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I

BLAST FURNACE PROCESS AUTOMATIC CONTROL

A. N.

Pokhvisnev, I. F. Kurunov, Y.

S. Y u s f i n , V. M. Klempert

Moscow S t e e l and A l l o y s I n s t i t u t e

D e s p i t e t h e s u b s t a n t i a l change i n b l a s t f u r n a c e ironmaking technology due t o t h e u s e of oxygen, n a t u r a l g a s and f u e l o i l a s w e l l a s e l e v a t e d t o p g a s p r e s s u r e and o t h e r f a c t o r s promoting t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e p r o c e s s , t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e foreman c o n t i n u e s t o play t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n s o l v i n g problems a s t o how t o g e t t h e maximum p r o d u c t i o n r a t e a t t h e minimum expense. Automatic c o n t r o l i n ironmaking aims a t l i m i t i n g t h e foreman's r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s and r e d u c i n g i t t o c e r t a i n l i m i t s . This problem h a s been t h e s u b j e c t of i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r a long period of time a t t h e Ore Working Department of Moscow S t e e l and A l l o y s I n s t i t u t e . I n 1939, t o accommodate b l a s t f u r n a c e c o n t r o l , P r o f e s s o r A . N. Pokhvisnev [ l ] proposed a n index c a l c u l a t e d b o t h from t o p g a s a n a l y s i s and m a t e r i a l balance and f i x i n g t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s v a l u e of coke r a t e conforming t o t h e g a s composition involved. S c h e m a t i c a l l y i t can' be expressed a s a simple formula, p = O b / c g , where Ob i s t h e oxygen p a s s i n g from burden m a t e r i a l s i n t o f u r n a c e g a s e s and C i s t h e g g a s i f i e d carbon. Given t h e t o p g a s a n a l y s i s , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be c o n v e n i e n t l y expressed i n terms of v o l u m e t r i c u n i t s ; C02 P =

+
C02

0.5 CO

BN2
where

CO

= O2(bl)IN2(bl)

I f r e q u i r e d , i t may a l s o be expressed i n u n i t s of w e i g h t ;

With hydrogen p r e s e n t i n t h e f u r n a c e g a s ( n a t u r a l gas o r o t h e r hydrocarbon i n j e c t i o n ) and oxygen-enriched b l a s t , t h e formula n a t u r a l l y becomes mor'e c o m p l i c a t e d ;

I n formula ( 3 ) , 0 . 5 H 2 0 ( ) r e p r e s e n t s oxygen t a k e n from t h e burden by hydrogen. T h i s can be computed from t e e hydrogen b a l a n c e u s i n g a r a t h e r cumbersome formula [ 2 ] . The u s e of a computer i s a good p r a c t i c e f o r making such c a l c u l a t i o n s q u i c k l y . I n

most i n s t a n c e s , i t i s a c c u r a t e enough t o s p e c i f y t h e r a t e of hydrogen u t i l i z a t i o n (TH~) w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of 0.40 0.45. Then;

B r e p r e s e n t s t h e combined b l a s t oxygen-nitrogen r e l a t i o n s h i p .

I n t h e e v e n t of oxygen-enriched b l a s t and n a t u r a l gas i n j e c t i o n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t I t i s expressed a s follows:

where

X
6

p e r c e n t a g e oxygen i n oxygen e n r i c h e d d r y b l a s t , b l a s t m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t , grams/nm3, p e r c e n t a g e n a t u r a l g a s i n combined b l a s t .

There i s a n o t h e r no l e s s i m p o r t a n t index r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i r e c t r e d u c t i o n oxygen and s o l u t i o n l o s s c a r b o n ;

When t h e v a l u e of H20(g) C02/(C02 + C O ) , which 1s r e l a t i o n s h i p immediately r e l a t e d t o both the r a t e

i s i g n o r e d , t h e index i s one h a l f of t h e one more o f t e n u s e d , t h e r a t e of carbon monoxide u t i l i z a t i o n . The q / p o f f e r s a g e n e r a l v a l u e of t h e o x i d e i n d i r e c t r e d u c t i o n r a t i o of g a s use and t h e s p e c i f i c carbon r a t e .

I n t h i s manner, t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g any p a r t i c u l a r period of time can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e above i n d i c e s . The i n d i c e s under d i s c u s s i o n can be supplemented w i t h d a t a on t h e h e a t i n p u t per When t h i s i s t h e c a s e , u n i t of oxygen removed from t h e burden m a t e r i a l s ( i n d e x M ) . c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e i n d i c e s may s e r v e a s t h e b a s i s f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e recommendations i n v a r y i n g coke r a t e , b l a s t temperature and humidity [ 3 ] . Index M can be found from t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; t h e h e a t q u a n t i t y l i b e r a t e d on t h e f o r m a t i o n of 100 nm3 of g a s of a g i v e n composition i s ;

9,

= 22.4

95760 28080 a C02 + 22.4

Kca 1 100 n m ' of gas bl

the h e a t c o n t e n t of 1 nm3 of b l a s t i s , W = c x t where c tbl

'

heat capacity b l a s t temperature

100 N2 t h e b l a s t volume r a t e , per 100 nm3 of g a s , amounts t o and t h e h e a t from w) (100 the hot b l a s t i s ;

t h e t o t a l heat is then; Kca 1 100 nmj of g a s Oxygen i n t h e f u r n a c e g a s comprises t h e sum of oxygen i n b l a s t and t h a t removed from t h e burden m a t e r i a l s . B l a s t oxygen can be found i n accordance w i t h n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t i n t h e gas. By t h i s means t h e burden oxygen i s r e v e a l e d from t h e f o l l o w i n g expression;

