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I.

PROBLEM

A.INTRODUCTION Vigans inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List is due to the preservation of around 187 residential, institutional, commercial and religious structures that transport visitors to the past. Whats amazing about these structures is that they continue to be used by current locals as they were used by former owners who lived in the 18th century. Their structural endurance and relevance to every-day use until this modern day is testament to the genius and high-level of craftsmanship in the creation of these architectural treasures. Vigan houses before the colonization of Spain were made from light-weight materials such as bamboo, nipa and cogon. These were called bahay-kubo and are airy and easy to clean, but were of no match to the typhoons that visit the land during the wet season, or even the occasional fires. When the Spaniards came together with their Mexican subjects, the locals learned from them how to quarry, prepare the stones and make bricks. They also learned how to make these into fire-resistant building materials by applying lime mortar. Though the structures they constructed using these materials fared better in withstanding typhoons and fires, the structures were still easy casualties of earthquakes. Even though there were some houses whose first and second floors are built in pure masonry that survived the elements, Biguenos still endeavored to find better ways of building. What they did was to mix their indigenous construction methods with that of the Europeans. They retained the bahay-kubos interlocking wooden post and beam system. The mortared bricks and stones were used for the walls of the first floor, while the second floors were made largely of timber. This kind of construction proved to weather earthquakes and storms better and can be seen in the preserved houses of Vigan. Vigan houses are also noteworthy because they are a bit bigger than the usual Asian houses. This is because they not only serve as residences but as shops and storage as well, like those in other trading centers. These storage and shop areas are in the ground floor together with the carriage area. A big staircase leads to the living areas in the upper floors consisting of living room, dining area and kitchen, bedrooms and a toilet. Light and air flow freely. There is usually an open terrace connected to the dining area or kitchen. Large windows made of wood and capiz shells surround the house with balustered sliding panels in the lower part that allows one to view the streets while sitting on the floor. Roofs and eaves are extended to ward off harsh sunlight and rain. The Biguenos also made use of terracotta and decorative friezes and partitions to show their artistry and add beauty to each function of the houses architectural detail. This mixing of technology of the east and west, function and beauty, has given Vigan houses its unique style of architecture.

B.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM PRESERVATION AND PROPER MANAGEMENT OF VIGAN HOUSES C.SCOPE & DELIMITATION This study delimits only to the PRESERVATION AND PROPER MANAGEMENT OF VIGAN HOUSES focusing on the fact discussions, concepts, principles, ideas, statements, explanations and informations regarding about th e topic stated. And thus preventing to jump into boundaries to the subject.

D. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

As the fastest growing and one of the most profitable industries in the world today, tourism opens wide the door of countless opportunities for local development of communities living in and near the heritage sites in Asia and the Pacific, in general, and Vigan in the Philippines, in particular. Albeit the decline of some traditional industries in some places, tourism is there to counterbalance development by providing productive alternatives. A tourism plan that is properly implemented can provide employment opportunities to the outof-school youth and the unemployed adults, thus alleviating poverty in the locality. Thus, this research draws its significance from critically evaluating, among others, the strategy of the municipality of Vigan to manage tourism development, and proposing some doable measures to enhance its effectiveness. It has to be emphasized that there is no more opportune time to undertake this study than this moment when historic Vigan had just been inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Everybody in the place without exception - local officials, stakeholders and other residents - must unify its act towards effecting a well-maintained tourism development.

II. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION A.SUMMARY ARQUITECTURA MESTIZA Between 17th and 19th c. - new form of construction that responded both to earthquakes and tropical climate (heat and heavy rainfall) also applied to other type of buildings: - Weight of roof was carried by stout post and not by walls - Lower wall of stone and mortar function as mere curtain over the 2nd storey timber structure - Upper storey became more transparent and with fenestration like ventanilla (sliding window) built at floor level.

2. Synthesis which combined stone with wood 17th c. houses are two storeys: - ground floor with very thick walls - upper storey made of wood with overhanging balconies with windows made of capiz Between 1780-1880 geometric style became widespread. Overhanging balcony (volada) was extended around the whole of the faade, accentuating the horizontality of the buildings. European influences - Architectural style combines elements of Asiatic and Hispanic traditions decorative elements - Use of Corinthian capitals classical refinements - Renaissance- Baroque and Rococo design for church faade - Importation of house parts and furniture: - Stamp metal ceilings and cast iron columns from England - Fireplaces of cast iron

Plan- Layout Ground Floor Plan: Zaguan carriages and saints floats (andas) are kept. Bodega a storage room for keeping old furniture and palay bins. Aljibe water cistern found underneath the azotea. Cuadra the horse stable Entresuelo -mezzanine elevated at about a meter from the ground and found underneath the master bedroom. Patio an enclosed courtyard open to the sky and adjacent to the zaguan.

