid down in Asv. 14 ). 1. gr. II. Khadira gr. These are principally acamana. gr. 55 ( adding the maintenance of the fire kindled at the upanayana for three days). 8. ( begging ricarya ( worshipping. S. 108 and 176 viz. 5. now. gr. offering samidhs into fire. ( 41. Compare fornr^PT in ana ^4 above (on p.8. Br. 1. III. On 724. 16-32 &c. D. Ap. working for tarparia of gods. 6. south-east f^^?T ) 445 * the rest and south-west arc objectionable are unobjectionable. 10-16. bhiksa sarhdhyopasana. gr. 6. for food ). Hir. Dh. Khadira 33 (adding avoidance of milk also for three days). I. II. the teacher. 30. 3. ) ^wfu^S . hood are that last throughout the period of studentseen in the passage of the Sat. 233). Gobhila gr. Three directions ( viz.1-7. guru6urusa ( including honouring him and his family and other elders ). 2 ) specially prescribes for the first three days the avoidance of ksara. sleeping on the ground. 39 . 1. guru^usrusa. of lavana and vegetables. 5. 1. not using a cot.. Baud. The rules centre principally round agnipa' * ' . study of Veda and its methods and duration.fire ). sfcre? (quoted in p. *w? quoted in p. south. 2. But the sutras and smrtis lay down many rules about these and other observances vide Gaut. 10. begging for food.

151 * * and Medha with the anuvaka ' Medha devl ' ( Tai. 11. The teacher makes the student sprinkle water in an unobjectionable direction thrice from the left to the right with a pot of water round about a palasa tree that has one root. ) I. 18-1. lamp &c. gr. another staff taken and the student returns to the house with the acarya. As thou art the preserver of the treasure of sacrifice for the gods. X.306 History of Dharmatastra [ Ch. and makes him repeat mantra 'Oh glorious one. 17 also refer to this.1 ). The boy goes out with his acarya to the east or north and three sthandilas are prepared to the north or east of a palasa tree and three pranava ( om ). This occurs in ann. make me full of glory. 41. sraddha with the hymn sraddhayagnih Rg. pp. ' Up. flowers. In addition to what gives a more elaborate desis stated in Asv. 22. 24 says that on the fouith day the The teacher tukes teacher takes the garments worn on the day of upanayana by the student and the boy wears new ones. gr. a stream of water poured before him. thus. 22. thus may I become the preserver of tho treasure of Veda among men' 725 rite The Bhar. The Sam. by the boy. ( I. Then is the staff is deposited at the foot of the palasa. 1 (2) who hears well Veda well by hearing it from tho teacher). X. gr. or round a bunch of the kusa grass if there is no palasa. In modern times in the Decoan a similar ceremony is gone through under the ( Marathi ) name Palasula \ * (i. 5. ( as in the on these regular worship of an image ). are glorious. 10 ) also prescribes this on the fourth day after upanay ana and says that a palasa tree with one root is to be anointed with ajija and the mantra * susravah (the same as in Asv. then the pranava is worshipped ' with the formula yas-chandasam to 'srutam me gopaya' ( Tai. gsrsrrs * who learns tho ^ . *. ( Manava 444-446 gr. glorious one. I. from Saunaka and adds a few more the student deposits at the root of the palasa his garments already worn. 1 also XL 14 it is the JR^ ( but in sire. Tho the garments &c. Asv.9 deals with this. left Ap. gr. As thou. sraddha and medha are invoked. 725. has two meanings (1) glorious. Pr. L 4. . thou art glorious. 39 ). 24 speaks of palasa-karma on the fourth day. o. viz. VII it was supposed that the student's intellect was made capable of mastering Vedio lore. Ar. the staff and (he girdle and then wears new ones and then when is the boy returns to the house. <n. cription. Sudarsana on Ap. glorious one. are worshipped with unguents. ' Kathaka gr. it quotes details. 11. ) is to be muttered. II. for taking the staff). 18.

6 prescribes this and the commentator Narayana adds that in so doing he has to observe the procedure prescribed in Asv. The fire kindled at the time of upanayana was to be kept up for three days fuel stick ) Wo have into and fche fuel-sticks were offered in that fire during those days. though the wife of Satyakama interceded on behalf of the dejected pupil. frftra ! 3*r^wc*mf *iTrq-f ^. I. 3 to tho same effect. 55-57. 5. gr. I. having swept round it he should offer fuel-sticks in the evening and tha morning as already directed ( in the grhyasutra \ One should sweep round the fire that 19 burning red-hot with the hand and not with a broom ( of kusa grass ). S. 4 for the putting on of samidh n the first day. Ap. 1. 20. 1 says 'beginning from marriage a householder should worship grhya fire himself or his wife or son or maiden daughter or pupil may do so/ The Chandogya Up. 14-18 . Dh. gr. San. The student had not only to offer saraidhs on his own account into the fire. gr. of fires will be discussed later on under 'marriage. 22 ). 1 . 21. II. gr. 11. 17 notes that according to some agnipuja . (1. S. II. 4. I.' The Ap.Ch. bu& he had to help his : was acarya in the latter's worship of fire by bringing fuel and by offering oblations for his acarya when the latter was away on 787 a journey or was ill. I. gr. Ap. II. IV. Yaj. 25 and almost all others prescribe the offering of samidh into fire in the evening as well as in the morning but Ap. The Asv. $. Dh. Afterwards samidh was to be offered in the ordinary fire ( vide Baud. 22. 4. 726. 1. 727. 2 The various kind a vide also srt $. The student is required to offer every day after upanayana a samidh into fire in the evening and in the morning. 5. gr. I. 12. I. Tn^i3r^nf% . Having kindled fire. 5. 786 should 14-20) lays down the following rules *the student on a low place always bring fuel from the forest and heap it ( otherwise if placed high it may fall on anybody's head). I. 10 contains the story of Upakosala Kamalayana who was a student of Satyakama Jabala and looked after his teacher's fires for twelve years and whom Satyakama did not teach anything. 9. I. 17. 15. 1. 4. 15. 10. Asv. Dh. S. one should not go out after sunset for bringing fuel-sticks. 186. VII ] Upanayana awl brahmacaridharma 307 ( seon above that the student has to offer samidh fche fire on the day of upanayana. Maim II. 12 further prescribes that no fuel is to be placed on fire ( in srauta and smarta rifces ) unless water has been sprinkled over it. 1. 10-1. 9. * ' to be performed in the evening only.

Such trees are pal a a. 33. tilaka. 302 is the eaino as 93. 302 for the nine tffaq. give food '. in the absence of the first two. karabha. was to have its bark on it. 114-115). him a bowl for collecting p. of daml. vol. nlpa. plaksa. More " affcer detailed The Hir. 157 ) says ( giving the student the staff the teacher gives 728. VIl A few words about samidhs may be said here. E. The samidh was not to be thicker than the thumb. sala. was not to be worm-eaten nor divided. The Vayupurana quoted by Apar&rka in their ( p. 82-84 ) has arka and vetasa. y(3W*3 part 1 p. slesm&taka or salmali are not to be employed. it was to be without leaves and was to be 729 strong. 76 as ^T^TcJTJn'^rftU J compare *JT. sakadruma. bilva. gr. *n^r. The principal trees for fuelsticks (saraidh)are palasa and khadira. candana. p. nor longer nor shorter than the span ( pradesa ) nor bibhltaka. 70-72 for similar vei sea. rajavrkaa. nyagrodha. nimba. but samidhs of kovidara. sir. I. p.3 for the nine grahas. 51 and ^tft^o ( I. I. several rules on this point. kapitfcha. sarala. rohitaka and as vat th a and in the absence of all these of The Trikanda-mandana ( II. but also elsewhere. 17^3^ ' H 729. after prescribing begging for food that the student should first beg of a man who would not refuse or of a woman who would ' not refuse and that in begging he should say rules are laid down by others. devadSru and khadira. 30 p. BUksa states ( I. 27. B. udumbara. karanja. 7-8 ) 22. Agni saved him from death and so a brahmacarl should serve fire \ 7SO ' The number of samidhs varied as shown above and not only in the worship of Agni by the brahmacarl.308 History of DharmaiOstra [ Oh. : The Asv. \$ quoted in ^[m^o I. ( S. gr. T H p. where aragrm^nnw is said to n W^T^rr quoted in mean aronra'g^ift TO the 5 same verses are quoted in t*Trrif. 51 ) says that palasa samidhs should be preferred. 61. 33 ) as 730. a&vattha. According to Harlta when death wanted to seize the brahmacarl formerly. i quoted by WTTRf iftftc*3ft I. having two branches. Vide^jgttoTVol. . The samidh 78 must be of palasa or some other yajriiya tree ( used in sacrifices ). vaikankata. absence samidhs of khadira. 13.

from his elders (like maternal uncles). 42-44. %m srwft 47-53. 49. 1. 6. VII ] Vpanaijana and bhiksa ' '. II. II. I. progeny. 30 and others contain the same rules about 738 Par. 10. and who has carried out all the observances for If a brahmaoarl cannot get food elsewhere he may students. sister or mother's sister. *?rn^!. Ap. 1. wwr. of twelve or of an unlimited number and that according to some he should first beg of his mother. 184 has tbo same rule. 28-31 for similar rules. I. ^. *ri2 II. Dh. one sees how the growing persons * passage to strictness of caste rules about food during the lapse of centuries affected the brahmacarl. 3 25 - . 7. m^W^^^^mwrfcr^tr^c . ' give me food ). cattle. gr. 41* variously explained on arrr. Manu II. 5 says that the addressing the ladies for alms.' S. from beg As to the his relatives and lastly from his acarya himself. gr. Yaj. Ap. 732. II. I. 5. 3. 733. I. tffa<3* II. accepts with the words these are good alms 731 II. 734. 25 prescribes that anmft sif^F qrsr *neK&rr& ftsri *refit w^r firsrt 3. 4. 1. 1. (with ( Continued on next page) whom no social inter- . student should first beg of three women who would not refuse or of sir.' his own family. 28-30. 21. * 1. 50 says that he should first beg of his mother. II. gifts and burnt offerings. 17. Manu II. Dh. Vide ifhm * i $ri. 734 1. i ift. 47-53 gives the same rules and adds that a brShraana * student should bog with the words bhavati bhiksam dehi (lady. Band. I. 43-44 * airaT^m'^^cTT^re ?W $? I ? T?**^ I . to him go out for alms Let him beg of his then in other families which are generously he brings the f eod to his guru and announces it to ' and then the teacher ( these are ) the alms ' The Baud. 309 alms ) and says mother disposed first. II. II. 2.Ch. 732 from whom to beg for food. *. 26 says that if women refuse to give alms to a devout brahmacarl he dehi * and a vaisya with the words ' Par. 731. 5. spiritual glory food and quotes a Brahmana their families ) and ( of therefore indeed one should not refuse to give food a crowd of students moving about ( for alms ) for fear that among them there may be some one who is like this ( a devout student). S. a ksatriya with the words bhiksam bhavati him with the words ' V * dehi bhiksam bhavati/ 5. Dh. II. gr. 5-8. 6 r q^f^t ^<HgH> nh 5Tf^ explains as ^FSTcTT^. snatches away or destroys their merit arising from sacrifices. 3. S. snrerarf msfcr \ i S. . Dh. qr. Ap. 3.

I. 5. one who has lost caste through the commission of some mortal sin). 29 says for his own maintenance a brahmacarl should beg food from brahtnanas who are blameless and the ancient commentator Visvarupa ' ' says that the best way is to bog at brahmana houses. 2. > 8 * ' .720 explains (i. I. if from such persons food cannot be had he may go about the whole village. ed I. 24. 8. M. II. Yaj. except that when he was requested to dinner in honour of gods or the Manes he might do so by partakContinued from last page) srnr.310 Histonj of DharrnaSastra [ Ch. nasa ( Jiv. but should avoid those who are abhisasta. <T3raTT^T: >. Dh. but 3*3^1 explains 3ifvr*Tf?fT. p. The brahmacarl was to eat food collected from several houses and was not to take food at a single person's house. Manu ( II. 3?ro& P. 56 and Yaj. 21. 183 and BrhaWParasara p.1. *7- ( course was possible). f as Bbhidaatya is one of the grave ^sins ^and is explained by wgrf^n. while on *ff?lc3T*TTt ^ I. 41 expressly says that a brahmacarl may beg food from all the varnas except from those who are abhisasta and patita. p. 130 ). According to p. those who are guilty of or suspected of grave sins X Gaut. Vll he could beg food from anybody except apapatras ( poisons like candalas ) and abhisastas ( i. e. 183 and 185 ) says a brahmacarl should beg for food at the houses of those who study the Veda and perform sacrifices. 9. I. e. 41. Dh. 7. I. while Angiras quoted in the Par. e. 41 ) says that even in a season of distress a brahmacarl should not beg for cooked food from sudras. 187. It was further said thafc a brahmacarl who subsists on food obtained by begging is like one observing a fast ( Mauu II. the next best is to beg of ksatriya and vaisya houses and to beg of sudras Ausais allowed only in apad (time of distress or difficulty ). 33 quotes a passage from the BhavisyapurSna to the effect that a brahmacarl may beg food from anybody Madanaparijata except a sudra. Baud. who are devoted to their duties and are virtuous in their conduct. The p. Dh. The word literally 8. 3- 25 he explains means those who cannot bo allowed to use the vessels out of which members of other castes are to take food ( i. those vessels when used by them have to be broken or thrown away). ( I. 189. 1. Food obtained by bagging was supposed to be pure as said by Manu II. 505 ) says that a brahmacarl should beg only from houses of his own caste ( as the best way probably ) or he may beg at the houses of all varnas. 7-9 an abhisasta is one that kills any brtthmana or kills a brahmana woman who is Atreyl. as ^Tq (cTi%Tt on rV II. According to &p. S.