Ob = C02

0.5 CO

BN2

n m 100 nmJ o f g a s

D i v i d i n g t h e p r e v i o u s l y o b t a i n e d v a l u e of Q by t h e oxygen removed from t h e burden, we produce t h e amount of h e a t per normal c u b i c meter of oxygen removed from t h e burden m a t e r i a l s . The formula t a k e s t h e f o l l o w i n g form;

M =

Q/ob =

4275C02 C02

+
+

1254CO

+ 100-wL
BN2

0.5CO

Kca 1 '2(burden)

I f we c a l c u l a t e t h e magnitude of j ( t h e number of oxygen normal c u b i c m e t e r s p a s s i n g i n t o gas per u n i t w e i g h t o f i r o n on t h e b a s i s of i t s c o m p o s i t i o n ) , then t h e h e a t consumption per u n i t weight of i r o n i s t h i s ; Mx j Kca 1 of i r o n

U.W.

where j = 0.26 t o 0.30 nm3 0 /kg of i r o n . 2 Through t h e u s e of t h e s e two v a l u e s , one can a n a l y z e t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e o p e r a t i o n and automatica l l y c o n t r o l i t s thermal c o n d i t i o n s . The f i r s t checking of t h e o u t l i n e d c o n t r o l method took p l a c e i n 1941 on the b l a s t f u r n a c e No. 7 , Dzerzhinsky S t e e l P l a n t and t h e thermal c o n d i t i o n s cont:rol w i t h t h e h e l p of index "M" was performed f o r t h e f i r s t time i n 1942 on a f u r n a c e of Magnitogorsky m e t a l l u r g i c a l combine. Gas a n a l y s e s and computations were made manua 1l y

The experiments were a s u c c e s s and demonstrated f a i r promptness of t h e c o n t r o l method under t e s t and i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r b l a s t f u r n a c e s . But many d i f f i c u l t i e s a r o s e from t h e p r a c t i c e o f manually making g a s a n a l y s e s and c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c o n t r o l parameter. This k e p t t h e proposed and t e s t e d b l a s t f u r n a c e c o n t r o l method from b e i n g promoting a t t h a t time. A t t h e end of t h e 1 9 5 0 1 s , means of a u t o m a t i c top g a s a n a l y s e s came i n t o b e i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e f a s t s p r e a d of computers i n t h i s countr:y and o v e r s e a s . This gave impetus t o r e s e a r c h work on d e v e l o p i n g t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l systems. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n were continued a t t h e Moscow S t e e l and Alloy I n s t i t u t e . The method, mentioned above and t e s t e d i n 1942, of b l a s t f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s c o n t r o l through t h e use of t o p g a s composition, formed t h e b a s i s of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .

A t t h e same time a s t h i s method continued t o be advanced, t h e p o s s i l b i l i t i . e s f o r u s i n g o t h e r s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e p r o c e s s f o r t h e same purposes were a l s o s t u d i e d . The r e s u l t was t h a t i n 1964-1965 a new method of b l a s t f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s c o n t r o l based on t h e composition and q u a n t i t y of charged m a t e r i a l s , b l a s t volume w i t h a d d i t i o n s was developed [ 4 ] . I n t h i s method, i n p l a c e

of t h e p e r c e n t of t h e t o p g a s c o n s t i t u e n t s , determined from a n a l y s i s , t h e i r q u a n t i t i e s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e composition and tonnage of charged m a t e r i a l s , b l a s t volume, and q u a n t i t y of i n j e c t e d a d d i t i o n s a r e made u s e o f . Q u a n t i t i e s o f carbon d i o x i d e and carbon monoxide can be found from b a l a n c e e q u a t i o n s of oxygen and carbon p r e s e n t i n f i x e d volumes of t o p g a s :

co2
O '

= 2

o2
( i n gas) '(in gas)

'(in

gas)

H2(reduc)

H2(reduc)

2 O2 ( i n g a s )

p a s s i n g i n t o g a s c a n be Amounts o f oxygen 02(in and carbon C(in c a l c u l a t e d from t h e composiffEh of burden m a t e r i a l s '(burden and 02(in burden , b l a s t and i n j e c t e d a d d i t i o n s O ~ ( ~ d d and ) C(add). Q u a n t i t y o& w a t e r vapor r e s u l t i n g from r e d u c t i o n (H20(reduc)) can be e s t i m a t e d assuming t h e . v a l u e of hydrogen u t i l i z a t i o n r a t e t o be c o n s t a n t . I f we make c a l c u l a t i o n s per some u n i t o f burden m a t e r i a l s ( f o r example, per one charge) and keep i n mind t h a t w h i l e i n t h e f u r n a c e each volume of c h a r g e r e a c t s w i t h g a s e s which vary i n composition and q u a n t i t y , we can d e r i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n s f o r a 2 and CO volumes (normal c u b i c m e t e r s per one charge) ;

"2

= 2 ( O2(in bur.)

O2(in b l a s t ) )

( '(in

bur.)

(add) )

'

H2(reduc) ;

C0 =

bur.)

'(in

add) ) - 2 ( 0 2 ( i n b u r . )

+ 02 ( b l ) ) + '

For a g i v e n c h a r g e , t h e l i n e denotes t h e p r o c e s s i n t e g r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a period of time when t h e burden m a t e r i a l s a r e i n t h e f u r n a c e . I n o t h e r words, v a l u e s of 5 2 ( i n b l a s t ) , C(add) and H20(reduc c o n s t i t u t e t h e a v e r a g e w i t h time q u a n t i t i e s of oxygen i n t h e b l a s t , carbon I n he i n j e c t e d a d d i t i v e s and r e d u c t i o n water vapor per g i v e n charge o f burden m a t e r i a l s .