3. Second floor: Caida the most immediate room from the stairs used for entertaining friends Sala the living room where balls & dances are held during special occasions Cuarto, Alcoba, Dormitorio bedroom Volada, Balcon overhanging balcony Comedor dining room Cocina the kitchen sometime built separately Dispensa adjacent room to the kitchen for food storage Comun or latrina toilet that is adjacent to the service area Bao or paliguan bathroom built separately Azotea open terrace Aljibe water cistern found underneath the azotea

4 PROTECTIVE ELEMENTS: Hipped roof pitched steeply from 30o to 60o with ceiling height from 3.00 4.50 m. Clay tile and nipa but later revised by GI sheets Overhang eaves surround the house Roof vent are provided for air ventilation Clay tile and nipa but later revised by GI sheets

5 STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS: Molave and Ipil - posts, floors, beams and roof rafters Yakal - floor joists Narra floor boards Stone walls are approximately 2.40 3.00 m. thk. using varied stones adoble, marble, volcanic tuff, granite slabs, bricks.

Mortar is made of 1 part lime (oyster shell) 2 parts sand and water. Included are sugar canes molasses and egg whites Walls are plastered Interior walls wood

CIRCULATORY ELEMENTS: Approach to 2nd floor is through a grand stairway of 2.00 m. wide. First 3 is made of marble 6 And rest of wood with handrails of carved wooden balusters (barandillas) Window 1.80 m. high x 5.40 m. wide of sliding panels with capiz shells or wooden jalousies (persianas) Smaller ventanillas are placed below the large window sill and often with grilles. For additional protection window awnings (tapancos or media aguas) were placed over the window openings. Tracery (calado) - Continuous air circulation in the interior found in the upper wall above the window. Main door at the ground floor is usually carved and provides relief to the thk masonry wall. DECORATIVE ELEMENTS: Decoration comes in various forms from ceiling to furnishings found in each room Ceilings are usually decorated with paintings on the wooden boards or canvases or with metal sheet ceiling panels. Moldings are occasionally used on walls and ceilings. European influenced furnitures, draperies , carpets , paintings, jars, are found in the sala. Biombos or free-standing partitions were used to separate areas.

B.CONCLUSION Vigan is currently protected by the following legal instruments at national level: Presidential Decree No 374, 1974 "Amending certain sections of ... the Cultural Properties Preservation and Protection Act; Presidential Decree No 756, 1975 "Amending Presidential Decree No 260 to include the Mestizo Section, the houses of Padre Jos Burgos and Leona Florentino in its scope"; Presidential Decree No 1505, 1978 "Amending Presidential Decree No 260, as amended, by prohibiting the unauthorized modification, alteration, repair, and destruction of original features of all national shrines, monuments, landmarks, and other important edifices"; Executive Order No 358, 1996 "Creating a Presidential Commission for the Restoration, Conservation and Preservation of Vigan Heritage Village." A new "Act providing for the Protection and Preservation of Philippine Cultural Heritage ..." is shortly to come into effect. At local level, the Ordinance No 05 "Providing for the preservation and protection of ancestral houses and other properties in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, particularly in the Mestizo Section" was promulgated in 1990 by the Municipality of Vigan. Following the 2nd International Conference on Vigan in March 1997, the following Municipal Ordinances were approved by the Sangguniang Bayan (Municipal Council):

Ordinance No 12 "Defining the Core and Buffer Zones of the Historic Town of Vigan and the historical, educational, aesthetic, and economic parameters of its preservation and development"; Ordinance No 14 "Providing the guidelines for the conservation of the Historic Town of Vigan." The Council is still considering the proposed Ordinance so therefore I conclude that proper and careful management of this Vigan houses should be a must so that this Spanish structures should stand more through the decades or even centuries.

C. RECOMMENDATION

Vigan is unique among the towns of the Philippines by virtue of the fact that it is the only one to preserve much of its Spanish colonial character intact. It is also significant because of the way in which distinct architectural traditions - European, Ilocano, Filipino, and Chinese - have fused to create a homogeneous townscape of great cultural importance. So therefore I recommend that taking part as a resident of the city in participating in the conservation, preservation and protection of this structures that giving us honor should be a must so that throughout the years, they will still be standing up straight till the future of new generation and millennium to be able to show to them and making them feel how their great ancestors mold and build this structures through their blood and sweats, and for w/out this and without them, there will be no modern buildings.