should 735. I. t*. The Mit. since English education does not now ensure for the poor brahmana students even a bare maintenance. ! 2. patient industry and integrity rose to high positions in public life. Corresponding to the dufcy of the student to beg was the obligation cast on householders to serve food according to their ability to brahmacarina and yatis ( ascetics ). I. ft. Other important rules about the begging of food are that the student should not beg for his sake alone. states the penance for him. I. 2. 94. I. 28. Yaj. 16 prescribes that after performing the daily yajfias to gods offering bait to bhufcas. Dh. that puskala equal to four morsels. 52 ) prescribe that if for seven days continuously a brahmacarl who was not ill failed to offer fuel-sticks and to beg for food he violated his vow and had to undergo the same penance 726 as was prescribed for a brahmacarl having sexual intercourse. Even in modern times many brahmana students ( not only those who sfcudy the Veda from orthodox teachers but even those learning English) begged for their daily food and by dint of hard discipline. Vide Manu II. on Yaj. However the practice of poor begging students attending English schools in this way is dying out. the householder ( vaisvadeva ) and should offer alms ( of food ) preceded by the word svasti and by water. 32. Manu III. VII 1 Upanayana and bhiksa 311 ing of such food at such dinners as would not violate his vows. 108 and others say that alms should be given to ascetics and brahraacarins with honour and welcome. hanta equal to four puskalas and agra equal to three hantas* fuel-sticks The idea that a brahmaoarl must beg for his food and offer every day was so ingrained in ancient times that the Baud. . 108 says that alms should be ordinarily one morsel of food as large as the egg of a pea-hen * ' and quotes a verse of Satatapa is 725 saying that 'bhiksa is is as much is as one morsel. Mann 118-123 ) explains who ia avaklrnin and . Gautama V. 54 and M&nu II. 188-189 and Yaj. ( XI. 54.Oh. ^. 187 ( = Visnu Dh. S. S. THSTT announce on Tn*T I- 108 - siTO* P- 153 quotes a verse from the 'a are defined differently ' : *5!5TTcrrcl<T 57 is very similar to the verse quoted by 736.

-vi.g. 3. i 738 739. 182 ). Savitrl ( noon ) and Sarasvatl 737. 51.?rTir by #. S.I. ( vide Manu II. This act is generally styled 'sarhdhyopasana' ' ' ' 74 This act of or samdhyavandana or simply samdhy a.49 says that JTv^gTFt^T should not bo performed in the house. twilight '. S. srg II.*%rm^j^gj TPRC srsnq^r ^fftft quoted anrcfrwn^ *r *. S. 37-41 ). p. Vide Ap. 740. 3. (1. guru ahavanlya fire. As however on that day he knows no Vedic text except the Gayatrl. if even these are absent. the teacher holds 737 the place of the deity and of the ahavanlya fire. _ II tr w I 1 4 f ^ ^ i^v m^i j. alms are held to be equal to sacrificial food. 1. kusa -grass &c. 94 34114 (< l ^^TO H^T 3HTrf%fih*T \ # *^r 741. but also indicates the action of prayer performed in the morning and evening twilight. ypfi Ht*TT 3 *TW?(\ HTlWr IHT ). Mann He should leave no residue in his dish and wash it II. "*H ^^R'Cn&IJTT tf*Tf 'ETT fi^fn H^^^TT U ^tirr. Atri says 'a twice- born person possessed of the knowledge of the Self should perform three samdhya adorations/ These are respectively named Gayatrl ( morning one ). 1. i . 741 noon and at sun-set e. in the sometimes prescribed as necessary thrice a day viz. to the teacher all that him to take then he should announce it to the teacher directs . Dh.' So the student begins his sarhdhya 'as day m says the of upanayana there is no morning in the noon of the day of upanayana. then to other learned brShmanas and eat with their permission. ( in S^nmcR p. 1. : water for the acarya in pots. I.312 History of Dharmasastra [ Oh. 43-44) says that ( Ap. son ). R*a^T on *TT. 31-35. 1. JfHcTO^ aad the 37T5T 25 says tft^rra :JTT^1^^4on (on the same verse ) say a ' WT *h*n 3 ' I and on IV. ^rtrqr^r atfaT 3vch4 %^ficnf^r^T ^J^T $\ft *R'iWr ^s^Uf II quoted by P49 . his whole aamdhya worship consists of the Gayatrl. f^cfi. VII he has brought and eat only that which if the teacher is gone on a journey the teacher's family ( wife. Dh. 439. * ^ i SCTT m. meal therein. Samdhya Gayatrl there On samdhya. 3. Dh. collecting flowers. If he is not able to eat the whole that he has brought he should bury it underground or consign it to water or place that which is more than he can eat near an arya or give it to a sudra who works for his teacher Ap. Other miscellaneous acts that the students had to do were after taking his bringing 728 cowdung. 231 also calls the sno* . Jaimini is long as there is no imparting of the no gamdhya.' The word sarhdhya * ' literally means * adoration is at day-break. earth.

The proper place ( for samdhya prayer Gaut. Dh. 30. 101. glory. on *g. S. on *rr. ( i. When it is said one should perform the samdhya' what is meant is that one should contemplate the deity called Aditya represented by the orb of the sun and should also contemplate on the fact that the same Intelligence dwells in his ' ' heart. gr. 40 . Ap. 101. according to Yoga-ySjnavalkya ) whatever the length of the day may be. 49 ( vide also *gll. 101 and 5 r. 1. 30. 11. 8. 1 11. p. ft. This is the most proper time but a secondary time was allowed up to three ghatikas after sunrise and sun-set. But this does not apply to the S. *T3lV. 101. Dh. ^. 17. village * ' in a lonely place ( San. 8 about si?<rft i 94. 7. ) 745. gr.74 * According to most writers japa of GSyatrl and other sacred mantras is the principal thing in samdhya and other things such as marjana are merely subsidiary. Ill. Generally however th* samdhyS prayer is prescribed twice ( Ssv. two ghatikas. when tfvwrar awt^T%WTari^l* engaged in battle. performed only the upasthana and omitted all else. HI. II. Gaut. 1). - ^fR^r^csrT^^TW^^rTcg^: is the same as 3*g$rnT^4 104. II. on Vide forr. 745 who has to perform w3*frm<Hrr ved Jo rites and repeat homa i fo^^unrfferhrei 3it<?T ^tjtawTO: 7. Manava agnihotrin.Ch. 16. 1 aranye ) or on a river or other sacred spot (Baud. 742. I. The duration of the prayer each time was to be one disc of the . I. 2. 25 ) and by 744. I. 93-94 ) however recommends the prayer to extend as long as one could muhurta afford. 101 (where the words are 'japanstisthet' and not tisthan japet ') says that japa is subsidiary or secondary and the place of the prayer and the posture of the praying person are the principal items. ( VII ] Upanayana and samdhya 313 evening one ) by Yoga-yajnavalkya. Yaj. Ap. is outside the gr. P- 136 quotes VyKsa i H. II. e. but Medhatithi on Manu II. 2). 748 Manu ( IV. I. 11. gr. 4-6. 20. II 9. This ^^ aw & sri to show that warriors. II. D. 18 (i%**pfrw> for and giff^Q. 30.X. All prescribe that the morning 748 prayer is to be begun before sunrise and should be carried on till the disc of the sun is seen on the horizon and the evening prayer begins when the sun is about to set and goes on up to the appearance of stars. The s^fiN. 8. 4. 17 JTT?r: I qiij-iimRtJSW l^W^TT^ I sn*. Manu II. intelligence. II. since the ancient sages secured long life. fame and spiritual eminence by long samdhya prayers. 743. quoted by arqrraf II. 24-25 &c). I.

i II. as 134 quotes some verses from *ft*iqr$Tqfr*Hi mggtiui vol. japa of Gayatrl. should have the sacred cord in the usual position and restrain his speech ( i. 183 ) f^?^T5^ p. San. 50. 3-6. 2 t the throw up water east when brahmavadins that facing consecrated by the Gayatrl. 64. 9. gr. 50. while *&frc??TT3rc p. and upasfchana ( reciting mantras by way of worship of the sun in the morning and generally of Varuna in the evening). II. 6. 7. 163-65 ) ( which are The f^Sh?o I. marjana thrice himself with water to the accompaniment of ( sprinkling several manfcras ). offering of water to the sun ( arghya ). pranayama. II wffoj quoted in 3<miJ> p. III. 2 . part I. II. III. gr. should be silent and not talk in the midst of samdhya ). Manu II. VII who therefore may perform samdhya Vasis^ha quoted by Aparftrka says that samdhyS performed in a oowpen or on a river or near the shrine of Visnu ( or other deity ) respectively is ten times. I. wtffir ^jifi^ui p. ^ n fTT nf^r^tr &. the evil spirits that fight with the sun are sent tumbling into the country (called) Mandeha Aruna This shows that in ancient times samdhya ( of the evil spirits ).314 History of Dharmaiastra I Ch. gr. III. Asv. 7. times or numberless times better than samdhySvandana in the 746 All prescribe that the morning samdhya is to be house. Ar. consisted principally of offering water ( arghya ) to the sun in : worship and japa of Gayatrl. almost the same i-q fsf Similar verses occur in ssifrita P- IV ( Jiv. 102 ) the morning samdhya is to be performed facing the east and the evening one facing the northwest ( A&v. . 9. The principal constituents of samdhyopasana are these acamanas (sipping of water). aghamarsana. II. 560. e. to sit in a pure spot on a seat of kusa II. 1 and 3. San. 4. gr. 100000 of mantras at sun-rise and adoration in his house. He is to bathe. 1 ). gr. &\. 224 quotes 747. TOijWp. grass. 1-3 and others refer only to the japa of the Gayatrl mantra in 746. San. 9. Among the earliest references to 747 where it is said Samdhyopasana is the one in the Tai. performed standing and the evening one in a sitting posture and ( A6v. 7. gy.

11-12 prescribes the two fasqc ii 4. p. I. 140 ). I. Ke6ava. prescribes that one should nofc perform that is in a cleft of the earth. 11 . rr. 58-62. 1-5) refers only to the arghya sun and japa of Gayatrl. (L 2. 749 5. Yaj. Elaborate rules about acamana are vide Gaut. ^ I. 15.59. 4-5. u. and tively Rg. 10. ( 5. 15. 115. Such rules must have been elaborated from very ancient times. W3W citram and in other Vcdas also ) and devSnSm ( Rg. 35-40. *nfr**rm^rnte f^r^FT ^oftgcfr ftrsft The verses frf ft ^^or and <TTWT ^Tft are respectively WmtJST> and foift SPTT^ are respecRg. I. 139 ) says ( addressed to Varuna ) in the evening.Manu ) Tai. Dh. III. 11-14. VII ] Vpanayana and saihdhya 315 Mftnava gr. I. 19 and 1. marjana.Oh. IL 4 that we find an elaboration of samdhyopftsana into various components such as Scamana. g. but this is hardly anywhere prescribed by any smrti or early commentator. It is in the Baud. offering to the ' A samdhya laid 5. f are enumerated Vide note 567 for the first twelve names. 748a SaihdhyopSsana. 5 ) says the same thing. verses * udu tyain ' ' ( Rg. compare sx\*. Dh. C. T bey in the srfitgtM chap. The down in several smrtis 2-11 and 16. 24. Dh. V. it is now the practice in the Deccan to repeat the 24 names of Visnu at the very beginning of the samdhyop&sana. 48. S. 5. Similarly elaborate rules are laid down about mystic nyasas with the sixteen verses of the Purusasukta ( vide Apararka p. l-16. I. Ap. Ap. I. many recite the whole of Rg. In modern times the usages vary. 50. 5j ^TKTWnn^ T I . 1 ' 748a. p. japa of G&yatrl and upasthana (worship) of Mitra and Varuna ( respectively in the morning and evening with only two verses in each case ). Br. 25. 16-19 ) and of the letters of the Gayatrl BrhatparS6ara chap. 1. 18-21. 59 in the morning adoration and Rg. 1-10 The Sm. of the nyasa of the NSrayanamantra of 25 letters on 25 parts of the body ( Vrddha-Harlta VI. One should perform 748. 83 ). III. In modern times acamana is performed with the three names of Visnu. few words on each of the principal components of may be said here* . Gobhila-smiti II.6 and 1. S. I. that the worship of the Sun should be done by the mantras from that tJSkhS of the Veda to which one belongs. 25. Nftrayana and M&dhava in the form om Kedavaya namah. 748 Modern writers went on adding details e. viz. I. 10 acamana with water ( 1.' The 24 names are given below. ( I. S. frc*mM<ma4*h' innfa[ i. II. 1 and in other Vedas also ) as the upasthSna in both samdhySs. 749. 15.