To c a l c u l a t e t h e above v a l u e s , a s w e l l a s q u a n t i t i e s of h e a t added by t h e h o t b l a s t and consumed by decomposition of t h e i n j e c t e d a d d i t i v e s i n t h e h e a r t h per g i v e n charge of burden m a t e r i a l s , t h e mean o p e r a t i n g time of t h i s charge i n t h e f u r n a c e has t o be e s t i m a t e d , i . e . ,
= -a

minutes per charge

(17)

where a

r e s i d a n c e time of burden m a t e r i a l s i n t h e f u r n a c e ( c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t a k e n c o n s t a n t and e q u a l t o 240 420 minutes depending upon t h e volume and working c o n d i t i o n s of t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e ) ,

number of c h a r g e s f i l l e d i n t h e time period "a".


i t i s possible t o c a l c u l a t e the e s t i m a t e d from t h e t o p g a s

Using t h e o b t a i n e d v a l u e s of CO, C02, H20(reduc same b l a s t f u r n a c e p r o c e s s i n d i c e s which a r e composition.

The method, formulated h e r e , h a s been a p p l i e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e index Mb r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e h e a t i n p u t per u n i t o f oxygen i n t h e burden m a t e r i a l s j o i n i n g the f u r n a c e gas. There i s a formula t o i c a l c u l a t e M g from t h e g a s composition:

where: C02, CO, N2, H20(reduc) volume ;


( r

t h e i r c o n t e n t i n t h e d r y t o p g a s , p e r c e n t by

combined b l a s t volume

t o i t s nitrogen content r a t i o

a = 100/(100-u)
Substituting 00 and H20 reduc) i n t h e above formula r e s u l t s i n the same index of h e a t i n p u t (Kcal) per u n i t ok burden l o s s oxygen (one nm3 0 2 bVrden), b u t i t i s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e composition of burden, b l a s t and i n j e c t e d a d l t i v e s

z2,

Values of 02 , 0 2 b l , Cb, Caddy H20reduc should be expressed h e r e i n n m3 / c h a r g e ; v a l u e s of wb?, Qadd i n callc charge. The checking of index Mb f o r c o n f i d e n c e , i . e . , whether i t i s i n conformity w i t h t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s , has been c a r r i e d o u t by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e same from t h e d a t a of b l a s t f u r n a c e s working under d i f f e r e n t conditions.

The assessment of convergence was done through p l o t t i n g t h e diagrams and computing t h e normalized i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . Table 1 d i s p l a y s t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between index M and s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n t h e i r o n f o r d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s of time o f f s e t s . O p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e s a r e a l s o g i v e n i n Table 1. The time i n t e r v a l between c a s t s i s used h e r e a s a t i m e - u n i t . I n a l l i n s t a n c e s index had a p o s i t i v e and r e l i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i l i c o n c o n t e n t both i n absence of a time o f f s e t and when f o r e c a s t i n g f o r one o r two c a s t s , i . e . , f o r 2.5 t o 5 h r s . F i g u r e 1, g i v i n g t h e c u r v e s of Mb and s i l i c o n changes, i l l u s t r a t e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e c h i l l followed by a h e a t i n g up of t h e f u r n a c e . The p o i n t s of b o t h c u r v e s a-re s h i f t e d from one a n o t h e r f o r one c a s t , i . e . , f o r 2.5 h r s . b Thus, index M , c a l c u l a t e d from t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e working d a t a under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t s f o r changes i n t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r M~ and s i l i c o n a t t e s t t o t h e r e l i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p of Mb and s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n t h e i r o n i n a l l c a s e s .

Table 1.

S t a t i s t i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between M~ and S i l i c o n Content i n t h e I r o n b M and S i l i c o n Content I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Coefficient

S1 No.
1

S t e e l Plant B l a s t Furnace "Azovs t a l " , 17 19 cum December, 1964

B l a s t Furnace Working Conditions 99% s i n t e r , l i m e s t o n e , n a t u r a l g a s , oxygen (30-31 p e r c e n t ) 96% s i n t e r , l i m e s t o n e , n a t u r a l g a s , oxygen (27-28 p e r c e n t ) 80% s i n t e r , limes t o n e , atmospheric a i r b l a s t

Casts 160

Time o f Forecasting Casts

"Azovstal", J u n e , 1965

1719 cum

"Azovs t a l l 1 , 17 19 cum O c t o b e r , 1965

Tcherepovets s t e e l p l a n t , 2000 cum J a n u a r y , 1966

100% f l u x e d s i n t e r , n a t u r a l g a s , oxygen (22-23 p e r c e n t )

Novo-Lipetsk s t e e 1 p l a n t , 2000 cum. J a n u a r y , 1966

100% f l u x e d s i n t e r , n a t u r a l g a s , oxygen (25-26 p e r c e n t )

(hours) 0 1 2 3

0.29 0.29 0.23 0.17

T e s t on a B l a s t Furnace w i t h t h e u s e of a C o m ~ u t e r I n January F e b r u a r y , 1968 and 1969, a n a l g o r i t h m t o check and c o n t r o l t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s , developed a t t h e Moscow S t e e l and A l l o y s I n s t i t u t e , was t e s t e d on one o f t h e f u r n a c e s of t h e "Azovstal" S t e e l P l a n t equipped w i t h a computer and s u i t a b l e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n [ 5 ] . The b a s i s f o r t h e a l g o r i t h m i s t h e checking of t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s through t h e c a l c u l a t e d i n d i c e s of thermal g M ~ and ) e v a l u a t i n g t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e recommendations t o change t h e c o n d i t i o n s ( ~ and f u r n a c e o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i a t i o n s of t h e i n d i c e s . On t r i a l s i n January F e b r u a r y , 1968, t h e i n d e x M~ was made u s e of t o check t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s and determine t h e c o n t r o l l i n g e f f e c t s , thermal c o n d i t i o n s c o n t r o l b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e same time by t h e index Mg.

