PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES AND SHUTTERS

.By

RICHARD W. ST. CLAIR, A.R.P.S.
Research Consultant and Lecturer on Photographic Optics

CONTENTS
COPYRIGHT. 19~O BY ZIFF-DAVIS PUBLISHING AU.

.hapter
COMPANY

Page _ - . - . - . - . .. 6, 7 The Camera and Its Lens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Lens Measurements Lens Aberrations Photographic Lenses .. ,................. Auxiliary Lenses Testing Lenses Shutters Useful Tables __ .. _. _ _ _ _. _. _ _. __ Care of Lenses and Shutters Enlarger and Projector Lenses __

RIGHTS RESERVED INCLUDING THE RIGIlT TO REPRODUCE THiS BOOK OR PARTS THEREOF IN ANY FORM

Introduction I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Index

• • •

Simple Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23 _. 50 71 88 97 107 115 118 __.. _.. 125 _.. - .. 149 _155 The Aperture or Diaphragm. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 57

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PUBLISHING COMPANY NEW YORK IN THE U.S.A .

PRINTED


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CHAPTER I TRODUCTION
HIS book has been written for the purpose of supplying T the beginner with information about his camera lens and shutter, their principles, uses, and care. It is essentially a book for the everyday amateur who does not possess a technical education, and is written in a simple and comprehensible manner. Such few calculations as do appear and which, from experience, I have found necessary in everyday work, are actually nothing more than simple arithmetic although they may seem· algebraic at first glance. The use of letters in the equations is simply a shorthand method of stating rules that are easily under-stood. When these letters are replaced by the figures for which they stand, the equation becomes a simple problem. If the reader is of a non-mathematical turn, he may omit such calculations altogether and stil! gain much information on the subject. While lenses and shutters have never received the attention they deserve in photographic literature for the beginner, recent developments in photography have made such information and data necessary for the aspiring amateur. The function of the lens, the principles on which it works, and a discussion of the various types of lenses now on the market are all matters of the greatest importance to those who wish to advance in this art. Taking good pictures involves correct exposures and the production of images which are as large or as small, as sharp or as soft, as desired. Both are dependent on the manipulation of the lens and shutter. The other parts of the camera are secondary to the optical system in gaining the final results. Richard Winthrop New York, N. Y. April, 1940. St. Clair, A.R.P.S.

I

THE CAMERA AND ITS LENS
the photographic camera is a device employed BASICALLY, for recording images of objects which are visible to the human eye. These images can be of momentary duration or can be recorded permanently on specially prepared sensitized paper, glass plate, or celluloid for future reference. Photographic cameras, as with many other mechanical devices, are more or less accurate copies of natural structures, ~he principles of which have been employed by the original Inventors. The modern camera is a mechanical replica of the human eye. It resembles the eye in all essential respects and this organ undoubtedly is the basis of photography as we know it today. By making a direct comparison between the eye and a simple box camera their similarity becomes apparent. In Fig. 1 is shown a sectional view taken through a human eye which, at the moment, is viewing the arrow or object (0). Here we have the light-tight box or eyeball (E) with the transparent lenses (A) and (L) through which light rays pass from the object to the viewing screen or retina (R) at the rear of the eyeball. These lenses recreate on the retina an image (M) which is exactly similar to the object (0) but inverted and much smaller. In short, the image is smaller and upside down on the retina due to the crossing of the light rays in the lenses. Our eye, therefore, consists of a front lens (A) filled with

Fig. I. A sectional

view through

the human eye.

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a crystal clear fluid known as the "aqueous humor," and a crystalline lens (L) of greater consistency which serves to rectify the light rays passing through the front lens. The image thus created falls on the nerve ends in the retina which in turn convey the image to the brain. Between the two lenses is the adjustable iris (I) with an opening that can be contracted or !xpanded by muscular effort in accordance with the prevailing light conditions. In weak light, the iris is well opened while in strong sunlight it may be closed almost to a pin-point, thus controlling the amount and intensity of the light falling upon the retina and also maintaining a sharp image or field of view. In addition to the iris adjustment, the eye lenses are "focused" by muscular action on the crystalline lens which is instrumental in obtaining a sharp, well-defined image at all distances of the object. The iris supplements the result of the focusing action, by means that will be described later, ?o t~at the image will be needle-sharp under all conditions of lighting and object distance. External to the eye, but acting in conjunction with it, are the eyelids (e) which, when closed, prevent light from entering the eye or its lenses. For comparison, a simple form of camera is shown in Fig. 2, where the great similarity of the camera and the eye is striking. In fact, all of the basic elements of the eye are also included in this simple camera, item for item. until we wonder whether the camera was actually invented or simply copied from nature's masterpiece of engineering. First we have the light-tight camera box (E) which corr esponds'to the eyeball. In the front end of the camera box is the glass lens or objective (L) and also the iris or aperature (I) for the control of the light and image sharpness. An image (M) is projected upon the translucent groundglass focusing

. creen (~) which corresponds to the retina of the eye. At (F) an adjustment provided for moving the lens back and forth while focusing or until the image attains the greatest sharpness for the given distance. After Iocusing, a light-tight holder containing the sensitized film !S slipped m~o place at (R) and the exposure is made by opening and closing the shutter. The shutter is really a light valve that controls the length of time that the image is impressed upon the sensitized surface of the film and occupies a place just ahead of the iris. The camera shutter corresponds to the eyelids in admitting or cutting off the light and controllin.g the duration of the exposure. Thus, the modern photo~raphlc <:amera duplicates the mechanism of the human eye, Ite.m. for rtern, with the single exception of the sensitized film. Millions of years ag:o nature designed the optical system that we are US111g today 111our most advanced cameras.
IS

The Camera Obscura The simple camera consisting of the box, lens, and focusing screen IS known as a camera obscura, a very ancient type well known to artists years before the photographic era. It has been described in detail by Leonardo Da Vinci in his sixteenthcentury treatise on art and, from the tone of his writing was not new or novel in his day. ' T~e c~mera obscura was employed by artists to guide (heir pencils 111making sketches, the artist tracing over the image on the focusing screen with his pencil or brush thus shortening the time required for making sketches and, at the same time, improving the accuracy of the sketch: Thus, the camera obscura became the advance agent of fake artwork and finally the beginning of a new art=-photography. While lenses were used in later models of the camera obscura, the earliest boxes had no lens but were provided with a simple pinhole of very small diameter that served the Il';1rpose of the lens in producing the image on the screen. Fig. 3 shows a type of advanced camera obscura in which light ntering through the lens (L) is reflected upward by the mirror (M) to form the image (m) on the screen (R). The horizontal screen is much easier to work on than the box end type, and this camera exists even today. The Pinhole Camera Centuries ago, it was discovered that an image of a bright outdoor scene was .formed when a ray of light was allowed to pass through a very small hole and fall on a screen in a darkened room. The image, thus formed, was very faint and was inverted, but it was accurate in detail and proportion.

Fig. 2. Simple form of camera.

Compare

it with Fig. I.

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OBSCURA

PINHOLE

CAMERA

Fig. 3. This device was the forerunner of the present-day camera.

Fig. 4. Showing how the pinhole camera forms an inverted image.

Later the small "pinhole" was applied t? a viewing box much like a' camera which is illustrated by Fig. 4. Here. light rays from the object (0) pass through the very small pinhole (H) in the metal plate (D) which can be removed or adjusted, and form the image (m) on the screen (R). As the pinhole must be very small in diameter to get even 3;n approximately sharp image, very little light pass~s through It ~nd the Image is faint as a result. Exposure time "":Ith a p inho le camera requires minutes instead of seconds as With the modern camera equipped with a lens. . f When a lens is used, the admittance or conductl1~g area or light is increased, as compared to the pinhole, wI.thout .a!1Y loss of sharpness. A lens has greater light collecting ab!lIty than the pinhole because it embraces a gre~ter bundle of light rays, thus making it possible to m~ke rapid exposures under adverse light conditions. The admittance area of a lens may be from 50000 to 100000 times greater than With a pinhole. However v:,ith all its faults, the pinhole has the advantage 111 that the 'image it produces is. in relatively sharp focus at ll distances, so that focusing adjustment IS n?t necessary. Th e pinhole will be discussed at greater length 111Chapter II. The Photographic Era The early camera obscura became ~ true photographic camera when a light-sensitive film was 1I1se~ted for permanl~n~l~ recording the image formed by the .Ien,. .The use o~ ig t sensitive material for this purpose IS Var~SIY credited to Daguerre and Niepce but, as a matter °h~fact. -oClna_ny tors were working on the problem at t IS nrn J to that the true inventor is in doubt. Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, commonly known as the

'~839)

"father of photography," formed a partnership with Niepce in 1829 and he profited greatly by this alliance. Niepce had a workable system before he joined Daguerre, but the latter knew little of the basic principles of optical or chemical processes, and made but little progress until Niepce worked with him. The first lenses used in this project were modified spectacle glasses made by Voigtlander, founder of the camera company bearing his name. Present-day photographic processes differ greatly from those practiced in Daguerre's day in the matter of detail, but the basic principles remain unchanged. For example, it was necessary to make a separate exposure for every picture by the Daguerre system, but we can now make as many copies of a single original negative as we may desire, which is a decided improvemen t. Present-day sensitized materials consist of sheets of celluloid or glass covered with the activated gelatin coating known as the emulsion. The active agents in this emulsion are usually salts of silver, such as silver nitrate, silver bromide, silver chloride, or a compound of these salts. The active salts are suspended in gelatin which also forms a means of holding them onto the celluloid or glass base. When light acts upon the emulsion, a change takes place in the molecular structure of the silver salts which is not visible directly after exposure but which can be made visible by the action of a liquid known as a developer. The light-affected ilver nitrate, bromide, or chloride is converted into metallic silver by the action of the developer so that the density of the reduced silver areas is proportional to the intensity of the light which strikes the film during the exposure. Thus, after development, an accurate image of the subject is reproduced in reverse, with all highlights, shadows, half-tones, and gradations opposite to those projected onto the emulsion by the lens. The image produced is a negative because the highlights of the subject are dark in the image and the shadows of the subject show as light or clear areas on the emulsion. This causes no difficulty, however, because in making a positive print from the negative by contact printing or enlarging, the lights and shadows are again reversed and thus correspond to those of the original subject. After development, the negative emulsion is still sensitive to light and must be treated to a further process called fixing by which the remaining active silver salts are removed by a solution of sodium thiosulfate or "hypo." This leaves only the metallic silver image in the emulsion which is not affected by further exposure. In the direct contact printing process, where positives of the negative are produced, the negative emulsion is placed in contact with sensitized photographic paper. A strong light

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then transfers the image to the sensitized paper surface. This gives a positive contact print in which the highlights and shadows correspond to those of the subject, and consequently as many copies can be made as desired. The paper positive IS no\~ developed and fixed in much the .sa~e manner as the negative. In making enlargements (or pro!ectlon prints) that are to be larger than the negative, the negative s placed 111 an enlarger which projects an enlarged image of the negative opto se!lSltlzed paper in the same manner that a lantern slide IS projected onto a screen. The magnification of the .image. is produced. by a special enlarger optical system which win be described later. Developing and fixing are as before. . Thus, photography is .partly a physical and partly a chemical process in which light IS the active agent or f?rm of energy that causes the changes to take place .. A definite quantity of light energy produces a definite change 111 the, emulsion so that proper regulation of light intensity and. duration IS n~cessary. For this reason a knowledge of the optical principles involved wi11 aid the amateur in making better pictures. Elements of Light Theory

The ~ssential element of all photographic.processes is the form of energy that we know. as .light. I.t is through the agency of light that our eyes perceive impressions of f?rm and color, and 'it is also through the same agency that the Image ~f an object is traced on the sensitized surfaces of pha10gra~hlc films and plates. It is because of this basic relation of \1(Sht t~ lenses and the image that it is nec~ssary to beco.me familiar WIth some of the simple elements of light before .dlscussmg lenses. Light energy is a Iorrn o~ wave motion that travels forward along a perfectly straight line unless deflected by some intervening object. The rate of wave :"7!bratlOn,or the frequency of the waves, varies through a cons id era.hle range, the ~requency rate determining the color of the light through the visible band. At the higher frequencies, light approaches the X-rays and gamma rays, while at the lower fr equencies It approaches !he nature of electromagnetic waves employed t11t~e t.r~nsmlsslon of radio signals. It should be noted that light IS visible to !he eye only through a very limited band of .frequencles, passmg into the invisible ultra-violet rays at the high end~d into the invisible infra-red rays at the lower end of the freq,ency band. Structure of Light

ditions, there are no dark spaces or interruptions. However, if passed through a certain type of prism or filter so that only the rays in one plane are allowed to pass, then the light is said to be polarized and, when in this condition, the rays exhibit many peculiar properties. * Perfectly white light, such as sunlight, is a mixture of all colors and their corresponding freq uencies. Thus, the visible band of sunlight consists of violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, any individual color of which can be removed from the white light by means of suitable prisms or filters. Black, on the other hand, indicates a total absence of light, hence black and white are the two extremes in the scale of light. The above prismatic colors can be recombined to form white light. Light energy manifests itself in many ways. It is detected by the physiological sense of sight, by causing chemical and physical changes in certain substances, or it may be detected by the electric current created when it strikes a photoelectric cell. LIght ca!l be produced by chemical reactions, by electrical current, by high temperature combustion, and by conversion from other forms of energy. It is to be particularly noted that light travels only along a straight line unless acted upon by certain materials in the path of the ray that cause deflection. This is a most valuable property of light in the construction of optical apparatus particularly in the construction of lenses. ' Diffraction of Light

Light rays are bent out of their course when passing by the edge of an opaque body. This phenomenon is called diffraction and is responsible for lack of sharpness in images formed by the pinhole camera. When very small diaphragm openings are used with camera objectives diffraction may impair the quality of the image to some extent. Reflection of Light When a light ray strikes the surface of an object it is deflected or reflected from its original path and it is largely by reflection that we are enabled to determine the form of objects by sight. On striking the surface of the object, the ray of light rebounds, so to speak, and enters the eye or the lens of the camera. Thus in Fig. 5, we have a source of light (S) illuminating the surfac~ of thescreen (a-b-d), the rays from the light being shown by solid lines. Then, by reflection, the original incident rays are
*This subject is discussed fully in Filter.<
find

A beam of light may be considered as .made up of m~riads of small-diameter straight lines or rays wI!h the waves .vlbrating radially along the rays in all plaljles. Lighted spa.ce IS completely permeated with these rays so that, under ordinary con-

Th eir Uses: (Little

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reflected back into the eye (E) of the observer who is then enabled to determine the form and nature of the reflecting surface. The reflected rays are shown in dotted lines to distinguish them from the original incident rays issuing from the lamp or other source of light. It will be noted that not all of the light emitted by the source (S) falls on the screen, the greateP part of the light being d!ss~pated uselessly in the surrounding space. More of the bgHt could be utilized if the screen were made larger so that it could intercept more rays or if the light source were placed nearer the screen. Much depends upon the nature of the reflecting surface as to the amount and nature of the light reflected. A highly polished surface reflects more light than does a dull, rough s?rface of the same color; and, further, the polished surface will :eflect the image of the light source to the eye. If the surface 1S dull or rough, the reflected light will be diff~sed. Iight, more evenly distributed and softer. Dark-colored diffusing surfaces reflect. less light than lighter colors, until we reach dead. black surfaces which reflect no light at all, the light being totally absorbed. By painting or coating the face of the screen with various substances we can produce what is known as selective reflection so that the reflected rays will be of different color than the ;"'hite incident rays. Thus, by using a coating that absorbs all of the waves except those of red frequency, only red light will be reflected to the eye. Thus, paints are substances that absorb all of the colors in a beam of white light except the desired color or color combination which they reflect. In Fig. 6, the tree is viewed by reflected light at the observer's eye (E) where both the form and color of the tree can be distinguished. Light from the source (S) is incident on

n
R

n R

.---------~~---------s
n n

I . 7. Diagram illustrating Ih basic law of reflection.

Fig. 8. Incident ray is broken up by a rough surface as shown.

II! foliage and trunk of the tree and is reflected from a multi1111 (f points such as (P) and (PI) to the eye. The chlorophyll " thl' leaves absorbs all color but the greens, while the bark r th,' trunk absorbs all but the browns so that the eye can de1111 a faithful picture from the reflections. 11'111" 7 illustrates the basic law of reflection, the angle of n ction is equal to the angle of incidence. Thus, (S-S) is a I! h d reflecting surface and line (n-n) is a guide line drawn 11"'lulicular to the surface. Both the incident ray (1) and II II fleeted ray (R) make the equal angles (i-i) with the 1\,C'lIdicular. If! Fig. 8 we have a tough or matte reflecting III II r showing how the original incident ray (I) is broken I Ilito a number of reflected rays (R), illustrating the nature <111111. d light. I lit an be controlled by reflection from suitably curved