from the root of the thumb). Vas. ^JjO'JtfilcHr 3<ru-dV<|5T VI. pp. Yaj. Both the Br. one (thrice according to Ap. one should sip foam or from free is and that with water that is not hot twice the water after lips should wipe sipping bubbles. Up. 57. holds that pitrya tirtha is at is between the the tips of the lingers. 5. 40. M. Dh. nose. There are several occasions when the sipping of water twice is necessary. 15-16. I. I. V. 3. Manu (II. facing the north or east. Kurmapurana I.)and should touch with the wet right hand for one's eyes. 241-243. As everywhere. should be as much as would penetrate The water ( Soamana or reach ) to the heart in the case of brahmanas. I. Dh. 2. forefinger Vus. fjW? I 'ftPTeniiT I. Others say that the roots of the four fingers constitute 9rsa tirtha (Baud. wigr *&d $* rfpja. there are differences here also. 19. L 196. occasions when acamana is necessary are stated in Ap. 38. C. 18 ). 2. Gobhila as smrfcis such gr. Dh. V.316 History of DharmaiZstra [ Ch. Vas. 18 is based on these upanisad passages and says that 75B Numerous water is looked upon as the garment of prftna. thumb and the tips of the fingers of the hand are respectively called the MMWU ( or girq). Agneya is also 751. the index finger and of the 750. 1-4. Manu V. 1. S. III. 100. 13. 2 refer to the practice of ( VI. fte^T. 5. 2. 5. 14-18. Vide Yaj. p. 3. 1. S. 1 says that acamana is a subsidiary matter in all religious acts. Baud. and the thumb. Sm. 1. heart and head. The roots of the smallest finger. 5. e. (L 18) say that water should be 750 The sipped by the brahmatlrtha (i. 62. Visnu Dh. paridi^tj* mention five (ir*/ia( the 5th being in the styled Saumya by others. 1. 18) and Yaj. According to Gobhila must do every grhya rite with yajnopavlta^worn in the usual L 2. The occasions 751 gr. Yaj. 1. and P5r. 2. Up. Dh. Par. . 138 and 145. ears. 14 . Sankhasmrti 10 are not set out here. S. 2 one acamana are many. to the palate in the case of vaiSyas . 14 ) and Chan. S. the principal being before and after bhojana ( meals ) . Vaik I. vide Gautama I. . 64-68. women and Sudras should sip on occasions of acamana only once as much water as would reach the palate. sipping water before and after bhojana and the Vedantasutra III. 1. Dh. 5. to the throat in the case of ksatriyas. Madanaparijata p. 16. 196. L part 1. I. 15. 1-8 &c. S. Haradatfca on Ap. 2. way and after acamana. I. in down laid rules elaborate further ( for 5-6 ). gr. VII acamana in a sitting posture ( and not standing nor bent ) in a water thrice pure spot. and that mSnufa palm is called Sgneya). 1.

21-27. e. 2 ' AgJiamarsana in the right it ( ( driving out sin ) consists in taking water of a cow's ear. S. some Rg. The &. 2. ( Marjana is performed by means of ku6a grass dipped in water kept in a vessel of copper or udumbara wood or earthen' ware and while doing so one is to repeat om/ the vyahrtis. ^fWTc^T c. 7 ( away to one's left Rg. X. 1-3 ). Manu VI. 1. neither taking in it out) and recaka ( exhaling air from the lungs ). 1. ?T^T Tim ( Rg. 1. 141. 1-3 on the ground. IV. 1-3. 1 ) of the IX mandala of the Ijjtgveda or according to II. 3n5fr^ffaw<W TW& *refiri ^. I. verses are fir $ ^OT ( Rg. S. 30 ( = Vas. 89. 5 ). 1. X. 39. 23 say that the iiras of Gayatrl. 49 air. three and the verses Gayatrl apo hi stha ( Rg. I. 9. ani?yf verses are Rg. 19 ). 9. VII ] Samdhya and pratfayama ( ) 317 Prarfayama sutra of m restraint of breath ) is defined by the Yoga- (II. 6). holding near one's nose. 24. II. puraka ( inhaling the outside air ). 4-5 . ) and 754. 1-3 ). 24. I. 9. $*nr*cft is the verse (Rg. II. and ^f^>^f ( Rg. each of which moras ). IX. S. X. WT. 15 matras as the regulation of inhalation and exhalation 50 prescribes three pranSyamas.IX. 14 ) like ??rrf^5r*rT Tf^S^rr ( ?g. 190. adds more Vedic mantras for marjana. ^J^:^J%5focTT: H?4 cT&f i ^ I r quoted in ^f^o I. p. 7 has . lasts for Dh. 754 Pranayftma has three components. Dh. a?4^f^ is *% X. II. *. 4. the three vyahrtis each preceded by om and the Gayatrl verse are to be rehearsed mentally during the time of pranaySma. 49. I. 22 and others prescribe marjana only ' with the three verses apo hi stha ( Rg. 11 ). According to Yoga-yajiiavalkya. HI. ' ' Baud. breathing out from the nose on the water with the idea of driving away sin from oneself ) to the accom' hand formed in the shape paniment of the three verses rtam ca then casting the water 753. Dh. 67. X. IV. I. 25. 9. 755.Oh. . Yaj. Baud. 9. 70-71 highly praises the utility of pranayama in purifying the mind of sin. 14 * ' ' kumbhaka air nor giving keeping in the inhaled air i. each preceded by om/ then the Gayatrl and then the siras of Gayatrl. I.1-3. 13=Sahkhasmrbi VII. 75S Manava gr. ( Gaut. qmrr^T: are all verses ( Rg. VII. 25. ^. one should first revolve in the mind the seven vyahrfcis. 4. ) and Yaj. 24.

'ya udagaf (Tai. note 748). According to Baud.318 History of Dharmatastra [ Ch. 2. IV. 5).4. p.19 is similar ^ft^ffi II. 241-250. Baud. If a man cannot have water ( being at the time of Sarhdhyft on a road or in jail &o. pp. or oversight ) are removed by the performance of kft i 3. Ar. 50. 16). 315. n 15-16 . 1 says the same and adds that brahmanya resides in the three m that he who has no concern for samdhyopSsana a brahmana. miji<<i*iq quoted in tUthlUcHmdT p. vide above under Savitryupadefca There is an extensive literature about the greatness of the japa of Gayatrl and of other holy vedic mantras which are passed over here and for which reference may be made to AparSrka pp. l). L 115. who do not engage in sarhdhyopasana thrice a day. 139. II. Manu declares (II. 46-48. (ftg. 143-152. Ar. VII 75e ( offering water oufc of respect to the sun ) Arghya consists in taking water in one's joined hands. Sm. ^. C. 20 calls upon the religious king to make brahmanas. 'tac-caksur' VIL 66. Manu IL 103 prescribes that he who does not perform the Samdhypp&sana in 50. Vide note 741 above. i fi^nr . 4. perform the work peculiar to sfldras. 4 the morning and evening should be excluded from all actions meant for the benefit or honour of dvijas. 1). Gr. S. to (p. in so doing he falls into numerous eamdhyas and is riot hells. ) he could use dust for water. 1. 2 says that a brahman a contemplating the rising and setting sun and doing obeisance to it by going from left to right attains all bliss. pp.'citram'(g. 759 - * T ^ *w* nfcsrtT fil^nT: quoted in fqffcp I. 42. As As to upasthana vide above (p. Dh. 757. 102) that sins committed at night ( through ignorance 756. 311-316. Udu tyam* ($g. 3T^ : snfrrf ftq : jmtiifi ^f: ^?fs i iftfira^ft ILL. t. 10). II. I. repeating the G&yatrl verse over it and standing facing the sun and casting it up thrice. ^ ^. 304). 3?T. Gobhila smrti II. the worship 757 of the sun is done with the verse? 'udvayam' (5g. since this Aditya is Brahma. The 759 Kurma-purana goes so far as to say that even if a person actions which are religious but gives up the in other engages performance of sarhdhyopasana. I. 237 which adds 758. AhnikaprakSsa A few details will be given under ahnika. The Tai. pp. II. japa of G&yatrl. R. II.

hands etc. 486-492. 4-5. Baud. When a person is impure owing to mourning or birth in the family. 678. 307 are to the same effect. the heart. 10 pp. pp. fttumhwwi *rarp*f t i 5^ i5w<n-i<in *rnwRi VI. VII ] Safhdhya 319 morning samdhya and the sins committed in the day are removed by the evening samdhyS. vol. I. 150-156. 114.Oh. p. 4. 762. mouth and head. ) one may consult the Smrti-muktaphala ( ahnika pp. 144 quotes verses chest. the left foot. S. p. C. the following mBla". 140 ). But as observed by the Samskararatnamala rituals like and many do not perform them. 328-333 ). the throat. II. For nySsa are non-Vedic 76 various nyasas and mudras ( postures of the fingers. heart. 8. In modern times the samdhyopasana has become a lengthy business by the addition of materials from puranas and the tantras. the left and right sides. I. practice. 761. 146-148. 331 ) for these Utter verses . Modern Review for August 1934 pp. vol. the navel. the left and right arms.' The sixteen verses of the Purusasukta (Rg. Dh. he is to perform saihdhyft only up to arghya to the sun but not japa nor upasthana. thighs. C. 4-5 ) that one should perform nyasa on the hands and limbs of one's own body with the two mantras of NSrayana ( ( and thus make N&rayana one's armour when some danger om and and that one should perform nyasa with other syllables on one's feet. Yaj. 8m. HI. Indian Historical Quarterly : vol. the mouth. vol. p 229. For the influence of tantra rites on the snutis and Indian may be consulted The Introduction to Ssdhana2 ( Gaikwad's Oriental Series ). The Bhagavata ( VI. 6. knees. ( 3n^T p. Sylvain Levi'a Introduction to 'Sanskrit texts from Bali'. p. X. the left and right knees. snapgrir 3 'irf^*-c( nvn'-it 9 3 Vide ^5. the eyes and the head recommends vide AparSrka p. the right foot. 768 The Sm. 90) are respectively invoked to reside in the left and right hands. 9. belly. 8. 25-28. Nyfcsa means ' mentally invoking god and holy texts to come fit to occupy certain parts of the body to render it a pure and receptacle for worship and contemplation. from Vyasa and Brahma as to the nyasa of the letters of the Gayatrl with om and namah on the several parts of the ' arises ' ' ' ' 760.

mustika. vistlrna. musala. of number 1 both hands from the wrist to the tips of the fingers ). 146-148 ) quotes long passages about the mudras ( hand poses ) to be made in the sarhdhya adoration. the index finger. They are avahanl. srlvatsa and kaustubha are the eight mudras of Visnu. namaskara ( bringing together the deity worshipped near to the worshipper. The 762 quoted in the Pujaprakasa ( p. 123 ) states that the Samgraha mudras are to be made in worship. quotes a all 32). gada. tms : i SRKfr -oiM^hid 3 ijsns^T?? p. (pp. varaha. the ring- namah. The Sm. sthapinl. anjali. avagunthana-mudra. cakra. khadga. Manu II. sammukha. dhanus. C. 123-126) give the names of mudras. saptajihva ( for Agni Vaisvanara ).' One well-known mode small finger and the middle of the palm. kumbha. C. ( pp. bana. 16-19 speaks of the nyasa of the twenty-five letters of the mantra about Narftyana on the The twenty-five parts of the body. dvimukha. 578-579 ) describes the nyasa of the letters of the alphabet ' ' * ksam Nrsimhaya ( 51 in all ) from Kesavfiya naraah to Om is to assign Govinda. sarhrodhinl. naraca. laksml. grathita. sankha. Hrslkesa. trimukha. 533 derives the word mudra from mud '( joy ) and the root *ra' (to give) or 'dravay* (causal " " is mudra so of dru. the Sm. vyapakanjalika. For example. 763. sammukha. Nityacfirapaddhati ( pp. dhyana (contemplation ) and when starting on kamya rites ( performed for securing some desired object ) and that they tend to bring The names and mudras differ considerably. mahakranta. abja. mlna. Vrddha-Harlta VJ. pustaka.320 History of Dharmatastra [ Ch. finger. vitata. and Smr. prasadamudra. saura. samnidhapanl. 123. padma. C. ( or padma ). yamapasa. the middle finger. the The Sm. . gada. cakra. VII body. kurma. adhomukha. Madhava respectively on the tips of the thumb. 331-332) quote passages defining the following mudras viz. Visrm. vilamba. (ahnika pp. durga. mudgara and pallava. at the time of japa. Mu. The Nityacarapaddhati p. musala. simhakranta. 60 enjoining the touching of the limbs and head with water appears to contain the germ of this practice of nyasa. samputa. samhara (in The Nityacarapaddhati (p. to put to flight ) and says that called because it gives delight to the gods and also puts to That work and the Puja-prakasa flight asuras ( evil beings ). vighna ( for Vighnesvara ). Trivikrama. prarthana. 536) says that sankha. sammukhonmukha. Mahldhara. khadga. I.

mudras. D. 2. ) in Bali. ( avahanl. Altekar's 4 * ' > ' * H. 2. courses of study and kindred topics will require a volume by itself. Dr. S. upadhySya). 5 ( speaking of frogs ) says The was 1 when one of these frogs follows another in making '. guru. ftg. 41 . Up. ' Vide Rev. Sarkar's Educational ideas and institutions in ancient India ( 1928 ). The 106 ) states that all deities are gladdened by the mudras and in verses 107-114 describes the following viz. The sakala. New York Study a f the Veda : A detailed examination of the educaits tional system from ancient times onwards. MahasarhhifcS that the mudras are not to be crowd and if so performed the mudrag become fruitless. VII. The the story of Svetaketu story narrated in the Br. D. samrodhinl. as a learner repeats the words of the teacher noise just Vide the (/. pp. mah. Up. 1 and 4 ) illustrate this vide/. dhenu. 385-386 influence of these mudras spread outside India and they are still practised in the island of Bali. 103. A. Das on Educational system of the ancient Hindus ( 1930 ) and Dr. sthapanl. them 1923. In the beginning the father alone may have taught his son. sammukha. cited above 622 and 625 ). VI. Here a few salient features alone can be pivot of the whole educational system of ancient India the teacher (variously called Scary a. V. The last work is based entirely on the Atharvaveda and the 765. S. 148. 633 ). But even from very ancient times the practice 764. ( ) for Jainas enumerates 42 mudras and defines ). E. may be read for set out. together with methods. part II. AoSra-dinakara of Vardhamana-suri composed in samvat 1468 1411-12 A. n. quotations from the Atharvaveda and the Sat. Miss Tyra de ' Kleen has brought out a very interesting book on the mudras the hand Buddhist and Saiva priests ( poses ) practised by ( The ' called pedandas ). Keay's Ancient Indian Education ( 1918 ). ' p.Oh. S. The works 765 mentioned in the note below that purpose. OT I. avagun^hana. C. Br. sarhnidhSpanl. Education in Ancient India ( 1934). with 60 full page drawings ( 1924. VII ] Sctfndhya and mudras 321 work called m ( performed in the presence of a deities become angry and the Saradatilaka 23. The instruction was oral. K. 1 and Aruneya who was taught by his father ( everything he knew ( Br. n. F.mudr.