A coke charge s i z e ( i . e . , t h e o r e load) s e r v e d t h e r e a s a- c o n t r o l l i n g e f f e c t , m e t a l l i c burden of a charge b e i n g v a r i e d i n t h e e v e n t o f ! b u r d e n changing only ( F i g u r e 2).


I

Determining t h e c o n t r o l l i n g e f f e c t ( i . e . , e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e q u i r e d s i z e oE a coke c h a r g e t o m a i n t a i n t h e s p e c i f i e d s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n t h e i r o n ) was performed a t h o u r l y i n t e r v a l s by d e v i a t i o n of magnitude and s i g n of ~ b - i n d e x from i t s mean v a l u e s f o r two e a r l i e r h o u r s . This was done w i t h t h e use of a s p e c i a l l y made l o g i c a l c h a r t , where numerical v a l u e s of Mb-index and recommended changAs of coke r a t e per charge were s e l e c t e d from t h e e a r l i e r e x p e r i e n c e and c a l c u l a t i o n s . According t o t h e c h a r t , magnitude and s i g n of c o n t r o l l i n g e f f e c t s a r e determined b and M b a s per magnitude and s i g n of M1 2 p a r a m e t e r s , which r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between mean v a l u e s o f Mb i n d i c e s per hour f o r a d j a c e n t h o u r l y p e r i o d s of time. The f i r s t d i f f e r e n c e g i v e s o n l y a n i n d i c a t i o n of t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s d e v i a t i o n h i t h e r and t h i t h e r a t a p a r t i c u l a r l e n g t h of time a s compared w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s one. The second d i f f e r e n c e a l r e a d y makes i t p o s s i b l e t o judge a b o u t t h e tendency of t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s t o change and f o l l o w i n g t h e i r v a l u e t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c o n t r o l l i n g a c t i o n on r e t e n t i o n tendency of t h e f u r n a c e t o c h i l l o r t o warm-up and weaken o r e l i m i n a t e them i n t h e o p p o s i t e c a s e . b exceeds t h e range of i n s e n s i t i v e n e s s (LOO ~ c a l / n ~ of :n~ Ozb) , I f t h e v a l u e of M1 b u t l e s s t h a n 200 Kcal, t h e n i t i s recommended by t h e t a b l e t o change coke r a t e by 25 kg per c h a r e ( a l l accompanying f i g u r e s a r e taken f o r a coke charge e q u a l t o 6-7 t o n s ) . When Mf r u n s i n t o 200-500 Kcal, t h e n coke r a t e s h a l l be changed by 50 kg per c h a r g e , and i f i t i s more t h a n 500 Kcal, t h e coke r a t e s h a l l b e changed by 150 kg per charge. b r u n s a s high a s 200 Kcal. I f t h e v a l u e s of The zone o f i n s e n s i t i v e n e s s f o r M2 b M2 a r e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of 200-500 K c a l , coke r a t e s h a l l be changed by 50 kg per charge. I f t h e y exceed 500 Kcal than t h e chan e s h a l l be 150 kg. The s i g n of coke r a t e changing i s assumed o p p o s i t e t o t h a t of Mf and M .! The development of t h e mentioned Table of C o n t r o l l i n g A c t i o n s was p r i m a r i l y based on t h e a v a i l a b l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o c o n t r o l t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e thermal c o ~ t d i t i o n s through t h e u s e of a computer o p e r a t i n g a s a "foreman's a d v i s e r " . I n this case, i t was p r i m a r i l y intended t o c a r r y o u t t h e q u a l i t a t i v e c o n t r o l , when t o i n f l u e n c e h e a t i n g - u p of t h e f u r n a c e . I t s o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l most commonly changed t h e coke r a t e only by 100 kg, r e g a r d l e s s t h e magnitude of t h e h e a t i n g - u p d e v i a t i o n , and i n t h e e v e n t of a s e v e r e c h i l l , by t h e a d d i t i o n of one o r s e v e r a l s k i p l o a d s of coke. I n 1968 t e s t s were c a r r i e d o u t f o r t h e period of time from January 22nd up t o February 5 t h , when low-phosphorus manganese s t e e l q u a l i t y i r o n of i n c r e a s e d s i l i c o n c o n t e n t was smelted i n t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e .

! U n t i l t h e t e s t s were s t a r t e d , t h e f u r n a c e worked r a t h e r smoothly, though i t s c e n t r e was over loaded w i t h m e t a l l i c burden and t h e o p e r a t i o n was s o l e l y p e r i p h e r a 1 ( t h a t could be observed from t h e c h a r t of C02 d i s t r i b u t i o n round a r a d i u s ) . The o v e r l o a d i n g of t h e f u r n a c e c e n t r e was a s s i s t e d by a g r e a t q u a n t i t y of s u p p l i e d s i n t e r o f h i g h b a s i c i t y , c o n t a i n i n g 30-35 p e r c e n t of below 5 mm f i n e s r e s u l t i n g from numerous r e c h a r g i n g s .