It

~~~---- .. ---,.... -....
-..: .••.

E

...... ......

....•.

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M

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.......
R

Fig. 5. Reflected light enables one to see objects about him.

Fig. 6. One can also determine their form, size, and color.

9.

Reflection from the of 0 porabolic mirror.

Fig. 10. Application of mirror as it is used in a reflex ce mera.

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surfaces as from the parabolic mirror (M) of Fig. 9 where light from the source (S) is reflected in the form of a bundle of parallel rays (R) from the front of the mirror. By altering the curve, the bundle of reflected rays can be made to diverge or converge as may be required. Such mirrors are commonly employed in enlargers to increase the ligh t in tensity or so that all of the light dev~oped by the source is applied usefully. Reflection always causes a loss of light because all surfaces, no matter how highly polished, absorb some of the incident light. Highly polished silver reflects from 98 to 99 per cent of the incident light with aluminum a close second, while polished cast iron may only reflect from 10 to 15 per cent of the light. Glass is a highly efficient reflecting surface frequently employed. In Fig. 10 we have a common application of a mirror as used in a reflex camera. A beam of light from the lens (L) is reflected by and turned through an angle of 90 degrees by the mirror (M), so that the image falls upon the viewing screen (R). Some reflection takes place wherever a ray of light encounters a change of density. Thus, as water is more dense than air, a ray from the air suffers reflection on striking the surface of water. Even when passing from the air into a heavier gas, reflection takes place at the boundary of the two fluids. . Refraction of Light body, or deviation body is a ray in

When a ray of light pa~~es through a transparent a body that freely trans;.;v'ts light, it is subject to a called refraction, providing that the density of the greater or less than the density of air. Thus, when
n
/

air enters a sheet of glass at an angle (see Fig. 11), the. ray is bent out of the original direction by an amount that IS governed by the nature of the glass. and the frequency of the light. As this principle is the basis of lens theory, It should be carefully considered. The acute angle formed by the refracted ray and the perpendicular is called the angle of r.ef~actlon of the transparent medium. The !lleasure of deviation of a ray when passing from ope medium to another IS called the index of refraction. In FIg. 11 the line (S-S) IS ~he bo~ndary between the air and the denser transparent medium WIth. th.e normal (n-n) drawn perpendicular to the surface. T~e mCIdent ray (I), in air, strikes the surface at (0) and IS bent sharply to the left (or toward the normal). S? that t~e angle of refraction (r) is less than the angle of I~cldence (I). The incident ray is (1-0). The refracted ray IS (O-T): If the medium below the line were less dense than. the. air .above, then the refracted ray would bend in the opposite direction. But, as before, reflection also takes place from the surface, hence the reflected ray (O-R) makes the. same angle WIth the normal as the incident ray. On entering a tra.nsparent medium of different density than the original medium, the incident ray is broken up into two ra:ys, one a ~efracted ray and the other a reflected ray. There IS necess~n~y a loss <;>f light in the refracted ray because part of the incident ray IS reflected while varying remaining amounts of the transmitted or refracted, ray are lost by absorption in the glass and by internal reflections. . When the refracted ray emerges from the dense medium and re-enters the air, it is again refracted or bent into .the opposite direction so that if the sides of the dense medium are parallel the final refracted ray in air is parallel to the

R

.,

/ /

"

'''''/
/ /~ /

s
I T T T

a

Fig. 1 I. Diagram illustrating the basic law of refraction.

Fig. 12. Path of ray through a pilrallel-sided sheet of glass.

Fig. 13. Light is refracted by a glass prism as shown here.

Fig. 14. A prism having spherical sides refracts light rays.

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. ·T

T

Fig. 15. Two prisms base-to-base

converge

refracted

rays to point T.

incident ray. This condition is shown by Fig. 12 where the incident ray (I) enters the parallel-sided sheet of glass (0), and is refracted in the direction (o-b), and then emerges into the air on the opposite side along (b-T') or parallel to the incident ray (1-0). . h" In Fig 13 is a glass prism employed for refracting t e mCIdent ray (1-0) into the final direction (b-T'). Unfor~un.ately more than refraction takes place with the prism, for an incident ray of white light will be broken up into a band of prismatic colors, which is not always deslrab~e. '" A prism having spheri~al srdes, instead of straight Sides, IS shown by Fig. 14. This IS ~alf of a. biconvex lens and sh<;Jws that it refracts the ray of light until It mt~rsects the .optlcal axis (a-a) at the point (T) or focal pomt-approxm:ately where the image is formed with a spherical lens. In Fig. 15 we have two prisms, (A) and (B)., placed base-to-base for converging the refracted beams to point (T) on the optical axis.

Fig. 17. Prisms apex-to-apex dlv 'ge the refracted rays.

Fig. 18. Double spherical con. cave lens also diverges the rays.

I Ii is a simple explanation of the double convex spherical 1 •• 1 of Fig. 16 so frequently employed in optical work and lilli' or more elements in a compound lens. An image is hu nu-d at the focal point or focal plane (F), but as this lens IIIIdlle'('s some distortion of the image when used alone, it is .1.111111 fund in modern cameras. III Fig. 17 the prisms (A) and (B) are placed apex-to-apex, lcll forming the simple equivalent of the biconcave lens of \ I . 18. This lens diverges the rays and therefore has no " II fn al point at which an image is formed, hence we have ulv III' virtual focus (F) which is simply the point at which Ilc fll'! jected rays meet on the axis. I I' rsion 1111passing through a glass prism, the white incident light 11I1I/{('11 up into a band of various colors known as the trum, This reaction, dispersion, separates the various colI IIf lice spectrum according to their frequencies, the prism or I II Hiving the greatest deviation or refraction to the highII '1111 II Y colors. Violet, indigo, and blue are given more I 11,1I ion than yellow or red and are therefore separated from II I"wer frequencies. In Fig. 19A it will be seen that the "' Id"11 I light ray (X) is broken up into the spectrum, or color lid, at the right where (V) is violet, (I) is indigo, (B) is III" CO) is green, (Y) is yellow, (0) is orange, and (R) is red. Ii prism is of flint optical glass so commonly used in 1011.11 lori s. . III "jl-(. 19B we have the same reaction except that the prism 1111 case is of crown optical glass. It will be seen that the 1111HI.IHS shows the greatest refraction of light rays, and I II opens up the color spacing in the spectrum so that

I

F I

Fig. 16.

Double convex spherical

lens is able to form a real image.

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PHOTOGRAPHIC Square Law.
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co~st~nt light quantity, the intensity of the light on vanes inversely as the square of the distance between urtnce and the source of light. Thus, if a lamp that is t II from a surface is moved out to four feet then the II Ily will become: '
l t

II h

x

x

(AX

2)
-

4
_ =

I;' as

bright.

N X 4)

16

Ii
Fig. flint 19. Showing dispersion of incident ray (XI by prisms of and crown glass. Note higher refraction of flint glass.

is illustrated by Fig. 20 where the lamp (8) illuminates face (A) at a distance (D) from the source. The III quare feet of this surface are each illuminated to one 1 1.III.dle, for .example. Now, if a surface (B) is erected a; ), twice the distance of (D) from the source within the same
III

I hi

the colors in the band are wider and more definitely separated. Or we might say that flint glass has high refraction and high dispersion, while crown glass has a lower refraction and lower dispersion. Light Intensity or Illumination

(

B

The brightness or intensity of the available light is of the greatest importance in photography. The more intense the light, the more rapid will be the exposure because the effect of light on sensitized materials is in almost direct proportion to its intensity. The most common unit for the measurement of light in this country is the foot-candle, or the intensity of light on a white surface one foot square illuminated by a standard candle placed at a distance of one foot from the surface. This standard of illumination is rather small. In bright sunlight, the intensity may reach 800 foot-candles or more at high altitudes where the air is free from moisture. In addition to being affected b)l weather conditions, the intensity of outdoor natural light also varies with the hour of the day and the seasons, so that the light must be accurately determined for a proper exposure. If a given amount of light of given intensity is spread over an increased area, then the intensity will decrease in proportion to the area. In the same way, if an equal amount of light is concentrated on a smaller surface, then the intensity Will be increased. In cameras, the intensity of light on the constant area of the film is varied by controlling the amount of light admitted through the iris and lens.

Ig. 20.

Diagram

illustrating

the
L

inverse

square

law above.

0

0

:1
~
B

L

A

rig. 21. Principle of inverse square

law applied

to a camera.

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light cone, this square surface will contain 16 square feet instead of four square feet, As a result, the illumination on each square foot of (B) will be only one-quarter as great or ~ foot-candle. .... In Fig. 21 the same principle IS app lied to a camera having the constant iris opening (1) and the. lens. (L) .. If the image is brought to focus oq.film (A), t~e light I?tenslty Will be four times as great as on (B) at twice the distance from the lens.

CHAPTER II SIMPLE LENSES
IH) M a photographic standpoint, a lens is a transparent designed for creating a true image of an object by II III iuciple of refraction. This lens may consist of a single I IIIc'lIl or an assembly or group of simple refractive elements, I uding upon the purpose for which the lens is required. II order for a structure to be called a lens, it is necessary II t Ihe opposite sides should not be parallel. For example, tch crystal is not necessarily a lens if the thickness is II nmc throughout, although one surface is concave and the III I is convex. It will be noted in examining the simple forms r phcrical lenses that these sectional views indicate that the I II i ither thicker at its periphery than at the center, or Ie versa. It will also be noted that some' degree of spherical 1I11',Ilme has been imparted to one or both sides of each I mr-nt. a rule, a practical camera lens is built up of two or tuu r simple lenses acting in combination with one another, III III order to simplify matters in this study, we will first take U Ihe properties of the simple elements and progress from III point. See Fig. 22.
I/Ilcly

I'

(

II I
I

1 Classification all

II

I

lording to their action on a ray or beam of light, may be divided into two principal groups:

I.

Converging type lenses which converge the light rays and concentrate them on a point. This class is also known as positive lenses. Plverj~ing or negative lenses that diverge the light rays or spread them Into a cone of increasing diameter. c

urfaces of these lenses are either spherical in shape or lose to spherical. In short, the curvature of the lens I I an generally be defined by a radius except for the highly flllc d types which may show some slight departure from ,Ie II' or sectors of spheres. They are as nearly transparent plIssible so that the light will pass through them with a lnhuum of resistance and the surfaces are accurately polished t h It the light rays will be deflected to exactly the required
I

v

111It.

I vI'ry simple lens causes certain errors and distortions,
II hnple lens is seldom used alone. A second

so or a third

23

24
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C

~auses a ray of incident light to diverge, spreading the light instead of conce~tratmg it on a focal point. Being opposite to a convex lens, It can be used to correct or modify the action of a convex lens in the elimination of certain aberrations or distortions.
0

Concavo-Convex

Lenses

POSITIVE

CONVERGENT

NEGATIVE

DIVERGENT

Fig. 22. Simple spherical lenses: A, plano.conv~x; 8, biconvex; C, unsymmetrical biconvex; D, plano-concave; E, biconcave; F, unsymmetrical biconcave. Their characteristics are explained below.

lens is used to correct the errors in adjacent. glasses, and in this way a very complex structure may be built up. "--

.

Positive Convergent

Lenses

These lenses, which converge the rays of light to forrn a real image of an object, have at least one cOl;vex or bulging surface. They can form images on a screen without as.slstance of other lenses, but this image is always more or less distorted. They are three in number as follows:
0

There are some lenses which have one concave and one convex ~urface. In cases where the concavity predominates the lens IS known as a concave or negative meniscus. Where the convexity predominates the lens will form an image and is known as a convex or positive meniscus (see Fig. 23). Figure 24A shows the well-known Wollaston meniscus lens so extensively used in box cameras. When well stopped down to about f 11 with the aperture (1), it gives quite remarkable results for a single lens, which accounts for its extended use in simple box cameras. Since the convex face is the most deeply curved, the convex factor rules, and the lens is therefore a positrve type that brings the lig:ht ray~ to .a focus at the point (F). Wh!l7 It ca.n be used In either direction, there is a slight advantage In having the concave face forward as indicated, and I~ this case the lens is comparatively free from many aberrations and even partly overcomes astigmatism. It is too slow for all-round use, however, when stopped down to the proper
point.

L

2.

Plano- convex lens. This lens has one sphencal convex face and a fiat face. Biconvex or double-convex lens. This lens, often used as a magnifying glass, has two spherical convex faces and IS probably the most commonly used lens. 3. Unsymmetrical biconve,:, lens. There are two sphencal convex faces with curves of different radii,
0

In Fig, 24B is shown a special achromatic type of Wollaston meniscus partly corrected for chromatic aberration Two elements, on~ of flint and one of crown glass, are ce~ented together. .This type of lens is known as a meniscus achromat. There IS another type of lens structure which is used in
A

B

A

B

The above lenses are all thicker in the center than at the edges a fact that leads to an uneven distribution of light and uneql{al angles of refraction at various points on the lens. Negative Divergent Lenses

These lenses diverge the light rays and can have only a virtual image to the eye. They are most co.mmonly employed 111 combination with other lenses in assemblmg a compound lens. Three simple forms are as follows:
1. 2. 3.

Plano-concave lens. This lens is flat on one side and concave on the other. Biconcave lens. This lens has two spherical concave surfaces, UnsymmetricaI bicon~ave lens ... There are two spherical concave faces with curves of different radii.

These lenses are all thicker at the edges than at the center. Every negative lens has at least one concave side which

Fig. 23. A, positive meniscus; 8, negative meniscus.

Fig. 24. A, Wollaston meniscus used in box cameras; 8, achromatic type of same.

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lenses for certain types of instruments but no~ to any extend in photography. These are known as cylindrical lenses, .an derived in the same way as the sphencal lenses except ~h~t they are segments of a cylinder instead of. segments. a sphere. Cylindrical curves are combiried with spherica curves in spectacle lenses and have as their function the correction of astigmatism in the eye. . . h f The function of a lens is to recomb me the rays of lig t. a point source to a point in the plane of the film. A Pl1 0 ~ is unable to do this in the same way as. a lens. If.a ho e 0 about a quarter of an inch in diameter IS. punched m a card, the rays of light from any point in the Image diverge so as to occupy the entire diameter of the hole as they P!,ss through the card. The rays continue to diverge after p.assmg throug~ the card and reach their maximum dlverg~nce m the plane~ the film. Therefore, in the case of a pinhole apert~re images of point sources will ?e resolved as dls~s. of l1&,ht of greater magnitude than the pinhole through >yhlc~ the Image is projected, even if the point source IS at .mfimty and the sensitized film is only a few inches from the pinhole. . f The eye is able to resolve lines separated by.a distance 0 11100 of an inch at a viewing distance of 10 inches. Lines closer together than this appear as a ~mgle ~tructure. In the case of a pinhole the diameter of the pinhole IS always smaller than the subject point resolved on .the film .. Therefore, a p.mhole 1/100 of an inch in diameter Will have Circles of. confusion rea tel' than 1/100 of an inch in diameter and the Image will ~ppear un sharp as the overlapping of these circles of confusion will give a fu~zy appearance to the picture. If the pinhole were 1/400 of an inch in diameter and the film were ~lose enough so that the spread of the rays were not of a magnitude of over 4 times, the image would appear sharp when Viewed at 10 inches. It will readily be understood that the amount of light which would pass through a pinhole of .1/~00 of an inch would be extremely slight, particularly as this light must be spread over the entire plate. Unlike a lens, the pinhole has no focal length but. may .be placed at any distance from the film. On a ~lm of given size the nearer the pinhole the Wider the angle included, and the more distant the film the narrower the angle and the greater the magnification. .' The pinhole can be used to advantage I~ extreme wideangle work at times. However, a~ the film IS brought closer to the pinhole, the distance from pinhole to film .along the central axis becomes much shorter, while t~e distance to t~e corners of the film becomes .muc~ gr~ater in proportIOn. This will result in unevenness of Illemination, the edges of the film being underexposed while the center may be overexposed, and this same condition will hold true even in the case of a

°i

h°!,

lens. In the Extreme Wide-Angle Hypergon, the lens is provided with a rotating fan which is hinged below the lens. I )U!'ing about two-thirds of the exposure the fan is placed nver the lens and rotated by means of a blast of air provided by a bulb. This fan prevents light from entering the center 1)[ the lens but allows progressively more light to enter towards the periphery. The last third of the exposure is made with the fan out of the way. Only in this way is it possible to K t evenly illuminated negatives in the case of very wide-angle work. Except for the unsharpness and lack of speed, the pin1\ le would be an ideal type of lens. Because of these two inherent faults it has, however, been relegated to the position f an interesting curiosity. We have seen that a ray of light is bent upon its entrance into a plate of glass and again upon its exit, the entrance and exit rays being parallel but not in the same plane. It is upon this property of the refraction of light that photographic objectives are dependent. In order that the bending be uniform and without distortion, it is necessary that the elements of the objective be developed from segments of spheres, as pointed out before. Since light is normally composed of waves of different frequencies, and since these various wave motions are affected differently by the transparent bodies through which they must pass, a number of anomalies arise in the image. In photography a lens may be considered to be a transparent colorless structure which has been polished with one plane and one spherically concave or convex surface, or with both surfaces spherically oncave or convex. In the early days of photography only two materials were available for this purpose. These were crown and flint glass. rown glass was composed of lime, potash, alumina (aluminum xide occurring as native corundum), and silica; whereas the flint glass contained lead oxide in place of the alumina. This substitution resulted in a product which was more highly refractive. Simple lenses composed of either of these materials gave an image circular in outline which was extremely distorted near the margin but which became increasingly sharper toward the center. Consequently, it was necessary to use only the center portion of the image, and since the periphery f the lens gave even a distorted fuzzy picture in the center, the marginal rays of the lens were eliminated by stopping down the diaphragm or by cutting off the thinner portion of the lens. See Fig. 25. By cutting down the image to the central portion of the field and diaphrag ming off the marginal rays, it was possible to get an image of satisfactory sharpness for visual observation. However, this did not prove to be particularly good for photographic purposes, since the refraction of the different wavelengths varied considerably. The blue rays were refracted

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most and focused closer to the lens, while the red rays were refracted the least and focused Iarthes" from the lens. The eye focuses in the yellow-green region of ~he spectr';lm or about in the center of the refracted rays, while the active chemical rays to which the photographic film is most sensitive lie considerably in front of this visual point. Consequently t~e image on the photographic plate had a tendency to be quite soft or fuzzy, since the blue 2I'I1d. ultra-violet rays crossed in front of the plane focused on (Fig. 26). One of the first problems, therefore, was to try to bring all of the light rays passing through the lens to. the sa!De focal point in the image plane. This could be done with a fal.r degree of success by combining tw~ lenses made from matenals having different refractive arid disperSive propern.es. Such an objeclive is called achromatic, or without color fnnges. These first achromatic lenses were developed about 1850 and were a great improvement over the simple lenses in use before that time, since they allowed a greater amount of ~orrectlOn and .at the same time did not require as small a diaphragm openmg as had been the case for somewhat similar results with a simple lens. fl' However. none of the lenses composed of crown and int glass could yield critically sharp images over a very wide angle, and they required so much diaphragming that they were und~ly slow. Abbe introduced the use of a natural mineral, fluorite, into microscope objectives in 1884, which allowed of grea.ter refinement in the image. About 1890, through the collaboration of Ernest Abbe and Otto Schott, a new series of optical glasses were developed at Jena. Although glass was known. to the ancients, and crown and flint glasses were common ar ticles of commerce and were highly developed from the standpomt of freedom from color and strain, the relatively small use of glass
r-_
1
__ »> -'">-

hy the optical industry had resulted in a lack of enthu~iasm on part of the glass industry in attempting research on glass or this purpose. By 1870 the need for special glasses for optical Jl,urpo~es had become so acute that through a grant from the 1 russian Government and technical aid from the Zeiss Works tile problem wa.s attacked with the object of developing special R.asses for. optical purposes. The result of this research was highly gra~lfymg arid a number of new materials were developed With v.ery. lI1.terestmg properties. I . ~lhlle It IS possible to fuse various materials which yield 11g .Y transparent fluxes .. the resulting products may have physical characte~lstJcs which are highly undesirable. For example, the material may be very soft and thus be subject to ~bra~J(:)J1, or the m~tenal may be easily affected by atmospheric conditions so that in a very short time the surface may become tarnished or frosted over, due to its reaction with air and moisture. A good glass should be hard enough so that it will not become scratched by normal handling and should be inert chernically, At th~ same t.ime the materials must have the ability to refract and disperse Itgi: t rays in varying degrees. The research work at J ena resulted JJ1a number of new glasses which had !"lotonly these desirable qualities of transparency, hardness, and Il"!ertness, but also. gave us .new optical properties which were hitherto unknown in the optical industry. . It might. be mentioned that the number of elements in ~ photographic obJ~ctlv.e IS no. criterion of its excellence, since three elements Will yield an Image of high quality as seen in tGheTriotar or the Cooke lens which is used extensively on the . raflex came.ra for high-speed work as well as color' and it IS quite possible to suppose that some of those lenses which have SIX, eight, or. ten elements may have been designed to overcome patent difficulties rather than optical problems. It

lhc

I

I

B

G

R

~~:
~

___ --___

I I

I I •••.• I 1

--

_~

l

.•..

'.
F!g. 26. Showing how a simple lens brings the blue and ultraViolet rays (B) to a focus in front of the green and red rays.

,

Fig. 25. By using a diaphragm to cut off marginal rays, a sharper image is obtained with a simple uncorrected lens.

30

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must also be understood that it is impossible to.overcome the inherent aberrations in a lens by merely combining two or more lenses made of the same material. At the time when most photographic objectives were designed -and there have been very few major changes in photographic objectives since 1900-two factors were of outstanding importance. One was the fact that the photographic plate was sensitive only to the blue region (Ji the spectrum and fell off very rapidly in sensitivity toward the red end, while the human eye had its greatest sensitivity in the yellow-green region of the spectrum, and the greatest necessity was to develop objectives which satisfied these requirements. However, within the last decade the sensitivity of the negative material has been increased to such a degree that when used to their extremes many photographic objectives are not corrected sufficiently to bring both the ultra-violet and the infra-red to the same focus as the yellow-green. About 1920 interest was aroused in photography using the ultra-violet region of the spectrum. Very few optical glasses transmitted light below about 3500 Angstrom units. This necessitated the use of new materials, the most satisfactory of which was natural quartz. At first lenses were ground from solid quartz crystals. During recent years, manufacturing methods for the production of fused quartz have advanced rapidly. The first fused quartz which was produced could scarcely have been called transparent, since the number of bubbles was so great that it was fit only for laboratory utensils. At the present time, however, fused quartz which is practically flawless may be obtained. Photographic objectives which are eminently satisfactory for special purposes have been made from this material. Within the last few years, considerable publicity has been given to moulded lenses made of synthetic plastics. At the present time the plastic lens has not developed to any great extent due to the limited number of materials available. Focal Point and Focal Length The principal focal point of a positive lens is commonly understood to be the point at which a sharp image is formed when the object is at a great or infinite distance from the lens so that the incident rays from the object are parallel. In order to locate the focal plane or focal point of the lens itself, the dimension known as the focal length or equivalent focal length is employed. Technically, the focal length (L) is the distance from the node of emission in the lens to the focal point; but to simplify matters in this first elementary discussion, the distance will be measured from the front face or center of the lens as indicated in the drawings referred to. The nodes of admission and emission will be discllssed later.

..
a

f

~
~R

•••.....

F

a

~,
Fig. 27. Focal length of a plano-convex lens is shown here.

R

R

f<-Fig. 28. The biconvex

L

lens has a shorter

focal

length.

RI F

a

R2

L

Fig. 29.

Focal length

of an unsymmetrical

biconvex

J

lens.

32

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As a rough estimate, the focal length (L) in the figures is given in terms of the radius (R) which is only approximately true, as the exact focal length is also affected by the refractive index of the glass employed. All measurements are taken on or parallel to the optical axis (a-a) on which the light rays are assumed to converge. All parts of the lens system are symmetrical about the optical axis which, however, is not always exactly coincident with the g~metrical axis of the lens. In the case of the plano-convex lens in Fig. 27, the focal length (L) is measured from the front face of the lens to the focal point (F), and is approximately twice the radius (R). This is fairly close to the average case when flint optical glass is used. The focal length of the biconvex lens, Fig. 28. is measured from the center of the lens to (F) and is approxrmately equal to the radius (R). Thus, the focal length of a biconvex lens is half that of a plano-convex lens having the same radius of curvature. The biconvex lens is of more interest to us at present than the other lenses for the reason that its action is similar to that of a complete camera lens, and it is therefore much used in elementary discussions of lenses in place of the more complex objective. It will be found used, from time to time, in this book for illustrative diagrams where' the complexity of the actual lens would obscure the explanation: Figure 29 is a "crossed" or unsymmetricall?iconvex lens with the two radii (Rl) and (R2) for the rear and front faces respectively. This lens is frequently employed for the partial correction of certain aberrations or distortions that occur with equal radii. The calculation for the focal length (L) of the unsymmetrical lens is more complex than the others or t 2 X Rl X R2 L =----Rl R2

I~'-------~F

-------+1.---

o----------------~--~~ o--------------------~_
F

o----------------------~--~

0------------------~----~--1
Fig. 30A. An object at infinity is brought to a f ocus at point F.

50'--------~--

o

+

Fig. 30B.

With

50-foot

object

distance,

image

distance

increases.

It should be noted that glass having a high degree of refraction or a high refractive index. bends the rays more sharply through a greater angle than does glass having a low refractive index, hence the high index glass gives a shorter focal length with a given radius than other glass. In manufacture this factor is controlled by testing the refractive index of every piece used, before the lens is ground, using only the proper glass. Object Distance and Focal Point lens is asat a great the actual at infinity,

When the focal length of a lens is specified, the sumed to be focused at infinity or on an object distance from the lens. At any other object distance focal length or bellows extension is longer. Focused

Fig. 30e.

Image

distance

increases

more as

0 b'(ect

approaches

lens.

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the light rays entering the lens are parallel S? that the ben.ding due to refraction is less than at shorter distances. In FIg. 30A the rays (0) coming from the object at infinity are parallel and come to focus at (F). Let us assume that in this case the rated focal length under these standard conditions is S inches. In Fig. 30B the object distance is reduced from infinity to 50 feet which means that the distance from the lens to the focal poi~t has now increased to S.W inches. I~ Fig. 30C the object distance is further reduced to 6 feet while the lens to focal point distance is now increased to 5.37 inches. . This shows why the changing angle of th<: light rays. at different object distances also causes changes in the location of the focal point and makes focusing a necessary operation for the accurate camera. Some cameras are made with a "fixed focus" and require no adjustment within certain limits, but such arrangements are deficient in other respects and are usually confined to the less expensive types. Approximate Infinity

The size of the image is proportional to the focal length of the lens, hence a 6-inch lens will show a much larger image of .rn object than a 2-inch lens from the same viewpoint. The mall size of the image is one of ·the principal drawbacks of the miniature camera, and explains why long focal length lenses uid telephoto lenses are supplied as auxiliary lenses for the
uiiniatur es.

Figure 31 shows clearly why focal length has a direct effect upon image size, the image in this case being an arrow. With t he shortest focal length (A) the image size is also the shortest as at (1). Increasing the focal length to (B) gives the larger image (2), while with the extreme focal length (C) the very large image (3) is obtained. This is easily solved by the method IIi" proportional triangles with the view angle (a) of constant \ .rlue. This relationship between focal length and image size i an important consideration in the selection of a lens for the I nrnera or enlarger. onjugate Foci

It is of course impossible in practice to focus upon an object ~t an infinite distance, hence the question often arises, "how can I approximate infinity without error?". In most cases, it will be perfectly safe to assume that any point tart~er than one-quarter mile from the camera can be taken as infinity

There is a fixed relation between the object-to-lens distance und the image-to-lens distance, as suggested in the preceding paragraphs. One distance is said to be the conjugate of the

3
2

o

c
Fig. 31. Focal length of the lens has a direct effect on the image size as shown in this diagram and explained in the text.

1<

A

_.La -J
distance (AI of the other.

Fig. 32. There is a fixed relation between object and image distance (8), one being the conjugate

with cameras having a focal length of 6 inches or less. One mile will be safer with cameras of greater focal length. For any lens, approximate infinity will be the focal length squared multiplied by the reciprocal of the desired circle of confusion as explained further in Chapter III.

nther, and the two distances are interchangeable. This is illust rated by Fig. 32 where the greater distance (A) is the major conjugate and the shorter distance (B) is the minor conjugate. l'he object size (0) bears the same relation to the image size (I) that the major conjugate bears to the minor conjugate.

36.

~L~IT~T~L~E~T~E~C~H~N~I~CA~L~L=I=B~R~A~R_Y ~

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This can also be expressed by the simple formula:
size of imalle size of object Image distance

_-=------

object distance

I or 0

= -

B A

Thus if the minor conjugate or ~mage. distance (B~ is 100.inc~es and the major conjugate or object distance (A) IS ~O 1(0) e.s, then the ratio of the image si!e (1) to the object ?Ize . IS also 10 to 100 or 1 to 10. The two conjugate ¥OCi are interchangeable, it being possible to subs~ltute th: Image. for th.e object at either end. Thus if the ratio of. object. to Image IS 10, then the linear reduction will be l/~O with the image at the end of the minor conjugate. Again, If the .ratio of image to object is 10 then the linear enlargement Will be 10 w.lth the image at the end of the major conjugate. These ratios are expressed as (r) and (R) respectively, .where \r~ denotes the number of times the linear size of the Image dl,vldes mto. that of the object and (R) denotes the number of times the linear size of the object divides into that of the image. These ratios may be expressed as follows:
size of object r = size of imalle (linear); R = size of imall,e size of object (linear)

The conjugate foci and focal length of the lens are dependent one on the other as we have just seen. This relationship can be expressed by another basic and simple formula from which can be derived a number of other formulas which are often useful to the camera owner for calculating an unknown factor. We will not attempt here to delve into the mathematics by which these formulas are evolved. Some of the equivalent values are obtained by constructing a diagram showing the principles of image formation and considering the proportional parts of similar triangles. Among the various factors brought into use are the values (v-f) and (u-f) which represent the difference between each of the conjugate foci and the focal length of the lens. They are known as the extra-focal distances and serve to simplify calculations. It can be demonstrated that the extra-focal object distance is equal to the focal length divided by the ratio of image to object, and the extra-focal image distance is equal to the focal length of the lens multiplied by the ratio of image to object. Here, then, are a number of working formulas which will be found useful to the amateur:
Let: f = Focal lengrh of the lens. u =Distance of object from the lens. v = Distance of Image from the lens (bellows); D = Total distance from object to Image. The nodal space Is disregarded as In most cases It Is very small compared

Accordingly (r) is the number of times of linear reduction and (R) the nur:"ber of times of linear enlarg;ement. h f I Where the ratio of object to Image size (r) and t ~ oca length of the lens (f). are known, one can .eas~ly determine the major and minor conjugates by the following.
Major conj ugate Minor conjullate = f = f = 2f

wtrh D.

R =Number divided r =Number divided

of times of enlargement (linear size of Image by linear size of object). of times of reduction (linear size of object by linear size of Image),

+ (f
+r
f

X r)

Total distance

+ fr +-r
(I' (t

f

For extveme accuracy the distances (u) and (v) are calculated from the nodes of admission and emission respectively. Howrver, for practical purposes we can consider them as measured from the surfaces of a single lens or the diaphragm of a compound lens. The basic formula mentioned above is:
I
-=

Let us suppose that with a 6-inch lens we wish to photograph a Hl-irich object so that the image will be exactly 1I1~ or 1 . h hi h Here the ratio (r ) is 10, and the object distance Il~ajo:gc~njugate), bellows draw (minor conjugate), and total distance from object to ground glass would be calculated as follows:
Major conjugate Minor conjullate Total distance = 6 = 6
=

f

-+u v