4 ^mrrg c*m%<rf&%ra I 1. ^f T?F^ Hgreywt n VI. 2. 23. ft wkf^pfcr sTT^T^rr^cr n?n Qi^dt arr^r^F^ff *? ^I^T^T VI. 3. In Manu and other smrtis there is some divergence about the 766. on w. the 23 on a levej with almost ( ) places taropanisad guru God and inculcates the highest devotion to him. I. $jef III. The Mahabharata condemns him who learns the Vedas at home and says that Raibhya became superior to Yavakrlta 770 because the former learnt from a guru. 142 and *TT5T I 3TrgrTCT*cT?T<Tr^Pto f^Tf^JTTT f^rfcf 34 show that guru primarily means the father but irg II. 5 ) says sending usual. 2 I 767. fi%c*ftmft fffara 1^.2. 13 says the pupil should wait upon the acarya as if '. vide ^n. VI. 2. while the other did not do so. S. ifa 3 : ^Errf^ny TTTTcftfw II. 17 ). *3 II. 69 and 149 show that the word guru was also applied to the ScSrya and upffdhy 5ya . I <i^nqo 1. * 9. 14. I. . 3 ) I have heard from persons like your revered self that knowledge when learnt from an acarya reaches the highest excellence The Sveta^va768 VI. As the boy stayed with the ' ' teacher in the latter's house and all instruction teacher's position assumed the greatest importance. Up. %^ IRT vrni &n %^ 1 rrr 3^ i cnpHr ^Rrcrr: ?i^f . ' was oral. the prevailing notion of the greatness of a guru and the necessity of singleminded devotion to bim for attaining proficiency ( vide an adept in archery. VI. ' he were to take The story of Ekalavya. 3-. The Ap. ^F^T IV. i. 13. . itself says in one passage ( VI. 11. ^. 36. argfirtft -iffT i ff . IV. 770. the Satyak&ma Jabala 767 says to his teacher ( in Chan. 259. 6. 2. Adiparva 132 for the story and also Dronaparva 181. i . Alstfui^n-q III. 1 ) that Svetaketus Aruneya was placed by his father for twelve years as a student with a teacher. 9.3 for the importance of guru in brahmavidyS. Itf^^ras'TTtfra Vide argsmnfirf 3T(T *r ^. 6. 769. 15 H ' srw . . ^-^T . 766 that the father should impart the madhuvidyS to his eldest son or to a worthy pupil only. 9. : I ^ I . 5 cJ^STPT ^TCT f^cTF WgT ywqit%viTZW3 WT^^rTf^t '. The same upanisad ( III. Vide fr?TT.322 of History of Dharma&slra [ Oh. %$ m 768. 11. 2. a pupil because he was a nisada and who by worshipping the image of Drona is alleged to have become as 789 * illustrates two points viz. VII boys to learn from an acarya had become The Chan. whom Drona refused God. '. Dh. ^ ^rnr^m: 25-26 ' H %: f ^r^trf 138. tn^Mr V.

m f^wrr ^r^TT^n ' H . According to Manu II. 1. 69 gays that the teacher. f5ftrtfi from very ancient times. 34 define 778 the acarya as one who performs the upanayana of the student and imparts the whole Veda to him. an upSdhyftya is one who teaches to a student a portion of the 771. ( grammar etymology ir*f. Veda or the Vedangas II. 259 for a discussion of the meaning of six the word guru. VII ] Upanayana and the acarya 323 greatness of the acarya. II. 775. while the mother is thousand-fold superior to the father. ainrnf: frwiqi^it irif ^ i ft nN Whnf5r?ftffr 5 1. 775 (subsidiary lores of the *i*T5 13. 59. 772. \ i STHTT^TST *TT 10-11. 146 ( = Visnu Dh.1*. ^. Ap. The ^T^fs have been ).145 Manu 771 says that benefit here and hereafter. (phonetics). g^ftftft ( metrics . e. I. Dh. Though the words acarya. 1. fee ) from the student ( or gathers together the meanings of words ). an acarya is ten times superior to an upadhyaya. 1*re*TO*frTTf^(ft fr arr^rf: JKFT. ancient writers made a distinction between them. acara (rules of conduct in every day life). since the birth in spiritual learning is for a brahmana of eternal But in 11. the offering (of fuel-stick) in fire and sarhdhya adoration. 44 ) says that both the father (janaka) and the teacher are called father ( pita ) but the father (i. . 141 and 142. guru upadhyaya are very often used as synonyms. ( ( ^w (ritual of solemn Vedio and domestic sacrifices). student understand the proper course of conduct. The Nirukta 773 ( I. the father is superior to a hundred acSryas. S. q. Vas. 34. I. 3qw4n:3 i *ft. 56 declares that the acarya is the highest among all gurus while according to some the mother is the highest. 48 quotes *rg 145 (but the (108. * . Gaut.8. v. ). III. I. 21. Manu II. 4 ) derives acarya as follows: 'he makes the the aoarya. acarya) who imparts the sacred Veda is superior to the father that gives ( physical ) birth. II.* Manu II. or he increases the intelligence ( of the student)'. 10-11. 1. or he collects wealth ( i. 1. 140. astronomy ). 774. 1. i w ^ vi rol. 18-19) says 3rd <n^ in *TT%E ia 'i^nKtoT^fifSt srirmslfa ft *rm: s?nif : i nrgsw. 1. ^ ip I. Vide f5flTT on TJT III. Yaj. Yaj. 774 and 1. 30. 35 also places the mother higher than s Gaut. S. 5 names these six 3. The sm*iqfcq% i I.1. 10-11 ^ift ^t ^e*r ^^wjr'r 4rtW Ww* tfw ^^ a^rr. Yaj. S. 30. after performing upanayana. 773. I. teaches his pupil the rules about 6auca (bodily purity). Dh. ?%i or viz. Manu II. e. 15 is to the same effect. ). 14 says The acarya is so called since the student gathers his duties from him.Ch.

are the same as $ni%tnf 108. 7. 234 31. ^230. who is entitled to respect. 230. *g 11. 34 the guru is one who performs the samskaras and imparts the Veda. Dh. 1. . 22-23 shows that guru means the father Dh. he whom a teacher devoid of learning initiates the effect enters from darkness into darkness and he also ( i.398-401 for a long aj^. 1. ( III. S. 1. 778. This here. ^f^M^ ml^ 5"c^ in tf. II. P. 77e S. 6. Manu says that whoever confers on another the benefit of knowledge. 1. ^. ^TT^ n\m &{$. VII Veda) as a means latter definition own performs the samskaras and who maintains livelihood and a guru is one who the child.324 History of Dkarmatastra of his I Oh. 408. acarya. Dh. 2. 1. $& H ^jt ggwwPr *r$rt sprr* i nitaar: *ft vrr^rra *n rar ^ Hcrr T| <?H& 5^: f^cft: ftrrmtTW?: sfarc^ri *r rar s^Rren i ^ i n ^W^y in **jRi^ } are ffcty Vide smnfc PP.231. e. 779. p. 12 . This corroborates the statement made above that originally the father himself taught the Veda to his son. performer of one's upanayana who is endowed with learning A great is to * who and whose family mind and the end off is hereditarily learned and who is serene in that one should study Vedio lore under him up to not fall ( of brahmacarya ) as long as the teacher does from the path of dharma. p. 12-13 ) further provides that one should desire a ( I. Visnu Vas. 225-232 are the same as ireR3*m 211. 11-13. 35 (214. According to Yaj. 7. JTg II. 408 ) 779 that the acarya should be a brahmana who is solely says 776. but they cwtft ^T q<? fTT: ^^fitf wRinsSM^^ 'Wrfiil'rf'ffiT ft Hw*i i >ixn . Vyasa ( quoted in Sam. S. Devala 777 says that among gurus five deserve special honour. 227-237 contain the most sublime glorification of these three. male or female. 20-27. 28-29) speaks of five gurus. . -5^: ^Twfa*j*sft VR^CT f^ *rrarenfr i ft*^nfesr 32. 10. 35 define t upadhyaya in the same way as Manu. Ap. whether great or small. 1. Dh. 9. Vianu Dh. and Yaj. 8. eldest brother ( ' and husband ( in the case of women ) '. 11 refers to a Brahmana text to the Veda. ). ( 32. I. 29. 234 777. *T. 1-2 ) says that the father. is the latter's guru. I. 1-2 . an acarya ) who is himself unlearned ( enters into darkness)/ Ap. viz. father. ij. p. the mother and the acarya are the three highest gurus of a person and Manu II. mother. quotatioD from ^Jp^^TTT on the greatness of guru. 1. The word guru is often used in the sense of any elderly person. S. 3?r?m and I. 233. 149 ) deal is said about the qualifications of the acarya perform the upanayana of a person and to teach him 778 1.

Dh. Manu II. to a ksatriya. 118 remarks that a ksatriya or vaisya should teach a brahmana only when urged by him and not at his sweet will. there are more than two they should sit as the available 788 The student should not sit on a high seal space will allow. upanayana must be a brahmana as to the study of veda one should ordinarily learn the Veda from a brahraana teacher in times of difficulty ( i. 1. Dh. 7. 118. 321) that the instruction was entirely oral The thing that was taught to the boy was the pranava and the vyahrtis and the Gayatrl. II. 5NiixH4 165. Gaut. Then the boy was to be taught othei parts of the Veda. right facing the north or two students The San. e. 3 srrenmfter sftBnr: *ftfsr*ft . who is pure. I* 2. who knows dharma. Manu II. i Prato on *rr. . 5. but does not allow him to 241 allows only teaching make it a means of his livelihood. 241. 3. S. The acarya . Baud. asfldra. 8 ) describes the method as follows the east or north. 3 define a srotriya as one who has Vide Vayupurana vol. Vide Ap. Ttf *T 3 ^rtic^i*} * STOtraf p 160. 781. when a brahmana is not available ) one may learn the Veda from a ksatriya or studied one sakha of a Veda..40-42. e. 2. H^f^llH^l^nqcq*iirnji^ltMi*i^sn'm'cJ 783. 1. 4 and Baud. but in such circumstances the only service that a brahmana student rendered to the guru would be following after the non-brahmana teacher he had not to render bodily service (such as shampooing or washing the feet &c. : IV. Vll ) Upanayana and qualifications of the acarya 325 devoted to the Veda. 290 ). is born of a good family .6. is a srotriya that has studied his Vedic Sakha and who is not lazy. 160 ) says that Manu II. Yaj. 31 does the same. 25-28 (quoted above in note 229). 1-3.Ch. 4 f^r 3rete'n*J pr vol. in . 3. 4.2. 24-25 also H3 II. **ft an*. I. n. 7. while the other ( i.). gr the teacher sits facing the strident ) sits to his may sit in that way . 238 allows even a brahmana . 7. S* 1. 31. 29. Srotriya has been defined above (/. Apararka ( p.II. g. 780 59. ***'. I. vaisya teacher. 782 We saw above (p. 6. Dh. 59. on Santiparva 165. but if 780.S. i u. 29 also. 193. 1. % II. to learn 6ubha vidya ( visibly beneficial knowledge ) even from 781 The Mit. gr. trik frjHiitfU srnjrnrtfter ft. It is desirable to set out briefly the method first of teaching the ( Veda followed in ancient times. Compare wroVide t*. 6. Ap.