A 1 1 d a t a t o be processed by a computer can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two groups: 1. The i n f o r m a t i o n which a r r i v e s a t t h e computer from t h e c o n t i n u o u s l y a l i v e s e n s o r s ( t e n i n number) o f : t o p g a s composition (C02, CO, H2), h o t b l a s t volume, temperature and h u m i d i t y , cold b l a s t p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e , oxygen c o n t e n t i n b l a s t , n a t u r a l g a s r a t e . The s e n s o r s were q u e s t i o n e d every 3-4 seconds. The a r r i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was averaged over h o u r l y i n t e r v a l s of time. The computer a u t o m a t i c a l l y took a c c o u n t of number of c h a r g e s ( b o t h o r d i n a r y and b l a n k ) d e l i v e r e d i n t o t h e f u r n a c e per each hour.
2. The second group of d a t a comprises t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on the amount and composition of t h e charged m a t e r i a l s . This kind of a n i n f o r m a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e computer manually. The time of s i n t e r ( w i t h changed chemical composition) a r r i v a l a t t h e f u r n a c e t o p was t e n t a t i v e l y determined from t h e m a t e r i a l of previous composition remaining i n b i n s and from i t s h o u r l y consumption a t t h e f u r n a c e . There were t h r e e s t o p p a g e s of t h e f u r n a c e d u r i n g t h e t e s t s (January 2 3 r d , 25th and 2 6 t h ) t o r e p l a c e burned c o o l i n g members and t o do some maintenance work. B e s i d e s , on January 2 3 r d , a hanging of t h e burden m a t e r i a l s o c c u r r e d . To improve g a s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e f u r n a c e , a p o r t i o n of "washing-out" burden m a t e r i a l s was charged ( f i v e b l a n k c h a r g e s , t h r e e o r d i n a r y c h a r g e s , 25 tons of f u r n a c e c l i n k e r , two o r d i n a r y c h a r g e s , 25 t o n s of f u r n a c e c l i n k e r ) . For t h e period o f time from t h e l a s t stoppage (on J a n u a r y 26th) and up t o t h e end of t h e t e s t , t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e worked smoothly w i t h o u t ' s t o p p a g e s , h a n g i n g s , d i s t u r b a n c e s of t h e s l a g t a p p i n g and h o t metal c a s t i n g s c h e d u l e s . Yet burden changes were b e i n g made d u r i n g t h a t period of t i m e , by v a r y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n between domestic and f o r e i g n s i n t e r a s w e l l a s manganese o r e per charge

A s noted above, on t h e s e t e s t s the computer o p e r a t e d a s a "foreman's a d v i s e r " . A t t h e beginning of each hour t h e d a t a , accumulated and averaged f o r t h e p r e v i o u s one, was computed a c c o r d i n g t o t h e programmed formula, t h e r e s u l t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s of b and M2 b were analyzed i n accordance w i t h t h e l o g i c a l t a b l e and t h e f i n a l r e s u l t s M1 ( i n c l u d i n g v a l u e s of ~ g M~ , and t h e recommended v a r i a t i o n s of t h e coke feed s i z e ) were brought o u t and p r i n t e d by a p r i n t i n g d e v i c e of t h e computer.
The adopted zones o f i n s e n s i t i v e n e s s and c o n t r o l r a n g e s were checked d u r i n g the f i r s t two days of t h e t e s t s (January 23rd and 2 4 t h ) . The recommendations, produced by t h e computer i n t h e c o u r s e of t h i s p e r i o d , were n o t c o n s i d e r e d . The r e a l t e s t was s t a r t e d on J a n u a r y 2 5 t h and completed on February 5 t h a t 3:00 p.m. F i f t y a c t i v e and 20 p a s s i v e recommendations were produced by t h e computer f o r t h e period of t e s t s up t o t h e 5 t h of February. The a c t i v e one was aimed a t changing t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e w o r k i n g , c o n d i t i o n s by means of v a r y i n g t h e coke r a t e , w h i l e t h e p a s s i v e recommendation was d i r e c t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of t h e f u r n a c e Tho s u c c e s s i v e h o u r l y recommendations of t h e same s i g n produced by a computer were t a k e n a s one recommendation. Simultaneous examination of t h e changing of f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s and t h e computer's recommendations ( F i g u r e 2) makes i t p o s s i b l e t o draw a c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y a l l recommendations took t h e c o r r e c t account of t h e f u r n a c e heating-up and i t s tendency toward changing. Only two a c t i v e recommendations proved t o be wrong (one of t h e s e r e s u l t e d from t h e e a r l i e r stoppage o f t h e f u r n a c e , t h e

-'

o t h e r one was connected t o t h e burden changing). The two week period of t e s t i n g has been subdivided i n t o n i n e i n t e r v a l s of f o u r days e a c h , beginning from January 2 5 t h , 26th and s o f o r t h . The number of executed recommendations i n t h e s e p e r i o d s (1-9) i n c r e a s e d by t h e end of t h e t e s t s : Period No. Executed r e commendations

3 3

5 3

7 7

8 7

The p r o p o r t i o n of h o t m e t a l c a s t s w i t h s i l i c o n c o n t e n t s e q u a l t o 0.7-1.0 p e r c e n t ( s p e c i f i e d 0.8-0.9) had a l s o i n c r e a s e d by t h e end of t h e t e s t s ( F i g u r e 3 ) . S i l i c o n c o n t e n t v a r i a n c e d u r i n g t h e i n d i c a t e d p e r i o d s ranged r e s p e c t i v e l y a s f o l l o w s : Period No. Average silicon content, percent Roo t-means q u a r e deviation, percent