I

I

cli tance, image distance,
u xv f---; u+v fXv
U=--;

m which are derived other formulas for calculating object scale of enlargement or reduction, cal length, etc., when certain of the factors are known:
fXu
v =--

+

(6 X 10) = 66 inches 6 = 6.6 inches 6 = 72.6 Inches

v+-f

u-f

+10

12

+ 60 + -

10

f R- --; u -·f

R=

v-f -f

38
u r= -;
v

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v-f

uXR f=--; R+I

v f=--; R+I

u f~ r+1

vXr f~ r+1

This is the distance measured from the rear face of the lens to the film or focusing screen surface and is a unit that is seldom used. The original reasons for the employment of the back focal length were to afford a definite point on the lens from which to measure the focal length, and to give an idea of the minimum distance required between the camera lens and groundglass screen. Optical Center For the measurement of the focal length and other distances from the lens, it is frequently the practice to make measurements from the optical center of the lens, assuming that the center is the point of light concentration. This is only approximate at best and subject to some error, but at least it gives \15 a definite point from which we can repeat measurements when required. In the case of the biconvex lens of Fig. 33, the optical center (0) is also the geometrical center, being halfway between the two surfaces on the optical axis. The focal length (L) is measured from (0) to the focal point (F). The point (0) is determined by drawing two parallel lines from the centers of curvature (C) until they intersect the surfaces at (rn-rn) , and connecting these intersections by the line (rn-rn). The intersection of the latter line with the principal axis at (0) will give the ( ptical cen ter. In the case of a plano-convex lens, Fig. 34, the optical center (0) lies at the intersection of the convex surface with the optical centerline, and measurements (L) to the focal point (F) are made from this point as shown. The center of an unsymmetrical lens, Fig. 35, is determined hy the same method as shown in Fig. 33, using the centers of curvature (C) and drawing the diagonal (m-rn) so that it interccts the optical center at (0). This shows that the optical (' nter always lies closest to the most deeply curved surface of the positive lenses-even on the curve in the case of the planoronvex lens. Lens Nodes or Gauss Points A more accurate basis for lens measurement is provided by the nodes or Gauss points determined by estimation or actual It'Rt. These are imaginary points that are invariable under all runditions and are therefore fixed points of reference that have been adopted by opticians. Except in cases where the points may be coincident, there

DXR f= (R+1)'

DXr f= (r+1)'

v U=-;

R

f u=-+f: R

u=vXr;

u=(r+1)Xf

u

f

v=uXR

v ~(f XR)+f ;

v = -;
r

v = - +f ;

RXD v= --; R+I

D v=-r+1

D=fX

1 (R+ -+2); R

1 D=fX(r+-+2) r

vX(R+1) D= R

D~vX(r+1)

D=uX(R+l):

uX(r+l) D= --r

From

the formula

(r

= -)
v

u

it will be seen that

when the
.

object distance and image distance a~e equal, the image Size is the same as the object size. According t? the basic formula both distances will be equal to 2 X f or .twlce the focal. length. . Thus if one desires to photograph an object the same size with a 6-i~ch lens the object will be 12 inches from the lens and t~e image will b'e located the same distance behind the lens. T~l1S explains the popularity of cameras With groundglass focusing backs and double-extension bellows.

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c

Fig.: 33.

Finding

the

op+ical

center

of a biconvex

lens.

c

F

lire two nodes. One is the node of admission concerned with the rays entering the lens. The second node is the node of mission concerned with the light rays leaving the lens and lflSsing to the picture plane or focal point. By definition, the f ocal length of a lens is the distance from the node of emission t the focal point. The object distance is the distance from the bject to the node of admission. With certain lens designs, the two nodes may occur at the same point or be coincident while in other lenses one or both nodes may lie entirely outside of the body of the lens. In the plano-convex lens of Fig. 36, the node of admission is at (a) while the node of emission is (e), both of which are near the deeply curved surface, the node of admission lying directly on the curved surface as in the case of the optical center, As shown, the actual focal length (L) is the distance from the node of emission (e) to the focal point (F). The node f emission is determined by projecting or continuing the line of the emitted rays until they intersect the centerline at (e) as indicated by the short dotted lines. In Fig. 37 the nodes are shown for a symmetrical biconvex lens where they are close to the respective lens surfaces. It will be seen that a con sidrable error in calculations would be involved if the central optical center were used for the measurement of the focal I ngth instead of the node of emission. The optical center, it will be remembered, was at the geometrical center of the lens for a biconvex type so that the error would amount to about 20 per cent of the lens thickness. The nodal planes, which run vertically through the nodes, are shown at (m) and (n). In this case, where the node of admission is ahead of the node of emission, the intervening distance (d) called the nodal space is a considerable dimen-

Fig. 34.

Optical

center

of plano-convex

lens shown here.

c

C

l

F

F


Fig. 35. Optical center of an unsymmetrical biconvex lens. Fig. 36. Nodes of II plano-convex lens: a, node of admission, e, node of emission. The nodal planes are shown by m and n.

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f
D

Fig. 37. Nodes of admission and emission of a. symmetrical biconvex lens are located near the respective surfaces.

Fig. 38. Light from a given object point. is distributed evenly over the entire surface of a lens as shown here.

sion and must be added to the object-to-image ?is.tance. Where the nodes are crossed, with the node of adrnis aion at the rear of the lens, the noda.l space must be deducte~. The matter of nodes has been discussed in order to expl.a111. what they are, as they are an important factor in the des igriing of lenses. The amateur photographer, however, need not be concerned with them. Distribution of Light on Lens

scratches with black paint, fill through the s.urface of the lens, interfering With ~he projection only drawback Will be a slight the amount of light blocked off. Path of Light Through
Clf.

in bubbles that have broken or repair lens cracks without of the complete image. The loss in the lens speed due to Lenses

Simple Positive

Since a single illuminated point sends o.ut.an infinite or num- . berless series of rays in every dlrectlOn, It IS evident that rays from such a point will completely cover. the surface of ~ lens facing such a point-not only at a few P01l1ts but ev.ery P01l1ton the lens surface. Such a condition is shown by Fig. 38 where the illuminated point (S) radiates rays al.l over the surface of the lens as indicated by the radi;;tl1ines. W ith 'a lens dl~m.eter (D), the cone angle of the contacting rays .IS (a). This IS a ve.ry important point to remember because It has much to do With lens performance. . ldi '11 Cutting off a portion of the rays by shie mg WI not entirely suppress the image of the p01l1t on the screen. Thus, if a sheet of cardboard (~). is u.sed ~o shield the lens. from the upper rays, the image point Will still al?pe~r on the picture plane but with less intensity, as the shleld111g reduces the quantity of light passing through the lens .. Placing a patch on the surface of the lens Will not block the image, hence the bubbles frequently appearing in lens glass Will not interfere with the projection of the image unless they are so numerous that they completely block the opening. . This condition, fortunately, permits us to paint out lens

Up to th~ pr.esent time yre have adopted the most elementary schematic light path diagrams for simplicity in explanation without attempting to indicate how the rays actually pass through the .Iens. This was done to avoid unnecessary comphcation until such time that the basic principles were underlood. But, befor.e we begin. with the more advanced diagrams, it hould be said that the light entering the camera lens is seldom 11 single r~y fr~m. a concentrated source of light, but rather I'-flected light Issu~ng from many reflecting surfaces such as tl~e leaves of trees 111 a land~cap~. These reflected rays, coming [10m every unobstructed direction, require further discussion when constructing ?- lens diagram. A ~Iagram sh.ow1l1.gthe primary conditions encountered in Iocusing an o.bJect instead of a concentrated point of light I shown b~ FI~. 39, wh~re the. object is the arrow (A-B). The I orr esponding inverted Image IS formed at (A' -B') by the lens (L). A point .(A) . selected a.t the arrowhead radiates light rays III every direction of which the band falling on the lens is lncluded 111the angle (a). Passing through the lens (L) tit ,se ra;ys a!,e refracted and reproduce the point of light at (A). Likewise, a P01l1t (B) selected on the tail of the arrow

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A~~----~-,,

~

B'

A~~------------------~

--

o

r--

,/,/,
,/,/,/~~
B

,/

--- --='---" A
B

~~

1.-

u

Fig. 39. Sketch showing the primary conditions focusing an obiect instead of a concentrated

enc;ountere.d in point of hght.

Fig. 40. This sin:'ple single-lens op+lcel system shows how, by means of four hght rays, the image plane can be located.

creates a bundle of radial light rays in the angle (b) that also cover the lens (L). The latter rays are brought to a focus at (B') on the image. The rays from the arrowhead are shown as solid lines while those from the tall are sh.own as dot~ed lines for ease in distinguishing the rays. This same action takes place with every light-emitting point on the arrow so that the complete image is formed along (A'-B'): The ray system for each point is complete within itself WIthout CONflict with any adjacent systems. .' It is evident from the diagram that the quantity of lIght from each point increases with an increase in the angles (a) and (b), hence the quantity of light entermg the .lens (and, therefore, the lens speed), will increase WIth a~ mcrease.111 the diameter of the lens (L), since the angles mcrease WIth the diameter. . In Fig. 40, is shown a complete diagram, of a simple smglelens optical system employing a biconvex lens. By me~ns of four light rays from the object we a~e able to lo~ate the Image. To simplify the explanatIOn. we WIll not copslder the nodal points of the lens. The optical center .(C) IS on t)"le optical axis (X-X). The point (F) is the principal focal point, or the point where rays whi~h ar_e parallel to the op tical axis of the lens converge to a point, . . Light rays from points (A) and (B) on the object stnke the lens surface at (b) and (C;), respective.ly .. They are refracted and intersect the axis (X-X) at the pnnclpal focus (F). The principal focal length (f) is the distance ~ro.m (C) to (F) (actually the distance from the node of emISSIOn to F). The rays cross the axis at (F) and are indefinitely prolonged until they intersect the dotted lines at (N) and (B') where they form the image on the picture plane. The dotted lines from (A)

add .(B) subtend the object and enter- the lens (at the node of a mISSIOn) where they cros~ ~t the optical axis. They leave t~e lefs (at the node of eITIlSSlOn)and their intersection with ~ e re racted rays at (A') and (B') determines the focal or Image plane. hT~e angle (D) varies with the distance of the object from ~ e ens, becoming smaller as the object is removed farther \om the lens. Decreasing the angle by increasing the object dl~ta~ce (u) cause~ the intersection to take place closer to the p~~nclp.al"focal I?omt (F) so that, at a sufficient distance ~ mfimty.> the Ima.ge becomes coincident with the principai ocu~. W!th the object close to the lens, there is a very percep tible ddleren~e between (f) and the image distance (v). When the object. distance (u) is 100 times the focal length squared, the.n the plc~ure plane position can be substituted for the focal. point (F) wl~h less ~ha!1 1 per cent error, and (F) can B,n)sldT~ed as. being coincident with the picture plane ... us, WIth a. focal length of 6 inches, the minimum object distance at .whlch (v) can be substituted for (f) is: 6 X 6 X 100 = 3600 inches = 300 feet Since !1egative lenses have no actual focal point, an imaginary focal pomt known as the virtual focus is employed for making measurements or calculations with them. When combined with convex lens having a focal length equal to the virtual focal cngth of the companion negative lens, the light ray passes through .the combination without deviation as through a parallel-SIded sheet of glass. A plano-concave lens is shown in Fig. 41, flat on one side ll~ld concave on the other. The incident rays (i) s read or diverge .by refraction as at (t). This is frequently k~own as a reducing glass as objects viewed through it appear smaller

~A'

f

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F

VF .,,/

Fig. 41. The plano-concave lens has only a virtual focal point.

Fig. 42. Combination, each lens with same radius of curvature.

Fig.43_ Doublet with biconvex and plano-concave elements.

Fig. 44. Similar doublet with biconvex and biconcave lenses.

than actual size. While seldom used ~lone in a camera lens it is frequently used in combmatlOn wl~h other convex lenses and particularly in telephoto assemblies where the planoconcave is employed to increase t~e focal lengt~ of. the assembly. The biconcave lens,. which IS also a negative divergent' type, is a lens unit that IS very frequently employe? l.n compound lens assemblies. Having two concave faces, It IS twice as effective as the plano-concave lens. The effective focal length of both the plano-concave and the biconcave lenses is the virtual focal length measured to the virtual focal point (VF). This focal point .IS obtained by ~rojecting the diverging rays back where the~ intersect the optical axis. This point locates the plane 10 which the imagmary or virtual image is assumed. Simple Combinations of Lenses

Admittance Factor The amount of light admitted to the camera depends upon the free or net area of the lens through which the light passes. For high-speed exposures it is evident that a large opening is necessary at. the lens. The greater the amount of light falling on the sensitized surface of the film the more rapidly will the change be made in the emulsion by the light. Admittance IS proportional to the free area of the lens and for the round openings commonly employed, this varies as th~ square of the diameter and not directly as the diameter. In .om.e cases, ~he admittance factor is based upon the quantity of light passing through the opening. In some specifications the admittance factor is the net admittance factor taken at th~ rear end of the lens. This takes into account the many losses ~hat. occur within the lens such as those caused by absorpt ion 1!1 t~e glass, by reflection, etc. This is the logical factor as It indica tes the net available light. Lens Area and Image Brightness Lenses differ in the amount of light they admit. Exposure is depel?-dent upon. the amount of light falling on a given area of film 10. the camera. As was stated in Chapter I, the principle f the inverse square law applies in the formation of an ima~e. The illumination of an image depends on the area of the Aefu-J. ~lnd ItS Io cal length. If a lens of given aperture for s~an 6/ Image 2 inches square at a distance of 3 inches from th lens when ~ocused on infinity, it will form an image 4 inches q~are :l.t a distance of 6 inches from the lens when copying a ral ize. This second image will cover 4 times the are ov-

Various combinations of concave and convex lenses are in use. In Fig. 42 we have a concave and a convex lens assembly separated by an air space. Since both lenses have an equal radius of curvature, the rays of light .are unaffected. and pass straight through as indicated. Fig. 43 IS an achromatic doublet frequently encountered in the cheaper b!?x earner as. It consists of a biconvex lens cemented with Canada balsam to a plano-concave lens. By its use color aberratIOns are larg~ly suppressed. Two kinds of glass are employed, .generally flint glass for the biconvex and crown glass of equivalent for ~he plano-concave. Fig. 44 is another achromatic. doublet employmg a biconcave lens element, cemented to a biconvex lens made of dissimilar glass. This is very frequently used as the front element of a compound lens.

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ered by the first image although the film may use only a part of the image formed. The same light will be spread over 4 times as great an area and consequently the image will be y,; as bright as the image formed at a distance of 3 inches. Thus, the brightness of the image is inversely proportional to the square of the focal length of the lens. Since the amount of light admitted by the lens depends on the aperture of the lens, and area of the aperture depend4J on the square of its diameter, image brightness will vary directly with the square of the diameter of the aperture. The

with an f8, we compare the square of 8 to the square of 2, or:
(8 X 8)
--

64
==

16.0

(2 X 2)

4

f

Function

Simply specifying the lens opening gives no direct indication of the lens speed for the reason that the area illuminated is also concerned in the matter. If a given lens opening in inches or millimeters is to be used in two objectives of different focal lengths, one covering a 4x5 film and the second covering an 8xlO film, it is evident that four times the exposure time will be required to cover the larger film because it has four times as much area as the 4xs film and the objective will be twice as far from the film as is the case with the 4xs film. Of course, this relative speed can be expressed by a comparison between the lens and film areas, but a much simpler system has been devised in which computations are based entirely upon the lens factors-the free lens opening and its focal length. Thus we have lens speed factors such as f8, f4.s, f2.s, etc., all measurable from the lens itself. Instead of employing the film area, the proportional focal length of the lens is employed, as the focal length is proportional to the film area. It is evident that if the focal length is doubled the image size and film area will also be doubled. The lensopening diameter (light admittance) is compared to the focal length to obtain the speed function (f). ' The f-number of a lens is equal to the focal length divided by the diameter of the free lens opening. Thus, if the free opening diameter in the lens is 1.5 inches and the focal length is 7.5 inches, then:
7.5

In .other wo.r~s,. an f2 lens is 16 times faster than an f8 I or'llf ~he f2 Ir~s IS stopped down to f8, the speed of the car::rs~ WI e one-sixteenth the speed when wide open at f2 Th expohsures required at different stops are directly propo~tional t o t e square of .the f-numbers. !hi free ?pemng. or effective aperture used in the above ~~ cu a~lOhs IS the diameter of a beam of light after passing f roug t e orward part of the lens and ahead of the .. Ii I: us rally \he diameter of the aperture plate placed just bl:~k o he. ~ont ens element. In a simple lens with the sto in front, It. IS.t~e actual diameter of the stop opening. The mefhod of determining effective aperture is explained in Chapter III. Resolving Power of a Lens The. ability of a lens to show fine detail is affected bits' resolving In practice ' a circle 1/100' mc h 111 j di y . d at power. a di iameter vl~we at a dlsta~ce of 10 inches, will appear to the eye as ~ POll1t~a!1d·11100 inch has therefore been taken as the lar est permissible circle of confusion in photographic lenses for ;on~a~t .PI r.mtll1&,. Every commercial lens is expected to reproduce e ai 111 Ul1lt~ no .larger than 11100 of an inch. hMany spe11<:1high-grade lenses designed for aerial cameras s ow a reso vmg power as. high a~ 1I500-inch, but it is necesfiary JOt ~le. these lenses with special film capable of recording ne e ai 111order to obtain the maximum efficiency of the le~s. Tht ~esofilvlll1g power is somewhat dependent upon the nha. ure b~ t Ie m and the developer. More will be said on t IS su ject ater.

1=

= 15 1.5

When the camera is provided with an adjustable or iris'diaphragm, a great variety of lens speeds can be had to fit various lighting and distance conditions. The lower the f-number, the faster the lens, hence an f2 lens is much faster than an f8 lens. .. The relative speeds of a lens are inversely proportional to the square of the f-numbers. Thus, in comparing an f2.0 lens

,
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CHAPTER III LENS MEASUREMENTS
Focusing Methods

F

OCUSING on a given object distance consists of adjusting the obj~ctive of the camera .in res?ect t~ the focal plane (or film emulsion) until a sharp ~ma~e IS obtamed. A~ there ~5 a distinct position for every unit dIstance o~ the object, It .IS evident that reiocu~ing is necessary every time that the dIStance of the object IS changed. f The exact method of focusing depends UpOIo th~ type 0 camera and its construction. but basically the le~s IS moved in respect to the picture plane in all systems. Class!fied according to the focusing methods, we have the following types of cameras:
View cameras. The image is shown on a groundglass screen ,at the 1. rear of the camera where it can be observed for. sharpness while the lensboard (or back) is racked back and forth during focusmg. 2. 3. ~{e~s~toif~;e~Si~~dh~~~e~aili:r~C~le :t,11:i~~g t~~li~~aSt:d ;~cf~~f ::t~~: to agree with the various object distances. Distance IS estimated. Universal or fixed focus cameras in whicb the lens is rigidly held in one position, focused on the hyperfocal distance .• ThIS l2a'ferta ;~ good only for a limited range of dIstances, say irorn ee infinity at a relatively small aperture. Coupled range finder cameras are device coupled with the focusing lens is moved automatically with a. Rangefinder WIth a pivoted b. Rangefinder with a rotating provided with a distance.me~surihg meehan.lsm In such a way t at t e the adjustment of the rangefinder. rmrror system. pnsm.

rangefinder and reflex cameras are easier to focus and can be focused more rapidly than the view camera. . In the majority of cameras, the entire lens and its mount are moved back and forth during focusing. In the view and hand cameras, the lens is mounted in the front movable lens board which in turn is moved back and forth along the camera bed by means of a rack and pinion. In most miniature cameras, the lens is mounted in a focusing mount and is focused by rotating the mount. A screw thread in the mount determines the movement along the axis. A third method is the front element focusing system in which the rear lens element is rigidly attached to the camera while the front lens element is moved b~ck and forth by turning a screw thread (helix). The distances en~raved on the focusing scales are usually quite accurate, particularly those on the focusing-mount type of lens, but occasionally it may be necessary to remark or readjust the scales because of an accident to the camera or changes made in the camera. It is then that we require a knowledge of focusing measurements and adjustments. Focal Length of Lenses

~!

The focal length of most lenses is marked on the front end of the lens: this is quite accurate a:,-d.not subject to change. If a sufficient change takes place WIthin the lens to materially change its focal length, then you may be assured that other difficulties will also be discovered that make repairs necessary. In the following table are given the equivalent lens focal lengths in inches for corresponding dimensions in metric me asur e it being common practice to quote focal lengths in both syste~s.
M!111meters (mm) 15 25 35 45 50 60 75 80 90 105 120 125 Centlmeters (ern) 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.5 8.0 9.0 10.5 12.0 12.5 Inches (in) 0.5906 0.9843 1.3780 1.7717 1.9685 2.3622 2.9528 3.1496 3.5433 4.1339 4.7245 4.9214 Millimeters (mm) 135 150 155 165 180 195 210 240 250 270 300 360 500 Centimeters (em) 13.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 18.0 19.5 21.0 24.0 25.0 27.0 30.0 36.0 50.0 Inches (in) 5.3150 5.9056 6.1024 6.2992 7.0867 7.6772 8.2678 9.4489 9.8426 10.6300 11.8111 14.1734 19.6850

4.

5.

ReRex cameras in which the full size image is reflected to a viewing r en b a mirror, the Image being ro~used on the sc.reen. sc: Sini;.le.lens reflex with tilting mirror that IS lifted above ~e • 0 tical axis and out of the way when the e~po5ure 15 ma e. single lens is used both for focusing and making the exposur"d b Twin-lens reflex. One lens for the Iocusirig finder screen ~an . a second lens for the exposure, both lenses being moved at one time during focusing. Fixed mirror WIth finder lens.

1

All of these methods attain the same result .by dii'fer.ent ways. The groundglass screen view camera permits ~he view to lb composed on the screen with greater ease while the coup e

d

Even when we know the exact focal length or a lens. accurate measurements are usually difficult or impossible as the optical center is seldom marked on the mounting and we.

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therefore, have no basic point from which to make measu.rements. However, rough calculations can be made by making measurements from the center of the lens mount.

12-inch rule is shown on the screen. Multiply the distance by the ratio and then divide the product by the ratio plus 1, squared. R = Ratio of full-size rule to image of rule on focusing D = Distance of rule from focusing screen in inches • .D XR Then: Focal Length = --(R 1)' Let: screen

Focal Length

Measurements

+

The principal focus (also called infinity focus or the focal length) of a normal lens is the distance from the node of .e~I1I~sion to the picture plane or surface of the film when the. Ins IS wide open and when the lens is focused upon an object at infinity. This is the standard focal length. Telepho~o lenses do not follow this law. It should also be noted that with the fully opened lens focused at infini~y, the len~ is in its closest proximity to the focal plane while the pomter. IS ~t the extreme inside of the camera focusing scale at the infinity mark (00) It is impossible to bring an image into focus with the lens moved closer to the focusing screen. To focus the lens on a nearer object makes it necessary to extend the bellows and move the lens away from the picture plane. Usually the camera is provided with a stop so that the lens cannot be moved closer to the film than at the infinity position. . In the infinity position, with the lens closest to the film, It is evident that the illumination on the film is most in tense at this point and that this is the position for the highest lens speed. Focused on a nearby object, the lens is farther fro~ the film and both the illumination and speed are correspondingly reduced. In cases where the focal length is marked on the lens, we can determine the location of the node of emission very easily and mark it on the lens barrel for future reference. Focus the camera on infinity with the iris wide open and then measure the exact focal length as marked on the lens from the picture plane, or face of the film, !o .a point .on. the barrel. Mark this point; it is the node of errussron. This IS true only for normal lenses and does not hold true for telephotos. In cases where the focal length is not marked on the lens and must be determined by measurement, we have several methods open to us which can be employed without much difficulty. After the focal length has been measured, it should be employed for marking the node of emission on the lens barrel by the method just described.
METHOD 1. Focus a ruler or yardstick sharply, using glass to examine the image on the focusing screen. There need size of image except that the image should be large enough t~ be N ext measure the distance between the ruler and the focusing deter;"'ine the ratio of reduction which will- be 3.0 if a 4·inch a magnifyi~g be definite easily VISIble. screen. Next image of the

EXAMPLE. Then:
41 X 3 (3.0

Let the distance be 41 inches and the ratio 3.0.
123 123

+ 1)'

= ---

(4 X 4)

= --

16

= ?? inches.

METHOD 2. This is a very inaccurate method but one that will give an approximate idea of the focal length, just so long as the shutter lies near the optical center of the lens. Measure the distance between the focal plane and the lens shutter when the camera is focused sharply on an object at infinity to obtain the focal length. METHOD 3. With the iris full open, focus on some far off object, at least one-half mile away. Mark the position of the lens at infinity. Next, focus a ruler or yardstick until the image of the inches on the screen are full size, and make a second mark on the scale. You will now find that the distance between the first and second marks is equal to the focal length of the lens because the distance of the lens from the screen is twice the focal length when the image is the full size of the object.

Determining

Approximate

Infinity

Elsewhere in this book, it was explained that the picture plane became coincident with the focal point when the object was distant from the lens by the focal length squared multiplied by the reciprocal of the desired circle of confusion. This being the case, an approximation to infinity may be determined by multiplying the square of the focal length of a lens by the reciprocal of the desired circle of confusion. Dividing by 12 gives the distance in feet. Thus, if the focal length of the lens is 6 inches and the desired circle of confusion is 1/100 inch, the nearest approach to infinity will be:
(6 X 6) X 100 = 3,600 inches = 300 feet.

However, if a smaller circle of confusion is desired, as is usually the case with lenses of shorter focal length, then approximate infinity will be found at a greater distance. For practical purposes, with most cameras, focusing will be satisfactory if an object at 500 tp 600 feet is taken as infinity. Making Focusing Scales

'.'0

Sometimes the addition of a new lens to the camera or other change makes it necessary to recalibrate the focusing- scale so that it will meet the new conditions. The most accurate method

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of making the new scale is to first determine the infinity position and then measure off the other distances with a tape measure focusing sharply at each distance. Another method is to compute the intermediate distances according to the principle of the conjugate foci. Actual measurement with the tape measure is to be preferred in any case. Angle of View The field or image-filled space covered by the lens is circular in form with the optical axis as the center of the circular illuminated disc. The circle is, in reality, the base of a cone in which the objective lens is at the apex of the cone and the angle formed by the sides is the angle of view. In practice, the

Aperture

In the case of ~ single lens, with the iris placed in front of the lens, the effective aperture is the diameter of this stop openmg. All of th~ light that enters must enter through this aperture. But, m the case of a multi-element lens the light beam entering the front lens is slightly converged or condensed by: the front lens element before it reaches the iris which in this type of objective, is placed between the front and rear elements .. The diameter of the beam is now less at the iris than at the POlpt ~f entry and the whole matter is rather uncertain. In short, It Will be safer to measure the beam of light in this case than to attempt measuring the aperture. A small beam of light is admitted through the center of the rear lens element. from. a position normally occupied by the groundglass, and IS projected on a screen held just in front of the front element. Obviously, the diameter of this beam is the effective dla,meter of the aperture when measured at the scre~n. This diameter is divided into the focal length to obtain the maximum f-number. Angular Aperture

A

Fig. 45. The angle of view must enclose the negative's

diagonal.

The angular aperture of a diaphragm is associated with depth of field calculations and is seldo"'m employed except in lens design. ~s a rule it is slightly larger than the effective ~pert1}re, and IS obtained by projecting back the two converging ,lmes from t,he pr incipal focus until they intersect the :vertical plane wh.lch. passes through the node of emission and IS .called .the pnr:clpa.l plane, The distance between these pomts of intersection IS the angular aperture. Measuring the f-Number

actual circle of illumination is somewhat larger than the effective angle of illumination as some allowance is made for the distortions along the outer edge of the circle. In Fig. 45, we have the lens at (L) with circle of illumination (A-B-C-D), the angle of view being (a). The inscribed negative or film is (A-B-C-D) having the diagonal (A-C). The distance (m) is the focal length. It will be seen that this forms a triangle (A-L-C), which when laid out to scale, gives the view angle (a) which in turn determines the covering power of the lens. In the following table will be found the diagonal lengths for a number of popular negative sizes:
Film Size Inches 1 xl% 1~X21,4 2 .x2% 2%x3% 2%x41,4 Dia~onal Inches 1.8 2.8 3.2 4.0 ' 5,0 Film Size Inches 31,4x 41,4 4 x 5 5 x 7 6%x8% 8 x10 Diagonal Inches 5.4 6.4 8.6 10.7 12.8

Afte~ the focal length and the effective aperture have been determined, the value of the f-number can be computed. Thus:
L f =d

where (d) is the effective aperture and (L) is the focal length both .m terms of inches, For example, if the focal length of ~ lc,:!s IS 6 inches and the effective diameter of the aperture is 2 inches, then the f-num ber becomes:
6 f = - = f3 2

The camera

should

be focused at infinity when determining

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the focal length of the lens. At any other distance, the value of the f-number varies because the focal length varies. Thus, if the bellows of the camera is extended for focusing a near object, the focal length is increased and the f-number becomes larger. Assisting Screen Focusing

CHAPTER THE APERTURE
Purpose of the Diaphragm

IV

In making lens measurements involving the use of a groundglass screen (for a view or reflex camera) it is not always possible to see the image distinctly on the screen. This is particularly the case with lenses slower than f6.3, as the smaller apertures admit very little visible light that can be used with certainty for focusing. In most cases where a critically sharp image must be had, a magnifying glass may be used. This glass not only. enlarges the image but it also collects light and concentrates It so that the image is both sharper and brighter. The special twoelement focusing glasses are best for this purpose but a simple reading glass can also be used in an emergency. The spe~ial focusing magnifier is generally provided with a rubber suction cup that holds it in place on the groundglass screen and makes the job easier to handle. But these focusing glasses have their drawbacks. Unfortunately, they magnify the grain of the glass as well as the imag;, so that the image is confused by glass crystal shadows. This can be cured, however, by means of an oil stain or a drop of Canada balsam on the grainy side which extinguishes the grain at that point but which leaves a remarkably smooth focusing surface. This oil stain or the Canada balsam spot can be placed permanently in the middle of the glass and marked by a small penciled cross. The magnifying glass is now focused on the pencil mark and can then be moved to any point where it is desired to see the image. In using the magnify!ng, glass in conj.upction wit~ the l?enciled cross or "cross hairs,' the most Critical focus IS obtained by moving the eye from one side of the magnifier to the other so as to change the relative position of the cross hairs in the field of view. If the cross hairs do not change their position relative to the image, lying in the same plane, the focus may be considered to be critically sharp. This method is known as parallax focusing.

OR DIAPHRAGM

HE. aperture, "stop", iris, or diaphragm is a simple device but very effe~tlve and necessary to the proper operation of a cal?era. It. IS a simple, accurately-cut circular hole in a plate, either variable or fixed in size, that is combined with the lens assembly. The location of the diaphragm in regard to the lens elements dcpe~ds. Upon the type of lens, and it may be placed in front of, within, or to tile rear of the lens mounting. In the case of u s~mp.le meniscus lens it may be placed in front of the lens while 111 a symmetrical doublet it is usually placed between the front and real:' elements within the mounting. With the ~xceptl?n of the inexp ensrvs box cameras and certain types of studio cameras, th~. ~r~at majori~y of diaphragms are now I)f the adjustable or. iris type which permits a great range of openings by the Simple movement of a lever In general, the aperture or ?iaphragm serves three purposes, from. an optical standpoint, making perfect exposure control possible.
I.

'r

Light volume control. Acts as a valve in the control of the light entenng. the camera, slowong down the exposure in bright light or speeding the exposure in dull light. By this means, the film is brought within the range of the camera's shutter speeds. Reduces or removes residual aberrations, By .proper manipulation, the diaphragm Will subdue or eliminate aberrations remaining in the lens and, In partIcular, residual spherical aberrations. Improves the. depth of fielq or makes it possible to control of sharpness in near and distant objects in a view. the zone

2.

3.

The f-Number

or Ratio

. The quantity of light admitted .to the film through the objective and the speed of the objective depend upon the effective opening of the aperture as previously explained. It is evident tlit'ref.ore, that by.combining these two factors we can arriv~ III n SImple expression of lens speed. This is expressed in prac-

57

58

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59

tice by a ratio known as the f-number
Focal length of lens j-Number
=

T?e effective f-number at any object distance less than infinity, With the bellows extended past infinity, is
Effective I -number v
= --

Diameter of aperture

XI
L

Thus if the effective diameter of the lens is 2 inches and the focal'length of the lens is 4 inches, then the f-number or lens speed can be expressed by:
4 I ~ - = 2 2

EXf\MPLE: If the bellows extension or image distance should be ll~creased to double the rated focal length with a 6-inch lens in order to take 'a close-up giving an image the same size as the object, and the aperture set at the indicated f8, then the exposure increase over normal exposure required without the additional extension would be