*. 503 ff. the left hand should be turned upwards. In &. words 'apsftil'Tt:' are uttered by the teacher. | l un-compounded. ' 784 After the student utters the teacher should Recite. ?TKTO0r on Ssh. III. The supports the above tianslation. gr. 3j\fnt >m |q% %ft itatfHT? *HK *rrfa% srr *H and in m*^fr*r VII. Sir. nor should he place his feet on his lap nor should he hold his feet like an axe. atfvrafrper unta W?. Vide for further details. 524 viz. In the Rk Pratis5. 67 /. 1 we read vol. let Some us stop '. Thereafter he (the student) should recite continuously. there is a ' may also sit facing the north-east. Manu ( II. description of the method of teaching the Veda. e. I ST*R: I Wfr Rd<*4M^UK CTJKt WSTT I aifrfa i we have 785. Sir' and go away to his .326 History of fiharma&aslra [ Ch. ^f 1. should face the north. n. L. 10-11 ( S. 51 ) reads * fft g tfi?*ft . 70-74 ) also prescribes certain rules the student should sip water ( acamana ) when about to begin Vedic study. Max Midler's History of A. which closely agrees with the above quotation from the Sail. ^TT: '. wsrrof& is explained differently from Manu by 3Trg^f*T^fir quoted in tf. the first pupil ( to the right of the teacher ) repeats the first of the two or more words recites and the other pupils repeat the rest afterwards. It adds that the teacher teachers say that the teacher should say Leave. 5. should afe the beginning and end of the words : Vedic study clasp the feet of the teacher with crossed hands According to the com. and the fingers of the two hands should firmly hold the (in verse ) 786. the student ) urge him to pronounce should reply 'oin*. ( I. has about sixty prasnas. ) the 784. he should clasp the After reciting teacher's feet and say 'we have finished. * ' business. 785 15th patala. *n6ltfttalOT> 15th <i*ff. nor should he lean against a support. VJtt before the teacher nor on the same seat with him he should not sfcretch out his feet. B. the right hand should be placed on it with the palm turned downwards. p. p. S.' om the other ( i. 29 p. nor should he sit seizing his knees with . his arm. should wear light ( pure ) clothes. the teacher also clearly explains how to recite if there is any difficulty in this way the whole prasna is finished and all the pupils repeat again the whole of A prasna generally has three mantras and each adhyftya it. should fold both hands 785 together (and place them on his knee). two words if they are . When the teacher recites two words or more. gr. gr.khya. II. The teacher one word if it is a compound. E. backs of the hands. p. ^ * \\ quoted in tgft*. But this does not seein to be correct.

I. as the story of Indra and Bharadvaja cited above (p. 10. 787 the Tai. p. ^risr^Rrarrsro^ i ^c^nrqr*T V I 3TTT. 31 uses the expression ' sarve veda mukhato grhltah.. '. awrm 12. 5. ia to 33 compare ng the same effect tf. The ( one must study the Veda ) occurs there very frequently. 49-58) gives similar rules. that there were 101 Sakhas of the Yajurveda. 504.. svadhyaya ) and the injunction svadhyayosdhyetavyah. 788. *T. II. 3 thaUhe Ap. I. p. The teacher should say to the pupil repeat i and should stop from right 1 ' ' teaching with the words let there be a pause '. that the whole Veda together with secret doctrines ( Upanisads ) was to be learnt by every The Sat. viz. 6. should repeat om at the beginning and at the end of Vedio study. 14. The study of the . 271 ) shows. 1. XL 5. II. 12. 166 . text a brahmana should study and understand without any purpose ( or desire of reward ) dharma and the Veda with its six angas. <T*ffn^*m H ^ and 3. austerities and auspicious The Mahabhasya ( vol. II. acts 787. 4. . 1 explains f^c^T^ as ^TT^TJ 790. *3 III. I. (I. srrsroto nr^TTuft r& <reff %^h$*ft $* f far i *% mm^r on 789.' * 89 The Mahabha*rata says that a brahmana may bo deemed to have completely accomplished his duty by the study ( ' ' of the Veda. Veda was the first duty of every twice Vedic Literature had grown to vast born person ( dvijati ). 13 . Gaufc. VII ] Upanayana and method of teaching 327 and should touch the right foot of the teacher with hifl own hand and left foot with the left hand. P. I 1% f^?T WT. 87 . 1 and 3) quotes study of the Veda ( svadhyaya ) is austerities and also the Sat. 8. 789 Yaj. ST. S. The Gopatha Br.Oh. the latter half is *rg II. p. vol. <? err: ^n*rnr %ft : ariiran^ i . 40 says that it is Voda alone that confers the highest bliss upon dvijatis by enabling them to understand and perform sacrifices. ^. 9 ) contains ( like samskaras ). ( III. The Mahabhasiya ( vol. I- 4. I. The ideal was set up by Manu II. (I. 21 of the 79 Concessions had to be Bgveda and nine of the Atharvaveda. 165 viz. Dh. 239. XI. A. Br. Br. 1 ) quotes a Vedic Br. proportions even in the times of the Tai. I. 11 ). 1000 of the Samaveda. the traditional extent of the four Vedas. 7 contains a eulogy of Veda study dvijati. which is current even in modern times ( ifc means all Vedas were committed to memory * by word of mouth ).

d I. i quoted in ^i?^o Shrr on *rg III. human mind. 3. find IV.328 History of Dharmatistra to the shortness of [ Oh. onjn. 52 and others allowed a person to study only one Veda. TJT *& RiTT/tft: ^mi 3im?rT I. he could if so minded study another 6akha of another Veda or other Vedas. 3. but was dealt with in another sakha and was not opposed to the teaching of one's gakha. ffc^T 1. effect that if But an exception was made to the some 782 religious rite was omitted in one's sakhS. There were who wandered from teacher to teacher and were 791. III. Teachers mostly confined themselves to one place. 3 ). *W UN* ^? TO^flft TT^T 3 24. it may be performed as in the case of Agnihotra ( which is not dealt with in all sakhas. 2 and Visivarupa on Yaj. 3. 51. Up. 2. $TH?m0: *T fitfhf: ^^f: 792. 19. 2 57. I. c^^T^^Fni Vide ^^rT on I. Kuru-Pancala and Kasivi- In the Br. In the Kaus. I. Dh. T. S. Vide Medhatithi on Maim III. cd ) II. The rule laid the s&kha of the down by many smrtis is that one should study Veda which his ancestors studied and should parform religious rites with mantras derived from that sakha. 1 we find that the famous Balaki Gargya moved about in the countries of Uslnara. Students generally stuck to one teacher . Up. I. II. 4. 51. 4. But we that even in ancient times there were teachers who wandered from one country to another. : n . p. i^T^r IX. Matsya. I. 8 ar. Manu III. 1 Bhujyu Lahyayani tells deha. 49. Vas. 53 quotes a verso which extends the rnlo to giving up one's 3^. VII made human life and the weakness of fche Therefore Gaut. 791 That person who does not study a Vedio $Skha studied by his ancestors and studies another Sakha altogether was called SakhSranda '. Yajfiavalkya that he and others wandered about in fche country of Madra for study. Whatever religious rites a man did with the procedure and mantras of another sakha giving up his own 4 6akha becomes fruitless. p. but is to bo performed by all ). Br. Up. I. 50 and ffgTHHf ( B. . Yaj. 793. 91 and 93 3n?*RT**|j[ f^PTT: ^Q WTTTF^T ^ ^nfTf ^IT^T: ty u. After a man studied his own Veda. but it as waters flow also students appears that they sometimes flocked to renowned teachers down a slope 7M ( Tai. iftw?^m I 34-35 quoted by ApaiSrka : p. VII. sjr^ft means .

^fr 795. Dh. Dh. I. 41 ). (I. 39 quoted in TO. B. 2-3 ' the teacher whom a student asks for proscribes instruction should not refuse him. W. 1 gives expression to the view that if a teacher keeps back anything he knows he expressly dries up entirely. ifrtarer *ft i **nntr I. IV. the teacher's wife remonstrated with the husband by saying this student has worked hard and attended the fires. VI. 113 ) quotes a Vedic text 71 * 'He who having studied the Veda would not teach one who requests him to do so would be one who destroys his own good acts ( I. obstacles in his study except in seasons of A * teacher becomes no teacher if he avoids giving instruction ( L e. may the fires not censure * you and order (Chan. 1. p. The Prasna Up.' as the Mahftbhasya states. therefore he should teach. though the latter served assiduously by attending to the sacred fires of the teacher. it leads to great glory*. 391 ( on <rr II. nwrr^rfhr wTHRpfa v ^t^r 14. 2. ( crowa at a saored As the study of the Veda was a duty enjoined upon a br&hmana.Ob* VII ] tfpanayana and duty to teach Veda * 329 therefore derisively called tlrthakaka place).e. p. When Satyakftma Jab&la did not teach his pupil Upakosala anything for twelve years. S. if he finds no defect in the student/ 797 Ap. 53. 79<! VI. 21 ) says that a pupil comes only after the son according to the idea of those 794. 25-28) lays down certain ' excellent rules for the teacher the teacher. 8. ^. 2-3 fhwftWr f?t^ n^^HnPifi i . l. 4. The Ap. 5pimww t Mmfftrt ^ TOsf& ) i srvhr. part 1. 146 W8 in cgfitaI* P 53. should attentively impart learning to the student without hiding anything from him in all matters of duty . to teach him the vidya" he desires ' 1-2). so teaching Veda to another was a duty. 4. he may be abandoned ). I. 1. would lose the benefit thereof). rtion ' quoted as 796. restrain the student for his own work in such a nor should the teacher way as to cause distress. TOt nftt " ^5WT as ( 5T^tri 14. would shut the door leading to happiness. The Dronaparva ( 50. n. L is 113 I.D. 14. from trf&s by tbo *qft<* *in*f wr w vftwffit 4tvwf^rw^fR ?rw*rrf!*TOrf TO^ 797. Up. S. you 10.4* . anxious for the welfare of the student as if he were his son. Medh&tithi on Manu ( II. The P p.

is and who all one's near relative agnate ). 48. The student should always be dependent 798. 9-10). 4ke former receives all the sins of the pupil. 1. ) 3TTO% as wg. 25 800. 1. the pupil may resort to another teacher. 140. a student who serves his guru. 799 ip. not inclined to hate or prove false to the teacher. . healthy and not disposed to find fault. 2. Manu (II. 799. vide also *rfite 13. In the Vidyasukfca quoted in the Nirukta 800 ( II. for the same. Similarly a teacher. 79 .?cnr4 57. 109 and 112 also) says that ten persons deserve to be taught viz. 114-115) is very similar. one who knows dharma or who is pure ( in body and mind ). 7 is . unless the teacher himself swerved from the path of dharma and became a sinner and ( I. 178. . the son of the teacher. 8-9 m {^jojuif^ 29. 1. 26 ) that if the teacher cannot teach the subject.330 History of Dharmatestra I Ch. *3 ( II. who became puffed up. did not care for what should or should not be done and took to a sinful path was to be abandoned. well-disposed 28 mentions these and adds that the student must be grateful. 4 ( - <rr%3r II. 13 lays down that a student must not teach or stay with his teacher who performs his upanayana till he completes his etudy. who is able to study and retain it. 48 &c. If a teacher does not teach a pup&l anything even after his pupil has stayed with him for a year. 7. attentive. who is gives money ( for teaching ( ). one who gives some knowledge in exchange. 4 ) we see that the teacher was not to impart to one who was jealous (or who treated vidya with contempt). II Tsft*T1^ 33. 3JffT^l^^lM'HTl?3rrarff 50. Vide KW 14. 5TT. who is truthful. who Yaj.6 7 In some places the last quotes it read as qfrn? mft ?IT^!^. 5. who vidyS (knowledge) intelligent and endowed with brahmacarya ( celibacy ). VII who know dharma. The smrtis lay down student rules about the qualifications of a deserves to be taught. <TcRr*TO^!*Tt ^ tpft flcro 21. I. was crooked and was nob'self^restrained and that learning was to be imparted to one who was pure. 12 . who would never prove false ( to his teacher ) and who would guard what he learnt as a treasure. teacher 7W who did A was sinful was to be abandoned.

17. going in a cart. IV. fc Besides these. but if he suffers from night emissions he should bathe. covetousness. 1 ( SOTT^TT verso 33 or. 1. m^ 15. and actions allowed or prohibited to students are too numerous to be set out in detail. I. 274) that from ancient times the student had to serve the teacher by tending his cattle ( ChSndogya IV. Ar. if ordered by the teacher \ ' . 30 ). 19-20 . 803 wearing shoes and holding an umbrella. 25) says that the student should speak the truth. 1. 5. that he should not bathe in water in a sportive manner. rubbing oil on the body. flesh. the wearing of flowers. 28-30 ) that the student should not wash his limbs with hot water ( generally ). 801 1 1. perfumes. 13. injury to animals. Ap. ( Tai. 5). 11-24 ) contains similar rules of conduct. 33 are stated below. had to beg for food and announce it to the teacher ( ibid. VIII. meticulous cleans- ing of the teeth. 1. putting collyrium in the eyes. 23. Dh. 3T. I. but 801. ecstatic states of mind. S. but he may do so if they are smeared with dirty and impure matter provided he does it out of the sight of the teacher and the sun and repeat thrice the mantra The Ap. infatuation. S. 1. Manu ( II. obscene or harsh 198 and 180-181 ) prescribes that he should not sleep on a cot and should observe complete celibacy. Manu II and Ysj I. vain discussions. 1. gambling. gazing at women or touching young women. should not look at the sun. 3. 803. Ap. 14. ( II. dancing. 19. 2..Oh. We saw above (p. A few important ones from Gautama. *. wine. says ( I. drinks. worship ). 5 ) and to look after his sacred fires and to learn the Veda only in the time that would be lef after doing work for the guru*. the teacher's wife and son. ( 1. Dh. should avoid honey. 22. dangerous places. sleeping by day. Dh. but when on a !T<n*r|t 9T* ^n^fofr *3%^ the atudent may sit in a cart. 2. 2. 19 and Narad a say ) and should stay with no one but the teacher. the food. bathe everyday. the rules concerning his conduct towards the teacher. S. playing on musical instruments. concerning the method of salutation and showing respect. 2. . Gaut. ). 7. luxurious baths with hot water. 3. 21-30. anger. VII ] tfpanayana-qwliftcations of a good student 331 on and under the control of the teacher (as Ap. * punar mam ' 1. singing. 18. 4. QdchiO 802. journey 1 31^. serving a low person ( or calumny doing very low work talk. s^rffofawr^T nren i anr. of others. 2. love affairs.