0.93

0.89

0.91

0.86

0.92

0.87

0.88

0.93

0.92

0.23

0.19

0.18

0.20

0.22

0.15

0.19

0.16

0.14

This p r o v i d e s t h e r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t a more c l o s e f o l l o w i n g of t h e recommendations favoured t h e s t a b i l i t y of f u r n a c e h e a t i n g . Over t h e whole t e s t i n g p e r i o d , t h e i n d i c e s Mb and Mg took account of t h e f u r n a c e h e a t i n g a d e q u a t e l y enough. The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n normalized f u n c t i o n s between t h e s e i n d i c e s and s i l i c o n c o n t e n t , computed f o r t h e t e s t i n g p e r i o d , d i s p l a y e d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of p o s i t i v e and r e l i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Tabulated i n Table 1 , t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s be tween Mb and s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n most of t h e c a s e s had maximum v a l u e s i n t h e absence of a s h i f t bet.ween t h e moments of computation of b o t h parameters. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h e maximum c o r r e l a t i o n between Mb and s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n t h e f o r e c a s t i n g r a n g e , o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e t e s t s i n 1968, i s l i k e l y t o be connected w i t h changing of t h e dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e p r o c e s s and c a l l s f o r f u r t h e r study. The Mg-index h a s been b e s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n i r o n i n t h e absence of a s h i f t between b o t h parameters w i t h time, i . e . , i t d e s c r i b e d f u r n a c e h e a t i n g a t t h e moment of time under review and could have been used t o c o n t r o l t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s by m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t and temperature of t h e a i r b l a s t . b The M - i n d e x f o r e c a s t e d t h e change of s i l i c o n c o n t e n t f o r two hours ahead and t e s t s proved t h a t t h i s favoured t h e timely producing of recommendations d i r e c t e d t o changing coke r a t e . When t e s t i n g t h e a l g o r i t h m i n 1969 (from January 28th up t o February 6 t h ) , t h e planned r e s e a r c h program ( t h e computer recommendations b e i n g i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o i t s f u l f i l l m e n t ) f a i l e d due t o u n s t a b l e o p e r a t i o n of t h e computer. To compute t h e Mb-index, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o accumulate t h e d a t a f o r f o u r h o u r s . This i s t h e r e a s o n why, i n c a s e of t h e f u r n a c e s t o p p a g e , t h e recommendations were produced by t h e computer only f o u r hours a f t e r t h e f u r n a c e s t a r t i n g .

A s a r e s u l t of t h e t e s t s i n 1969, t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e working d a t a had been ,b accumulated f o r t h a t period of time. A f t e r t h e t e s t s were o v e r , t h e i n d i c e s ~ g M and t h e i r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s w i t h s i l i c o n c o n t e n t were computed from t h i s

d a t a ( F i g u r e 4b). During t h e t e s t s i n 1968, t h e Mg-index had n o t been demonstrated t o have a r e l i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i l i c o n c o n t e n t , ( F i g u r e 4 a ) . The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s probably a r e t h e r e a s o n s ; bad work of g a s a n a l y z e r s ; v a r i a b l e o x i d a t i o n of t h e m e t a l l i c burden r e s u l t e d from t h e v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n of p e l l e t s i n t h e f u r n a c e c h a r g e (from 1.0 t o 2.5 t o n s per c h a r g e ) ; and a l s o f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e combined b l a s t composition. There h a s been found a p o s i t i v e and c l o s e t o s u b s t a n t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between M b and s i l i c o n c o n t e n t ( r a t i o r/ar = 2.4) f o r a f o r e c a s t i n g time e q u a l t o f o u r hours. During t h e t e s t s i n 1969, t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e working was smooth and i t s t h e r m a l conditions fluctuated considerably less. For t h e t e s t s conducted i n 1968 and 1969, t h e r a n g e s of s i l i c o n c o n t e n t v a r i a t i o n amounted t o 0.5- 1.65 and 0.25-0.85 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , and t h o s e of Mb were w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of 7400-9600 and 8400-9800 ~ c a l / n mof ~ 02(in burden), r e s p e c t i v e l y . The narrowing o f t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s has been by f a r a n i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n why t h e c l o s e n e s s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Mb and M g i n d i c e s , on t h e one hand, and. s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n i r o n , on t h e o t h e r , d e c r e a s e d . .
'

Conc l u s i o n W e came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , depending upon s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n o f t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e working and accuracy of s e n s i n g u n i t s ( o r t r a n s m i t t e r s ) , t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r s i o n s of t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e process thermal c o n d i t i o n s c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t i o n a r e practicable:

1. by t o p g a s composition o n l y , i . e . , known way) ;


2.

by o u t l e t parameters ( t h e most world-wide

by tonnage and composition of c h a r g e burden m a t e r i a l s o n l y ;

3. a combined c o n t r o l method, when t o p g a s a n a l y s i s a s w e l l a s burden m a t e r i a l s d a t a a r e put t o use. T h e o r e t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , any of t h e l i s t e d v e r s i o n s must produce t h e same r e s u l t s , because t h e p h y s i c a l s e n s e of t h e c a l c u l a t e d index of t h e f u r n a c e thermal c o n d i t i o n s remains i n v a r i a b l e ; b u t i n r e a l c o n d i t i o n s of t h e f u r n a c e working, t h e s e v e r s i o n s of c a l c u l a t i o n b r i n g about d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s o n account of d i s s i m i l a r e r r o r of i n i t i a l d a t a . The d i s c r e p a n c y may become a s b i g a s 8-10 p e r c e n t . Here i s a n example. While c o n d u c t i n g t e s t s a t one of t h e s t e e l p l a n t s (USSR) where a combined scheme of c a l c u l a t i o n had been a d o p t e d , t h e magnitude of Mb-index, e s t i m a t e d from d a t a on q u a n t i t y and composition of burden m a t e r i a l s , was found t o be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n e x c e s s of t h e same f o r Mg-index by 800-900 K c a l , i . e . , 9 p e r c e n t of t h e a b s o l u t e I n a d d i t i o n , a phase s h i f t of 2-3 hours between f l u c t u a t i o n s v a l u e of t h e Mb-index. of t h e Mg and Mb-index was observed a t t h e same time. The l a t t e r f a c t suggested t h a t t h e Mb-index (which p r o v i d e s longer f o r e c a s t i n g time) should be used t o c o n t r o l o r e l o a d , w h i l e t h e Mg-index should be used t o c o n t r o l h e a t c o n t e n t of a i r b l a s t . Such d i s t r i b u t i o n of f u n c t i o n s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a subs t a n t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l a g a s f a r a s o r e load i s concerned and complete absence of t h a t f o r h e a t c o n t e n t of b l a s t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e e x i s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t y of s e l e c t i n g one o u t of t h e t h r e e c a l c u l a t i o n v e r s i o n s widens t h e scope of a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i b e d a l g o r i t h m f o r t h o s e b l a s t f u r n a c e s which have n o t been equipped w i t h i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r c o n t i n u o u s t o p gas a n a l y s i s . I n such a c a s e , r o u t i n e t o p g a s a n a l y s i s w i l l be of u s e t o check t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s of d a t a on composition and q u a n i t i t y
~

of charged burden m a t e r i a l s . The f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper o f f e r t h e b a s i s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e suggested method and a l g o r i t h m f o r thermal c o n t r o l w i l l f i n d a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e p r a c t i c e of b l a s t furnace process c o n t r o l . L i t e r a t u r e References

1.
2.