6 X 6 --12 X 12 36 1 = = - or an increase of 4 times 144 4

If the aperture remains constant and the focal length i.sl ibncreased to 8 inches, then the speed of the O~Jectlve wII e reduced to f4 by the same method of c.a1c~latlOn. The larger the f-number, the slower will be the obiecuveber I t But we must note that the value o~ a grven f-~um er IS n~ always constant with a given objective under dIfferent conditions. The amount of light reaching the ~lm plane decreaseS when the camera is focused upon a near object, for under thdse conditions the distance from lens to film increases, thus ~creasing the f-value even though the aperture may remain constant. When the fully opened aper tur e IS.given ItS standard rating; the camera must be focused at infinity. Effective I-Number for Close-ups

and the effective f-number
12 X 8 6 96
= -

is

or 116

6

The f-rating of a lens as marked on the diaphragm setting is calculated for the lens when focused on infinity .. For example, if a lens has a focal lengt~ of .4 .inches and Its maximum aperture has a diameter of I JJ1ch, It IS rated as an f4. lens. Fodr distances less than infinity the speed of the lens IS reduce because the bellows extension is increased, for the shorter object distances; the lens. is farther from the film and th.e illumination is correspondll1gl:l; reduced .. Because of the Ida~ltude of modern black-and-white film, this factor can be ISregarded up to a certain point with most ?-mateur cameras. However beyond a certain bellows draw this factor becomes important, particul~r1y. when close-ups ~re made or where natural color film WIth ItS narrow latitude I.Sused. b Required increase in exposure and effective f-number can e determined as follows:
Let: L = Focal length of the lens. ! h v = Image distance, which wil.!be th~ tocal lengtb pus t e extension past the infilllty postttonI= Aperture or indicated I-number. L XL Then: increased exposure
= --

vX v

In this case the effective f-number becomes the actual f-number und~r the new conditions and the rated f-number no longer applies, . So. far we have assumed. that no loss of light takes place after passmg through the objective, and that our lens is absolutely trapsparent with no light loss due to internal absorption or reflection. Unfortunately, there is a considerable loss of light by absorption, even with the best and most transparent grades of optical glass. It is estimated that each surface of a glass lens or element reflects from 5 to 6 per cent of. the incident light, hence when we have SIX air-spaced reflecting surfaces in the l~ns, the loss will amount to 6 X 0.06 = 36 per cent of the total light. This loss, however, does not take place to such a great extent where the lenses. ar~ cemented together, and from this standpoint cemented objectives are more efficient I tis .very apparent that the .light actually passing through the lens .W.lt? a given f-number IS much less than that estimated by dividing the focal length by the aperture for in this calculation, we take no losses into account. For e~ample, a lens fully open might show as an f3 by direct measurement but actually It~ effect upon the film might be only equivalent to an f4.5, the difference being absorbed by the various losses. The rapid mer ease in the use of exposure meters has brought about a great deal of confusion because of differences in the performance of various makes of lenses bearing the same trating. It would seem probable in the future that the value of f w:i1l be determined by photometric methods rather than by direct measurement of the aperture and focal length.

60
Comparisons

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of Lens Speeds

The relative speeds of various lenses can be compared by a comparison of the "squares" of the several f-numbers. For example, let us say that a 2-second exposure is necessary in a certain case with an 14 lens wide open, and that we wish to find the exposure required when the iris of the lens is stopped down to f8.
Exposure at 18

and early anastigmats. This system starts with 1 as the equiv,~lent of f4 an~ proceeds in whole numbers to U. S. 64. The ligures used with the U. S. scale represent relative exposures so ~~at each succeeding number doubles the preceding number. 1he table below gives the comparison between the two systems.
f-Number U. S. Number 4 1 5.6 2 8 4 11.3 16 8 16 22.6 32 32 64

= ---

(8 X 8) X 2

(4 X 4)

= -

64 X 2 16

=

4 X 2

=

8 seconds.

The only point of agreement Circle of Confusion

in the two scales is at 16.

Thus we see that the f8 opening requires four times the exposure necessary with the f4 opening. With an opening of f6.3, the square of which is (6.3 X 6.3) = 49.99, the exposure will be approximately 2.5 times greater than at f4.0 with an exposure time of (2.5 X 2) 5 seconds. . Most diaphragm scales are marked in such a way that each succeeding number on the scale either halves or doubles the effective exposure. This arrangement is a great convenience and saves much 'calculation. The following is an example of such a marking system, with the square of the number placed below each division.
12.9 (8.41)

f4
(16)

15.6 (31.36)

f 8
(64.0)

HI
(121.0)

f16 (256.0)

f22 (484.0)

Thus if an exposure is made at stop f 11 and we wish to increase or double the speed, we simply move back to the next stop f8 which is approximately twice the speed of f11. In general, two different systems of f-number arrangements are used, the English and the Continental system. They are shown below where it will be seen that the difference is not great.
En~lIsh Continental 2.8 2.3 4 3.2 5.6 ,~.5 8 6.3 11 9 16 12.5 22 18 32 25

In the case of miniature cameras, the smallest aperture now commonly used is f22, the 132 now being discarded with this type of camera. However, the lenses for large studio and commercial cameras, view cameras and the like are provided with much smaller stops, including 132, 145, f64 and sometimes fl28 in addition to some of the larger stops listed above. The U. S. or Uniform System This is an old system of diaphragm notation rarely found in modern cameras but often used on old-rime rectilinear lenses

When the lens is focused on a certain predetermined distance the light rays from various other distances are not all brought to a focus exactly on the, focal plane. Some are focused in the plane, some ahead of the plane, and some behind the plane Each ~ay that IS ~rought. to focus in front of or behind the focal plan~ IS not a POI1'~t of lI~ht but shows as a small circle called the Circle of confUSion which affects the definition adversely and reduces. the sharpness of the image. , In fIll. 46,. the film. is indicated by (F) while the sensitized rnulsiori facing the light from the lens is at (e). It so happel!s that the lens. brings the pencil of light rays from an object at a grven distance (a). to a sharp focus on the surface of the emulsion as a small POInt of light. The light pencil (b) from an object farther away, however, is brought to a focus at a distance In front of the emulsion or picture plane and the prolonged rays pa:,smg the focal point (dotted) form a small Circle on t?e emulslOp so that the light strikes as a blurred circle f confusion, A third pencil of light rays (c) from a closer object is brought to a focus behind the emulsion where again a smal! circle is formed on the emulsion. If the lens were able to bring objects at F -->-If<-varying distances to a sharp focus in one plane, we would --~ obtain infinitely sharp defini--~ tion all over the film for all distances, but since this is contrary to optical principles -::: c the image will be composed of many sharp points from the plane focused on plus many overlapping circles of Fig. 46. The circle of confusion confusion from objects either is one cause of blurred images. nearer or farther than the

------:-

---

62

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plane focused on, which may blur the image and destroy the definition. A tiny circle appears as a point to the naked eye if it is 1/100 of an inch or smaller. This size, then, is the largest permissible circle of confusion where a sharp image is desired. When the diameter of the circles of confusion is 1/100 of an inch or less and the point is viewed at a distance of 10 inches, the image will appear sharp. However, if sush a negative is enlarged ~o twi~e its size, the relative diameter of the circles of confusion will also be doubled to 1/50 of an inch and the picture will lose sharpness proportionately. It is for. this reason that t~e l!lr~est circle of confusion encountered in high-grade cameras IS limited to about 1/200 inch, and much smaller in the better miniature cameras where the small negatives are always given a considerable amount of enlargement. It will be seen that, when enlarged 10 times a negative with l/1000-inch circle of confusion will show as IhOO-inch in the finished enlargement. Theoretically, there can be only a single plane of critical focus for objects at any fixed distance but, practically, .many of the rays strike the film at such an acute angle that the film can receive rays from a number of points at different distances and thus render them sharp, since the contacting rays yield points not greater than 11100 inch. The distance of the camera from points in different object planes, and the size of the diaphragm opening, determine whether the image will be sharp in the plane of the film. Hyperfocal Distance

that, sudd~nly, the infinity point has started to lose its sharpness and, If we stop Just before this point is reached we will h~ve th.e. camera focused on the hyperfocal distance which gives critical sharpness at infinity as well as the greatest depth of field. The hyperfo~al distance is the nearest point at which objects are ~n appr~xunate~y sharp focus with the lens focused on infinity. This relation IS shown by Fig. 47, where the lens IS focused on .1l1finlty. (00) with the hyperfocal point at (h). The hypel:focal distance IS (H) and the focal length is (F) with the diaphragm !it (d). Everything between (h), the hyperfocal P?l11t,and mfimty (00) IS In sharp focus. This is the hyperfocal dl.stance for the lens at its largest opening. As shown in Pig. 48! when the lens !S focused critically on this distance everythmg will be sufficiently sharp from half this distance

.
0:>

/\

h
I I I I

I~
I
H

I I I I I
I

I

r-SHARP

ii'
I

I

\V Y
I

I

I'

F

----+i

I

If we take a view camera, with the lens fully opened, and rack the lens forward we shall reach a point where a distant 'object will come into ~ritically sharp fo.cus. .If the entire field is examined, we will note that certain objects near the infinity point are also in focus. Looking ~gain, we find. t.hat other points nearer the camera are beginning to lose critical sharpness until objects immediately in front of the lens are pronouncedly soft and fuzzy. . The sharpness or unsharpriess of objects at various distances will depend much upon the focal length of the lens. The longer the focal length, the sooner the foreground objec.ts will become soft. With a short focal length lens there will be a much greater zone of sharpness. This test will show how much "depth" our lens will give at maximum aperture when focused on infinity or, better yet, will indicate the closest distance at which objects will.be sufficiently sharp. ... Now we will again slowly focus forward; the infinity point still remains sharp but the depth of field or region of sharpness is increased in the foreground. Racking farther we find

Fig. 47. With lens focused

at infinity, the hyperfocal

point is h.

h

~------SHARP----------~~

---+~--

F-..l

I I

Fig. 48.

Focused

at h, the area in sharp focus greatly

increases.

64
to infinity.

LITTLE To calculate

TECHNICAL the hyp.erfocal

LIBRARY distance for a lens:

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65

LeT: F = Focal ien~th of lens in inches. H = Hypertocai distance in feet. f -!)iaphra~m openfng or i-number. C ;;;Reciprocal of the diameter of circle of confusion Then: F' x c H = -'--f X 12

h in inc es.

For example to find the hyperfocal distance for a lens having a focal length of 10 inches and an aperture of f 4, the permissible circle of confusion being 11500 of an inch:
H .

This decrease in the hyperfocal distance is well worth while even though we did lose speed by stopping down the lens. The zone of sharp definition now extends from 18.6 feet to infinity with the lens focused at 37,S feet. The experiment also shows how the hyperfocal distance is reduced by the use of a shorter focal length and, therefore, why' a miniature' camera shows a greater depth of field than a large camera with a long focal length lens, N ow, cutting the hyperfocal length down to a very low figure will mean that we will have to sacrifice the advantages of a very smal! circle of confusion and use a camera with a 2-inch focal length lens, Let the new circle of confusion be 11200 of an inch and the iris be set to f16. Then:
(2 X 2) X 200 16 X 12 4 X 200
~ ---

=

(10 X 10) X 500. 4 X 12

= ---

50,000 48

=

f 1,041 eet.

800
= =

4.2 feet.

16 X 12

192

this lens 1041 feet is the hyperfocal distance whi~h will i~~ th~ greatest depth of field at maximum aperture., WI~h the Fe focused at 1 041 feet this field will extend from infinity to apnpsroximately h;lf the hyperfocal distance or 520 feet from the camera but this is a considerable distance from the camera with a blurred foreground extending for 500 f~et, The reason for this result is that we have, 111the first place, used a very large aperture (f4) and, second, have demanded ery highly corrected lens with a. small Circle of co~fuslOn. Ei~her of these factors will increase the hyp erfocal dl~tan~e, hence we must make a suitable correction ~o bring the, distance down within reason. One very effective method IS to reduce the focal length of the lens, effective because the distance varies as the squar<: of the focal length. J ';1st as an illustration, let us use a 6-1I1ch instead of the l U-inch lens in the first problem:
H

F

Here, we have about. the practical rmrumum in hyperfocal distance by the use of a miniature camera and using an average lens with a small value of circle diameter, Everything will be satisfactorily sharp from half the hyperfocal distance to infinity by focusing on the hyperfocal point instead of on infinity.

Focusing

on the Hyperfocal

Point

=

(6 X 6) X 500 4 X 12

36 X 500 4 X 12

= --

18,000 48

=

375 teet.

This makes a noticeable difference in ,the depth o~ field, reducing (H) from 1,041 feet to 375 fe,et, w ith ou t disturbing the very desirable small circle of confusion or slowmg down the lens by the use of a smaller aperture, But, by ordinary measure the depth of field is sti11 too short so we will, for example: cut the focal length to 3 inches and stop down the lens to flO by means of the iris, We do not Wish to disturb the circle of confusion as yet,
(3 X 3) X 500 10 X 12 9 X 500 10 X 12

= --

4500 120

=

37,5 feet.

\.

When the camera is focused on infinity, everything will be sharp between the hyperfocal point and infinity. But, as stated before, if we refocus the camera so that it is now focused on the hyperfocal point, the zone of sharpness will be increased from half the hyperfocal distance to infinity (Fig. 48). Thus, if the hyper focal distance is 20 feet when focused on infinity, the zone of sharpness can be increased by focusing the camera on the hyperfocal point and, under this condition, the zone of sharpness will begin at half the hyperfocal distance or 10 feet. The fixed lenses in box cameras are always focused on the hyperfocal point instead of on infinity, in order to gain the greatest possible range of sharpness. Several camera manufacturers have specially marked focusing scales so that advantage can be taken of short focusing, There are two red dots, one on the focusing scale at about the 20-foot mark and the other dot will be found at about f 8 on the iris scale, By setting the focus 'at 20 feet and the iris at f8, everything will be in focus from 10 feet to infinity, and it is then only necessary to adjust the shutter speed,

66
Determination

LITTLE of Stop

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67

As the iris or stop is the most convenient method of controlling the depth of field, we will transpose the original equation so that we can solve for the necessary I-number.
Let: F = Focal length in inches. H = Desired byperfoca] distance in feet. f =.Aperture opantng , C = Reciprocal of the diameter of circle of confusion f= F' XC --HX12

in inches.

Then:

For example, let 115 say that we wish to have everything from 10 feet to infinity in the range of critical sharpness, hence the hyperfocal distance will be twice this figure or 20 feet. The. circle of confusion is 11200 of an inch and the focal length is 6 inches. We wish to find the stop necessary:
(6 X 6) X 200 (20 X 12) 7200 = --= 240 (30

o
Z
-i

'"

;:: » o

1)

»

Depth of Field We have seen that when a lens is focused on a certain object, other objects closer to and farther from the camera than this principal object (which is in critically sharp' focus) will be in approximately sharp focus. The distance between the planes in which lie the nearest and the farthest objects in sufficiently sharp focus is called depth of field. This depth will vary with the distance of the object in critically sharp focus, the focal length of the lens, and the aperture used. Figure 49 illustrates the manner in which various points of an object are recorded on the image plane. Here it will be seen that object point (A) is critically focused on the image plane at (A'). The more distant point (B) is brought to sharp focus in front of the focal plane at (B') and the diverging rays form a circle or disc of confusion on the focal plane. The neare .• object point (C) is brought to sharp focus in back of the focal plane and the converging rays form a disc of confusion on the focal plane. If the diameter of discs (B") and (cn) is not greater than the largest permissible circle of confusion in order to produce a satisfactorily sharp image, then the distance between object points (B) and (C) is by definition the depth of field. Likewise, all object points lying between the near depth plane and the far depth plane are said to be in focus. In order to take advantage of selective focusing, as well as to be sure that all objects in the selected field of view will be

-0

z'-< 1)"''''

Z[Il

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in sharp focus, the amateur often wants to know the depth of field of his lens. This is a simple matter which can be determined by means of two formulas, As was observed before, the hyperfocal distance of the lens used is a determining factor.
Let: D = Distance of object focused on. H =Hyperfocal distance of lens. N =Near depth plane. F =Far depth plane. N= HXD --H +D H XD F~-H-D

Then:

Suppose we are using a lens with a 6-inch focal length stopped down to 111, and desire a circle of confusion of 11500 inch. According to formula, the hyperfocal distance would be 136 feet. If we focus on an object 40 feet from the camera,
N

=---136 + 40
136 X 40 136 - 40

136 X 40

5440 = -= 30.9 feet 176 5440 = -- 56.6 feet 96

an area in front of and behind the main object plane, depth of focus defines the small range of positions which the focal or image plane may occupy without noticeably affecting the sharpness of the image. It is particularly important with greatly magnified views, say two or three times the size of the subject; we will find that the shorter the depth of field, the greater will be the depth of focus. For example, if we are enlarging two or three times the subject size, the lens focusing adjustment is very critical, a fraction of a millimeter in some cases, but the back focus can be changed through quite a distance without affecting the sharpness when the groundglass screen is moved for this purpose. View cameras and studio cameras are provided with methods of back-focusing by which the groundglass can be moved back and forth on the bed as well as the front lens board. The back focusing system is not as sensitive as the front lens focusing. This is of assistance in many cases where the front focusing operation requires a small fraction of a millimeter of adjustment as it often does in microscopic photography. Resolving Power and (I) The greatest resolving power of a theoretically perfect lens is at maximum aperture because the effects of diffraction are at a minimum under this condition. This assumes, of course, that all aberrations are reduced to zero and that depth of field does not enter the problem. The fact that there is some improvement with commercial lenses when the iris is moved down one or two points has nothing to do with the resolving power of the lens but is concerned with other factors such as imperfect or incomplete correction. Another effect that acts adversely upon the resolving power of the lens is lack of sufficient resolving power in the ordinary film now being produced so that the resolving power of the lens is secondary to the many other factors entering II1to the problem. Where there are a number of objects at varying distances from the lens, stopping down the lens will make a considerable improvement by increasing the depth of field, but this is independent of the basic resolving power of the lens. Again, where the full correction has not been made for spherical aberration, the stopping down may cut off offending rays from the outer circumference of the lens where the greatest aberration exists. Thus, we must carefully distinguish between the resolving power of the lens itself and its ability to preserve detail at wide open aperture and definition, which may be controlled by means entirely outside of the lens.

F=---

Depth of field, then, extends from 30.9 feet to 56.6 feet, and objects falling within these limits will be sufficiently sharp. Now suppose we focus the camera on the hyperfocal distance. Then:
136 X 136 N=--136 F= 136 136

+ 136

18496 = -= 68 feet

272
18496 = -~ 18496 feet or

136 X 136

o

00

proving that objects from half the hyperfocal distance to infinity are approximately sharp when the camera is focused at the hyper focal distance, as stated previously. It is often possible to obtain a depth of field table for your lens from the manufacturer. If not, it's a good idea to make one, as such a table will prove very useful. It not only shows -' the limits of sharpness under different conditions, but also the zones of softness outside the limits where a soft background may be desired. Thus a portrait can be kept within the area of sharpness while the background can be in the soft zone where it is not prominent. Depth of Focus Depth of focus must not be confused with depth of field, for they are decidedl:v different. Whereas depth of field refers to

70
Aperture

LITTLE and Definition

TECHNICAL

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Always within limits, the adjustment of the iris diaphragm can be made to improve definition under certain conditions. Certain aberrations are minimized, notably spherical aberration, with the iris down to f 16, principally for the reason that distorted rays from the outer circumference of the lens are subdued while the less distorted rays from the center of the lens now predominate. The total effect's to reduce the general haze that obscures detail when spherical aberration is present and the lack of accurate focusing when chromatic aberration is present. However, when we get an opening smaller than f 16, there is a sudden increase in the effects of diffraction and, when this limit is passed, the image once more grows hazy. At one time it was believed that the improvement at small aperture was due to the narrowing of the pencil of rays by the aperture, but as all of the other elements are narrowed and reduced as well as the circle of confusion. this seems hardly to be the answer.

CHAPTER V LENS ABERRATIONS
design c'an be theoretically perfect .• no mat.ter NOLENS how highly developed it may be, because this perfection would be contrary to the basic nature of light. The diffractio~ of light or that property that causes the ray to bend when It passes through an aperture, prohibits perfection in lens design. We can only hope to produce a lens that will give satisfactory results in practice or one that closely approximates the desired performance. The best that can be expected is a compromise between six or seven aberrations, even with. a complicated objective, that will most nearly satisfy the conditions under which the lens is to operate. Some conditio.n.s call for a sharp-cutting lens cap~ble of producing fine definition and detail, while other c~ndlhons place a premium on softness or r~undness. for pictor ial w?rk and portraiture. Still other operating ~ondltlons call for high lens speed in defiance to all other qual;tles-and so on, through a long list of conflicting factors of a like nature. The popularity of color photography has placed another burden on lens design, as this requires complete elimination of color distortions that exist with many lenses that are perfectly satisfactory on black-and-white photography, In general, the following are the principal requirements of a satisfactory objective:
1. 2. Color-correction so that the same plane. rays of all colors are brought to a focus in

Perfect coverage so that a uniform degree of definition is maintained all over the negative, in the corners as well as in the center of the image; a flat field. Freedom horizontal Freedom Rectilinear equivalent Freedom the lens. from astigmatism with equal lines, even in the corners. from coma or local distortions. truth by which straight lines on the object are shown straight lines in the image. Irom flare or fog patches due to interior difficulties as sharpness on vertical and

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

within the and

Uniform illumination or equal lighting all over the picture-at outer edges as well as in the center of the negative. Sharp clarity definition or a high in the small details, degree of sharpness, distinctness,

71

72

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Most desirable, of course, is a lens of high speed with freedom from distortion and which produces good definition. Considering the natural aberrations in the materials used and which must be overcome, some of the modern products of the lensmaker's art are indeed scientific wonders. Let us look into the matter of these aberrations before discussing the different types of photographic lenses. Chromatic Aberration

The image produced by a simple lens shows a number of faults which detract from it, In the first place, due to the difference in refraction of the component light rays, as we have pointed out before, the blue rays witl focus in front of the less actinic, but more conspicuous, visual rays. This defect can be compensated for to a certain extent in two ways. First, by the use of monochrome filters which limit the light to a very narrow region of the spectrum. and secondly by focusing by the chromatic difference-that is, by recognizing how far in front of the critical visual focus the actinic rays focus, and by moving the groundglass forward this amount after the image has been critically focused to the eye. In using some of the older semi-achromatic portrait lenses which give rather soft images it has been suggested that the groundglass be racked forward beyond the focal point, and then racked away from the lens until the image is in focus. By doing this, and by stopping as soon as the image becomes critically sharp, we shall get a sharper image on our film than we would if we extended the bellows beyond the focal point and then racked toward the lens, since there is a fairly wide zone in which the image will appear visually sharp. Due to the fact that the blue rays are refracted the most, by starting with the bellows fairly well collapsed we rack back to reach this point of greatest sharpness and stop as soon as the image is satisfactorily sharp. See Fig. 50, The usual difference in focus for the sharp visual image and the sharp chemical focus is about 2% of the focal length. Therefore, if the camera is focused critically to the eye andthen racked toward the lens by about this amount the image on the negative should be quite sharp-certainly much sharper than it would be if the picture were taken at the point of best visual focus. The effect of chromatic aberration is much more pronounced in negatives made on panchromatic film than on those made with process or color-blind film, since these films are not affected to any extent by the yellow or red regions of· the spectrum; if we adjust for the blue rays the out-of-focus red rays will not have any material effect on the image. To show up chromatic aberration in a simple lens or a lens of poor quality, point the camera toward the sun and receive

its image, on the groundglass. If the image is out 'of focus so that the Image of the sun is about 0 inch in diameter it will be seen that the margin of the image is surrounded by a blue halo. By changing the focus the color of the halo will change from blue to red. In correcting lens systems for color, the purpose for which the system is to be used determines the type of correction attempted. Instruments designed for visual use only are corrected to give their most critical definition in the region of the D line of t~e spectrum-a-that ,is, in the yellow or yellow-green region-e-while those instruments designed for photographic work ~ould be corrected in the blue and violet regions. Photographic instruments which require visual focusing would therefore necessrtate the yellow and blue regions focusing at the same p0111t. An understanding of the above will indicate why the results obtained by using a binocular in front of a photographic lens usually give poor definition, since the binocular or telescope is corrected only for the visual rays and is not intended for photographic purposes. Achromatic lenses are those in which the chromatic aberration .has been removed. This is accomplished by combining P?slt!ve and neg:atlve elements having the same dispersion but different refraction. In this way the separation of the component wavelengths is prevented while the entire bundle of rays is bent as a unit. Practically, this is not possible for all colors at the same time and is generally limited to the two spectral bands principally concerned. In photography, this would be the r egrons around 6000 and 4000 Angstrom units (the yellow-green and the blue-violet regions). For process work another zone must be included up around 7000 Angstrom

R

Fig. 50. This shows in exaggerated at which various colors are brought

form the different distances to a focus by a simple lens.

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units in the red region. Lenses corrected for three colors are called process or apochromatic lenses. This property of light rays of different wavelengths to focus at different distances behind an uncorrected lens produces what is known as chromatic aberration. Curvature of Field

Another defect which is commonly encountered in simple lenses is produced by the fact that the distance from the lens to various points on the plane occupied by the film varies. In other words, suppose in our biconvex lens the distance from a perpendicular drawn through the center of the lens to the center of the plate is 7 inches. If the plate is 8xlO inches in size, the distance to the corner of the plate from the center of the lens will be about 90 inches (Fig. 51). This results in the marginal image being blurred due to the fact that the critical focal point lies in front of the plate. This defect could be remedied if the plate, instead of lying in a plane, were curved, the radius of the curve being equivalent to a line drawn from the center of the lens to the nearest point of the plate, in this case 7 inches. This is done in certain types of astronomical work. This condition is known as curvature of field. It is quite pronounced in simple lenses and is recognized by the fact that there is a rapid falling off in sharpness from the center- as we proceed toward the margins of the picture. The usual method for overcoming this defect is to use only the center of the projected image. This results, of course, in limiting the angle included in the picture. Diaphragming will not materially help this condition, since it is caused by the varying distances at which the film lies from the lens. It is normally corrected by combining lenses of different curvatures. In the case of positive lenses the curvature is concave toward the lens as shown in Fig. 52 and is sometimes called positive curvature of field, or undercorrection for curvature of field. In the case of negative or concave lenses the curvature is the reverse of that seen in the convex lens. Spherical Aberration confused with spherical the rays depicted pass the difficulty being due parts of the film from aberration is concerned between the edge and

Fig. 51.

Distances

from lens to emulsion

vary.

Fig. 52. Curvature

of field makes soft margins.

Curvature of field should not be aberration. Notice that in Fig. 51 through the same region of the lens, to the varying distances to different the center of the lens. Spherical with the difference in focus existing

Fig. 53 ", Spherical

aberration

aives general

blur:

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central rays (Fig. 53). The convex lens brings the marginal rays to a shorter focus than the axial rays. This condition is called spherical undercorrection. In the case of the concave lens the reverse condition exists and the condition is known as spherical overcorrection. This condition is corrected in ma~ufacture by combining positive and negative elements which tend to neutralize the fault. For experimental purposes It may be corrected by using a ediaphragm which cuts off. the marginal rays. This, however, reduces the speed .mat~nally. Spherical aberration can be demonstrated by placing a circular disc before the lens so that about two-thirds of the central portion is covered. If the camera is. n?w focused c~refully and then the diaphragm cut down until It meets the disc and then the disc removed, any blurriness in the image would suggest spherical aberration. A lens corrected for spherical aberration is called an aplanat. Astigmatism Astigmatism is concerned with the phenomenon whereby point sources are reproduced in the image as minute,. crossed lines one of which is out of focus when the other IS sharp. Astigmatism is an aberration of the oblique rays and is not a fault which affects the axial rays. It is caused by the fact that rays passing through the horizontal meridian do not focus in the same plane as the rays passing through ..the vertical meridian. The discrepancy between these two POints of focus results in a point being reproduced as a line at the point of focus of either the vertical or horizontal meridians. These two lines will be at right angles to each other and both will not be sharp at the same time. The point of best Focus will be in the region between the focus of the crossed lines indicated by circle (C) Fig. 54. In an image not focused in this central region the image will be composed of crossed lines (one of which will be fuzzy due to lack of focus and will lie at right angles to the sharp line) instead of points as is the case in anastigmatic lenses. Lines in different meridians of the object will be reproduced with varying degrees of density and sharpness depending on whether or not they lie parallel or at right angles to the plane of greatest sharpness in the astigmatic image. To show up astigmatism in a lens, cut a cross in a sheet of cardboard, the bars of which measure 8 inches in length by about y,; inch in width. Place the camera on a firm support facing a window. If the card is now placed before the Window in such a position that the cross appea~s In a corner of ~he groundglass one line may be sharp while the other remains indistinct-in fact in some very poorly corrected lenses it is possible to focus one line critically sharp and have the

"",m

IN FOCUS

",J

HORIZONTAL LINE IN FOCUS

Fig. 54. In a lens subject to astigmatism, the point of best focus lies at C, or midway between the focal planes where the vertical and horizontal components of the cross are brought to a sharp focus.

GROUNDGLASS

CROSS AT MARGIN OF FIELD CROSS AT CENTER OF FIELD

Fig. 55. Astigmatism, if present, is found only at the margins of a picture. As the lens is focused, the image of a cross assumes successively the shapes shown in the lower right corner above.

other line so far out of focus as to be indistinguishable (Fig. 55). This test would be of value only in single lenses of very poor quality. In lenses of better quality the astigmatism could only be shown up by picking up the image with a microscope in the focal plane and magnifying the image several times. Lenses corrected for astigmatism are called anastigmats. Coma A form of spherical aberration concerned with oblique rays instead of symmetrical rays is called coma. In this case the rays below the axis are refracted more sharply than those above the axis, therefore the focal points do not meet at a single point but in a series of noints (Fig. 56). Point sources

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DIAPHRAGM

1

LENS

BARREL
Fig. 56. produces Coma is an aberration in a lens which. when present. a pear-shaped image of a circular shape or of a point.

DISTORTION

are therefore resolved as pear-shaped discs. In the case of the meniscus lens. if the concave surface faces the film the points of the pear-shaped discs, wil! face toward the center of the film; if the lens is reversed the condition wi!1 be reversed, and the points will face toward the periphery. These condi-: tions are sometimes referred to as inward or outward coma. In the case of lenses having this fault it may be overcome to a marked degree by cutting down the iris. To demonstrate coma with a lens of poor quality, proceed as described under Astigmatism. Place the camera on a table facing a window. Put a card having a circular aperture about y, inch in diameter in such a position that the image of the hole appears in one of the corners of the groundglass and focus criticalJy. If the hole appears pear-shaped, coma is present. Coma is also known as zonal aberration. Distortion Distortion (curvilinear distortion) is recognized by vertical or horizontal lines appearing curved vin the picture, and is due to the fact that the lens causes progressively greater refraction as we pass from the periphery toward the center, or vice versa depending on whether the stop is placed in front of or behind the lens. Lines passing through the center of the lens are not affected by this condition nor are concentric rings if their center is located at the optical axis of the lens. However, verticals or horizontals near the edge of the film will appear to bulge toward the margin if the stop is placed before the lens and this is called barrel distortion. If, on the other hand, the stop is placed behind the lens, the center of horizontal or vertical lines will bulge toward

PINCUSH ION DISTORTION