1. to The student was not 804 Gautama and Baud. he was not to cover his throat with a ( ucchista 805 ) . 7. Manu (11. S. as exhaustively pointed out by after eating food ( or as applied to a plate ) the plate ( not yet cleaned ) from which one has taken his. viz. he should always occupy a seat lower than that of his teaoher his teacher and should go to sleep after ). yawn or crack the knuckles . ). he was when called by the teacher to reply at once leaving his seat or bed and was to approach the teacher even when he called from a distance . 142 (for this and the 3rd meaning ) andV. but if he could not help laughing he should do so covering his face with his hands ( says Ap. or was not to sit in the presence of his teacher with his feet on his lap. of what the student should eschew. not only prohibits him sexual intercourse ( I. 7-s. I. 20-21. by Jiv. 6. he should help the teacher in his toilet and bath and should shampoo his body and take food left by him he should be diligent in doing work that would be pleasing and beneficial to the teacher he was to study when the teacher called him. VII should bathe in it motionless like a stick. contain similar rules. Dh. and mouth Medhxtithi on Manu ucchi>ta VI. ( I. 194-198 and Ap. list pp. 80S. was not to stretch his feet. 5. I 2. YSj. L 2. forbids the eating of ncchi^ta (leavings of food) of anybody (except the teacher). 199 ) 26 and L 2. Another meaning is (4) one who has answered a call of nature and not yet performed the purificatory acts like Kcamana is said to be ucohiefra. U3(for3). 8. 141 for another appli: cation of the word. (1) food left in the plate from which one has eaten. 1. 34 and 37 ) say that the serve his teacher by following after him when he goes anywhere. Manu II. 1. and rise before him ( ( Gautama II. meal.' It literally means 'what The most usual senses are three. in several senses. piece of cloth. . tr.332 tiistory of Dharmafaalra [ Ch. ' f is used. 2. Sometimes the word is used in its literal aense (vide Ap. (2) food taken out in a vessel for serving to a person but not exhausted by being served in his plate. Dh. Vide Manu V. Ap. Dh. 33 which contains many of the above. (3) one who has not washed his hands. (ed. Vide Yffj. The word is left out. Vide 973 IV. 80. and ( as applied to a person). 211 for the 2nd meaning. 512-513) contains a long Audanasa-smfti III. he was not to clear loudly his throat. . sary. 1-12 says that a pupil should $04.4. . 2). student is to S. 26 ) but ordains that he should speak with women only as much as is absolutely necesfor laugh. nor to laugh. Vide Manu IV. 30-32 Manu II. rorct #w.177-179) practically contains the same rules as those of Gautama set out above. 2.

the pupil ( in the next life ) is born as an ass or a dog. VII. 8. *mw faffrffen^ wat * wr fifot i fowfs?i 28. "I* the dlkaita . while Visnu Dh. 28 Haradatta gives two explanations ( is either means trrta 3? or Sftrf. is ft^ is declaring faults that really do not exist and tftaT? faults that do exist. Vas. II. Visnu Dh. was not to when the teacher WEB affixing an honorific addition should not speak of his teacher. teacher. m*ii7% 225. 80 ' 28. 26. IT. ordains that the student was that he. mimic Manu II. 128 for explanations. VII not ] Rules of conduct for a student the gait. Of Gaut. *r trft 81-8!. 1. 26 says the same. gftt <f*H*lw * ' present he may be addressed ae absent as *!!*imr and when or *ft T5WW ) tt'f*' ( Ac. I firat ft^fcj frfte quoted I by snmrf P. one's sikha. *r?trr amrm ) and he takes 28 to refer to the p. ftc&rya ). Dh. . the teacher's son or wife or of a man who has been initiated for a srauta sacrifice by their bare'names 809 and then says that when it is absolutely necessary 806. I. 31-32.!. 8. 807.!. Vide explain 3mWT*ft on ug. 41 says that a student may either shave the entire head or grow matted hair.. 1. Gaut. EWWfgl.. pupil's name. 492 U. Even the Rg. 11 allow only two alternatives viz. Vide mi II. 28. atTOiJiTtUWtft^ftwilWN^ 24 and 28.. and states that if the pupil himself finds fault with his teacher or calumniates him. or may allow all the hair to grow as matted or should keep only a tuft of hair on the head ( and shave the rest 807 ).!. 26 and Manu II. tf. growing all the hair or keeping a tuft of hair. 199 and AiQvhpr !8. the ( 333 manner of speech and the actions of the 200-201 ) calls upon the pupil to close his ears ( with his hands or fingers ) or to leave the place where somebody indulges in calumnies about the teacher or points out the faults in him. Vide note 598 above. 2. Gaut. speaks of boys with several sikh5s (topknot). 809. S. 808. while on the public road. Some rules are laid down as to how the brahraacarin is to deal with the hair on his head. fpr pointing out HI* *.Oh. II. 808 One was not to untie One of the rules for the student pronounce the ( name of his teacher even not present without prefixing or such as srl... bhatta. Ap. 219 say that a brahmaoaTin may either shave his entire head. I.

19 say that a man who has been initiated for a sirauta sacrifice should not be addressed by his name. Dh. 45 ) and Haradatta on Gaut. C. one's husband. clasping the feet (as stated above ) and bending one's head while so doing. In abhivadana there is no clasping of the feet with the hands one . a learned man one's father-in-law. mother. of a mean person. 811. one's mother's sister. The 810 Sm. address as * tvam ' ( thou ) one's elders. touching one's ears. The MahSbharata says that one should not mention by name or . I. 32. p. 810. S. but by means of a synonym ( e. Another verse says that one should not mention one's own one's wife name. even though he be younger than the person addressing. taking his name. the name of one's guru. Vli by name the student should not pronounce name and gotra of his teacher as they are. but one may speak of 81 1 one's contemporaries or those who are younger by their names. any other guru. 3TR*5fm IS?rT!* p. 119 ( 1st it quotes from sft^feffc*^ ma??B**r 9RHf i *l3ffm> l ^T I sN^Ffnft f *|# I *n**3 JT WWWnft: w^ * \ . ordering him about. ( I. VI. the name and one's eldest child. 2. a dlksita. II. 3. one's benefactor. calling him out loudly. father. laughing into his face. ride also Vi?nu Dh.33i to refer to these tiistory of DharmaiQatra t Oh. Manu II. paternal and maternal uncles. ^ ftsitf **rfj* qrfafr* sr 45 and T w*n*rm*ft ^psr on ifi- II. 29. S. 128 and Gaut. 8. 29 quote a smrti that one should not mention by name only one's teacher. Ap. p. if the teacher's name is Haradatta or Devesthe vara the pupil should respectively say Devar&ta or Suresvara ). 15 says that even after returning home a snataka should avoid touching his former teacher with hia fingers (to call his attention). ' * ' There are other rules about addressing or referring by name which may be set out here for the sake of completeness. frequent muttering of something in his ears. o. but that one should use * the words bhoh and bhavat when addressing him or speaking about him and may refer to him by words like dlksita &c. 27 ( quoted by the utfMMiR^KI but in arfvftr^ one has to take one's name ) and on p. teacher's son and wife. trot an^rtf ^r ^5^ TO nft sfHSra ?FR i i far* wi %4 ^ *ng?y irwt ft^Sntf I. g. 25 . of Upasamgrahana consists in repeating one's gotra and name. saying 'I salute'.

and Baud. 15.4. of the blood relations of parents ( e. paternal and maternal uncles ). According to Ap. clasp his teacher's feet and also before beginning the day's lesson of Vedic study and also after finishing it. 28 adds that clasping should not be done when either the teacher or the pupil is seated. though feet is necessary according to some teachers (Ap. 14. Dh. 2. Dh. According to Gaut. arnfaT^ir <rr^fawrr Differ i TftfW&f 3ft *f 9T i ^c*T*feir p. 10. g. * *c I. and namaskara ( bowing with the word namah ). . clasping the teacher's S. 20 on other occasions whenever the student meets the teacher only abhivadana is sufficient. Dh. ( I. acSrya. on each occasion. Baud. 2. 19 and I. 4. 23 states that in upasamgrahana the teacher's right foot is to be stroked below and above with the student's right hand and the foot and ankle are both to be taken hold of. ears are touched for concentrating one's mind nr^\T on that touching the ear 13 the usage in 3orao countries only. S. of the elder brother. we i <g. while according to some teachers. 2. 16. 14. 24 say that the student is to clasp the feet of the teacher with crossed hands. the student must press each foot of the teacher with both hands and clasp them. 812. Manu II. 2. 1-3 one must clasp every day on the first meeting and particularly on his or their return from a journey* the feet of one's parents. Dh. 818 ( Very detailed rules were laid down about pratyutthana ). ( I.snrrwTr^ ) says that tho . S. upasamgrahana (saluting by clasping the feet of the teacher or another with one's hands ). 3. rising from one's seat to receive a person * f when he meets his teacher after sunrise. upadhyaya ) gurus. (1. S. Dh. 2. 5. 7-9} says that even after finishing A i 4H r. 5.Ob. 26 anrra? *?r gft srfr% *ft57 TR'. e. 72 quotes Paithlnasi that the student should clasp the teacher's feet with his hands turned upwards. I. I. Manu II. of the guru and of persons venerated by one's ( i. touching the right foot with the Kulluka on right hand and the left foot with the left hand. 52-54) prescribes the clasping of the feet every day in the morning and at the beginning and at the end of a lesson in the Veda. S. Dh. 28. 71 says the same. Visnu Dh. 2. Abhivadana must always be preceded by pratyutthana. S. 1. 21) Ap. Ap. i *JT. 1.7 . Gaut. pratyabhivada ( returning a salutation). 17 the student must. abhivadana ( saluting a man). I. VI. According to Ap. Manu II.5. 2. VII ] Rules about saluting ( abhivadana ) 33S may or may not touch the feet of the person to be honoured. 5. 72. S. I. or is lying down or impure. ! 26 aayg WT.

and where we have ) Vide w*q^ 109 (ed. one's father-in-law. if he is so. S. II. I ^qrtffdft- yn^i read Rrwr^T^) *rg II. 3r3Rrrm<*)'sn*iR ^dn^rt *n<wicrcn?TRj t SHT tr- ^ ! 12-13 . g. 2. He who habitually salutes and constantly pays reverence to the aged obtains an increase of four things viz. 41 Vas. 26 also speaks of the The occasional abhivftdana is done on certain occasions latter. Dh. jjrofif 8TTT ^f^9^f^^TTgaT^rr^rHJ U^NMH^cl * ^ I. 120. I. even though these may be younger than oneself in 1 813. ^. 2. 120 and 121 ) says 4 approaches but by rising to meet him and salutation ( to him ). 14. 9 is ^f^a^f^nuTrqpjT^t 3 . 13. 14. 122. 10-11 sft. 1. 5. also in the iTfTWT vol. paternal and maternal uncles. 813 every day a student should get up from bed in the last watch of the night and standing near his teacher salute him with the words I so and 5. 44. I.. such as return from a journey ( Ap. p. 814. teacher and other venerable persons ) and of elder brothers "and sisters according to their seniority. 6. Manu 8U ( II. Abhivftdana is of three kinds. 121. . fame and strength. by Fausbell. 26 ).336 Hiatow of DharmaiOslra [ Ch. Dh. 44 . 15 and Baud. III. A person may salute elderly persons whenever he chooses. Dh. 4. 5. Dh. This Terse occurs in ^jsftirrf 38. I. S. prescribe that a person must honour by rising and mentioning one's name an officiating priest. view ). I. 58. mother. the rules of Ap. Ap. 5 while iffer*? VI. 64-65 and . 14 ). compare *rg II. 4. 2. ) * 12-13 " may instance ho ( salute thee ) and the student should also salute other very aged (and learned br&hmanas) who may reside in the same village before his morning meal. he ( the young man ) recovers them. young man mount upwards man 815 Baud. Dh. knowledge. S. 2. S. S. Dh. I. 1 104. 2. 124. Manu 130 and II. II. As examples of nitya abhivSdana one ( I. : 5R<|T *i#i dHmnrbi*i<w*r *i>0 fi-Hfijwifcf jf*farcf ^ f^iif^ni m wi 1 *fV 2. S. nitya ( obligatory every naimittika ( to be done only on certain occasions ) and k&mya ( to be done only if a person has certain rewards in day ). 1900 for a verse closely i parallel to 815. 130 says ( but some rass. when an the prSnas old ( vital breaths ) of a . S. Dh. VII one's studies and returning home a man must every day clasp the feet of gurus ( father. L 2. ' desirous of long life or ( bliss in ) heaven ( Ap." Yaj. viz. length of life. TTI^ I Manu II.