A. N. Pokhvisnev, C o n t r o l of BF P r o c e s s by Means of Measuring t h e Composition o f Top Gas; Theory and P r a c t i c e of M e t a l l u r g y , 1939, /I8 A. N. Pokhvisnev, L. Y. Rozhewski and N. K. Z h i l k i n , On t h e Problem of Automation of t h e BF P r o c e s s S t a l , 1963, No. 10, pp. 875-878
A. N. Pokhvisnev, Rapid Heat Balance o f t h e BF P r o c e s s Symposium on "Problems of F e r r o u s M e t a l l u r g y " , Vol. X X I I I , M e t a l l u r g i z d a t , 1946, pp. 23-33

3.
4.

A. N. Pokhvisnev, I. F. Kurunov, Y. S. Y u s f i n , L. Y. Rozhewski, Y. Mirny, "On t h e Problem of C a l c u l a t i o n of t h e Thermal C o n d i t i o n of a B Furnace", I z v e s t i g a Vysshykh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy, Chernaya M e t a l l u r g i y a , 1966, //7, pp. 25-29, / I l l , pp. 20121
A . N. Pokhvisnev, I. F. Kurunov, V. M. Klempert, S. T. P l i s k a n o v s k i , G. T. Kaminski, I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e Algorithm f o r C o n t r o l l i n g t h e Thermal C o n d i t i o n of a B l a s t Furnace, S t a l , 1971, //I, pp. 9-12

5.

0.4 0.2 0.0

6\" I .-

$
6 7 8 9 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 2

:::F,OJ>G
.6 4 1121201 4 ( 1 2 1 2 0 1 4 1 1 2 1 2 0 1 4 112120( 8 1 6 24 8 1 6 29 8

1-3-66

1-4-66
CONSECUTIVE CASTS

1-27-68

1-28-68

1-29-68 l6

F i g . 1. Varying of in index and s i l i c o n content i n i r o n during c a s t s a t b l a s t f u r n a c e s w i t h 2000 m 3 e f f e c t i v e volume. Tcherepovets S t e e l P l a n t , January 3-5, 1966.

1-30-68 l6

"

2T

F i g . 2. Comparison o f t h e recommended and a c t u a l coke r a t e ( t o n s oer charge) and h o t b l a s t moisture with s i l i c o n content i n i r o n d u r i n g t e s t s i n January 1968.

Si-% OPERATING PERIODS

F i g . 3 . C h a r t o f s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n i r o n d u r i n g c a s t s f o r 1-9 p e r i o d s i n JanuaryTebruary 1968.

F i g . 4 A . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s between M~ and Mg i n d i c e s and s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n i r o n i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t e s t s between January-February 1968.

-0.3

-16

-12

-8

-4

+4

+8

+I2

+I6

HOURS

F i g . 4B. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s between M~ and ~g i n d i c e s and s i l i c o n c o n t e n t i n i r o n i n t h e p r o c e s s of t e s t s i n January-February 1969.

DISCUSSION

A. K. Garbee

Senior Research Engineer, Raw M a t e r i a l s & Smelting Section, Research & Technology Armco S t e e l Corporation, Middletown, Ohio The c o n t r i b u t i o n of P k . Pokhvisnev and h i s colleagues t o t h e 1972 Ironurnking Conference i s appreciated. Vx. Pokhvisnev, i n p a r t i c u l a r , h a s long been involved with t h e thermochemistry of b l a s t f u r n a c e processes. The work done over t h e y e a r s a t t h e Moscow I n s t i t u t e of S t e e l and Alloys in applying thermochemical concepts t o t h e b l a s t furnace o p e r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t . The Ore Working Department i s t o be commended f o r t h a t e f f o r t . The e v o l u t i o n of b l a s t furnace c o n t r o l schemes, in g e n e r a l , has been a g r a d u a l one. The implementation of t h e s e c o n t r o l techniques h a s been a f a r slower process. This slow r a t e may be changing. As t h e a u t h o r s noted, t h e b l a s t furnace o p e r a t o r h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e t t i q mximum h o t metal production a t ninimum c o s t . The r a p i d l y e s c a l a t i n g c o s t of raw m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y coke, make m a x h i u m e f f i c i e n c y a t t h e b l a s t furnace e s s e n t i a l t o a s u c c e s s f u l s t e e l p l a n t . Implementation of a c o n t r o l algorithm designed t o f u l f i l l t h e c o n t r o l o r o p e r a t o r guide and d a t a logging f u n c t i o n s should be a s t r a t e g i c p a r t of any plan t o improve t h e e f f i c i e n c y of a b l a s t furnace operation. I n t h e preceding pa.per, t h e a u t h o r s have l i s t e d t h r e e conceptual approaches t o t h e c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t i o n of t h e t h e m 1 conditions in t h e b l a s t furnace. The c o n t r o l algorithm can be based on 1 ) t o p gas a n a l y s i s ,
2 ) q u a n t i t y and c h a r a c t e r of charge m a t e r i a l s , o r

3) t o p gas a n a l y s i s and cha,rge m a t e r i a l s d a t a combined.