Fig. 57. The two types of curvilinear distortion are given the names "barrel" and "pincushion" from the obvious shapes of the images produced.

the center of the picture, causing- pincushion distortion. See Fig. 57. ~ Curvilinear distortion should not be confused with the distortion in perspective resulting from lilting the camera as is sometimes done in the photography of high buildings. Here the distortion is in perspective, the extremities of paralJel lines converging toward a common point. The lines, however, in this case do not show any curvature as i the case in that form of abberation referred to above. If the lens is carefully made and the stop placed at the optimum position, the curvilinear distortion can be reduced to a negligible degree for ordinary work and may be removed entirely by using two lenses of opposite curvature which are eparated by a diaphragm. A lens of this type is called rectilinear.

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Aberration

Under Chromatic Aberration we have noted that when white light strikes a simple lens the exit ray is both refracted and dispersed into its spectral components, the blue focusing nearest the lens, and the red at a greater distance. In discussing spherical aberration we suggested that the rays passing through the lens near its ~enter were not refracted as much as were the rays passing through the lens near its periphery. In lenses composed of crown and flint glass it is not possible to correct the spherical aberration for more than one color. When the spherical aberration has been removed as far as possible for the center of the spectrum, there remains a spherical under correction for the red, and an overcorrection for the blue and violet rays. This defect has been noted in practice as a more or less marked inequality between the chromatic corrections for the central and the peripheral zones of the objective. The introduction of the phosphate and borate glasses by Abbe and Schott made it possible to correct the chromatic spherical aberration for two different colors at once (and therefore practically so for all colors). In all objectives of large aperture, composed of crown and flint, in which the front element cannot be made achromatic by itself, there remains, even when the color deviation along the axis has been corrected as completely as possible, a not inconsiderable difference in the magnifying power for differen t colors (difference of the focal length of the objective for different colors when the position of the anterior focal point is the same). This gives rise to marked color deviation outside the center of the field which makes itself apparent in conspicuous borders of colors at the margin. (The image formed by the blue and violet rays is larger than that of the red and yellow. It coincides with the latter at the center of the field but extends over it more and more towards the margin.) Flare Two types of flare are met with at "times in examining photographic objectives. The first and simplest type is mechanical, flare which is caused by bright spots of metal in the lens mount and can be eliminated by a careful examination of the mount and painting over with a dead black lacquer any spots which are found and which might reflect light onto the glass surfaces. Optical flare cannot be avoided completely in any lens as it is caused by reflections from the lens surfaces themselves. However, in a lens of good quality this will be reduced to a minimum. It becomes more pronounced, however, as the number of glass-to-air surfaces increases.

Since the distance from the lens to the film varies from the center of the film to its edges, it is quite apparent that the amount of light reaching the edge oi the film will be c~:msiderably less than that striking t~e center. Other m~chal1lcal features of the lens mount and diaphragm may also influence the illumination of the film, but these are quite variable and depend upon the obliquity of the rays. and th~ effect of the diaphragm on the marginal rays, par ticularly 111the case.of the older portrait lenses. In the modern compact anastigmats the first-mentioned difficulty is the most common. It IS corrected to a great extent by the negative element which tends to diverge the light passing through the lens; hO"Yever, it is not possible to do this completely I~ all cases .wlthout introducing other more serious errors. S1l1C~tl~e latitude of present-day films is so great the effect of this inherent fault is not as noticeable as formerly. In order to check a lens for this condition, photograph the unobstructed sky on process film, exposing so as to yield a negative which is ,not too dense. If the negative is of even density all over (medium gray) WIthout any falling off in silver deposit near the corners, the lens may be considered of high quality in this respect. Tolerance Limits

While the aim is toward perfection in all lenses, it should be understood that a definite limit is placed upon the degree of correction by the price of the lens. I t cannot be expected that the lens for a $2 box camera can be corrected to the same degree as the objective for a $200 camera. Where the price for a lens is so low that it must be placed into the equivalent of mass production, it cannot be of the same high grade as an expensive objective that represents many hours of hand labor and intensive inspection. When commenting upon the qualities of a lens, the price should be taken into consideration. Limits of Definition While errors in the definition or sharpness of a lens are not ordinarily considered in the light of ~berrations, yet poo,r definition might be considered an aberration and should be included as one of the seven errors more commonly known as aberrations. Definition is the degree of sharpnes.s, distinctness, ~nd clarity with which a lens shows small details on the ne!SatIve. In the majority of cases, definition is one of the !!lost .1I?portant factors concerned with a lens, particularly m miniature

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camera lenses which cal1 for relatively great enlargement, news photography, architectural, and mechanical work. It is not of so much importance in portraiture or pictorial photography. Lens definition is largely controlled by the accuracy of the workmanship and the effects of diffraction, that property which causes a ray of light to spread out after passing through an aperture. Diffraction converts the fine point of light into a blur that destroys sharpness .and detail. The smaller the aperture, the larger will be the blur and the poorer will be the definition. It is therefore desirable to limit the size of the iris or f-number to f22 with the average hand cameras to avoid diffraction, and with very fast lenses this aperture may reach a minimum of f 11. This difficulty largely disappears with lenses that are highly corrected for spherical aberration, and with such lenses sharp images and contrast can be obtained at almost any stop opening. The matter of spherical aberration was discussed earlier. Objectives having a high degree of definition usually contain at least three simple unit lenses and sometimes 12 or 14. Single lenses have poor definition, except the Wollaston meniscus which shows fairly well when stopped down to a very small aperture. Resolving Power

Resolving Power Specifications U. S. Army Air Corps low limit. ..•...•.•.•......•....... Plaubel Anticomar f 2 ...................•..•.....•••.... Leica f 2 Summar •....................•.•.............. Cine Kodak Miniature Kodaks ....•.......•.....•..•................ Folding Kodaks ••.•...................••...•........... Zeiss Contax (declared)

The resolving power of al1 theoretically correct lenses of the same effective diameter, regardless of the f-number, IS the same. Also, the linear separation of images just resolved in the focal plane by a given lens is proportional to the f-number and independent of the effective diameter. Monocular Vision

This factor, which also has to do with sharp definition, is not usual1y included in the list of aberrations, but as it is a factor of design and workmanship it is mentioned here. The objectives of high-grade miniature cameras have a high resolving power, and aerial cameras that must distinguish fine details in the terrain several thousands of feet below the airplane, must also show high resolution. Resolving power is the ability of the lens to form distinguishable images of objects separated by very small angular distances so that they show as two distinctly separate points The greater the separation, the better will be the detail Resolving power is improved by a small field and narrow angle of view, and also by the elimination of n!Sidual spherical aberration. The measure of resolving power is the ability of the lens to separate bundles of small parallel lines ruled with a known spacing. The lowest limit is the separation of lines spaced 11100 of an inch apart which will show as separate lines when viewed from a distance of 10 inches. If these lines are bunched so that they do not show separately, then the resolving power is less than 1/100 of an inch. At a distance of 10 inches this is equivalent to about 3 minutes of arc. The examples on the next page show much greater resolving power than this minimum.

The ordinary camera has only one eye or lens while the normal human being possesses two eyes or viewing lenses separated by a perceptible distance. It is perfectly natural, therefore, that the photograph produced by the single-eyed camera and the view observed by two lenses from two P01l1ts of view do not agree in many particulars. The single-lens camera sees along one straight line, hence there is no suggestion of depth or solidity except that a distant object shows smaller than one close at hand. The depth of the subject or its "third dimension" is entirely lacking, and it is largely for this reason that an animal does not recognize objects in single-plane representations. But viewing an object from two points of view, as with the eyes, gives us the third dimension and the impression of thickness or depth with a solid object. The two eyes see along two independent converging lines with the object at the inter-

Fig. 58. Where the single lens of the camera sees objects as in one plane, the eyes-through the effort of focusing and the separated viewpoints-see depth through an added third dimension.

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section of the view lines and it is the distance of the intersection from the eyes that gives the impression of depth. Further, in the case of small objects, the two eyes may see on both sides of the object, once again adding to the depth impression. Thus, in Fig. 58A the single lens (L) of the camera can make no distinction between the same object when placed successively in the three positions (A-B-C), except in the point of size. It only sees one face of tlte object at any position with no impression of depth. In short, the lens sees only one fiat presented plane. In the case of the two eyes (E-E) in Fig. 58B the three included view angles (a-b-e) vary with the distance at the positions (A-B-C). Thus the angular difference gives. an impression of depth that is lacking with the single camera lens. Note also, that the two eyes "see around" the surface of the object so that a part of the sides is seen as well as a point-blank front view. This is known as a stereoscopic vision which yields natural, plastic views, a phenomenon of binocular vision. To obtain these views photographically, two-lens cameras known as stereoscopic cameras are built, with two carefully matched lenses and irises that take two pictures simultaneously. Viewed separately, these negatives reveal nothing more than is obtained with an ordinary lens, but when prints are viewed simultaneously through a special two-lens viewer, or by means of two mirrors; the depth of objects in the picture immediately become apparent. Stereoscopic lenses are remarkable only in the fact that they must be very carefully matched for focal length, speed, and field, so as to make the two negatives match perfectly. Stereo-Aberration When the diameter of a single lens exceeds approximately 30 to 4 inches we are subject to a peculiar aberration that is due to the large single lens acting as a stereo lens. This error is not in evidence with- small-diameter lenses but when the lens diameter becomes large enough to ~pproach the spacing of the eyes, then we will have a left and right hand image simultaneously. Perspective and Focal Length

VI
H

~=====~t=:Lt±=======~
Fig. 59. This shows what may happen when the camera is held in a tilted position to photograph tall buildings.

V2
H

The fact that images of objects become smaller as their distance is increased from the eye or camera, gives us the phenomenon known as perspective. Thus, when we view objects having long straight lines, the lines seem to converge toward the more distant points until they finally unite on

the horizon. Perspective, while not always apparent with irregular or disconnected bodies, still exists. . In Fig, 59 we have a perspective layout of a tall building 111 which (H-H) is the horizon with the two vanishing points (Vi) and (V2). It will be noted that all normally horizontal lines intersect at (Vi) and (V2) on the horizon so that there are no parallel lines. All normal vertical lines intersect at the third vanishing point (V3) located on the vertical' hence the building contracts toward the top when the camera is pointed upwards. This distortion, which is frequently seen in photographs, is simply due to the natural effects of perspective. There has been much discussion on the effect of focal length on perspective and it is unfortunate that it has become the accepted but erroneous belief that a long-focus lens is required for properly rendering perspective values. which is not the case. It can be proved that, under. equal conditions, the perspective effect with a short focal length lens is identical with that of a long-focus type providing that the camera position is relatively the same, and that the objects are more than 6 feet from the lens. For example, if a view of a building is taken with a lO-inch lens so that the image completely fills the picture space, the

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perspective will be identical with the same view taken with a 2-inch lens from the same camera position if the image formed by the 2-inch lens is enlarged to the same size as the picture made with the la-inch lens. Depth Distortion When the lens is placed very near the subject in taking a close-up view, say at a distan~ less than 6 feet, there will be a considerable amount of distortion. The parts of the object nearest the lens will appear unduly magnified while portions lying only a short distance behind the foreground will appear much smaller in proportion. Thus, if a portrait is taken with a very short focal length lens, it will be necessary to' place the lens very close to the subject in order to fill the picture space and the subject's nose will be so greatly magnified that it is all out of proportion to the remaining features of his face. This is not due to incorrect or distorted perspective, but to exaggerated magnification which occurs when a certain minimum object distance is reached. To avoid this distortion, the focal length of the lens should be great enough to give the desired size of image at a distance of at least 6 feet from the subject. Commercial portrait studio lenses are of comparatively great focal length, say 12 to 24 inches or even more, and with such lengths it is possible to obtain a large image at a considerable distance from the object. The use of 2-inch and 3-inch focal lengths with amateur miniature cameras usually accounts for the unnatural and distorted portraits taken with such cameras. In such cases, it is better to take a smaller image at a comparatively great distance and increase the enlargemen t. Where close-ups are taken frequently, as in a studio, a long-focus lens should form a part of the equipment. Roughly, the focal length should be about 50 per cent greater than the long side of the negative. If the camera takes 4x5 pictures for example, the focal length should be 50 per cent greater than 5 inches or 7y,; inches. Roundness and Gradation

Soft gradation is directly associated with roundness. It is the almost imperceptible blending of one surface into another without noticeable demarcation. To obtain a soft, pleasing negative does not mean that the lens is thrown out of focus to break the sharp lines. A truly soft lens preserves its definition all over the plate but in a subdued degree. A lens can produce a soft picture and yet be in focus. In some cases this is attained by residual aberrations, such as residual chromatic aberration, while in other lenses the circle of confusion is increased in size to 1150 or 1/75 inch, the overlap of the circles being sufficient to break brilliant sharp contrast between adjacent areas. Certain special studio lenses are made adjustable so that the hardness or softness can be varied from a sharp critical focus to a soft diffused picture bordering on fuzziness.

In portraiture and pictorial photography, sharp, hard definition is not ordinarily desirable, 'hence some of the aberrations are permitted to remain in lenses designed for these uses. In many studios, the old achromatic single lenses and rapid rectilinears are still in service because they retain a sufficient degree of spherical aberration to conceal sharp changes in contour and therefore give the characteristic of "roundness" to the image.

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CHAPTER VI PHOTOGRAPHIC
first THE meniscus

LENSES

element of flint (Fig. 62). This combination departed from the symmetrical type which had been introduced by Chevalier. In 1869 Goddard reversed the Chevalier landscape lens and added a meniscus to the negative element, separated from it by an air space (Fig. 63). Many modifications have been built up around these basic

lens to meet wita universal acclaim was the of Wollaston (1812), since it worked at an aperture of about f 11 and covered an angle of about 45 degrees with satisfactory sharpness. This lens was mounted with the concave side facing the subject and the diaphragm was placed in front of the lens. Since a single lens cannot be chromatically corrected it was necessary to focus sharply for the visual rays and then to correct for the chemically active blue and violet rays by racking forward about 2% of the focal length in order

Fig. 62. Unsymetrical

achromatic

doublet

was made in 1857.

lenses and many of them are still being n:anufactured for portrait and landscape work. Semi-achromatic lenses have certain qualities which are not obtainable with the anastigmats. Aerial perspective, roundness, and diff~lsion which blends one .surface into another are their outstanding features. In por trait work

I
Fig. 60. The simplest lens is the meniscus, developed in 1812.

-- ....

to obtain a sharp picture. This lens is stil! used universally- in inexpensive box cameras, and since it is not possible to focus these instruments visually, the manufacturers have placed the lens at the point of optimum focus (Fig. 60). Chevalier introduced an achromatic doublet in 1821 which brought the chemical and visual rays !o a comm<;)!1focus <l:nd also improved somewhat on the spherical aberration to which

Fig. 63. In 1869 Goddard

I

made this variety of +heChevaller

lens.

they give a pleasing softness which eliminates the need for a great deal of retouching, since blemishes are not so apparent. The softness of fabrics and furs is accentuated by these objectives and consequently they have been used successfully in advertising work. The Double Achromatic The first practical Lens doublet was the rapid recti-

achromatic

Fig. 61. The achromatic

doublet

was introduced

about

1821.

Wollaston's meniscus was subject. This objective consisted of a biconvex lens cemented to a biconcave, both lenses being symmetrical (Fig. 61). In 1857 Grubb patented an achromatic doublet composed of a meniscus similar to Wollaston's, combined with a negative

Fig. 64. Steinheil's

rapid rectilinear

I

or aplanat

was made in 1866.

linear or aplanat which was introduced by Steinheil in 1866. From Fig. 64 it will be seen that this combination consisted es-

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sentially of two combinations similar to the Grubb landscape lens mounted with their concave surfaces facing each other and separated by an air space. The diaphragm was placed half-way between the doublets. The resulting complete lens was practically free from the aberrations to which the previous lenses were heir. The entire combination worked at an aperture of about f 8 and since the objective was symmetrical, either the front. <?rthe rear element could be used separately, under which condition the focal length was aboat twice that of the combination; however, the speed was materially reduced. Petzval made the first real step forward with his portrait lens which he developed in 1840. This lens had the remarkable speed of f 3.4 and shortened the time of exposure to the extent that portraits could be taken by Daguerre's method without

new glasses, opticians set to work to develop lenses. free from astigmatism as well as the other aberrations. The Gauss Objective This is probably the simplest of the lenses which were designed to correct astigmatism, since it is composed of only two glasses. The front element consists of a concavo-convex negative lens with the concave side facing the subject, and the rear element, which is separated from the front lens by a very narrow air space is biconvex (Fig. 66). The Cooke Triplet As has been mentioned before, the number of elements is not necessarily the criterion upon which to postulate the excellence of a photographic objective. In the Cooke triplet we have a

I
Fig. 65. Petzval's portrait lens gave the then fast speed of

f 3.4.
Fig. 67. The Cooke triplet
0

undue discomfort. Petzval's lens was not symmetrical. The front doublet consisted of a biconvex lens of crown glass cemented to a biconcave flint, while the rear element was composed of a concavo-convex flint separated from a biconvex crown by. an air space. The axial pencil of rays is very well corrected in this lens, but It covers a very narrow angle critically and except for portrait work has been replaced by the anastigrnats (Fig. 65). The Anastigmats Although it was possible to overcome most of the aberrations by combining cro:wn and flint glasses, astigmatism remained a-

is simply constructed,

yet very effective.

3-lens objective covering a relatively wide angle at a very high aperture (55 at f 3.5). None of the elements are cemented; all are separated by air spaces. In construction, the Cooke consists of two identical positive elements separated by a negative. By placing the diaphragm between the last two elements, flare has been eliminated. The usual aberrations have been

I
Fig. 68. The Protar type of lens gave exceptionally fine definition.

reduced to a minimum; this objective has been used extensively for color work with excellent results. (Fig. 67).
Fig. 66. The Gauss lens of Jena glass first correded astigmatism.

stumbling block until the J ena glasses were· introduced by Abbe and Schott in 1886. Following the announcement of these

The Protar This objective, developed by Dr. Rudolph, is a 4-lens cornbina-

.>
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tion. The front cemented doublet consists of a crown and a flint achromat similar to the combination used in the rapid rectilinear. The rear cemented doublet is composed of the newer ] ena glasses. to correct for astigmatism which could not be overcome with the old crown and flints. Although this objective was relatively slow it had exceptionally fine definition. (Fig. 68.) The Tessar This objective represents the most popular of the 4-lens objectives. Many modifications of it have been made during the

direct color transparencies or separations. It has- been corrected for all types of work where the image size does not

Fig. 70. The newly designed

Ektar series is based

on the Tessar.

exceed one-third of the object size. The angle of view is about 53·, which will amply cover a 10xlZ" plate (Fig. 70). Ektar 1 3.7-10.7 cm. This objective is similar to the Tessar
Fig. 69. The Tessar type le~s has been in wide use for thirty years.

past 30 years, and some improvements have been made in this way for special purposes. It is completely unsymmetrical. The front element is a plano-convex separated from a biconcave negative element by an air space, while the rear element is acemented doublet composed of a biconcave or plano-concave negative element combined with a biconvex positive. The diaphragm is situated between the middle and rear combinations. This type of construction has been used on the Kinamo cine camera at an aperture of IZ.7, although its standard aperture is usually considered as 14.5. Depending upon the aperture, the angle has been varied from 45· to 75· (Fig. 69). The Ektar Within the past few years a number of n{w objectives have been developed by the Eastman Kodak Company, based upon the Tessar type and known as the Ektar. The Ektar 1 2, however, deviates from the Tessar type and approaches more the unsymmetrical type which was developed from Rudolph's symmetrical Planar. In general construction it resembles the Optic 1 Z of Taylor-Hobson. Reports on these new objectives indicate that a number of refinements have been made which have distinctly improved these lenses for special purposes over their older counterparts. Ektar f 6.3-36 em. This objective was designed for making

Fig. 71. This shorter

Ektar is designed

for 21/4x31j4 size cameras.

except that the rear combination has been reversed. It has been designed to cover a plate size Zy,\x3y,\" (Fig. 71). Ektar 1 3.5-5 ern. This lens is typical of the Tessar type of

Fig: 72.

Still in the

Ektar series, this design

differs widely.

construction and is designed to cover the regular double frame 35 m111film.

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Ektar f 2-4.5 ern, This objective departs' from the Tessar ·type and resembles more the Taylor-Hobson Optic f 2 or the Zeiss Biotar f 1.4 (Fig. 72). The Radiar (Gundlach) This is a modification of the Tessar type in which the rear

angle and aperture which have been maintained it has been necessary to substitute cemented triplets for the simple lenses' found in the Triotar or triplet (Fig, 75).

Fig. 75. This example Fig. 73. The Radiar is another derivative of the Tessar type.

of the Sonnar series is made with 7 lenses.

Convertible

Pro tar

element consists of a cemented triplet. the added lens being a negative concavo-convex (Fig. 73). The Goerz Dagor Ever since its inception in 1893 the Dagor has been highly regarded and is still extensively used. In construction it con-

For versatility and perfection of correction, the Convertible Protar is among the best. Its only possible drawback lies in its relatively slow speed, working as it does at from f 6.3 to f 12,5. In this objective Rudolph modified his Pro tar and com-

Fig. 76. The Convertible

Protar is derived

from the first Protar.

Fig. 74.

The Dagor

lens has been

in very wide use since

18'93:

sists of two symmetrical cemented triplets" separated by "an air space. Either the front or rear elements Play be used independently, thus doubling the focal length for getting a larger image from the same point of view (Fig. 74). Zeiss Sonnar f 1.5 In the Sonnar f 1.5 we have an example of a 7-lens objective. The Sonnar construction is related to the Triotar or triplet. since these lenses consist of three combinations with the diaphragm located between the two back combinations. Due to the
\

bined all four lenses into a single cemented element. The complete objective consists oftwo of these 4-lens combinations separated by a centrally located diaphragm. Since Protar elements may be obtained in a number of focal lengths and used either separately or in combination, a very versatile lens system may be built up (Fig. 76). Turner-Reich Convertible

The most 'complex of the objectives which we shall consider is the Turner-Reich Convertible, which consists of two elements composed of five cemented lenses each. This objective has similar features to those listed under the Convertible Pro tar (Fig, 77).

f

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CHAPTER VII AUXILIARY LENSES
Fig. 77. The Turner-Reich Convertible has two S-Iens elements.

T

Apochromats These lenses are of only passing interest to the amateur as their principal use is .in the field of process and color work. They represent the highest type of correction for all aberrations, and in addition are corrected for three colors instead of two as is the case with the Anastigmats.

HE regular objective furnished with the camera takes care of average conditions only; when extreme perfor:mance of any sort is demanded, additional or auxiliary lenses must be obtained. In general, auxiliary lenses can be divided into two classes according to the method of mounting them:
1. Special stitutes camera 2. mounted lenses, complete within themselves, used as sublor the normal lens and attached to the lensboard 01 the in the same manner as the normal objective. Simple lenses used in combination with the normal them on the barrel 01 the normal lens, modifying its

Slip-on lenses. lens by slipping characteristics.

The special mounted lenses of the above classification are complete lens assemblies and are substituted for the normal lens. The slip-on lenses are usually simple single lenses placed in front of the normal lens to create the desired effect. The latter lenses are the cheapest and least satisfactory of the auxiliaries, but can be used where complete rectification is not necessary. There are many auxiliary lenses for various purposes, but the most commonly used lens is probably the telephoto which is employed for photographing distant objects to a larger size or scale than is possible with the normal lens. Then we have the portrait lenses especially adapted for close-ups, and so on, according to the itemization in the following list. In most cases, both mounted lenses and slip-ons can be had for e.ach purpose indicated.
1. Telephoto lenses distant objects," 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. used lor enlarging distant scenes or lor "bringing up

Portrait lenses for close-up views in portraiture small objects in close-up views.

or for photographing the normal printed

Wide-angle lenses having an angle of view greater than lens to include more of the view at a short distance. Copying lenses matter, or other for photographing flat field close-up line drawings, photography.

copying

Salt-focus lenses for pictorial as diffusion lenses.

work of a general

nature.

Also known of softness or

Salt-sharp lenses which can be adjusted hardness required.

for any degree

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98
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and Long-Focus

These are special objectives for magnifying the images of distant objects, or apparently "bringing the objects up to the camera." They have been used for many years but have gained new life with the advent of the miniature cameras that have appeared in the last few years. Actually, a special telephoto len~ is not required for the production of large images if the belJows extension is long enough, for all that is really necessary is a lens having a longer focal length than the normal lens. Thus, if the normal lens has a focal length of 2 inches, then a regular 6-inch objective lens will give an image three times as large as that of the normal lens from the same camera position. This is the simplest and cheapest way out of the difficulty if the construction of the camera will permit the use of a long-focus lens, but very frequently the bellows extension is not sufficient to handle a regular lens of this size. The true telephoto lens differs from the regular objective in the arrangement of the elements, and requires less bellows extension than a regular lens for the same effective focal length. In Fig. 78 we have a typical simple objective with a long focal length (L), focusing at (F). The angle 0.£ the light cone is (a), and the length of the lens tube is (T). In general, this is the same as any other objective lens of normal focal length. In Fig. 79 is shown a typical telephoto lens with the positive biconvex objective lens (A) and a negative biconcave diverging lens (B) at the rear of the objective. The positive front element (A) would normally bring the rays to a focus at (Fl) but, by the diverging effect of the biconcave lens (B), the focal point is prolonged to (F2), thus effectively increasing the focal length and the size of the image. Note that the angle (b) of the light cone is very much smaller than with the single long-focus objective, In many telephoto objectives the focal length of the lens and, therefore, the size of the image, cas, be varied by changing the distance between the positive and negative images by means of a rack and pinion. The magnification of the image is the rrfbsure of the effectiveness of the telephoto lens. The magnification factor (M) is the number of times that the image of the positive lens is increased by the addition of the negative lens. Thus, if the image given by the positive objective (A) alone is 1 inch and the size of the telephoto combined image at (F2) is 3 inches, then the magnification factor is 3 X (three times). We can find the total effective length of the combination by multiplying the focal length (Fl) of the positive lens (A) alone by the magnification factor, Thus:
Total focal Iengtb (F2) - M XL

The separation of the two lens elements (S) is measured from the node of emission in the positive lens to the node of admission. on the negative lens. This separation (S) of the two lenses must be greater' than the difference between the focal length of the two lenses but less than the focal length of the positive lens (A). The best focal length for the negative lens is from one-third to one-half the focal length of the positive lens.
Let: S =Separatioll between the positive and negattve lenses in the combination. L = Focal lengt h of positive lens. L' = Focal len~th of negative lens. M =Ma~nification or number of times Image ~iven by complete lens is larger than that given by positive alone. L' Then: S=L - L' M

+-

Fig. 78. This shows the path of light rays in a typical

objective.

Fig. 79. In telephotos,

focal length is increased

by negative

element.

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Camera extension (E) which is necessary for a given magnification is found by multiplying the focal length of the negative lens by the magnification less 1.
E = L' (M - 1)

The Schneider Te1e-Xenar f 4.5 is a 5-1ens- unsymmetrical combination partly cemented. The rear element, as is the case with all true telephotos, is a negative (Fig. 80). Dallmeyer has developed a telephoto combination composed of two cemented

and when working at a given camera extension the magnification (M) is found by dividing the extension by the focal length of the negative lens and adding ••.

M=-+
L'

E

The effective f-number of the complete telephoto lens is equal to the f-number of the positive lens multiplied by the magnification. Thus, if the f-number of the positive lens. is f 4.5, then the speed of the combination with a magnification factor of 4 is: 4.5 X 4 = f 18. The telephoto lens is slower because the same amount of light is distributed over a greater area. It is usually advisable to work at even a smaller stop than indicated here because the magnification of the Image reduces the definition and, to recover normal definition, the lens should be well stopped down. All this naturally increases the exposure time so that we must arrive at-some means of computing the time if provision has not already been provided by markings on the lens barrel. Fortunately, many modern telephotos have equivalent f-nuinbers marked on the barrel so that adjustment is as simple as with any lens; but in some cases computation must be made, particularly with lenses of the adjustable magnification type. The exposure time varies with the square of the magnification hence the exposure with a magnification' of 4 requires: 4 X '4 = 16 times the exposure necessary with the front positive lens alone. With a magnification factor of 6, the expqspr e will be: 6 X 6 36 times as long. The exposure tim~ with an ordinary long-focus objective lens will be the same as with any other normal lens having the same f-numper. Plate coverage or the amount of the view on the plate depends upon the magnification of the telephoto. With high magnification and a large image we naturally do not have as much of the image on the plate as with a normal lens. For- example, an entire building with room to spare at top and bottom may be shown with a normal lens while only a few windows or details will be accommodated on the plate with a high-power telephoto. This means that we must have a special finder for the telephoto if the camera is of the finder type. Screen focusing cameras and reflex types, of course, show matters as they actually are.

Fig. 80. The Tele-Xenar

telephoto

is a 5-lens combination.

elements, the front doublet being a positive combination while the rear element is a cemented negative doublet. Telephoto combinations have been developed by this firm having apertures as high as f3.3 (Fig. 81). Since the front lenses of telephoto objectives are usually

Fig. 81. The Dallmeyer

telephoto

has two cemented

elements.

=

quite large, special care should be given to the selection of filters for telephotography. Optical glass filters are recommended, but if gelatin filters are used they should be mounted in "A" glass only. Slip-On Telephotos Slip-on lenses used by fitting them over the mounting of the normal camera lens are frequently very useful and can be had at a low price. These lenses are usually of the biconcave type, either plain or achromatic, but must be used with a camera having a double or triple bellows extension. They cannot be used with single-extension folding cameras or miniatures since they increase the focal length of the normal lens (and consequently narrow the angle of view). The corrected slip-ons are commonly known as Distars from the trade name of the Zeiss lenses that have' been in use for so many years.

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Supplementary portrait lenses can be had either as mounted lenses or as slip-oris, and are very useful auxiliaries if much portraiture or close-up work is done, Their principal purpose is to avoid the exaggerated perspective shown by normal lenses and to introduce a sense of roundness and softness into the portrait. Some of these lenses are pr01'lded with adjustments by which any desired degree of softness can be obtained by varying the degree of diffusion in the lens. Slip-on portrait lenses are positive lenses which, when placed over the normal lens, shorten its focal length and permit a much larger. image of a small object at close range. . Wide-Angle Lenses