454. a ksatriya holding it on a level with the chest. * * The manner of abhivadana was as follows 818 : 'A brahmana shall salute stretching forward his right arm on a level with his ear. I. Manu II. 16-17 . 27. Dh. ( I. VII ] ftules about abhivadana 33? Gaut.12. ( VI 9 ) however says that in the case of these one need only rise from his seat to receive them but it is not necessary to salute them ( abhivadana is not necessary ). and Gaut. 4. 45 declare that in the case of those who do not know how to return a salutation (pratyabhivadana. but one of the person who is saluted ( Gautama VI. 12 ). But this years. 16-17 ).Ch. he omits the ng says word ^TTT. VI. XIII. 4. which *TSJ II. Dh. Dh. vr. 27 ) and the Sm. Manu II. ^%or ^r sn*c(S I *Mt ft%t ^: I 3TTT. 13. ' mode is appropriate only if the person addressed knows how to return the salutation. Ap. o. should be arfvr^Fcf^ fg*r?T*rc?TTffR vfh ( i. I. S. but with one hand only if he is not learned ( p. a vaisya holding it on a level with the waist and a sudra holding it low ( be by joining ) and that the salutation shall Ap. I. There is some difference in the words used at the time of abhivadana. 5 states that ' arfttaKf'H should be arfSnr^r ft^rTtfH? nmugmfof *t: J while g^j^ on 124 it II. and according to Manu ' ' bhoh in the case of women also ) one should omit the word and simply say abhivadaye aham ( omitting one's name ). and who are younger. a ksatriya or a vaisya one should use a pronoun and omit 817 one's name. 14. S. 20-22. Gaut.5. Vas. 5. vido tf. I. 5 does 816. p. H. 32. 36 ) quotes Visnu and Atri to the up to his feet ' one's hands ( one has to take one's name in abhivSdana. That is does not take the name . Dh. . C. rising from one's seat is tantamount to abhivadana. ) ^. VI. 5. p. ST. S. Vedic or spiritual knowledge of any kind. I. Usually the words are abhivadaye devadattasarma-ham 818 bhoh' (vide Ap. 7 says that in arm^ui ( and in arf^T^r also ) the person saluting says arspTirraft %*r^rT?mfe Ht aJpNT^j frw. I. 2.on rg 11.122 says the words are arflfar?^ jqJTHimg Hfc 3<<M on ft. 8. 818. 122 appears to require and which ift. 117 says that one must perform abhivadana to a person from whom one learns secular. The ^^rf^rc p. 2. - ' not require 817. Manu II. 20 similarly says that in saluting women. Visnu Dh. 4 expressly says that in the case of officiating priests and others specified by Ap. 44. S. VI. 14. 2. 43 . The Madanaparijata adds that abhivadana is with both hands when the person to be saluted is learned. 2. 122 and 124 ). Baud. D. 5. 123 and 126 and Vas.

14. which are here passed over for want of space. I. nor should one salute a teacher standing very close to him ( Baud. Dh. One should not salute with the shoes on or when one's head is wrapped up or one's hands are full ( Ap. 292 and Apararka p. 4. There were also other rules about honouring one's elders In the presence of one's teacher or honouring the teacher's teacher or about one's behaviour when a gentleman comes to see one's acarya and leaves him. 1188 quote sutras of Harlta prescribing aa prayaScitta a fast of one. 52 j ' vide ^jQ^o p. III. no salutation is to be made or returned ( Ap. Dh. vaisya or 6udra and also for may saluting when the persons saluted or the man saluting are in such a condition as to make them unfit for abhivadana. meaning of quoted by f^n. One need not salute a person who is not a guru or who stands in a lower or higher place than oneself (Ap. Dh. on Yaj. of is teacher S. . 14. 819 The Mit. 135 and Visnu Dh. Dh. nor shall one salute on occasions similar to the preceding (such as one being . Vide Ap. Manu II. S. Dh. 32. VII game The stretching of the hands up far the head is to the ear &c. I. 23. I. S. 4. on *nrra: ^T. but one should simply say 'svasti'. Gaut. I. fire or other gods or when one's so engaged). 31-32 ). 819. S. 45 says that one should not occupy a seat or perform abhivadana and namaskara with shoes on. I. Manu II. 4. 2.338 Histoni of DharmasUstra effect. two or three days respectively for a brfthmana saluting a ksatriya. 2. on *u. [ Oh. 14. 5Tf quoted by fan. S. I IH 'R*i>4 ofi5<n' l quoted by 3Wtr4? ipT for the p. 19 ) or if one carries a load of fuel-sticks or holds a pot of flowers or food in one's hands one shall not salute. 4. Similarly a brahmana was not to perform . other causes ) 17 ). S. A abhivadana to a ksatriya or a vaisya however learned the latter be. 14. When one is impure or the person he meets is impure ( owing to asauca or engaged in worship of manes. 17 say that a brahmana ten years old is like a father to a ksatriya even 100 years old and so deserves salutation from the ksatriya. III. 29-32. 126). III. IX. *T|f*J9l%jn5I IHM"! 9fRr<7KJf: : i ^QT^^ I. 14 ). indicates how to be bent in each case. Sp. 6. I. S. those who are of the same caste should do abhivadana. 205. 37 quoting nft'^r^'Cr^ and 292. Dh. 292. brahmana who does not know the form of returning a salutation must not be saluted by a learned man he is like a 6udra (Manu II.

VI. Dh. 30 and Yaj. 4.Ch. an heretic. and Manu II. In the case of certain persons one was to show honour only by rising from his seat and not by abhivadana. 16-18) lays down that if a brahmana who has not studied the Veda comes as a guest one may give him a seat. 10-11) even a sudra of eighty years or more must be honoured by rising by one ( even though the latter be of a higher vari^a ) young enough to be his son ( but there will be no abhivadana ) and that an arya ( i. 14-17 ) and Manu * II. ungrateful persons. an atheist. a friendship contracted at school for five years. 12 ) gives a special rule that a friendship kept for ten years as fellow citizens. gamblers. Vide also Manu IV. 14. ( I. But Gaut. Manu adds blood relations to the list citizen five when p. are The rules about returning a salutation (about pratyabhivada} made somewhat intricate and obscure by the varying commentators. water and food but one should not rise to receive -him. The Smrtyarthasara list of persons whom one should never salute viz. 10 is only illustrative and that an old vaisya must be honoured by a young ksatriya or brShmana by simply rising from his seat and an old ksatriya by a young brahmana in the same way. but should rise to receive him if he is entitled to abhivadana on account of age ( as stated in Ap. Gaut. S. 12. contemporaries who are born in the same year are to be addressed with the word bhoh or ' bhavat and a fellow who is ten years older than oneself and an artist who is years older than oneself and a Srotriya studying the same Vedio school as oneself who is three years older are to be addressed similarly. S. 4. Dh. I. 9 ) mentions some such persons who are already referred to in note 815. 134 give somewhat different ' ' rules viz. ( VI. Haradacta explains that the word sudra in Gaut. 1. &p. ( VI. . 14. 2. one belonging to the three higher castes ) must be honoured by rising by a Sudra even if the latter be older ( and so a vaisya must honour a ksatriya though the latter be younger). ( II. thieves. drunkards. VII ] Rules about abhivadana 3&9 Ap. Headds that (VI. Pratyabhivada consists in in the a benediction proper form given by a gun pronouncing interpretations of . 130 ( as to showing no respect even by words to heretics &c ). e. 7 gives a long the difference in age is very small. 4. the fact of a Srotriya being three years older entities the friend or srotriya to a salutation. 134 ) similarly a brfihmana need not rise to receive a ksatriya or vaiSya ( except on the same ground of age ). a person guilty of grave sins.

sTc^riwi^t ^snnrerf^far *J*MI^HT $re4 ^ TT^TstHWr^ff^rq^f^ i ^ S^?t WfP* H u?cf ^T^TT^^H ^ I i *T. If a woman 821. 3?fT. 125. p. WT- STT^WTF^ &*q{iT *rft fWVsPfcn^r *g II. 2. ST. 5. ^. agrees with this rule of the ancient grammarians. Vasistha's rule (XIII. 125 ) also really means the same thing but there the word akara* is only ' . 453. o. The verse of Manu ( II. g. If the name ends in a consonant the srr*mr*T^ will be 37T5<Tp*nr OTJTSTOTS^. 821 foot-note below. Dh. 125 prescribes " a brahmana should be thus saluted in and the vowel return. 46) * is when ) standing the salute is returned. the last vowel ( of the noun in the vocative is protracted to the length of three if it ' ' ' is a diphthong ( i. e. I.e. * ' ! ' addressed ) and is if the should be made pluta (i. the preceding vowel made pluta" That these rules are very ancient follows from Panini's sutra ( VIII. if it performs as in anvr^T^ ^Ter'ifTW tft: ) salutes ( as in arwrr^ li*$j Ht: ) the return is 3*13**^! vrw npf ( i. S. drawn out to the length of three moras). salutes the return is either 33 ). 2. Ap. 2. applies returned is a 820. *r. O gentle one * a or any other vowel at the end of the name ( of the person moras and number ' ' ) it . The MahabhSsya comments on this and two it vartikas thereon say that this rule does not apply a woman to whom the salutation is returned and optionally when it is when the person whose salutation is All these rules are exemplified in the ksatriya or vaisya. bho becomes bhav f Manu II. VII is who has been saluted. S. Dh. ho .340 or other person History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. If a ^r ^^rr^T salutes. 18 . S^TvrerfS^t atftftT^T ( 83 . 5. is a sn^TT who pratyabhivada is an*r*Tl^fa ^^rr * (3 indicates that the vowel preceding it is pluta i. there is no pluta ^ ^^^ w ). 18 one belonging to the first three castes. 83 ' ) becomes 1 9 pluta. the ^ w?^ul3fi^*JT? is no m^^i^ is aniwrnfrtfternfam 3 or-iDrepnfito. * Among the oldest 8 * when returning the salute of the rule in &p. I. Some MSS. mayst thou be long-lived. the final vowel in the that occurs at the end of the sentence of pratyabhivada ) 2. read <nf5(ft VIII. sftrer XII I. alutes. e or o but not of the dual becomes ay or av e. 3 or arr^iWTr^rT^^c. lengthened to three moras) name ends in a consonant. 46 nc: . the *Frivhn<f is If it is a sn^m^ft 5T3T9T ( i. the ( last syllable of the ) name ( of the person whose salutation is to be returned ) shall be lengthened to three moras'. e. i one word. there If a k?atriya f^^^q. e. is a sudra name ( when the salutation of a person who is not returned by the person saluted.

Ch.. . i H 37 p- 53 repeats the words f^nft . that when a ksatriya returns the salutation of a ksatriya or a vaisya of a vaisya. and that if the vocative ends in e ' or o. tftm. ihno on *rg 823.. 451-454.. that the pratyabhivada words containing the benediction about long life are not stereotyped. like Haradatta.. drorear ^n^ ^^ * ?K ) ' R^i* ?m^i*fi^ *T^iHwf4d || ijw ^it: . As a person of a higher varna was not to do abhivadana to one of lower varna ( vide note 819 above ) there would be no occasion for pratyabhivada from the side of the latter.. 125. it becomes aya or ava ( with a added ). C. pp. If tho name ends or f%5^ it will be in a consonant. condemn commentators What great importance was attached to the correct utterance of the return salutation can be seen from the fact that one of the miscellaneous reasons assigned for the necessity of grammatical studies in the Mahabhasya is that ( as stated in a verse ) a person who returns from a journey will perform salutation to ignorant persons ( who do not know how to utter pratyabhivada) as if to women with the words 'abhivfidaye 828. 97 '. * name of the person ' ' opposed to Panini. 824 the interpretation put upon Manu's verse by Apararka and the Sm. the Mahabhasya. VII ] Rules about pratyabhivada 88* 341 illustrative * and stands for all vowels. the sr^rfH^f^f will be like 3TT^TT*>T* *ft*TT 3li?r^T 3 ^ (the KIT and 3f is added to tho consonant name ^ ). 3WTfT? reads *%ff>s ^muKT^vrm ^ and vocative ^ ^f^ as p. $MHI*J: I.. . II. 88S This view is different manner. The verse of Manu is interpreted by Haradatta and a few others in a According to them the last vowel in the whose salutation is to be returned is pluta and then a is added to it... is 3rf?rf%^ and so f% is made Vido ^i^TTT^. Apastamba and several writers of digests. (iT^P^ i gives as examples ( 9n$VTT?)TO ) or i^^PTT^ ( f^pft is vocative ).. 824. Thesn^^T^ according to f^^tT will bo 's name is <gsFTTf5r If the 3 ty or f^ooTi 3 ^. the same rules hold good '. the Kasika.. The ancient com- mentator Medhatithi interprets Maim so as to agree with Panini and says in the realm of the use of words and their senses Panini has higher authority than Manu.