Any one of t h e t h r e e might be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a given furnace operation. Experience with t h e c i t e d h s s i a n furnace i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e burden based index ( K ~ ) should be used t o c o n t r o l t h e o r e load, with t h e to^ g a s based index (#) reserved f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e hot b l a s t . There i s l i t t l e t o d i s a g r e e with i n t h e development of t h e various c o n t r o l i n d i c e s . The same s u b j e c t i s discussed by Pokhvisnev e t a l . i n t h e January 1971 i s s u e of " S t e e l i n t h e USSR. I'

The burden based index i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , because t h e working condition o f a b l a s t f u r n a c e i s l a r g e l y dependent on charge make-up. However, t h i s algorithm i s dealing with a complex system. Several questions a r i s e regarding t h e hardware required t o put t h e algorithm i n t o p r a c t i c e .
I

With what accuracy a r e charge weights known?


How a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of burden m a t e r i a l s obtained? What i s t h e t a r g e t coke moisture, and what i s t h e quenching p r a c t i c e recommended f o r achieving t h a t n o i s t u r e in a uniform manner? Can a s p e c i f i c coke savings be a s c r i b e d t o t h e use of t h e c o n t r o l technique?

It would be h e l p f u l t o have answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e near f u t u r e i n o r d e r t o properly i d e n t i f y t h e p r a c t i c a l v e r s a t i l i t y of t h e b l a s t furnace c o n t r o l algorithms and t o show how r e a d i l y t h e s e concepts can be reduced t o p r a c t i c e .

D i s c u s s i o n of : last F u r n a c e P r o c e s s A u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l " b y A . N . P o k h v i s n e v e t a1

D . H . Wakelin J o n e s & L a u g h l i n S t e e l Corpora.tion P i t t s b u r g h , Pa. 15230

Discussion T h i s p a p e r b r i n g s u s u p t o - d a t e w i t h p r o g r e s s on a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l of t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e p r o c e s s i n t h e S o v i e t Union. P r o f e s s o r P o k h v i s n e v was o n e of t h e f i r s t proponents of t h e u s e of t o p g a s a n a l y s i s t o q u a n t i f y t h e t r a n s i e n t t h e r m a l s t a t e of t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e and i s a t r u e e x p e r t i n t h i s f i e l d . To r e a d t h e p a p e r i s somewhat l i k e l o o k i n g i n a m i r r o r f o r t h o s e of u s i n t h e U. S. who h a v e a t t e m p t e d c o n t r o l b a s e d on t o p g a s a n a l y s i s . First there i s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e t o p g a s s y s t e m a v a i l a b i l i t y and a c c u r a c y , t h e n t h e s h o r t d a t a p e r i o d s w i t h n o t always c o n c l u s i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between c a l c u l a t e d thermal l e v e l s and h o t m e t a l c h e m s t r y and f i n a l l y t h e r e a l s t u m b l i n g b l o c k - smooth, continuous furnace operation. F o r t h o s e who d o n o t have s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n t i n u o u s g a s a n a l y s i s , P r o f e s s o r P o k h v i s n e v h a s d e r i v e d e q u a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and q u a n t i t i e s of t h e m a t e r i a l s c h a r g e d , t h e b l a s t and i n j e c t e d a d d i t i v e s t h a t a r e u s e d . T h i s s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h e s a m p l i n g and a n a l y s i s p r o b l e m s of t o p g a s s y s t e m s t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h raw m a t e r i a l s , w h i c h may b e m n o r i f a c o n s i s t e n t b u r d e n i s available.

I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e a u t h o r s d o n o t have more e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a . The manner i n w h i c h t h e r e s u l t s from t h e o n - l i n e t e s t i n 1 9 6 8 a r e p r e s e n t e d i s r a t h e r c o n f u s i n g . Twelve d a y s of t r i a l h a v e b e e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o n i n e o v e r l a p p i n g p e r i o d s of f o u r d a y s e a c h , and f o u r t e e n a c t u a l e x e c u t e d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made t o a p p e a r a s i f f o r t y - t w o o f t h e f i f t y c o m p u t e r s u g g e s t i o n s were followed.
The s h o r t p e r i o d s u s e d f o r d e v e l o p j n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s between Mg, M~ and p i g - i r o n s i l i c o n c o n t e n t h a v e u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s i 7 e o f t h e f o r e c a s t t i m e s b e t w e e n them. C o n t r a r y t o t h e r e s u l t s shown i t would seem more l o g i c a l f o r t h e h e a t i n d e x M g c a l c u l a t e d from t o p g a s a n a l y s i s t o have a t l e a s t a s g r e a t a f o r e c a s t t i m e v e r s u s s i l i c o n c o n t e n t a s t h e h e a t i n p u t j.ndex M~ d o e s . The c a l c u l a t i o n of M~ u s e s mean i n p u t v a r i a b l e s a v e r a g e d from t h e t i m e of c h a r g i n g t o a r r i v a l o f m a t e r i a l a t t h e bottorn of t h e f u r n a c e , w h e r e a s ~9 t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t r a n s i e n t c h a n g e s o c c u r r i n g i n . m a t e r i a l y e t t o a r r i v e a t t h e hearth.

I F i n a l l y t h e r e i s t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e smooth f u r n a c e o p e r a t i o n . I n t h i s d i s c u s s o r ' s mind i t i s v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t i n p r o j e c t s of t h i s n a t u r e t h e e f f o r t s expended i n u p g r a d i n g raw m a t e r i a l s , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and f u r n a c e a v a i l a b i l i t y i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y s t a b l e o p e r a t i on, produce b e n e f i t s beyond which t h e c l o s e d l o o p computer c o n t r o l can show o n l y m a r g i n a l improvement.