cases, the normal lens must be stopped down as far as possible to retain defin ition when a wide-angle supplementary is used. This type of auxiliary lens is referred to as a Proxar from the Zeiss trade name. Wide-Angle Objectives

Wide-angle lenses ar~ very useful accessories. The view angle can be increased from tne average 50° of the normal lens to 80° or 90° so that a much greater portion of the subject can be taken in at a short distance. They are particularly useful for architectural work or interior views where the distances are short and where a considerable breadth of view must be covA ered at short range. In Fig. 82, we show the distance (a-b) taken in by a 50° angle at the distance (L) and the much greater length (A-B) taken at the same distance with a 90° wide-angle \ lens. This is a very imporfant matter in situations where the camera distance (L) is limited. Unfortunately, the speed B of a lens mast decrease when the width of its field inFig. 82. A wide-angle lens gives creases, hence wide-angle a field wide than the normal. Ie n s e s a r e essentially slow lenses. On the average, they range from f 9 to f 18 at full aperture and are usually stopped down more than this where sharp definition is desired all over the plate. Wide-angle lenses for miniature cameras will average f 6.8 full aperture with an occasional f 4.5. Wide-angle slip-ens can be applied to the normal lens of the camera with a decided improvement in the angle but with a considerable loss in definition and speed. In the majority of,

The Goerz Dagor has already been referred to under Normal Objectives. When used at the full aperture of f 6.8 the Dagor has a useful angle of 70° but when stopped down this may be increased to about 90°, thus bringing it into the class of wideangle objectives. The definition of the Dagor is extremely sharp up to the corners of the plate and it is fully corrected for astigmatism as well as spherical and chromatic aberrations and the internal reflections are practically non-existent. ' A Wide-Angle Dagor has been developed which works at a maximum aperture of f 9. The curves of this objective have been modified somewhat so that the angle has been increased to 100°, making it an ideal objective for banquet work because of its wide angle and relatively high speed. The Hypergon which was developed by Goerz some years ago embraces an angle of 140°. This is a symmetrical combination cons,isting ~f two spherical elements. An interesting feature of this lens IS the fact that the lens covers an image about 5 times the focal length of the objective (a 4~-inch Hypergon covers 12xI6"). Focusing is done at f 22 and aberration is eliminated by using an aperture of f 32 for taking the picture. To obtain even illumination over the whole plate a

Fig. 83. The Hypergon

is an extreme

wide-angle

lens.

small hinged star diaphragm is required to shield the center of the objective, During 2/3 of the exposure it is placed in front of the lens and rotated by means of air pressure furnished by a bulb, and the remainder of the exposure is made with the diaphragm removed (Fig. 83). One of the most interesting lenses designed for wide-angle work was the Robin Hill lens made by Beck of London. This objective had the remarkable angle of 180° and was designed to photograph the whole sky on a single plate when the camera was faced vertically upward. A number of interesting pictures have been reproduced which were taken with this objective. As long as the camera is pointed vertically up or down, rather

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interesting patterns may be obtained; if, however, the camera is pointed horizontally the 'distortion of verticals (barrel distortion) is very noticeable and not particularly pleasing, Its

results are obtained by diffusing or sof~ening the view with the enlarger or printer rather than by this lens. Two types of supplementary attachments have been developed to increase diffusion in the lens. One of these is a flat glass plate which has concentric rings and radiating spokes pressed in relief on the surface. The other is in the form of a supplementary lens which introduces a certain amount of chromatic aberration into the image, without altering the focus of the camera lens to any extent. While these attachments tend to soften the image the aerial perspective is not rendered as effectively as is the case with the semi-achromatic lenses. Notes on Slip-On Lenses

Fig. 84.

This Robbin Hill lens covers a field of 180 degrees.

application except for trick effects is very limited. Originally It was designed for meteorological record work (Fig. 84). Copying Lenses These lenses, including the slip-on type, are essentially flatfield lenses used for photographing drawings, paintings, printed matter, small objects at close range, etc. This class also includes the highly corrected process lenses employed by engrav- , ers. All of the copying lenses must show exceptionally fine definition in reproducing all possible detail in the original copy. Slip-on copying lenses are very convenient for the amateur and many of them give very good results in combination with the regular objective. This lens is usually a biconvex type which shortens the focal length of the normal lens but which in effect increases the bellows extension so t1J.at small objects can be taken full size without distortion. They make possible with a single extension bellows what would require a double extension bellows without the supplementary lens, while in the case of cameras having double extension bellows, they will permit copying at considerable magnification, Soft-Focus Slip-Oris

For'the best results, the achromatic type of slip-on lenses with two cemented elements should be used .: These remove at least one aberration and are superior to the plain single lenses that sell at lower prices. Slip-ons slow up the main lens by some 20 to 30 per cent because of the added absorption and reflections. This applies to all of the lenses even where the apparent f-number is increased by a decrease in the focal length of the lens. To insure proper working, the main lens should be well stopped down. For proper operation, the supplementary lens should be placed as close as possible to the normal lens. This is particularly necessary when the supplementary is a biconvex lens. Care should also be taken that the slip-on ring fits the barrel snugly and that the lens is not cocked nor tilted. Calculations for Slip-On Lenses

In Fig. 85 we have the camera objective (A) and the biconvex slip-on lens (B). We wish to determine the combined focal length when the camera lens focal length is (Ll ) and the focal length of the slip-on is (L2).
Ll X L2 (with biconvex slip-on) Total focal lerrg rh = --Ll L2

+

Ll X L2
= ---

(with biconcave s\lp-on)

Ll - L2

The lenses are assumed to be in contact in the above formulas but where there is a slight separation (S), we have:
Ll X L2 LT =---Ll L2 - S

These are really diffusion discs placed in front of the normal lens for softening the outlines of pictorial views and resemble the portrait diffusion type, It is believed by many that better

+

This

is illustrated

by Fig.

85, where

(S)

is seen to be the

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CHA.PTER VIII
F

CARE OF LENSES AND SHUTTERS

~-----

v

----.1

A general rule, the less that the amateur has to do with As his lens, except for its protection, the better will be the final results. Too much tinkering, rubbing, and fussing with the lens assembly may, sooner or later, result in serious damage to a delicate and expensive piece of equipment. Remember that no watch is as accurately adjusted as is the lens elements and the shutter mechanism of a good lens. This means, in short, that the lens and shutter should be treated very gently and most certainly' should not be tossed about. Even a short fall may bump the lens elements out of alignment so that the lens loses its sharpness or develops other troubles. Again, any camera deserving of the name should be worthy of a good carrying case for its protection against dampness, dust, or bumps. The eveready cases, while very convenient, are seldom tight enough to be a great deal of protection against moisture, and moisture is a camera's worst enemy. Further, a miniature camera should always be provided with shoulder straps, and the straps should always be over the shoulders while the camera is being handled to prevent damage should the camera accidentally slip out of your hands. Lens Protection Every lens should be provided with a tight lens cap that will exclude all dust and moisture. This may, under conditions, be left off with certain folding cameras that act as their own caps when the bed is folded up; but other cameras should, under all conditions, be provided with caps. They may be velvet lined or plain, but they must fit the lens mount tightly. Lens glass is much softer than window or bottle glass, and is much more easily damaged. Further, the barium glass is of such a nature that it is acted on chemically by salt water, perspiration, fingerprint marks, or even salty air. This glass should not be exposed to the air any longer than necessary, and special protection against moisture should be provided when the camera is carried in the pockets or otherwise exposed to perspiration. " Even when well protected, certain lenses will "bloom" or

Fig. 85. It is comparatively easy to calculate the effects of slip-on lenses with the accompanying formulas.

separation measured for biconvex lens.
Let:

from the nodes of emission and admission

u = Dtstance [rom supplementary lens to subject. y =Dlstance from center of camera lens to film. M = Magntflcatton. D = Distance as marked on Iocustng scale. LT = Combined focal tengrh. LT X v u=
v -

Then:

LT

LT Xu v=--u -LT
u

v M u

LT u- LT

X L2

D=---

L2 - u

The above formulas are for biconvex lenses, but when J"icon-\ cave lenses are used as. supplementary lenses, the focal length (L2) IS used as a negative quantity. Obviously the i-numbers of a lens will be changed when the focal length is altered by a slip-on lens. To find the effective i-number for the combination, the new focal length is multiplied by the original i-number as marked on the rezular lens and the product then divided by the focal length of the regula; lens. Thus if
F = focal lengrb of camera lens LT = Combined focal Ieng rh !=!-number marked on lens

LTXf
Then: effective I-number = F

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become covered with a grayish haze, but in the majority of cases this is harmless if care is used in wiping it from the lens. This should not be allowed to occur often as frequent rubbing may destroy the polish on the lens, making it necessary to return the camera to the manufacturer for an' expensive repolish job-if the lens justifies this expense. When the surface of the glass becomes covered with a dark-bluish coating that indicates chemical action on the barium glass, the repolish job is usually the only way out. This hard coating, which extends down below the surface of the glass, is also the result of the oil and salty perspiration contained in fingerprints. Fingerprints should be removed immediately, for they are among the worst disasters that can happen to a high-grade lens. They imbed themselves in a remarkably short time so that they cannot be removed by any ordinary means and, besides, soften the glass surface so that it is more easily injured during cleaning. Special auxiliary lenses, such as wide-angle and telephoto lenses, should be stored carefully in the special cases designed for them by the makers. 'they are usually the most expensive of lenses and thus deserve special care in handling and storage. If the original maker's package has become damaged or is not available, then a chamois-skin bag with zippers or drawstrings should be made for holding the lens, and the bag should be placed in a box as a protection against mechanical injury. The safest place for any lens is when it is mounted in the camera; accidents are doubly apt to happen when it is allowed to lie around. Dust and Dirt In the course of time all lenses accumulate dust and dirt which, if allowed to increase, will blanket the lens and reduce its speed. While it is eventually necessary to clean the lens, the intervals should be as long as possible and the number of cleanings reduced to a minimum, for every cleaning removes some of the vital lens polish. A new !J.ighly polished lens glass is almost invisible except for the reflections that take place on its surface. If it is light colored or of solid appearance, it is entirely possible that this is due to a multitude of fine scratches on the surface that have destroyed the polish and will soon cause trouble with the lens. Soft, fibrous dust does little harm except that it calls for another cleaning, but there may be some hard, sharp grit included that will scratch the glass as soon as it is rubbed. Therefore, it is always safest to dust off possible grit by means of a soft camel hair brush to dislodge the grit before attempting to rub the surface. Bad scratches have occurred by the neglect

of this advice. And, while you are at it, clean the rear end of the lens as well as the front, first brushing off any film or emulsion dust that may have been deposited on the rear element. For rubbing off the dust and grit, which should be done very gently and with little pressure, we come to the conclusion that there is no material that is as soft and free from scratching tendencies as the special lens tissues now on sale at all stores. N ever use a linen or cotton handkerchief for this purpose, even though it may be soft from repeated washings. The fibers are hard and much troublesome lint is deposited. Silk handkerchiefs are to be preferred to cotton or linen, but the silk fibers are also hard and have little real cleaning value. Specially prepared "wash-leather" or chamois-skin wipers are used in England but the ordinary drug store chamois skins are likely to contain dangerous grit. Chamois, when properly prepared, leaves no lint and is quite soft. Avoid the use of chemicals for cleaning lenses, for many of these preparations contain alcohol, ether, or acids that will affect the glass or the metal mountings. Ether will remove greasy deposits from the glass but it will also remove the lacquer from the mountings and deposit this varnish on the glass. Soap of any kind will leave greasy rings and deposits, and the alkali in the soap may attack the barium in the lens glass. Water, if applied in any quantity, may run back into the inside of the mounting where it will cause unlimited damage. Breathe gently on the glass, not forcibly, and then with a gentle circular motion rub off the fog with a lens tissue. Breathing hard on the lens may drive vapor back into the mount where it will cool off and be deposited in the form of droplets on the inside surface of the glass which is inaccessible. Now, view the lens by reflected light which will reveal any dust or spots that may be left after the first cleaning. Do not rub the glass a second time unless it is necessary, and under no condition scrub hard on the glass. If this treatment does not suffice, better spend a little money with a lens repairman and let him clean the lens-inside and out. Bubbles and Specks in the Glass Do not worry if you discover small bubbles in the glass. I t is almost impossible to avoid bubbles in the manufacture of certain high-grade optical glasses and they do no harm unless they break through the surface. Some of the best lenses contain whole chains and colonies of bubbles. On looking through a lens, one will frequently see black specks on the inside of the lens caused by small flakes of black lacquer being detached from the mounting. Unless these

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specks are large or are located directly in the center of the lens, they need be no cause for worry. If it is necessary to take the objective apart it should be sent to the maker or repairman for disassembly, internal cleaning, and new lacquer. Do not attempt to remove the specks .yourself. Lens Scratches Very often a deep scratch on the front lens element will cause no trouble, and even when the edges of the fron t element are chipped there is no interference. If this occurs on the rear element it is another matter altogether, because the scratches are likely to cause shadows on the rear of the lens. In the first place, the scratches on the front element are so close that they are out of focus, and second, they do little except to reduce the lens area very slightly. Certain scratches may cause internal reflections and flare, and such scratches must be carefully filled up with black paint to prevent light from entering the scratch. The same is true when a bubble breaks through the surface; it should be filled with a dot of black paint. Cracked Lenses

to prevent this accident from happening to you. In some miniatures of the folding type, the lens mount is set so far to the rear that it comes into actual contact with the film. If the film is moved up fOF the next picture while the camera is closed and the film is contacting the lens, then the film will scrape along the glass and cause scratches. In all cases, a folding-type miniature camera should be ·opened before the film is advanced, Out of Focus at "Infinity" In some cases, a camera will focus accurately with the focusing scale at every point except the "infinity" position. Again, it may only do this trick occasionally. It is very annoying at any time or for any reason, but the remedy is usually very simple. This annoyance may be caused by a loose lens mount in the camera. If loose, tighten the mount in the camera and try it again. Second, the pressure plate spring may be so weak that it does not properly force the film down on the film aperture plate. This is, 0.£ course, easily fixed. Out of Focus at All Points This may be the result of a nome-made lens repair job which frequently shows up on second-hand cameras. Second, the pointer at the focusing scale may be bent or may have slipped. Third, the focusing scale may have moved. The only remedy is to focus the camera at "infinity," using a piece of gr oun dglass in place of the film, and find whether this "infinity" agrees with that marked on the scale. If it does not, move the scale, move the pointer, or remark the scale, whichever may be the easiest. Another cause, although infrequent, is the adjustment of the lens mount which may not be far enough back in the front board. It also occurs with focusing mounts 'of the front element focusing type where imperfections in the helix or rough spots on the barrel may prevent the lens from moving properly in the mount. Fern-Like Discoloration

About the least damage that a hard fall can cause is a cracked lens element, surprising as it may seem. Lenses with cracks clear across the diameter of the lens have been used, and they functioned perfectly with no evidence of the crack. However, the lenses did not open up along the crack, and the story might have been different if the halves had pulled open with a second blow, So long as the halves fit together tightly along the crack, it is seldom that evidence of the flaw will show on the picture. Out of Alignment The greatest damage that can be caused shy a hard fall is to throw the lens elements out of their proper alignment, This is a job for an experienced lens repairman who must reassemble the lenses in their proper relation, I-Ie has the equipment for doing this job-you have not. Rubbed Rear Element Very often the owner of a miniature camera will find a series of scratches or a dul! white rough area on the rear element of the lens. So far as this camera is concerned, it is through as a camera unless the lens is replaced. A few words may help

Occasionally, the Canada balsam used for cementing the lens units dries out or decomposes, leaving a fern-like tracery in the lens. This means that the lens must be recemented by ;> lens man at a considerable cost. Likewise, the cement may turn brown, slowing up the lens and killing its resolving power. This also necessitates recementing,

112
Lens Foggy

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and Speckled

A lens showing a foggy 'inside surface or a fine mist of droplets on the inside surfaces needs i~mediate attention This .mist may be due to moisture that has gained access to th~ mtenor of the lens .mo~nt or it may be oil vapor that has been caused by the lubrication of the camera. Never oil any part of a camera, particularly with the ordinary oils found around the home. The. oil vapori.zes .and eventually may condense and form deposits on the mtenor of the lens. This means a complete lens disassembly, cleaning, and reassembly by an expert. Cold Weather Hints

popular lens shades which can be slipped over the lens for protection against reflections and direct light. Strong reflections from windows may be subdued by the use of the antiglare polarizing filters. Blurred Subject When a moving object passes rapidly across the field of the lens, too rapidly for the shutter speed being used, the image of the object will appear blurred while surrounding stationary objects will be as clearly defined and sharp as usual. The remedy is to increase the shutter speed so that .it is fast enough to "stop" the object. It is not safe to use a speed lower than 11100 second where motion is involved even though the motion ·may seem slow.* Camera Movement

N eve.r u~co:ver the lens of a cold camera immediately after you brmg It into the h0l!se. Allow it to warm up gradually with the cap on to aVOId condensation on and within the lens. Make the temperature changes gradually. With certain types of focusing lens mounts, the cold may congeal the grease around the helix and cause the mount to move so hard that it may be strained or broken. Fi!m base material is always brittle in cold weather an~ care is req~lred In wmdmg film after the exposure to prevent its teann&, across, or along the edges. It is easy to tear out-sprocket hole.s in 35 mm film 111 cold weather by winding it rapidly or Ior cib ly. Circular Spot on Film

When all of the objects on the film are blurred, both moving and stationary, the trouble is due to camera movement during the exposure. When a camera is held in the hands, or when the camera is on a tripod in a strong wind, the shutter speed should never be less than 1/25 second and preferably 1150 second where the lighting conditions will permit. Time and bulb exposures require the support of the camera by a rigid tripod. Any slight vibration during a time exposure will cause blurring that is greatest on distant objects. With the modern miniature camera, shutter speeds should be at least 11100 of a second to avoid the possibility of movement during the exposure. Care of the Shutter Modern shutters are very well built and reliable, but they will not stand abuse. The parts are as delicate as those of a watch and are easily injured by falls, hard blows, or by excess moisture. The following hints will be of service to the amateur.
1. DO NOT OIL THE SHUTTER OR IRIS. Oil, even in very small amounts, will cause the leaves to stick together and cause other difficulties that call for the services of an expert repairman. 2. Do not leave the shutter "cocked" for any length of time. This gradually weakens the springs and changes the timing. Rele as e the shutter when through for the day or when the camera is to be laid aside ior a time. 3. The focal-plane shutters oi such cameras as the Grafiex and Speed Graphic will last longer without repairs if the curtain tension is released at the end of the day. 4. The use of the cable release instead oi the trigger will avoid the tendency toward camera movement, and the cable should thereiore be used at speeds of 1/50 second or lower.
.This subject is discussed nical Library, No. 14). £uIly in Photographing A.ction. (Little Tech ..

Occasionally a large, black, circular spot will appear in the center. of the film when a folding camera is used. In some cases It may occupy as IToIuC;h as half the film area. It is usually ~ very dense black. This IS due to lack of proper air venting in the back of the <;amera, the air being compressed to rather a high pressure inside the box when th.e bellows is pushed in suddenly on closing the camera. The h~h air pressure under suc~ cond~tions, may momentarily force the shutte: open, leaving a Circular s.hadow on the film. This happens frequently with cameras haVing the old-style pneumatic bulb shutters and the only remedy is to close the bellows slowly if th~ camera cannot be vented properly. Haze Due to Lighting Fog, haze, or thin bl~ck streaks may be caused by facing the camera into a strong light or by reflections from windows or other glossy surfaces. This can be avoided by the use of the

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5. Do not attempt to force or "atron " " not act normally, investigate it for th ~ arm a shckmg shutter. If it does stn~ a focal-plane shutter by attempti;'g e~~o~·rc/lt.1S a very easy matter to . An old, Worn shutter IS mdlcated b h d purchase a second-hand shutter if th b{ dscratc e , scuffed blades. Never 7. Shutters of all ty es and ~ a es are marred or rubbed. likely to change timing ~r 'stick i~artlIdlarlY ~ocal-plane shutters, are more 8.. In the course of time, natural \~~a weat er. . ter wIll cause small pinholes in the fab r. o~htht c tam of ~ focal-plane shutfilm. Usually these pinholes can be touched a t WI I cause Iighf to strike the or black paint on the end of a small b h au WIt 1 a drop of rubber cement . 9. Do not use the top shutter speedu~ f It places an unnecessary strain on th a h 0 tener tha? nece~sary because above 1/200 second. e mec amsm, This applIes to speeds 10. When purchasillg a camera or I t The speed most likely to stick is (T)e~~ teft each shutter s!?eed individually. not remain open when released Th d ciequently acts lIke (B) and will be tested before accepting the ~ame:a e lye relerse mechanism should also shutter c,an be cleaned and washed out' with casb 0 an emer~ency, a sticking water, OIl, or gasoline under any circumsta~~~s~.n tetrachloride. Do not use

CHAPTER IX TESTING LENSES
inspected and tested beno difference whether the lens is expensive 0 inexpensive, it should fulfill its purpose, else why add it to your collection? Of course, we cannot expect a $10 lens to equal a $100 lens in performance, but it should be sufficient in its price class, Not a bargain, perhaps, but good value for the price. However, we venture to state that any defects which show up in or on a lens made by a reputable manufacturer can generally be traced to lack of care in handling. . . Lenses should be carefully examined for scratches on the surface or for dull spots where the polish has been rubbed off the glass, leaving dull gray patches. The surface of a well-polished lens is nearly invisible except where patches of light are reflected, but a worn lens surface is strongly visible and does not give such brilliant reflections. If the surface of the' lens shows a reflected bluish cast, it is likely that the polish has been destroyed by exposure to moisture and thus it will not be long until a repolish job will be needed. Dented mounts, bent flanges, and deep scratches in the mount are evidence of rough treatment and such lenses should be regarded with suspicion. Dropping lenses or giving them heavy blows sufficient to dent the mount will be very likely causes for alignment troubles. It the elements are out of alignment, it is usually an expensive job to get them back into place, requiring a highly skilled optician for the job. When the mount is in bad condition, it is likely that the iris or the shutter has been injured and careful tests should be made of these parts, proceeding step by step at each tnumber or speed. Deeply scratched or rubbed shutter blades indicate that the lens has had long, hard service; likely as not, the shutter and iris are worn out. The iris should open and close very smoothly without catching at various points, and the shutter should be free from rattles and clicks when operated. . Focal-plane shutters of the cloth curtain type are subject to many disorders that are not always noted in a casual inspection. The cloth curtain may be so worn that the sizing has dropped out, leaving pinholes which will cause light-struck film, fog, and streaks on the film. The replacement or repair Y lens should be carefully EVER fore final acceptance. It makes

11

t

Iris Diaphragm This mechanism consists of b f . of very thin metal that mai a .num er 0 interlacing leaves opening of varying diameter I~ta~h an approximately circular These leaves fit very c1osel/~oge~h~~abtu~entIJ of t~e lens. trouble, even after long service TI se om gIVe any occasionally to see that the f . . rey should ~e exam1hed working. Because of the c1~seug~t~od 1hOP~!y WIth all leaves the leaves, they should never be ~led e 6i11n wllta~. uked for together so that they cannot be moved. . I S IC t h em

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of a focal-plane shutter is usually an expensive job and every precaution should be taken against getting a defective shutter. All lenses should be supplied with tight-fitting lens caps for the exclusion of dust, grit, and moisture. Such a cap should be supplied with the lens and the absence of the cap should be regarded with suspicion when purchasing a used lens. Lack of the cap shows indifference to handling a lens, and this is a bad sign. Very often, small specks oto flakes of black varnish or lacquer will become detached from the interior surface of the barrel and adhere to the interior of the lens. If these flakes are small and well away from the center of the lens, they will do no harm, but they are not desirable. Bubbles in the glass, as we have remarked before, are not objectionable if they have not broken through the surface of the glass. Slight yellow discoloration of the glass, due to aging of the lens cement, need not be objectionable but it is not an asset because the stain will slow up the lens. Only an exposure test made with ortho film and timed by an exposure meter, will tell whether it is too deeply stained. If uniformly stained to a yellow color all over the surface, the lens becomes a selfcontained lens and filter. ". Photographic Tests

1. Spherical aberration causes un sharpness all over the chart without sharp focus at any point except, in some cases, near the center of the chart. 2. Curvilinear distortion is indicated by the straight lines curving near the edges of the chart. Objects near the edges change 10 size from the same size figures near the center of the chart. 3. Sharpness of the letters and figures indicates resolving power as do the small squares in the checkers. Loss of sharpness at the comer shows that the lens has not sufficient covering power. 4. Astigmatism is indicated by.unequal sharpness in. the horizontal and vertical lines. Certain portions of the CIrcle WIll also be blurred while the remainder of the arcs will be sharp. . 5. Chromatic aberration may be indicated by unsharpness all over the chart at normal visual focus which becomes sharper on a second negative when the lens is racked slightly farther forward. . . 9. Lack of flatness in the field will generally show as good definition near the center of the chart which gradually loses sharpness toward the edges. 7. Poor illumination shows the light material brighter near the central portions than near the edges. 8. Flare spots will show as bright discs of dlight, gefnerhally bneart' the center of the chart. These are the least efinite 0 tea. erra Ions because they depend upon certain definite lighting conditions that do not always exist. 9. Coma shows as comet-shaped or oval patches of light, variously distributed.

Optical Alignment It may. be necessary at times .to check the optical alignment of a lens system. When an objective leaves the factory th~ vano~s elements are centered in their mounts so that the. optical axis is central to all of the components. However, If It IS subjected to hard usage or is dropped, the lenses may become decentered in their mounts. In order to check an objective for centration it is necessary to mount it in a horizontal position a~d place a candle or small light source a foot or so in front of It. If one now looks through the lens obliquely the candle can be seen reflected on the various surfaces of the lens. elernen ts. The candle should be adjusted until the images he directly in the center of each lens element. If the lens IS now slowly rotated the relative positions of the images should _not change. On the other hand, if one of the images rises an.d !alls I~ ~~lation to the other images as the lens is rotated. It IS an mdication that the lens is out of alignment. In this. case the lens should be returned to the manufacturer for readjustment.

The only true lens test is to take test negatives with the lens under uniform if not standard conditions. An ounce- of test is worth a ton of conjecture. Photographs made of test charts immediately reveal any defects that" the lens may have when carefully analyzed. A flat white sheet of cardboard, ruled with heavy black lines into various geometrical figures, is the best type of chart for making lens tests, because any aberrations or distortions are made immediately evident by their effects upon the lines. Large printed letters and figures pasted on the chart are also of service, particularly for obtaining critical focus and sharp definition. Charts for this purpose can now be had from your camera dealer with full instructions as to their tt!>eand interpretation. Such charts should contain horizontal lines, vertical lines, atleast one pair of lines at an angle of 45 degrees, and a few groups of circles. Checkerboard designs in the corners are also useful for determining resolving power. Where possible, the chart should be of the same proportions as the negative so that the image of the chart will nearly fill the negative space. The negatives should be made on finegrain film. In general, the charts will reveal the various aberrations as follows, but after some experience with the charts, many defects can be determined easily.

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CHAPTER ENLARGER

X LENSES

AND PROJECTOR

HE lenses used for enlargers .are very similar to camera lenses; in fact camera lenses are frequently used interchangeably in the camera and enlarger. However, specially designed enlarger lenses are the most satisfactory for this purpose and give the best all-round results. There is always danger of breaking an expensive camera lens in making the transfer from the camera to the enlarger and the heat emitted by some enlargers does not improve the balsam-cemented elements in the camera lens. . The first and primary requirement of an enlarger lens is a perfectly flat field, and these lenses are designed with this in mind. They should .have good resolving power and fairly high speed, as enlarging is a somewhat slow process under certain conditions with dense negatives and great magnification. ~he sensitized enlarger papers' are much slower than film emulsions and we wish to have as much light as commensurate with sharp definition and detail. Again, where the enlarger is employed for making color separation negatives, the lens should be entirely free fromlateral color aberration so that all of the negatives will be of exactly the same size. Good depth of field is essential when working with a tilted easel, hence the enlarger lens should carry an iris diaphragm which is also employed for the control of the light and for maintaining sharp definition under all ordinary conditions. The quantity of light passing to the paper from the lamp is more easily -controlled by the iris than by controlling the lamp. Shutters are not necessary and are not provided with standard enlarger lenses. By far the greater number of· enlarger lenses are anastigmats, but occasionally we find a rapid rectilinear lens in a portrait studio darkroom where the control of softness is during the enlarging rather than with the camera lens during exposure. Soft-sharp adjustable diffusing lenses are sometimes used for this purpose and where such lenses are not available, softness is attained by one of several types of diffusing devices. . Lens Size and Speed Because of the great variety of enlarger sizes, enlarger

T

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lenses are supplied in a number of focal lengths· that ra.nge from Z inches to 10 inches or more. The focal length required depends upon the maximum !legative size for which the enlarger is designed, and negative sizes Will range from. 35 mrn film, lx1.5", to the 8xlO" employed in commercial studios. T~e lens used should have a focal length slightly greater than the diagonal of the negative to be enlarged. Having a much greater. focal length will require elevating th elamphouse and gate to a~ mconvenient height for a given size enlargement an~ Will thus increase the tendency toward vibration and blurring. If the focal length is too short, then the lens Will not entirely cover the negative and will cut the corner~ of the enlargement. It is weIJ to use the focal lengths specified, even though two or more lenses may be required for covering the range of negative sizes handled. Three sizes of lenses WIIJ suffice for miniature negatives ranging from 35 ml1!- to Zy.(x3y.("-a Z-inch lens, a 3-inch lens and a 4-II1'Chlens Will cover the range adequately. . For the large commercial enlargers, the lens speeds Will range from about 16.8 to 14.5. The lenses for fast miniature enlargers will range from 16.3 to 13.5, and in all. but the .cheapest .enlargers will be 14.5. The 13.5 lens, now in ~xtenslve use, grves very fast enlarging and short expo~~res with dense negatives and slow chloride papers. The additional cost of the (3.5 !ens is well justified in view of the additional speed. A diffusiontype of enlarger gives a uniform distribution of ligh.t ?ver the enlarging paper and has many other adva~tage~, but I~ IS rather slow because of the loss of light. The light IS distributed by diffusing it through a groundglass plate and by reflection f;om the lamphouse walls and reflector so that ,:ery uniform light falls on the negative. The shadow of. the Image 01). th~ film passes to the objective lens which projects an enlarged Ima~e of the film on the sensitized paper. The focu.s of the I~ns IS controlled by mo,:ement of the .bellows. The Size of the Im.ag~ on the paper is adjusted by moving th~ lamphou~e and negative, the greater the distance the larger will be. the image. . To increase the speed of the enlarger Without mcreasll1~ the size of the lamp, the light must be collected more efficiently than with the diffusion system, and all the ligh.t must be concentrated on the negative area s~ as to obtain the grea.test possible intensity. At the same time, the concentrated light must be spread out evenly w:ithout shadows or bright spots. The collection and concentration of light IS.usually performed by condenser lenses in an assembly. This consists of two plano-convex lenses, curved faces together, placed bet.ween t~e lamp and film so that the Jigh.t beam covers tl:e negative. This spot of light is very much brighter than the light at al}-yother point in the larnphouse because it represents all of the hg~t collected over the area of the lenses, concentrated down II1tO a