27 ) prescribes that tbe student shall behave towards his teacher's wife as towards the teacher himself 888 but he shall not clasp her feet or eat the residue of her food. Dh. 211. 123. p. 7-8 ) states that the feet of the wives of (elder) brothers or of one's mother-in-law ( 825. Visnu Dh. 32. deserve honour and so he must salute &c. ( VI. 4. *f%s 13. Dh. ^ I. This passage is quoted by on *g II.13). 7. S. but restricts it to wives of the same caste. S. Gaut. I. 'ufoqgg. I. ( I. II. Baud. 37. their feet must be elapsed on those occasions on which a teacher's feet are to be clasped and Ap. l. 32.34$ ' History of DharmatHstra 885 ( i. 15). VII for fear ayamaham thai they e. 2. 6 prescribes that the same honour must be shown to the mother and father as to a teacher i. 33 states an exception that on return from a journey the student shall clasp the feet of the wives of his teacher (also Manu II. 14. 18 and Vas. I. . 32. S. but even a young student may prostrate himself on the ground for honouring the young wife of his teacher without clasping her feet ( with the words ' * * abhivadaye amukasar ma-ham bhoh ' ). S. 42 ) Visnu Dh. 827. Dh. 42-43. Ap. 14. ) according to the ages of their husbands 827 ( Ap. Gaut. 13. 6 have the same rule. Dh. 9 extends the rule to elder sisters. The first rule is that married women. S. 18 . 14. or bath nor wash their feet nor shampoo them. Ap. the following rules deserve attention. I. S. S. 14. But Gaut. Manu (II. and a student who is full twenty years old shall not honour the young wife of a teacher by clasping her feet ( Manu 11. S. 32. e. 4. 32. *. 210) gives special directions the wives of the teacher who belong to the same caste must be treated as respectfully as the teacher but in the case of those who belong to a different caste he need * only rise from his seat and salute ( Visnu Dh. 31-32 ) also says the same thing and adds that the student shall not assist the wives of the teacher at their toilet Manu II. grammar is to be learnfc by men may be treated as women when a person salutes them). 4. 3. Dh. whatever their age may be. 217 and Visnu Dh. As regards women who are not wives of the teacher.212 and Visnu Dh. S. I. 2. 2 gives the same rule. S. Dh. S. 5 also is similar ). ( II. [ Ch. ffcrrt \ i an<r. 4.

ed. mother's mother. 54. paternal grand-mother. Manu (II. From Ap. (28. qrfSraj *frwr vol. 7. but the wives of one's other paternal and maternal relatives need only be clasped on one's return from a journey. S. Ap. I. one's elder brother's wife's feet A must be clasped every day feet of the if she is of the same caste. Visnu Dh. but that the student in any case must not shampoo the limbs of the son nor assist him in his bath nor wash his feet nor eat the leavings of his food. ^. 135 (on <nfa^ I. *mTT^wrmrf 12-13. 1. uncle's wife. require that the student will behave towards the teacher's son as towards his teacher. That this rule Manu IL 207 829 in the Mahabhasya* very ancient follows from a passage where it is stated and a proviso is added that the student will not however clasp the son's feet nor eat the leavings of his food. XIII. Dh. S. 2. 13. I. mother-in-law. Dh. p> ft3*rnjf tft^ro **<% fonqfl ^rs\ wft 471 almost the same vcrae occurs in . But Manu (IL 131-132) maternal or poternal aunt. s. j. 7. he imparts instruction in place of the teacher ( because the engaged ). 1 I. whether the son be younger or of the same age as the student. 8) fwr tfiTTf^ 3wi<nrft i sTiq . 32-33) prohibits also the is washing if of the son's feet. <) q < lt^ iJ4^^'^ Wrfr^^ i srfof HsrfS 56. 888 women S. 2. Devala says the mother. 830. S. a maternal gives different rules.)I. that the son of the teacher deserves the latter is otherwise 208) gives a restrictive rule same honour as a teacher. As already stated above in the case of all women the salutation is simply 'I salute* ( abhivadaye aham ' )' without mentioning one's name. 28. and the feet of a paternal uncle's wife or of elder sisters need not be clasped except when one returns from a journey. 7. 30. 28 . . Vas. tJtW: who were i called appears that * samadis^a ) TOT TORSI sfc II ^*c7 in H (Jiv. teacher's wife and the full brothers and sisters of one's parents. S. f$ro ST. 7. I. 3 places a maternal or paternal aunt and the eldest sister on an equality with the teacher's wife.Ob. 13. 28 and ( I. 2. elder sister and the foster mother are who are ( to be honoured like ) gurus *. 12 8* it ' the system of pupil teachers 828. 2. 4. VII ] AbJUvadana to women 343 need not be clasped on any occasion. 829. S. Dh. 30 only mentions as prohibited the eating of the leavings of food. a mother-in-law are equal to one's teacher's wife and must be honoured like her . 503. Visnu Dh. *! %I 4. 31. . S. 32. Ap. l. Dh.j>. but Visnu Dh.

VII shall obtained in ancient times and Ap. 134 cited above on ( according p. V. S. a vaisya by using the word ksema ( or anasja according to Ap. Dh. Gaut. 144. According to fTfrT the questions would be in the case of respectively. . prescribes that the student behave towards a pupil teacher who teaches him at the teacher's command as towards the teacher feet. on meeting a brahraana. 831 Manu is f a woman who ' ' addressing ' in a forest or and Visnu Dh. 127 lay down that one should. 37-38 WRW 832. 339 ) should be saluted. : i members of the four varnas TT. I.that the word to a deity or a teacher. 14. S. 32. 4. to one who has secured Yogio siddhis or to those bliss . L 4. who have secured by sacrifices the worlds of and Raghunandana adds that according to the usage of rl is prefixed to names of such persons respectable people while they are alive. S. as also by clasping his long as he is and shall honour him giving instruction. 14. ask after his health with the word 'ku&ala. Further rules are laid down about showing courtesy to a who is not a relative or who is not a teacher &c.fr44 History of Dharmainstra [ Ch. 30) that one should not pass a learned brahraana without directions. 7 says that in such circumstances he must address her ( in order to assure her ) as sister is of the same age as himself ) or ( if she daughter ( if she is younger ) and mother ( if she is older than himself ). to the place of one's teacher. other lonely place * ' him nor a woman whom he meets * * ' It is stated in the Udvfthatatfcva 838 ' f ( p. . Dh. V. ^^ on these flays 3^ yqaqiigmflrffr WT3PT: . 129 ) enjoins that one should address the wife of another mart and who is not a blood relation as lady ( bhavatl ) or beloved sister ' and ( Ap. srl is to be prefixed when referring by name 144 ). 37-38 gives similar person 4 ( II. The same work also tells us that women of the dvijatis were to have the honorific suffix devl added to * ' ' ' 831. while one who is of the same age or younger should simply be asked 'kusala' &c. 26-29 and Manu II. ) and a sudra by employing the word Srogya. Ap. Thus one who is older to the rule in Manu II. to a holy place or to the presiding deifcy of a holy place.' a ksatriya about his health using the word anSmaya '.

learning and age must be honoured . is beyond 90 years is still a child to a learned brahmana. 130 ) and Visnu Dh. Vas. but Yedic learning is more important than all (the rest)'. of age of the 1 In order to show that Vedic learning is superior to seniority Manu ( II. birth. relationship and religious actions are titles to respect. 16 ) say that wealth kindred. 18-20 ) is slightly different. Dh. *. 4.wood paste on festive occasions and the like* Manu ( II. upadhyaya and rtvik descending order ) ( they are arranged in one incurs Bin. 4.Oh. I. each later named is more important than each preceding one . S. wealth &c. 1. occupation. age. ficarya.D. sandal. Gaut. ^srr ^ofe^nmt grnr? i i^fCFTi ^ i wre.44 . It is borrowed from the Tandya Mahabrahmana 824 833. age. but each succeeding one out of these five is superior to each preceding one. VI. 1. 35 says that if respect is not paid to guru (parents). VII their ] Grounds for tJiowing of the iudra caste respect * 345 is word d&sl *. wealth is the least ground for giving honour ). Honour meet him or allowing him to walk in front of one or giving him a garland. ^ %^r 3*^ of the sage. ^^ says . This story is referred to expressly by Baud. ( 32. Yaj. 137 says that a sudra who ness and success. 13. Visvarupa on Yaj. he says 'wealth. 20. 151-153 ) narrates the story of a young scion little Angiras gotra who taught his pitrs and addressed thorn as sons' and whose action was supported by the gods with the remark that a man destitute of knowledge was a child and he who taught him the Veda was his father. age. I. wealth. 116 puts the order as vidyS. but if honour is not shown on the ground of ^learning. 56-57 also says that learning. 47 and tacitly by Gaut. ( performance of ) religious rites and sacred knowledge confer title to respect. This the practice particularly in Bengal and Northern India. 18-20. there is no sin but one loses happiManu II. u!fifrwretf& VI. 3. karma. 24. or rising to person. relationship and wealth ( i. 13. S. relations. but each preceding one is more important than each succeeding one. e. wr *re fist * 3irH?rwrsri 13. jr was the S. S. 2-3. Dh. the names and The works on Dharmasastra give very interesting rules about the grounds on which respect was to be shown to a 833 consists in saluting a person. 834. ( VI.

if the latter has not heard of him before. Manu II. intelligence. 3. says that men deserve honour according to their learning. 24 ). f samnyasins and the like.835 ' One has to distinguish between abhivadana and namaskara. approach empty-handed one's parents. 40. 52. bulls. *w^ T ar 14. clay from sacred places. !^ $nf^ra<f 193. The latter is done only to images of gods. br&hmanas. of vaisyas from ( the possession ) of corn and other wealth and only among sudras is age a ground of seniority '. 133. VII 13. of ksatriyas from valour. a learned and religious brahmana. sacred to fires. 836. sacred trees that had brick or stone platforms built to One had show 828 round them (like asvattha) and squares (where four roads meet). P- 468. 38. 1*3 IV. 839 835. 3.346 ( ' History of Dharmai&stra [ Ch. ^^T?^ ?i*hr 41-42 li ^JB<TO^ f . high birth and eminent deeds. re*^: s^nN* Sfffite I. i ^^ri?^f . 66. 20. ) says that one should not salute ( abhivadana ) a brahmana. ghee. 8 fvido also 163. *a. one should fold the hands together in bowing to an ascetic. 155 clinches the argument by saying the seniority of brahinanas springs from ( sacred ) knowledge. 837 ' : from left respect by circumambulating to right temples or images of gods. One wag not acarya. one should salute an ignorant man with one hand and should not perform abhivadana to one who is younger. The Smrtyarthasara p. in sacrifices or in palaces or royal courts. a similar verae I. 837. 37 for and 3TST3TTOT 113. 'sr *.* while in the latter one only bows and folds one's hands. cowpens. Vis$u ( quoted in the Sm. In the former one not only bows but utters words like abhivadaye &o. cows. <j i ^nn f^iii^cft^im^-^nSsTTicra jprn SJ^T^ i III. honey. p. The posture of the hands in namaskara is stated as follows One should join the hands in the shape of a shegoat's ear in namaskara to a learned man. . a teacher who is very learned. Kaut. but should only perform namaskara in all public assemblies. 0. ranwrretf R*jc STTfSfaT^^ I TO^T 838. 826 samnyasins &c. 39. ^ w IX. houses and the king. 8 prescribes a fast for one day as a penance for not bowing to images of gods. valour.

6. 1. jata and other formations. 4. One striking point about the imparting of knowledge ( particularly Vedic) in the ancient educational system of India was the great prejudice against learning from books. 140-147. Max Muller in his History of ancient Sanskrit Literature started the astounding and absurd theory that writing for literary purposes was unknown to Panini ( p.3. such as the various modes of repeating the Veda only in padas. 1 and the wanted to pronounce tho word $-ffiMi [(meaning 'destroyer ) aa a Tatpuru^a compound (in which the last syllable of the compound has the udatta accent). There is a well known story how Tvasfcr repeating Indra^atrur-vardhasva 840 in wrong accents caused the fire to be extinguished instead of inflaming it against Indra as he intended. of A This has already been dealt with in speaking of the privileges brShmanas above pp.8. This story is alluded to in the P&ninlyasiksa. whether it was used for literary purposes in the times of Pa^ini and whether the Brahml alphabet was an indigenous product or whether it was imported into India from some foreign land. The greatest importance was attached to handing down the Veda intact and various devices were discovered and employed for securing this end. of Indra 1 . but the accents were indicated also by the movements of the fingers ( vide verses 43-45 of the Paninlya6iksa). in which cage the first word of the compound has the udatta accent as in ( 5^51^: ^ ). II. the words * ' ( in verse 32 ) condemns one who learns from a manuscript as among the worst of learners. Great care was taken to preserve the proper accentuation of the Vedic texts.1. tf. All these intricate matters could be learnt only by The same work oral instruction. The Veda was to be recited not only with proper modulation of the voice to convey the accents. Vide infSrfr VI. 2. Great controversies have raged round the question whether was known in India in very ancient times. Terse 52 of tho rTOT <rrPrWrqf?teH} ifitonmi I verso 32. 1. &[E The legend is narrated in tho &