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small spot. The intensity may be increased from ten to twelve times by this method with a correspondingly greater amount of light passing through the film. The light then passes through the objective lens to the paper in the usual way. This, while an old method, is very effective but has the disadvantage of showing up all of the defects, scratches, or rub marks on the film. It will show film scratches or cracks that are not r.vealed by the diffusion system, because the condensers direct the rays along definite lines. To avoid this trouble, Some condenser-type lamphouses are designed so. that diffusion takes place in addition to the condenser concentration. Some makes of, condenser-type enlargers are' provided with several sets of condenser lenses. This is not absolutely necessary, but it does assist in maintaining a higher efficiency than can be obtained with one pair of condensers when handli~ a number of negative sizes. Thus, a condenser that will snow the greatest concentration OVer a 35 rnrn negative will not throw a spot large enough to cover a 2Y<!x3y<!" negative. A condenser for the latter size will be too dim for the highest speed with the 35 mrn film, and so on. Degree of Enlargement The magnification or enlargement depends Upon the focal length of the lens and the distance between the negative and. the paper. With a short focal-length lens, this projection distance is at a minimum for a given enlargement, and this is an advantage in getting critical focus. If sufficient space is available, then the matter of focal length is not of such great importance but, unfortunately, there is a decided limit to the permissible movement of the enlarger head imposed by the height of the enlarger guide posts, etc. The use of wide-angle lenses will assist enlargement in limited space, but the wide-angle lens is not desirable if it can be avoided. Turning the enlarger in a horizontal position and projecting against a wall gives the greatest amount of lens distance; this is inconvenient, however, with a nurnbej" of enlargers, but others are designed to facilitate use in this manner. Projector Optical System

5

K

k-----

T ---.,

5

F 86 This diagram i~g~an; fine projectors

shows the optical system used of the double-condenser type.

. with Figure 86 shows the optical system 0 f a adtvni YPIcal 1 projector ses (CI-C2) fil t I (L) con enser en the concentrated amen .amp I ' (G) The image is pro-, film aperture (F), lind obJeglv !,nhile th~ positive film (K-K) jected upon the wa h s~ee~ f ~he lamp by the transparent heat is protected from t e ea 0 ay be a glass plate slide (film filter (e-e). The transparency m es) or a roll of film as ?an~wichebd ~l~~~rsl~~~~ used with 35 mm posiindica ted y b(eKtwJ{e)n . g¥h: .

S)

The projector is a device for throwing an enlarged image of a positive slide on a screen or wall for direct viewing. During the past few years, small projectors have been in great demand for showing 35 mm color transparencies and for the projection of home movies. The optical system of the projector is very similar to the enlarger, except that the optical axis of the projector is usually horizontal instead of vertical.

tives are usually 2x2 inches, . (L) close to the It will be noted that, by placing the l~hePlight is embraced f condenser lenses, a la.rg\y.erc(tf~~g;rgjection. The concen.traby the angle (a) an IS u IIZefvely great for all of the light tion light Is(~o)m~a~t~ condense;s is concentrated on over of the the. diameter o. the smaller aperture operung (d). d the focal . h . t d image depen s upon The size of t. e proJec e anld the "throw" or distance (T). length of the objective (G(~) or the shorter the focal length, The greater .the dIstance. irna e. The design of the obthe .larger be theIP~o~~fft:~~t t1~an that used with the enjective (G)w.llI IS somew ia I

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D Then: R = f v (2 X f)

LENSES

AND SHUTTERS
v - f R =--; f R =--; u - f

123

larger for the reason that a mu h . IS required with the ro iecto b c greater focusing movement in the length of the ~hr~w rThec~use of the greater variation anastigmat but it is not nece e ens mayor may not be an nition for direct viewing as for s:~i:igi~O ha;e. sh'ch sharp d~fiwhere not much room is available f g. lor orne projection short focal-length lenses are used A lng throw, rather had at a distance of a few fee' al: y arge. Image can be lens, but it is likely that lensest ~~en u ng a6 ?-mch or 3-.inch commonly used. rom to mches are more

(approx.);

R=-

rr· i
4

u

Any of the above formulas can be employed for determining the enlargement, depending upon the known quantities. For example, the lens-to-easel distance is 24 inches and the lensto-negative distance is 12 inches. What is the enlargement?
v R = u

Enlarger

Calculations employed with enlarge r I . enses d 0 not differ from those used with ~rdinary. camera lenses with the Doss~ble. exception that the a~phcatlOn is changed in detail. The direction of the ~ight i~ reversed and the object distance is exchanged for th~ bellows extension. The principal elements concerned are illustrated by Fig 87. . o The basic quantity is the enlargement factor (R), .or ~he number of times that the Image is increased over the negative size. Thus, the en!argement is 2 or (R) is 2, In the case where a 4x5 negative is enlarged to 8xlO. This is linear enlargement and is often quoted in diameters' h~nce, in the example jusf given, the enlargement is 2 diameters.
of enlarae
eo •.

24 = - = 2 times. 12

The calculations

Again, let us say that the negative-to-easel distance (D) is 24 Find inches and that the focal length of the lens is 6 inches. the enlargement factor:
R

=-----

D -

(2 X f)

24 -

(2 X 6) 6

=

24 - 12 6

=

2 times.

NEG'~rn
u

N egative-to-Easel

Calculations

In this series of calculations, the height of the negative carrier above the easel forms the method controlling the size of the enlargement.
D = f X (R

+ 2);

D = u X (R

+ 1)

EASEL
\
Let

vl ~
R =Enlargement

EXAMPLE. The focal length of the lens is 3 inches and we wish to make a 6-times enlargement. What is the distance between the negative and easel?
D = f X (R

+

2) = 3 X (6

+

2) = 3 X 8 = 24 inches

Required

Focal

Length

of Lens

Fig. 87. The degree of enlargement is very readily calculated. menr,

In the following formulas will be found methods of determining the correct focal length of a lens for a given enlarging condition. The results should be checked with diagonal of negative used to insure that coverage is obtained.
u X R f=--R+1 v f=---; R+1 D f=--R+2

factor or number of diameters

f = Focal length of the lens. u : Distance from the lens to the negative. v -Distance from lens to paper or easel. D =Total distance from the negattve to paper or easel. The sum of u and v (plus the nodal distance for extreme accuracy).

EXAMPLE. The enlarging factor is 6 and the negative-toeasel distance (D) is 32 inches. What will be the fOJ:al length of the lens required?
D f=--R +2 32 6

+2

32 = - = 4 inches. 8

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If th f· be sufta~f;fol;~h~lzeurdoes not exceed 2}4x~y,;, this lens will the focal length w~lf bi~~~at~~ i:eSIV\lS Ibrger than this, increase the negatlve-to-easel dimens· IOn (Dt)en e necessary to .

~~d

Conjugate Where

Foci the enlarging factor (RJ d f it is a si I tre an ocal length of the lens (v) a~d bello~~~;t~~~o~ ~~/~~r~~nfO~r;~~~~ction

CHAPTER

XI

(f) are known

SHUTTERS
attached to the camera, in different positions, and the subject to be photographed, and is used as a means by which the film may be exposed to light for varying lengths of time. The shutter, therefore, is the mechanism which regulates the amount of exposure that a film receives. In the early days of photography when film speeds were extremely slow, a simple lens cap or merely an obstruction over the pinhole was sufficient and worked satisfactorily, for seconds one way or the other in length of exposure made little difference then. As film emulsions more sensitive to light were developed, some arrangement had to be made on the camera which would allow the plate to be exposed to light for shorter and more exact periods of time. Consequently the shutter developed in complexity until today we have highly developed mechanisms such as the Supermatic and Compur shutters which have little in common with their predecessors. There are a great number of different types of shutters, constructed on diverse principles but most of them may be classified under four headings:
1. 2. 3. 4. Before-the-Iens Between-the-Iens Behind-the-Iens Focal plane. (diaphragmatic)

distance
v

=

(R

+ 1) X

f; then,

u

=.:

HE shutter is a mechanical device either permanently or temporarily, T between the sensitized film or plate

R

EXAMPLE. A 2-diameter 6-inch lens. Then:
v = (2

enlargement

is desired,

usi~g a

+ 1)

X 6 = 18 inches;

and u

18 = 2" =

9 inches.

First let us talk about the ideal or perfect shutter and then see how well the different types now in use measure up to that standard. The ideal shutter would expose every portion of the entire picture area simultaneously, taking no time to open or. close. Of course that ideal is impossible to attain because of mechanical reasons. The next best thing is to open the shutter as quickly as possible and then close it just as rapidly, so that the shutter is wide open for the great majority of the time of exposure. Numerous other characteristics are desirable, but all are not found in anyone shutter. For example, the shutter should not lag at the moment when it is released, particularly on action shots. It should operate without vibration which might distort the image. It also should not rebound after 'closing, for

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that action might give a secondary image on the film, particularly in the brightest portions of .the subject. In portrait work the shutter should operate silently so as not to distract the subject. The diameter of the shutter opening should be large enough so as not to vignette at the full working aperture of the lens to which it is fitted. Even if the lens might be out of center, the shutter should not limit the useful field. Too; it should work equally well in any pasition in which the camera might be placed. Naturally, it should be light in weight, compact, and strong. When used on a camera where the film is left uncovered, and that means most of them, the shutter should not open when it is set or "cocked," until released by the operator. It should be as efficient as possible. By efficiency we mean the relation between the light passed and the total period -ef operation-from the time the shutter begins to open until it is again closed. Most important of all, the shutter should be accurate as to time relationships. It is not so bad if the exact time is not correct (such as 1/25 second being actually 1130 second) as long as the other times are proportional to it. On some cameras tested, the I/2S-second mark is exactly the same speed as that marked 1150, which would throw any photographer off unless he knew that such a condition existed. A great many faulty negatives are due to this cause. Over a period of years no shutter will perform with uniform accuracy. Even if the shutter has not been used, the steel in the springs. will undergo a change. Temperature differences will affect the smooth operation of the leaves of the shutter, and also of friction brakes where they are used to control the time. N ext to the importance of accurate time relationship in t shutter is the matter of uniform field density and even illumination over the entire area of the negative being exposed. If the shutter opens partially at a rapid rate of speed and then completes its opening more slowly, the negative will be uneven in density. On some shutters the Time (T) is omitted and there is provision only for Bulb (B) exposures for fong intervals. In this instance the trigger must be depressed during the entire exposure. Others have this arrangement as well as Time, in which instance the trigger is pressed once to open and again to close. Usually there will be less opportunity to jar the camera if the Bulb exposure is used, provided it is done by means of a flexible cable release. Some shutters must be' adjusted to "I" which stands for Instantaneous, before the second or fractional second exposure can be made. -On Germanmade shutters not for export the letter "0" (Offen) is the same as the English "B" or Bulb; "Z" (Zeit) means Time, and "M" (Moment) means Instantaneous.

be arate and detachable from This type of. shuttebr mba~lt ~ntS;~he body of the camera. It the camera or It may e ur I d th subject e is ~ocatehdin fron~ ~f ~!¥hl:::\~~t:e~ee~~lh~t~l~~ this type of bemg p otograp e . shutter: I-the slotted drop shutters 2-the rotary shutters 3~the studio shutters, 4-the roller-blind shutters, and 5-the blade shutters. I I , I There is also one cal.led .the I ,I Guillotine shutter which IS a I I I I variation of the drop. slot I I shutter. Flap shutters, either I I single or built like a yeneI tian blind, are s o m e t i m e s I I placed before the lens. I The slotted drop shutter, I , an early type, consisted of I I an opaque screen having a , -, _-.,;/' rectangular cut-out portron I at least equal to the srze of I I the lens used. This opaque I I screen was allowed to fall by I , I its own weight in front of I I the lens thereby making the I \ exposure, although sometimes it was accelerated by L 'means of a spring w~lch pulled it down more .rapldl~. Historically speaking, this Fig. 88. ~he fi~st shutter ,!,as was the first type of actual simply a slide With an opening. shutter other than the cap

~f

!

B
-,

which was placed over the apertl!rel'84FSouAblt t~~5ri~~~:~~~ this type to photograph the sun in .• ou '. I d wet collodion plate had appeared, it was more extensive y use with a modification in the form ,?f achangeable slope th¥hwoluld slow down the passing of the slide III front of the len\ e ess er endicular the slope, the slower the fall of the s ot across fhe Plens. J arnin, in 1862, put this type of b~uttbr ~et':i-~en il~ lens and assisted its fall by means of a ru er an. e h d or plate had to be inserted in the camera after the shutter a beAb~~t (~~~ ~~~e time, 18S8, a' circular shuttej apPfaredtl the first rotary-type mechanism. A flat, circulr p at~ 0 n:;t~a or a segment of a circle revolved, by mea~s 0 a sr:ng, :~ c~~ completely or in a half turn. In the flat, crrcu 1ar p a e w

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a rectangular hole it two sid . . the same width ;./ tShe W~p~1/s curDng. Wlt~ the circular disc, aperture passed in front ~~e. I unng Its movement this This shutter was, of Course m~ch eys to mabke the exposure. drop type. . , ess cum ersome than the . This rotary sh utter is the t th . f . Ine-:,pensive box cameras. Th~P~ ~t IS ound today on the to ItS starting position except 0 t~VIng part does not return spring pulls it around' ~ e ne~t exposure when the tion. A few shutters cfta~~i!hte aperture In the opposite dir ecexposure, thereby maki ype ddo return after making one The duratio f ing a secon exposure On the return 1125 of a se~o~d.ex~~seu:e the rfot~ry shutter is usually about ~o do with the variability nfro~ef~e ~t:ndn~g have a great dsal In the spring will sometimes slo it ar exposure, FatIgue ond. Dust and dirt '1 . w J up to ~s much as 1110 seenormally it is unprotec~:JI y M~cs~umulate In this shutter, for slide which may be ulled' 0 t t cameras are provided with a movement and thusP allow~' 0 stop the rotary shutter in its exposure lever when moved irne exposures to be made; the return to its o~iginal position aa~~c~lnd time, allows the disc to box cameras three diaphragm 1.UScover the lens, In the for by means of a metal slide .ope~l.n~s hare usually provided different size ar I~ w IC tree holes, each of a way in th l' e cut. When thiS metal slide is pushed all the I, e argest openrng or at" .. of the lens. This is th per ure IS In positron in front This open' . b e proper size for normal snapshot work and the s~:11~~t ~~t fll. The ~ext small~r one would be fl6 slide is pulled oft 'M The ope7111gs click into position as the variety have the ~ota/ny smg e-lens cameras of the foldipg d onded.a.dditional smaller stop than has the box YcaS~~;;er . at a rtiorial stop would

or

:t

Th

A-SHUTTER BLADE OPENING B-APERTURE'" C-PIVOT D-PIN LIMITING SWING OF DISC BETWEEN SHOULDERS E ANDF

Fig. 89. This rotary

shutter

is in use in many simple cameras.

be approximately f 32. The diaphragms on these folding cameras are usually made from a single circular disc with the "holes" or aperture openings evenly spaced around the circumference. The disc,is rotated to its various openings by a toothed edge either at the side or bottom of the shutter case. A groove near each opening is provided so that the opening chosen will be centered in front of the lens (Fig. 89). The roller-blind shutter is a variation of the drop shutter. It was first suggested by Relandin in 1855 and later perfected by Kershaw, It works either before or just behind the lens, but preferably behind the lens, since not only can lenses be changed without removing the shutter, but additional compactness is attained in the entire camera. A long strip of opaque material, usually a thin black fabric impregnated with a black rubber solution, is wound on a roller at the top of a small, shallow box and attached to another roller at the bottom. The blind is about three times the length of the box and nearly the same width as the box throughout its length. This shallow box in which the rollers are mounted forms the body of the shutter, which is not as clumsy or cumbersome as it sounds. The bottom roller is hollow and contains a powerful spring similar to that of a window shade. The center third of the entire strip is cut away, leaving a rectangular hole in the blind or curtain. Narrow ribbons on the sides connect the top third with the bottom third. The shallow box has a circular hole cut in the front and back slightly larger than the lens, the back hole fitting over the lens hood or mount. A knurled knob on the side at the top of the box allows the shutter curtain to be wound up, increasing the tension on the coiled spring in the lower roller. The shutter blind is held up in this position by a ratchet and pawl mechanism. When this ratchet is released the lower spring will pull the shutter curtain down very rapidly, drawing the rectangular opening in front of the lens and exposing the film. Shutters of this type have speeds ranging from 1115 to 1190 second, or the curtain may be stopped with the opening in front of the lens to give "time" exposures. The older type had a string leading from the top of the box to facilitate the rapid winding up of the curtain. Release of the ratchet to set the shutter in motion is accomplished either by a trigger, which when pressed "kicks" the pawl out, or by a "pneumatic release," an India rubber ball and tube which when squeezed inflates a rubber bladder under the trigger. This type of roller-blind shutter must have a dark slide in the shutter box, for the lens is uncovered while the curtain is being wound up. The slide is, of course, withdrawn before the shutter is released. In the roUer-blind shutter, the length of the rectangular opening in the curtain is usually one

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and one-half times the width. The tension On the spring may be changed by a knob attached to the lower roller, prewinding the spring so that when the curtain is wound up it will have greater tension than normal. On this type of shutter or any other one having spring tension the spring should never be left under tension. The efficiency of this shutter is dependent on the tension of the spring, and is generally considered to be higher than between-the-lens and blade shutters. In efficiency, the roller-blind tyr1e is equal to the straightedged drop shutter. The length of the rectangular opening in the drop, rotary, and roller shutters should nearly always be one and one-half times the width for greatest efficiency. The rolIer-blind shutter was the forerunner of Our modern focal .••• plane shutter in principle. (At times a secondary roller blind was employed on this type of shutter in order that the actual shutter could be set again while the camera was loaded without exposing the film.) We shall return again to the slot type of shutter later. Historically, the flap shutter in many variations follows next. This type had been in use some time before 1878 when J. W. T. Cadett made a model that was operated by a pneumatic bellows. In 1880 C. Guerry refined the flap shutter and advocated its use inside the belIows, behind the lens. This type of shutter is still being used, particularly by portrait photographers. The flap, which is extremely light in weight, is usually fastened at the top and swings upward to open and downward to close .. The flap is covered with black velvet and the inside of the shutter case is lined with the same material so that when the flap is closed the entire arrangement is light-tight. A pneumatic bulb when squeezed opens the flap which remains in thli Open position until the pressure on the bulb is released. For long exposures a clamp is placed in the tube near the bulb, this clamp holding the pressure until released. The size of the flap opening is always greater than the diameter of the lens, and depends on the distance of the flap from the lens. As the flap swings upward more light wilL enter through the lower part of the lens lhan through the upper. In some landscape work this is desirable, because usually less light is reflected from the foreground than from the sky. This is helpful only when exposures are longer than 113 of a second, as this is the shortest exposure possible with this type of shutter. Guerry's placement of the flap shutter behind the lens was an advantage in portraiture, for the sitter could not see when the exposure was being made. In 1880 J ouber suggested using a second flap synchronized with the first so that it always remained parallel to it. This double-flap shutter permitted shorter exposure times. However, employing this double-flap shutter, the density of field on

the plate was greater in the center by 40 per cent: In using one of these double-flap shutters it had to be examined closely see that both flaps were parallel and wo~kmg together ~r on some forms one of the flaps could be dls~onnected an t e other used merely as a single-flap shutter (Fig. 90). . Tauveron later combined the single-flap shutter with Itlhe roller-blind type. The ro ~r blind was adjusted so that It would release when the flap •..•.• reached its top point. This <, was not a bad idea, because the noise that the roller-blind \ shutter made occurred in the \ closing of the aperture and \ any movemen~ on the. part I of the subject in portraiture, resulting therefrom, made no I difference. Also, the shutter \ / could be set, i.e., the flap X lowered without re-exposing \ the film', as the roller blind \ terminated the exposure by dropping, remaining in the I closed position. I There were several other / types of shutters which were / variations of the flap shutter. One having the appearance ./ ./ of a' Venetian blind, consisted of a number of light flaps or plates pivoted around Fig. 90. The flap shutter is still horizontal axes and overlapbeing used by some portrait men. ping one another at the beginning and end of each exposure. This type of shutter had an efficiency of not more than 33% because the flaps, being always parallel to one another, allowed the central beams of light to pass fully w~en the flaps were parallel to the optical axis, but when completing the shutter movement they cut off a great part of the oblique rays. Despite the fact that a shutter of this type was ma~e that would give an exposure as sho-rt as 11400. of a second, It soon went out of existence due to the low efficiency. . Another variation was the bellows shutte~. This type was extensively used for some time by portrait. ph~tog:aphers, principally because the greatest amount of illumination waf passed through the center of the lens and on !o the center a the plate in which position the image of the subject was usually placed. This shutter was made of two bellows of black opaque

/0

J

-

,

-,

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I

II

m

Fig. 91. The Guillotine shutter was a further development of the early falling-slide shutter.

cloth mounted on a metal frame. When the two bellows were closed they formed a half moon. Operated by a bulb piston they opened along a median line in the region along the vertical axis of the lens. Short exposures were not possible, but that fact is not important in a portrait studio. A "noiseless" shutter is the Luc, a diaphragm type manybladed shutter mentioned here because it is usually placed before the lens; but its mechanism will be described later, being similar to the Cornpur type. Reverting to the drop or slotted type of shutter, a description of the modern form of the Guillotine shutter should be included among the before-the-lens type shutters. This one has a rectilinear movement and is used on several foreign hand cameras. It is made of two thin steel plates, one used to cover the lens before, and the other after the exposure. These plates slide one on top of the other, the inner one having a square opening larger than the diameter of the lens, the outer one having no opening. On instantaneous exposures the inner plate is automatically released by the outer one on its arrival at the end of its travel. The two plates are worked independently for long exposures. Fig. 91 illustrates this type of shutter and shows diagrammatically how such a shutter works (the driving springs, ratchets, and the shutter release not being shown). In the position of rest (position 1.), the plate (A) rests against the stops (cc) and engages, by means of the pins (dd), the plate (B), the solid part of which covers the aperture. To set the shutter, plate (A) is drawn towards the left, and in so doing covers first of all the opening in (B) and then drags (B) with it until it is stopped from going farther by the studs (e) (position II.). The release sets (A) free, so that under the force of the driving spring it moves to the right hand and in so doing uncovers the aperture (position III.). After it has passed completely over the aperture and the opening in plate (B), it engages the latter and pulls it over so as to cover the aperture again (position IV.). The greater the length of the notches in (A) in which the stops (dd) slide, relative to the diameter of the aperture, the greater is the efficiency of the shutter. Bladed shutters are of many types, among which we must include the rotary shutter already described. What we commonly think of as the blade shutter is usually composed of from two to thirty individual, thin, wafer-like segments operating from pivot points equally spaced around the shutter opening in a base plate. Most of the many-bladed types have similar mechanical and operating features. As has been stated, this type of shutter may be used either before the lens, between the lens, or behind the lens. Generally speaking, the greater

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the number of blades ther h . IS reached. This is becau:e a~~ch ebldre. quickly full aperture shorter distance to travel H a e ffis.small~r and has a more than seven blades a;e us~wever, e Cle~cy IS lost when of parts and the increased fricti~n~lef tOtt~e Sncre~sed number blades be made that a shutter ·11fit ~c 01. 0 thin can these than 1/32 of an inch in thickn~1 F.mt92a space of not more a two-bladed shutter appear ~. Ig: shows clearly how The clear space inside the d~te~ p.ar\lal!y opened and closed. the blades are partially opened B1cI~ce is the aper~ure when the pornts (P) and (P) The· d tta des)" and II prvot about figur~ shows the positio~ of one ~f ~h bJedon thhe right-hand ture IS fully opened e a es w en the aperFig. 93 shows o~ly 0 ne bl d f illustrate the action of th ~ e ~ a three-blade shutter to spring (E) in actuating ~h~e~I~~ttnng (D) and the operating <,E) is attached to the lug (K) e:i blade (C). T~,is spring ring. This spring is operated or an . moves. the entire sector release on the outside of the sh St~t 111 ThtlO~ by the trigger to the shutter blade (C) move .u erd e pin (F) attached sector ring at a speed de e .s in an out of the slots in the on .the tensIOn placed on the spring (E). The pOinf prn (H) limits the moveme IS e Pivot of the blade. The seen from the illustration T~t ~~ tthe sechtor nng as can be to move is ver shor· e IS ance .t at the pin (F) has capable of high ~peeds:' consequently this type of shutter is There are several meth d . shutters, all of w'iich mayo ~ Id use.bto regulate tge speed of e escn e d as retarding devices.

(~t~W:

The first method involves the use of a piston which moves inside of a cylinder, the piston during its motion operating a lever bar connected to the sector ring to which the leaves of the shutter are connected or directly to the shutter blade itself in the case of one- or two-blade shutters. As shown in Fig. 94, when the piston (A) is set in motion by the shutter the air inside of the cylinder (B) is compressed, causing a braking action. A cam acting on the pin (C) regulates the stroke of the piston, thereby regulating the exposure time. There are several disadvantages to this piston type of exposure regulator, although generally speaking this form of shutter control works quite successfully. One of the disadvantages is that irregular action may result from the lubricating oil between the piston and the cylinder; and secondly, the viscosity of the oil changes with the temperature so that the speed of the shutter is not always accurate although the relationship between the various speeds will remain unaltered, which is the most important consideration. This form of retarding device is found on compound shutters which usually have an additional piston or air pump for bulb release. The bladed shutters which have been described are often placed before the lens and called Studio shutters. More commonly, the bladed shutters are used between the front and rear elements of the lens in modern cameras. In this form the shutter casing forms the basic support or holder into which the front and rear elements of the objective are screwed, this being particularly true of convertible lenses. Between-the-lens The well-known Shutters Cornpur, the Supermatic, the W.ollensak,

P

I~
1&II- SHUTTER BLADES
A-APERTURE P- PIVOT B-POSITION OF SHUTTER BLADE APERTURE IS OPENED WHEN

c_'-:.·

_

Fig. 92.

The two-blade

sh u tt er • '11 t IS I us rated

in diagram.

Fig. 93. One blade in shutter.

Fig. 94.

An exposure

regulator

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the Hex, etc., are of the between-the-lens type of shutters. They ar~ relatively inexpensive and extremely compact, mounted 111the barrel of the lens tube or forming the support for the lens. Generally .speaking, all of them are operated on the se<;tor rrng p:1l1clple, regulated either by clockwork mechanism or by air prstons. The clockwork mechanism as u.se<;lIn these shutters is highly complicated and precise, quite similar to a fine watch. In one t~e of clockwork mechanism a small wheel with vanes like a turbine is caused to rotate when the shutter release is actuated and the friction ~f the air on the vanes causes a braking actio~. The faster the whee} is ' caused to rotate the slower the time of exposure for the braking action is greater, holding the leaves of the shut'ter open longer. . The .other type of clockwork mechanism has gearing which IS applied to a crown wheel WIth an escapement. The familiar rotating disc on the front of the shutter, marked off in T, B, 1, 112, 1/10, 1/25, 1/50, 11100, etc., sets a cam which regulates the length. -of time a ro~k~ng lever is engaged by a tooth segment WIth a toothed prrnon. This cam acts on an escapem~nt le,:,er. The cam must first be "set" by a cocking lever w~th wh.lch all of the. shutters of the Compur type are equipped. FIg. 95 Illustrates this principle. In some models the between-

A-SETTING LEVER B- CAM ACTING ON C- LEVER TO RELEASE D- ESCAPEMENT FROM E- CROWN WHEEL FOR SHORT EXPOSURES F - ROCKING ARM ENGAGES G - TO DETERMINE LENGTH OF EXPOSURE

Fig. 95. This is the mechanism

controlling

the Compur.type

shutter.

the-lens type of shutter is made automatic, usually' those with slower speeds, 1125 to 1150, so that the shutter sets itself after each exposure is made. Historically speaking, this type of shutter which is often called a diaphragm shutter was made in 1887 by Beauchamp and Dallmeyer. Their shutters had several pivoted plates operated simultaneously by an internal ring concentric with the diaphragm. These pivoted plates opened like the leaves of an iris diaphragm. The Volute and the X-Excello shutters with ten plates have iris diaphragm leaves which function as shutters, so that there is only one set of leaves for the entire arrangement. When the shutter is released the leaves will open, not completely, but to the pre-selected diaphragm opening, and upon completion of the time of exposure will then close again. This type of shutter is highly complicated and fragile, rather high in price, and has an efficiency of not more than 50 per cent. A new Press type of Com pur shutter is now being furnished with the 13.5 ern Zeiss Tessar f4.5 lenses. In the regular type of Cornpur shutter the knurled collar has to be turned to the mark "1''' in order to open the shutter for groundglass focusing, and after focusing the collar is set at the instantaneous exposure desired. On the 'Press type Cornpur shutter a knob on the top of the shutter can be pressed back even while the collar is set on any of the instantaneous exposures and the shutter opened by the shutter release for groundglass focusing .. After focusing, the winding lever can be set and the shutter IS ready for .the instantaneous exposure. On the Compur shutter, the time exposures or bulb exposures are made automatically, as the shutter does not require winding at these two positions. The shutter of course, must be wound for instantaneous exposures from o~e second to the maximum speed. The shutter is wound by moving the winding lever until it locks into position. This can be done either before or after setting the collar to speeds between one second and 11100 second, but for higher speeds the setting collar should be set before winding. While the letters "T" and "B" are set to the index the winding lever is locked and when the collar is set for instantaneous exposures the time and bulb settings are put out. of action so that no accidental exposure may occur even WIth careless handling as long as the shutter is not wound. up. Any intermediate speed may be secured between the settings from 1/25 second to 11100 second-that is, between 1150 and 1/100 the shutter can be set to an approximate value of 1175 second; however, it cannot be set to any definite value between 11100 and the maximum speed of the shutter (11200, 11250, 11300, 11400, 11500), neither can this be done between bulb and 1125 second.

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In the automatic shutter, i.e., the type which does not have to be cocked, the trigger action of the release lever consists of an arrangement of two springs on the main lever of the shutter so that the shutter blades are closed by one spring aofter being forced by hand against the pressure of another spring. Its only disadvantage is that the spring which opens the blades against the spring which releases them ;must be stronger than the release spring. Therefore, an auj,pmatic shutter never closes as fast as it opens, and because orthis reason the between-thelens shutters of the fastest types are not automatic but must be set by hand. -, The double-drop type 0.£ shutter might best be designed for use between the lens, but it has also been used behind and before the objective. However, L. R. Decaux, in 1893, designed a very fine shutter for use behind the objective, i.e., between the lens and the film, located quite close to the rear element of the lens. It is best used with a lens of large aperture due to the fact that the period of time during which full light is allowed to enter usually is more than half the full time of operation of the shutter. It takes the double-drop shutter about 1/400 second to close and about the same time to open. As the shortest time at full aperture is also about the same, the fastest exposure runs about 1/120 second. The shutter then has an efficiency of about 60 per cent, which efficiency increases to nearly 80 per cent when the exposure is 1150 second and continually increases as the exposure lengthens. This is true of all shutters other than focal plane, for as has been stated, the quantity of light transmitted during the operation of the shutter in comparison to the quantity of light if the shutter opened all at ante and closed all at once, is the measure of its efficiency, so that the longer the time of exposure the greater the quantity of Iigh tat full aperture. Focal-Plane Shutters

ence is that the width of the slit, which in part defermines the duration of exposure, can be vaned. There are several forms of focal-plane shutters, some constructed with only one roller at the top and bottom, other:! employing as many as four rollers. Some types are constructe of metal slats while others are C~)l1structed of black opaque cloth or of cloth impregnated with rubber .. These. shutters should never be left on tension, or. spring fatigue W!1l follow, resulting in inaccurate exposure time:;. The curtain .should never be exposed directly to strong sunlight for fear of pinholes in the material. For that matter, no camera should be sub-

Fig. 96. The roll-curtain or focal plane shutter i~ the Graflex ~~ves vertically with the slits horizontal when held In normal position.

It has been found from experience that between-the-Iens shutters have certain disadvantages. At high speeds their efficiency is low. Large size shutters are usually slower than small ones of the same design because of the inertia of the parts when setting them in motion and because of the increased friction. Also, the greatest speed obtainable with any accuracy in a between-the-Iens shutter is 1/500 second. For high-speed photography the focal-plane shutter is almost universally used and certainly in the case of large aperture lenses even where high speed is not the important consideration. The focal-plane shutter is actually a drop shutter consisting of a blind or curtain similar to that described as a roller-blind shutter. The differ-

jected long to abnormal weather or temperature conditi~ns. . The most important fact about focal-plane shutters IS their placement next to the film. They are called focal-plane shutters because they operate in the. focal plane .of the camera. Their efficiency is directly proportional to the distance between the shutter and the photographic plate. The formula for determining such efficiency will be given l~ter. . . To describe simply a focal-plane shutter IS to say that It IS a black curtain similar to a window shade, ~aste?ed to two rollers with slits of varying widths ~ut ~cross It. Fig. 96.shows the largest opening at the top, which IS used for focusing on the ground glass and for time exposures, and the four smaller slits, each usually one-half the width. 0'£ the ne;xt larger one, although in some cases the smallest slit IS one-third of the next larger, particularly on Graflex cameras. A sprrng tensl~:>n.on this curtain is variable and controlled by a separate W1I1~1I1g key It is understood that this opaque curtain moves In a plane parallel. to the film but that the speed with which .the curtain moves in front of the film is not cc;mstant for a!1 points on the film area due to inertia in starting, The slits have parallel sides or 'edges, reaching entirely acr,?ss the ~lm, lI:nd are cut in the curtain perpendicular to the direction m which the curtain moves.

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As can be seen from the foregoing facts, the ~xposure is a progressive process c,!mpleted by this moving band of light which contains progressively the optical image, the same width as the aperture opening, moving across the film at a determined speed. The exposure event can then be divided into two parts-fi:st, the t~me necessary for the aperture or slit to pass any particular POInt on the film, and secondly the time necessary for the apert~re to pass all ••he points on the film. We ~an say, then, that In photographing any still object the followIng factor's must be considered. First, the width of the curtainopening, secondly, the speed of this opening, and thirdly, the len&'th ~r space the curtain must travel to pass all points of the subject 5 Image on the film. From this it can be seen that t~e exposure time will vary directly with the width of the slit, ,:,-ssu:nIng that ~he speed remains the same. If the curtain opening IS doubled It. will then take the opening twice the time ~o pass any given POInt. on the film and if this curtain opening IS halved the time required will be Just half. The variation in exposure wit~ the change in the speed of travel of the curtain invo lves a different law, There is a point beyond which the velocity ?f the curtain cannot be increased; therefore great chang~s In exposure n;ust be accomplished by variations in the Width of the curtain aperture. The highest speed in the focal-plane shutter, which is about 1/1250 second, is accornplished by usmg the narro:'1est aperture opening with the greatest terision on the curtain roller spring. The focal-plane. shutter does not operate at the speed that the blades of a diaphragm shutter do, but achieves a higher exposure speed due to the fact that it exposes only a small portlO,n of the film at one time. To illustrate this, assume tha] the slit or cur tain aperture of a certain size moves across the film at a given speed and that the exposure for anyone part of the film area will be 1/50 second. Now let us assume that the curtain aperture has been narrowed down to 1/20 of its former width; then each part of the image on the film willre~elve light for only 1/20 of the time, and the resulting exposure Will be 1/1000 of a second. It must be dnderstood that a secondary blind is used in some focal-plane shutters to cover the film when the curtain is wound up again after each exposure. The ~W? blinds are usually coupled together so that when the curtain IS wound the protective blind is in front of the film. In other cases a dark slide must be inserted in front of the film. There is o~e disadvantage of the focal-plane type of shutter and that IS distortion, caused by the fact that an object photographed while :uovin&, is nC?t completely stopped. In other words, t.he movll~g object being photographed alters its position during t~e tlI1?-ethat the slit is moving across the face of the film. It IS qurte common to see fast-moving automobile

wheels elliptical in a photograph taken by a focal-plane shutter. This distorting tendency makes the focal-plane shutter useless for types of aerial photography where freedom from distortIOn is essential. A few years ago a picture of a baseball batter was taken as he was striking at the ball. In the picture, the shadow of the ball was some distance from the shadow. of the bat while the actual ball was shown to .be in contact ~Ith the bat In this case the rapidly moving slit had been I~ Just the right position in front of the film to record the ball In con tact with the bat but upon moving down across the face of the fil~ the slit did ~ot record the shadow of the ball and the bat until an infinitesimal part of a second later when the ball had already left the surface of the bat. The focal-plane shutter was first suggested by H, Farmer in 1882 but was not used commercially until af.ter 1888, when O. Anschutz used this type of shutter In studying movements of animals, Those early focal-plane s.hutters wer~ on the same order as the roller-blind shutter previously d escr ibed .. In 1900, R Huttig recommended a series of permanent slits in a long c~rtain, placed at a distance from each other o.n the curtain equal at least to the length of the film. C~rtaIn. fecal-plane shutters have a' variable Width 111 the curtain, this var iation being controlled by cords through srnallIoops placed at each end of the aperture opening; The cur tam IS wound more or less, according to the size slit desired for any grven exposure, and then is automatically stopped after that slit has traversed the area of the film so that the cur tam cannot unroll any of the other slits even though they might have been wound up on the roller above one chosen for that exposure. :Usua~ly an indicator on the outside of the ca:nera shows which size of slit is in position. Generally, the slits are arranged In such a manner that merely by changing them the ~hotographer automatically changes the tension at the same time, thereby causing the total and local exposure times to vary In the same manner. The additional curtain which cove:s the film w.hen the aperture curtain is being wound up IS replaced I~ the reflex t pe of cameras by a mirror flap which drops 111tO posrtion Jiverting the light from the I~ns to the ground.glas.s on the top of the camera at the same time as the roller blind IS wound, Figure 97 shows the arrangeI?ent of a focal-plane ~hutter as well as the auxiliary blind which covers the film dunn~ the setting of the shutter. (A) is the driving roller and (B) IS ~he setting roller, usually located at the top or above the fiirn. The auxiliary blind is represented by (C) and .(D), this blIhd ending at (X) with two narrow ribbons winding' around t e upper roller (D) so that dur!ng the actual exposure the full part of the auxiliary curtain IS wound around the roller (C),

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A gear (E) operates setting rollers (B) and (D) simultaneously and they are both rel~ased at the same time. This roller (D) is held on its axle by friction so that when the edge of this auxiliary blind (X) is down beyond the field of view the setting roller (B) can still be controlled by a key on the outside of the camera to change FILM , the choice' of sli ts to be used I in the exposure. I I t is true that the velocity of the curtain aperture varies from the beginning of its travel to the end o.f its travel du~ to its inertia in starting. I t IS possible, then, to have a situation in which the last portion of the film over which the aperture passes will be less dense than the first part which will receive more light. This difficulty is comparable to that of blade shutters in which the center of the film receives more light than the outer edges on short exposures. As a result Fig. 97. A sectional view of a of tests it has been found in variety of rell-cur+aln shutter. some cases that the velocity of the aperture at the end of thheexposure may be twice as much as at the start in focal-plane s utters. .
I I I

k~

this slight added exposure will be proportionately greater for narrow slits than for wide ones. There appears to be no reason why a negative produced by a focal-plane shutter is in any way different from one recorded by a between-the-lens shutter. Generally speaking, it is true that the focal-plane shutter allows about one-third more light to pass than does the best between-the-lens shutter. The reason "for this is that no shutter parts hinder the light from passing through the lens while the curtain is being operate.d. It is for this reason that focal-plane shutters are needed 111 high-speed photography. In extreme high-speed photograp.hy with a focal-plane shutter there results a blurring effect which is a distortion giving a fuzzy image due to the mov~ment of the object being faster than the movement of the curtain across the film when the camera is stationary. Ideally, the 'camera should move in the same direction as the object being photographed which would of course blur the background but would help to produce as sharp an image of the object as though both camera and object were motionless. In photographing a horizontally moving object with a focalplane shutter the best results are obtained by moving the slit vertically, that is, moving either from the top down or from the bottom up, rather than having the slit mov~ horizontally either in the same direction as that of the Image, or 111

.In most focal-plan~ shutters the distance (D) between the curtam and the film IS such that there is an overiappina of exposure .on anyone g}ven point on the film surface. Ideoallv the curtam .should be rn actual contact with the film so that fro~ any given part of the film to the next part would be a Eass.mg from cornp leta iIl1!mination to complete darkness. Fig. 8 Illustrates this undeSIrable condition in the majority of f~)Cal-plane. shutters. It can be seen that the band of illumination (A) I.S gr;ater than the width of the curtain aperture (~F). ThIS wl.dt~ of the illumination band rather than the WIdth ~f the slit IS the factor to be considered in makin a proportion between the times of exposure. It will follow ttat

T A -L.,....-,-_
FI LM->r'

Fig. 98. For clarity, the space between the film and the rellcurtain shutter has been exaggerated to show change in width.

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PHOTOGRAPHIC Testing \

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, I

th~ oppo.site direction. First, the proportionate 'size of the object will be truer to the normal size, using a vertically m?vIng shutter, and secondly, the blurring effect will be minimized, However, to· produce an elongated image of a moving ~bJect the shutter should n:ove horizontally in the same directron .that the Image IS mov mg, By this method a short automobile ca~ be made to look long, or if the shutter moves in the opposite direction from the moviig image, the short car would look even shorter. When the focal-plane shutter moves vertically, the vertical lines of the object become slightly tilted from the normal. Perhaps it is no~ s~ch ;; bad thing that the wheels of a racing car ~re shown ellipticaj in the finished print, for that conveys the rmpressron of speed much better than a picture with all mot1On. perfectly stopped would do. We can appreciate better the action and the power of such a subject in a picture which does not show action completely "frozen." Mention should be made of the focal-plane shutter used in son;te of the bet.ter miniature cameras, which provides a slit of vana?le. WIdth Instead of a number of slits. Both operations of winding the shutter and transporting the film have been geared together. The shutter is made up of two curtains and the separation of the ends allows for the variation in the width of the slit. The proper width of the slit is secured in setting the shutter for exposure by winding up the curtains on one roller. When the exposure is made two separate rollers on the othe: SIde of the film area draw the two curtains by spring tension across the film as one unit. The width of the curtain aperture in most cameras can be checked by holdin z the hind on the se.tting button while making the release. This permits the curtain to move very slowly and it can then be stopped half way. After the curtain aperture has been measured the shutter may then be released completely and then rewound. It is importa.nt in .using a focal-plane shutter to keep the camera quite still during the total exposure, which will always be muc~ longer than the local exposure-16cal exposure refers to. the time of exposure of anyone portion of the film, determirred by the speed of the curtain, while the total exposure means the time necessary for the slit to move from one end of the film to the other. For that reason it is always best to ~se the greatest possible speed so that the total exposure time IS as short as possible. Another important rule to remember is the fact which has already been stated-that when the slit m?ves along the same direction that the image does, the image WIll ~ppe~r to be lengthened and that if it moves opposite to the dlrect10n of the Image, the image will be shortened.

There are manv methods of testing a shutter, some simple, others more complex, depending on whether the full moveme~t of the shutter blades is to be observed or merely an approximate check is to be made on the speed of the shutter. . P. G. Nutting, of the Eastman Kodak Laboratories, has devised a complicated system using a mirror-wheel assembly on which twenty small, flat mirrors are mounted. Between ·this horizontal wheel and a drum on which a film stnp IS placed, is set up a shutter holder,. about midway between the two. An arc lamp IS used as a light s?urce and a constantspeed motor drives the wheel ?n which are mounte1 the mirrors. A small lens forms an Image of the blade which IS photographed on the film strip mounted on the horizontal drum wheel. Separate images are photographed giving an accurate determination of efficiency. Each record on the film shows the opening of the lens blades .at time .intervals of 111000 second each. In this system the mirror cylinder turns. at exac.t1y 3000 revolutions per minute so that the twenty mirror s give 1000 flashes per second on the shutter blades. Results obtained by this method give a very accurate check on the speeds of the shutter at various settings. A complete analysis of shutter action can be made by photometric methods, but that is extremely .comphcated for the amateur. If one does not desire to test hIS own shutter It can be sent to the National Physical Laboratory where a complete analysis will be carried out in retu~n for a fee. However, there are several simple methods of testing the speed of the shutter with a fair degree of accuracy. . One method is to use a phonograph turntable, Sll1C~ the speed is fairly constant at about 78 to 80 revolutions a minute, This method is good for testing shutter speeds 112.5 second and slower. However, many turntables c.an .be adjusted to about 120 revolutions per minute by an adJustIng. screw. The camera should be mounted or held in some way directly above the turntable. A small flashlight lamp is placed on the extreme edge of the turntable, th}s connected to a small dry-cell or flashlight battery placed In the middle of the ~urntable. The lighted flashlight bulb provides a moving object at a predetermined soeed suitable for calculating the length of exposure. Focu's on the groundglass of the camera or measure accuratelv the distance between the turntable and the lens, settinz the distance properly on the lens mount. Set the turntable "in motion, allowing it to rotate for several ~econds before making the exposure on the film. After a prmt has been made measure the angle through which the bulb travels during the'exposure, the duration of which shows on the prmt

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as an arc of light from the flashlight of the field, using the formula:
60 R.P.M. X

360" equals

Angle

shutter

speed in seconds.

_,

. One way of determining the revolutions per minute which IS the only rea~:hng neces~ary during testing, is by ho'lding a stoI? watch. on It for a period of a'T least two minutes. This is an mterestmg test and on~ which is quite accurate (Fig. 99). Another method of testmg the shutter speed is to photograph Neon tub~s,. which usually operate on a 60-cycle alternatmg current, grving 120 flashes per second. This is good for the ?low shutter speeds .. Of Course the pictures must be taken at night .. Stand about SIXfeet away from the sign and choose one vertical tube which is fairly well separated from the rest ~f the sl~n. Be sure that you are in such a position that other lights will not fog the film. During the exposure swing the camera steadily so t~at the image of the Neon tube progresses evenly across the middle of the film field while the shutter is

~FLASHLIGHT

BULB

open. Therefore, for every 1/120 second that the shutter was open there will be one flash of light on the film. This is assuming that the light has a 60-cycle source. Now count the number cU lines showing on the film and the length of exposure can be calculated from that. For example, suppose that you found six flashes of light on the film, the actual shutter speed would be six times 1/120 or 1/20 second. A method more recently devised for testing shutters is by means of an oscillator with a cathode-ray oscillograph. The oscillograph is set to a frequency which is a multiple of the shutter speed to be tested-SOO cycles, when testing a shutter speed of 1/S0 second. The screen of the oscillograph is then photographed and in this example there should be ten cycles showing. The light traces are easily defined and usually more cycles than necessary are thrown on the screen in order to allow for an error in the shutter. In our example, if twelve cycles showed instead of ten, which is two more than should have shown, the error in the shutter speed would be 20 % on the slow side of the shutter. The light traces of the oscillograph contain their own timing element and the great number of cycles adds to the accuracy of the test. Today a great many radio shops have an oscillograph and oscillator among their testing equipment. Synchronization This is the process of firing a flashbulb at the exact moment the camera shutter is opened. This can be done either by electro-magnetic or mechanical devices attached to the camera at the shutter or somewhere on the body of the camera. Flash synchronizing units are usually adjustable for individual cameras and also for special firing times of different flashbulbs. All of the synchronizers with the exception of the focal-plane type consist of a mechanism between the camera shutter and the release. In speaking of flash synchronization, the time lag refers to the interval of time it takes the flashbulb to reach its flash peak intensity after electrical contact has been made. Ideally, the shutter should be most fully open at the flash peak. With the majority of the flashbulbs on the market this time lag is about 20/1000 second. The flash duration must also be taken into account, particularly with focal-plane shutters for shutter slit or aperture opening takes longer to travel a .tfl the film area than the operating time of the between-t .• • type of shutter. Most manufacturers make special flas bibs with longer flash durations designed for focal-plane shu e . In testing for synchronization, the simplest way is take several exposures, and from the results either increase r e-

f

Fig. 99. A phonograph

turntable

can be used to test shutters.

N, •

------------------------~~---------.

-~.-------.

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crease the tension on the cable release attachment which usually screws right into the cable release socket on the shutter. A more elaborate method of testing is that of the General Electric Synchrograph. This is a revolving drum placed in front of the camera lens with a strong light behind the groundglass in the camera, and a flashbulb connected to the battery case and synchronizer. On this revolving drum is fastened the test negative. The drum is revol~d at the moment of testing and the camera trigger released. The test negative within the revolving drum is developed, showing the time the flashbulb was fired and the time of opening of the shutter, indicating whether the shutter opens too soon or too late. These two light traces on the film are given by two slits in the revolving drum, one for the flash and the other for the strong light behind the groundglass which shines through the lens when the shutter is opened. The Kalart Synchroscope, a small testing device, can be placed. in front of the lens; it shows two parallel slits as you look in to it when the flash test bulb is fired. If one slit is above or below the other the flash is being fired too early or too late, and adjustment of the tension screw can be made until they are in line. This can be done with a strong light behind the camera and no flashbulbs need be wasted. To depend upon the human ear and eye for judgment as to synchronization is a mistake, even despite the speed with which. sensory nerve impulses travel. Light travels much faster than sound so that to say "I heard the shutter trip at the same time that I saw the light go on," using a test bulb, is not a dependable method. Synchronization should be tested at frequent i:ntervals to insure dependable results.

CHAPTER USEFUL

XII

TABLES

Equivalent U) 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.3 6.8 7.7 8.0 8.8 11.0 12.0 16.0 18.0 22.0 32.0 45.0

j-Numbers 1/3 0.52 0.68 0.76 0.86 1.02 1.12 1.18 1.27 1.44 1.61 1.70 1.73 1.84 2.00 2.19 1/4

for Fractions 1/5 0.45 0.54 0.58 0.67 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.92 1.12 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.41 1.55 1.70 1.79 2.00 2.23 2.50 2.82 3.08 3.44 3.59 3.87 4.90 5.39 7.14 8.06 9.79 14.17 20.25

of Speed Shown 1/10 0.33 0.38 0.41 0.48 0.56 0.60 0.63 0.67 0.79 0.88 0.92 0.94 1.02 1.11 1.12 1.26 1.42 1.58 1.75 1.78 2.15 .2.43 2.53 2.77 3.32 3.46 5.10 5.65 6.92 10.90 14.17 1/20

(1)'
1/2 1.00 1.44 1.69 2.25 3.24 3.61 4.00 4.84 6.25 7.84 8.81 9.00 10.24 12.25 14.44 16.00 20.25 25.00 31.36 39.69 46.24 59.29 64.00 77.44 121.60 144.00 256.00 324.00 484.00 1024.00 2025.00 0.72 0.84 0.90 1.11 1.30 1-.35 1.41 1.49 1.77 1.97 2.09 2.12 2.26 2.47 2.68 2.83 3.21 3.46 3.87 4.35 4.79 5.38 5.65 6.16 7.81 8.48 10.95 12.65 15.55 22.52 33.16

0.50 0.60 0.64 0.77 0.90 0.92 1.00 1.21 1.28 1.37 1.48 1.42 1.58 1.73 1.89 2.00 2.24 2.49 2.79 3.16 3.32 3.87 4.00 4.36 5.48 . 6.00 8.00 9.00 11.00 15.81 22.36

......... ......... · . . . .. . . . ... ... ..... ......... ......... · . .. . . . . . · .. . . . . . . ......... .........
,

.....
,

......

, '"
'

........ .........
0.91 1.02 1.09 1.22 1.37 1.45 1.70 1.79 1.95 2.47 2.68 3.74 4.78 6.44 7.14 10.09

..

2.24 2.59 2.88 3.16 3.61 3.87 4.36 4.58 5.39 6.32 6.93 9.22 10.39 12.68 18.44 25.88

EXAMP.LE. An f 4.5 lens requires 1/100 seco!,d for a certain exposure. What f·number will be required at 1/200 s.econd, In the ••y," column and opposite f4.5, will be found f3.21, the required aperture.

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(in feet)

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OF HYPERFOCAL

DISTANCES

Focal I'gth Ins. I 1% 2 2'12 3 3% 4 4% 5 5'12 6 6% 7

Stops 11 11.4

-- -- -.... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
,

-- -42 63 84 105 126 147 168 189 209 30 45 60 75 89 104 119 134 149 163 178 193 208

12

/2.8

-27 40 53 66 79 92 105 118 131 145 158 171 184

13.2

-21 32

f4

-- -- -15 23 30 38 45 53 60 68 75 82 89 97 104 11 16 21 27 32 37 42 48 53 58 63 69 74

14.5

15.6

18

III
8 11 15 19 23 26 30 34 38 41 45 49 52

,
fl6 6 8 11 14 16 19 21 24 27 29 32 35 37

-4 6 8 10 12 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 26

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Commercial Values of Circle of Cori'fusion The following commercial circle of cOl~fusion limits are of interest and in most cases, have been derived from the manufacturer's literature, or from specifications.
1/80" 1/60" 1/100" 1/200" =Aplanat rapid rectilinear lens. =Wollaston meniscus in box camera. =B & L Rapid rectilinear lens (1902). e-Lower- limit allowed In the speCifications of the U. S. Army Air Corps. =Folding Kodaks in low price range. 1/200" =Plaubel Antlcomar I 2.9. 1/400" =Minlature Kodaks. Small negatives requiring extensive 1/500" enlargement. 1/750" =Dec1ared value for Zeiss Contax. f/l000" =Declared value for other Zeiss lenses. 1/1000" =Eastman Cine' Kodaks. 1/1000" =Taylor-Hobson-Cooke Cine' lens. 1/1500" = Standard specifications for the Lelca Summar lenses. 1/1500" =Turner-Reich 14.5 lens. Commercial. METRIC Metric (mm) Sizes 20x 25 25x 38 FILM Metric
(ern)

84 125 168 209

..... ..... .... . ..... ..... ..... .....

60 89 119 149 178 208

.... .... ..... .....
,

.

19 28 37 ~~!1 47 63 56 74 65 75 84 95 84 105 93 116 103 126 112 137 121 147 130

Figures in this table are based on a circle of confusion of 1/1000 of the foe I length o£ the lens, or £/1000. The distances are doubled when a two.pow:r telePhhoto lens IS used, and increased similarly for other powers in proportion to t e power.

SIZE CONVERSIONS Equivalent in Inches

INTO

U. S. STANDARDS Remarks

Sizes 2.0x 2.5 2.5x 3.8 3 x 4 4 x4 4 x 6 6 x 6 6 ,,9 6.5x 9 9 x12 12 xI5 0.78741<0.9843 0.98431<1.4961 1.181h:1.5748 1.57481<1.5748 1.57481<2.3622

Nearest U.S.A. Standard Size 35mm 35mm 1/2 V.P. Full V.P. Full V.P.

Single frame 35 mm, Double frame 35 mm, No. 127 Roll film. No. 127 Roll film. No. 127 Roll film. No. 120 Roll film. No. 120 Roll film. Film packs. Film packs. Film packs.

FOCAL LENGTHS Focal Lengths mm 15 20 32 35 40 47 50 55 60 75 85 90 90 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 Inches

AND NEGATIVE

SIZES Max. Negative Size, In Ins. 31Ax 41A 4 x 5 4 x 5 4 x 5 4 x 5 3%x 5% 5 I< 7 5 x 7 5 x 7 5 x 7 5 I< 7 5 x 8 5 x 8 5 I< 8 6%x 8112 6%x 8% 7 x 9 7 I< 9 ,7 x 9 8 dO 10 xl2 11 x14 14 x17

Max. Negative Size, In Ins. %x % 16mm 35mm llAxl 35mm 1 :<1% 1 xI% Ilhx13A 2 x2 2%x21A 2 x3 2 x3 21Ax3% 2 1<3 21Ax31~ 2~x31. 2 ~x23A 2%x3% 3 x4 3 IAx4IA 3%x4% ·31Ax41A

Focal Lengths mny' 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 190 205 210 215 225 230 240 250 260 270 280 300 350 390 475 Inches 53A 6 6% 6;1 6~ 6~ 7 7'1. 7'12 8 81A 8'12 9 9% 9% 10 lOti • 10 11 12 14 15 '12 19

30x 40 40" 40 40" 60 60" 60 60x 90 65x 90 90x120 120x150

2.36221<2.3622 2%"x21AH 2%"x3IA" 2.3622,,3.5433 2.3819x3.5433 3.5433x4.7245 4. 7245x5. 9056

............
3~"x43A.IJ' 4 ~'x6"

7fs

%

llA 13/8 1% 17/8 2 21A 2% 3 3% 3 '12 3 '12 4 4% 4~6 4~ 3• 4 5 5% 51A 5%

.-

Auxiliary Lenses for Mini.atur~s . This table shows the amount of magnificatIOn or reductton obtainable with lenses of various focal lengths as compared with the normal 2-inch lens.
Magnification Focal Length compared 1 'Is" ( 2.8 cm) .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . (3.5 em) ... .. .. .. .. .... . . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .

l::tt

~~6"
33/." 5 '~"

~(t ~:L:: :::::::::::::::::::::::.: :: ::: 8.5 ern). .. . . .. .. •. .. . . . . .. .• •. . . .. ....•. .
13.5 cm). .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .

or reduction with 2" lens. 0.54 0.67

t~7
1.6 2.6

~i:'"~i! ~:L:::::::::::::.:::::::::::::::::::

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. Exposure Increase for Close-Up Work In copying and .close-up work with any camera where t~e bellows extension IS extended beyond normal limits, increased exposure time must be given to compensate for the increased dlstanc.e fro~ lens t? plate. The following table gives the ap~roxlmate. increase In exposure needed, based on the rnagnifi. cations obtained,
Reproduction 25 Xnatural 15 Xnatural 10 Xnatural 4Xnatural 2 Xnarurat Scale: size. . . . . size size size size . sl~:I) . . " " . . . Exposure to be multiplied by:

Distance and Altitude from Photos To determine the altitude by photographs taken from aircraft, or to determine horizontal distances from photographs, we must have the following information:
1. Focal length (f) of the camera lens used. 2. Horizontal distance between any two points on the ground that can be easily identified on the photograph.

676 256 .
121

Distances may be estimated with fair accuracy in many cases from well known standards: Curb to curb street width: Size of a block or square, etc. (railroad track gauge is 4' -8;/,").
Let: s = Scale of photograph as a fraction. h = Height or altitude above ground in inches. f =Focal length of lens in inches. W = Width of ground covered by photo. w=Width of film. L = Length of ground area covered by photo. I = Length of film. h f f f .h e= s= -; W= -Xw; L=-XI; s h h f

25
9 4 2.8 2.3 1.8

1/~~t'::lu~~f ~j~ ~:~~~:l

~l~~: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
""" ,

: : : : : : :: : : : : :

b~
1/8

1/4 1/5

natural natural natural ~:~~~::

size : : : : : : : : :: : : : : : : .: : : .: : size. . . .. .. . . . ..•........ size . ~:;:: : : .: .

1.6
1.5 1.4 1.3 1.25 1.2 1.2 Then:

~jro ~:~~~::~:~:: .. .... :::: :: :: :::::: :: :: :::: ::::: .

EXAMPLE.

Diopter Conversion . In optical literature the term diopter is often seen. The diopter IS the unit of measure of the converging or diverging power of a lens, and is equal to the reciprocal of the foca( length expressed in meters. Thus, 1 diopter refers to a focal length of 1 meter; 2 diopters, 0 ';TIeter; 3 diopters, % meter; etc. A SImple method of convertmg diop ters into inches is as follows:
since 1 meter =39.37 Inches and D =focal length In dlopters 39.37 then

Suppose that the distance b~tween two points on the photograph is 2.5 inches and tltat the corresponding distance on the ground IS 1,500 feet or 18,000 inches. Then, the scale as a fraction is: 2.5 s'= 1,500 X12 7,200

If the focal Iength
Altitude =

of the lens is 20 inches,
20 --Scale 1 7,200

then:

Focal length

= 144,000 inches or 12,000 feet.

D

= focal length

In inches

.Amateurs often desire to make improvised supplementary slip-on lenses for their cameras and WIsh to pdrchase a spectacle lens from .their optician for the purpose. As these lenses are rated in diopters rather than inches it is necessary to know what lens to. ask for. First determine the focal length of the lens desired III Inches (plus or minus), then
39.37 -----------=focallength focal length in inches in diopters

The focal length of aerial cameras used in civilian work will average about 12 inches, with a view angle of approximately 42°. These lenses are used at altitudes of from 10,000 to 15,000 feet maximum. A shorter focal length gives a greater angle of view but less detail. A lO-inch lens will cover twice as much ground as a 20·inch lens, but the scale of the 20-inch lens will be twice that of the lO-inch lens.

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CONVERSION TABLES
Fractions of Inches Into m1111- Millimeters Into Ins. meters and decimal fractions and decimals Inches 1 15/16 9/10 7/8 13/16 3/4 11/16 5/8 9/16 1/2 7/16 3/8 11/32 5/16 9/32 1/4 7/32 3/16 1/8 3/32 1/16 1/32 1/64 1/100 1/200 1/320 MUlimeters 25.4 23.8 23.0 22.2 20.6 19.1 17.5 16.9 14.3 12.7 11.1 9.5 8.7 7.9 7.1 6.4 5.6 4.8 3.2 2.4 1.6 0.8 0.4 0.25 0.13 0.003 Inches Decimal fractions 1 0.9375 0.9000 0.8750 0.8125 0.7500 0.6875 0.6250 0.5625 0.5000 0.4375 0.3750 0.3432 0.3125 0.2808 0.2500 0.2184 0.1875 0.1250 0.0936 0.0625 0.0312 0.0156 0.0100 0.0050 0.0031 Milllmeters 1 Inches Inches to Centimeters Inches Centlmeters 2.54 5.08 7.62 10.16 12.70 15.24 17.78 20.32 22.86 25.40 27.94 30.48 3302 35.56 38.10 40.64 43.18 45.72 48.26 50.80

INDEX
ABBE, Ernest, 28 Aberrations of lenses, 25, 71 Absorption of light, 14, 17 Achromatic lens, 25, 28, 73 --, double, 89 -doublet, 88 Admission, node of, 30, 41 Admittance factor, 47 Alignment of lenses, 110, 117 Anastigmat lens, 90 Angle of incidence, 15 -of refraction, 17 -of view, 54 Angular aperture, 55 Aperture, 57 --, angular, 55 --, effective, 49,' 55 -of telephoto lens, 100 Aplanat lens, 74 Apochromatic lenses, 74, 96 Astigmatism, 76 --, test for, 116 Attachments, telephoto, Auxiliary lenses, 97 Axis of lens, 18, 32 101 Cen ter of lens, finding, 39 Chart, test, making, 116 Chemical focus, 72 Chromatic aberration, 72 ---, lateral, 80 Circle of confusion, 61, 124 --illumination, 54 Classification of lenses, 24 Cleaning lenses, 109 Colors, primary, 19 Coma, 77 Combined focal length, finding, 105 Combining lenses, 46 Com pur shutter, 136 Concave lens, 19, 24, 45 ---, finding focus of, 46 ---, virtual focus, 46 Concavo-convex, 25 Conj ugate foci, 35 Continental stop markings, 60 Conversion, metric film sizes, 151 --, diopter, 152 -tables, 154 Convertible lens, 95 Copying lenses, 104 ---, supplementary, 104 Correcting distortion, 74 Correction for chromatic aberration, 73 Covering power, 54 Cracked lenses, 110 Crossed lens, 32 Curvature of field, 74 Curvilinear distortion, 78 DAGOR lens, 103 Daguerre, 10 Dallmeyer telephoto lens, Damaged lenses, 110 Defects in lenses, 71 Definition, 70 --, limits of, 81 --, testing, 115

~I 4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 25.4

• 0.04 0.08
0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.31 0.35 0.39 0.43 0.47 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.94 0.98 1.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

BACK focus, 39 Barrel distortion, 78 Berore-tbe-Iens shutter, 127 Between-the-lens shutter, 136 Biconcave lenses, 24 Biconvex lenses, 24 Blackening internal metal-work, 80 Broken lenses, 110 Brown stains, removing, Bubbles in lenses, 109

111

CAMERA, comparison with eye, 7 -obscura, 9 --, pinhole, 9 Cap, lens, 107 Care of lenses, 107 --shutters, 113

101

155

156
Depth of field, 66 -of focus, 68 Determining distance and altitude from photos, 153 Diagonals of plates and films, ,54 Diaphragm, 57 Diffraction, 13, 71 Diffusion, 14 Diopters, converting to inches, 152 Discoloration of lenses, 111 Dispersion, 19 Distance, hyperfocal, 62 -scales, 53 Distances, extra-focal, 37 Distal', 101 Distortion, barrel, 78 --, correcting, 79 --, curvilinear, 78 --, depth, 86 --, pincushion, 79 -with focal-plane shutter, 143 Diverging beam of light, 19 Doublet, achromatic, 88 Double achromatic, 89 Dulled lenses, 110 Dust inside lenses, 108 Dusting lenses, 109 EFFECTIVE aperture, 49, 55 Effective '-number, for closeups,
58

PHOTOGRAPHIC
Faults in lenses, 71 FerJi:Iike markings, 111 Field, curvature of, 74 Fixed focus, 65 --cameras, 50 Flare, 80 Flatness of field, 71 Focal length, combined, finding, !t5 --of concave lens, finding, 46 -----convex lens, finding, 32, 52 ---, effect on perspective, 84 effect on size of image,
35 Image, 7, 22, 44

LENSES

AND SHUTTERS

157

--, brightness, 47 --, real, 24 -size, 35 --, virtual, 24, 46 Incidence, angle of, 15 Index of refraction, 17 Infinity, 32 --, approximate. 34 --, finding, 53 Infra-red rays, 12 Inverse square law, 21 Invisible rays, 12 Iris diaphragm, 57, 114 JENA glass, 29, 90 LATERAL
80

Pincushion distortion, 79 Plano-concave lens, 24 Plano-convex lens, 24 Portrait lenses, 102 Positive lens, 24 Primary colors, 19 Principal axis, 39 -focus, 30 Prism, dispersion by, 19 --, refraction by, 18 Projection lenses, 118 Projector optical system, Pro tar lens, 91 ---, convertible, 95 Proxar, 103

120

---

--, -150

finding, 32, 52 lengthening, 101, 105 negative sizes (table),

chromatic

aberration,

QUALITIES desirable in lens. 71 ---in shutter, 125 Quartz lenses, 30 RADIAR lens, 94 Rapid rectilinear lens, 79, 81J Rays, Infra-red, 12
--, invisible, 12

---, for slip-on lenses, 106 Ektar lens, 92 Emission, node of, 30, 41 Enlarger calculations, 122
Enlarging, distances for, 122

--of lenses, 51 --of telephoto lens, 99 ---, shortening, 102, 105 Focal-plane shutter, 138 1!'oci, conjugate, 35, 124 Focus, 24, 30, 44 --, chemical, 72 --, depth of, 68 --, virtual, 19, 45 Focusing methods, 50 -mount, 51 -scales, 53 -screen, 56 Foot-candle, 20 Form ulas, useful, 36, 5R, 64, 99.
105, 123

Lengthening focus, 98 Lens speeds, 60 Ligh t, absorptto n of, 14, 17 --, theory of, 12 -intensity, 20 -waves, 21 Luc shutter, 133 MAGNIFICATION, telephoto, 98 Meniscus lenses, 25, 8M Metric film size conversion, 151 Miniature, auxiliary lenses for,
151

Monocular vision, 83 Moulded lenses, 30 NEGATIVE lenses, 24 Nodal planes, 41 -points, 39 -space, 41 Nolle of admission. 41 -- -emission, 41 Normal, 17

-lenses, 118 Equivalent {-numbers (table), 149 -focal point, 30 Exposure increase for closeup, 152 -with different stops, 60, 149 Extra-focal distances, 37 {-FUNCTION, 48, 57 {-Numbers, effective, for closeups, 58 --, measuring, 55 -with telephoto lenses, 100 -system of marking stops, fiO

GAUSS points, 39 -, - objective, 91 Glass, optical, 19, 28 Goerz Dager lens, 103 Gradation, 86 Gundlach Radial' lens, 94 HYPERFOCAL distance, 62 ---(table), 150 Hypergon lens, 103 ILEX shutter, 136 Illumination. uneven. 81

-of light, 12 --, ultra-violet, 12 Real image, 24 Rectilinear lens, 79 Reduction, distances for, 37 Reflected light, 13 Refraction, 16 --, angle of, 17 Refractive index, 17 Resolving power, 49, 69, 82 Reversi ble action of lens, 35 Robin Hill lens, 103 Roller-blind shutters, 129 Rotary shutters, 128 Ru dolp h, Dr" 91, 95 SCALE of image, 35 Scales, focusing. 53 Schneider ,Tel-Xenar lens, 101 Schott, Otto, 28 Scratches, 110
Screen focusing, 50. 56

-..I glass,

OPTICAL

center,
19, 28

39

PARALLEL rays, 16, 34 -surfaces, refraction at, 18 Perspective, focal length and, 84 Petzval portrait lens, 90

Separation of supplementary lenses, 105 --telephoto lenses, 99 Shortening focus, 102

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Shutter, bladed, 133 --, Compur, 136 --, flap, 130 --, focal-plane, 138 --, Ilex, 136 --, rotary, 128 -speeds, testing, 145 -Supermatic, 136 Shutters, care and repair, 107, 113 --, classification of, 125 --, desirable qualities in, 125 --, rOller-blind, 129
--, testing, 145

---, concave, 101 -- --, copying with, 104 \ ---, {-numbers with, 106 -- --, scale of image, 106 Symmetrical lens, 90 Synchronization of shutter, 147 T~EPHOTO attachments, 101 -lenses. 98 -- --, adjustable, 98 -- --, Dallmeyer, 101 ---, field of view, 98 Telephotography, exposure, 100 Tessar lens, 92 Test chart, making, 116 Testing lenses, 115 Tests of shutter speeds, 145 Triplet lens, Cooke, 91 Turner-Reich convertible lens, 95 'l'ypes of lenses, 24, 88 \ ULTRA- VIOLET rays, 12 Uniform System of marking stops, 60 "U. S." system of marking stops, 60 VIEW, angle of, 54 Virtual focus, 19, 45
-image, 46

Simple lens, aberrations of, 71 -- --, properties of, 24 Simple lenses used in photography, 24, 88 Single achromatic lens, 25 Slip-on lenses, 97, 105 ----, effective {-number for, 106 Soft-focus lens, 104 Sonnar lens, 94 Spectacle glass supplementary lenses, 152 Speed of lens, 60 Speeds, shutter, testing, 145 Spherical aberration, 74 Stereo-Aberration, 84 Stereoscopic work, lenses for, 84 Stop, effect of, 57 --, determination of, 66 Stops, 60 Supermatic shutter, 136 Supplementary lenses, 97

WIDE-ANGLE lenses, 102 Wollaston lens, 24, 88 ZEISS Protar lens, 91 -Sonnar lens, 94 -Tessar lens, 92 Zonal aberration, 78
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