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The system are designed stop the aircraft motion on the ground.It is also an aid in controlling the direction of aircraft while it is taxiing. How To Operate? 1. Brakes can be applied by using the toe pedal attached to the rudder pedals 2. By a handbrake lever basically for the purpose of parking. Sub-System
Brake actuating Unit - A system and a components that slows down the aircraft movement and is located at the wheel and converts or changing kinetic energy from the motion of an aircraft into heat energy by means of friction.
Brake Actuating System – A hydraulic components in the aircraft that allows the pilot to control the amount of friction of a wheel unit produce.
Brake actuating Unit
NON - ENERGIZING BRAKES
DRUM TYPE BRAKE
SINGLE DISK BRAKE DUAL DISK BRAKE:
EXPANDER TUBE BRAKE:
BRAKE ACTUATING UNIT. 1
MULTIPLE DISC BRAKE
In dual servo brake the action is effective or energize may be adjusted to give servo action in either direction which is either forward or backward direction of the wheel.ENERGIZING BRAKES: It is a common type of brake used on modern aircraft.The braking action depends upon the amount of pressure applied. TYPES OF NON . which is the friction produce. 5. In single servo brake. Drum Type Brake Drum Type Brake Operation 1. One of the disadvantage is brake fading. the retracting spring pulls the lining back from the drum and releases the brakes. 4.. 3.This type of brake is actuated by hydraulic pressure. the action is effective or energize only when moving in the forward direction of the wheel only. When the brakes are applied. TYPES OF ENERGIZING BRAKES. A brake that uses the momentum of the aircraft to increase its effectiveness by wedging the shoe against the brake drum. two piston in the brakes cylinder will move out and push the lining against a cylindrical cast iron drum that rotates together with the wheel. Single Disk Brake: 2 . 2. Friction attempts to rotate the lining but they are held in place by the cylinder assembly. 2. 3.ENERGIZING BRAKES.ENERGIZING BRAKES/SERVO BRAKES 1. heats up the drum and causes the open end of the lining to expand in a bell – mouthed fashion. When hydraulic pressure is release. Rotation of the brake drum wedges the lining tightly against the assembly. NON .
Friction is produce when the rotating disk is squeezed between two brake lining in the caliper. 3 .It is stretched over a circular brake frame between the side flanges. Types of single disk brake Floating disk/Fixed caliper – the disc is keyed into the wheel and the disc is free to move in and out as the brake is being applied.There is a center carrier with brake lining pucks on both sides between these disc. Dual Disk Brake: Two disc is rotating with the wheel rather than only one disc.This type of brake is actuated by the hydraulic pressure from the master brake cylinder. Fixed disk/Floating caliper – the disc is rigidly attached to the wheel and the caliper is free to moves in and out on two anchor bolts. Expander Tube Brake: Use a heavy and flat tube made out of synthetic rubber compound.
‘Thin Disc’ Multiple disc brake Provide maximum friction for minimum size and weight and does not fade when the brake gets hot. The disc brake are approximately 1/8 of an inch thick and get very hot when the brake is being used 4 .A rotor or rotating disc that is made out of copper orbronze rotates between each other. Disadvantages if this type of brake is the tendency of the disc to warp up and causing the brake to drag and need manual adjustment as the disc wore.Has a nozzle that is connected with the hydraulic fluid line by means of suitable fittings. Used on small airplane as Piper Cub to Boeing B-29 Super Fortress bomber. Multiple Disc Brake: 1. The brake has a series of steel disc called stator that keyed to the axle.
such as during a rejected take-off or prolonged periods of taxying. ‘Carbon Disc’ Multiple Disc Brake. 5 . can lead to overheating and combustion and. once ignited. rise during use. Segmented Rotor’ Multiple Disc Brake. result in rupture of a wheel assembly. an overheated wheel should never be approached in line with the axle. It should be applied by an operator standing in line with the tyre’s rolling path and at a safe distance. In some cases however. is how to cool the wheel without inducing uneven contraction of the metal. 3. One of the main problems associated with overheated brakes or brake fires. until such time as the wheel and brake are completely cooled. due perhaps to combustion of grease on the wheel. The latest development in aircraft brakes are multiple disc brake that are made out of carbon composite materials. 4. The extinguishant should be applied as lightly as possible from a distance of at least 6 metres (20 feet) to reduce the likelihood of uneven cooling and the area should be kept clear after the fire has gone out. Serious and sometimes fatal. to check the progress of the fire before attempting to put it out. burn fiercely and are difficult to extinguish. 2. A short period should be allowed. therefore. There is a limit to the amount of heat which can be absorbed and dissipated by a brake and wheel unit and excessive use of the brakes. would probably cause less damage in burning itself out than might be caused by attempting to extinguish it. immediate action will be necessary. 5. 3. If a wheel fire has to be extinguished and no dry chemical is available. Able to function in even higher temperature with more reliability than the conventional steel segmented OVERHEATED BRAKES 1. some aircraft wheels are made from magnesium alloys which.2. Braking action results from several sets of stationary high-friction type of brake lining making contact with rotating segments.The carbon composite brake weight 40% less. in extreme cases. accidents have been known to occur as the result of the application of an incorrect extinguishant to a brake fire. This could cause fracture of the wheel and explosive release of the air in the tyre. Is a heavy duty brakes designed for the use with high pressure hydraulic system using power brake control valves or power boost mater cylinder. The action of braking converts kinetic energy into heat and the temperature of brake units will. therefore. such as when the fire is fed by leaking hydraulic fluid. A small fire. CO2 or foam may be used but extreme caution is necessary. Tests have shown that the safest extinguishant to use is a dry chemical agent and this must be used whenever possible.
to avoid contaminating the brake pads. Ensure that the brake fluid reservoir is topped up. 7. BLEEDING AND TESTING After installing the braking system and whenever faulty system operation is suspected.BRAKE BLEEDING. then release the brake 6. and ensure that the wheel rotates freely. 4. Undo the bleed screw in the brake unit and position a container to catch draining fluid. 2. 2. After the bleeding operation is completed. 3. with no apparent pedal movement.topping up the reservoir as necessary. 8. checks the reservoir for fluid level. Apply the footbrake and ensure that the brake is operating. 6 . Maintain an adequate supply of fluid during the entire operation. Pressure methods. It is usually advisable to fit a tube between the bleed screw and container. Hold the footbrake fully on for 30 seconds and check for hydraulic leaks. BLEEDING PRECAUTIONS: Be certain that bleeding equipment to be used is absolutely clean and is filled with the proper and correct type of hydraulic fluid. The brake should still be applied. at the end of this time. the aircraft should be jacked up and the following procedure carried out. Gravity or Manuals methods. 5. then tighten the bleed screw. Brake bleeding methods: 1. With the brake pressure ‘ON’. A low fluid supply will allow air to be drawn into the system. 1. subject to specific instructions contained in the approved Maintenance Manual. check the entire system for any leaks signs. Bleeding should be continue until no more air bubbles are expelled from the system and firm brake pedal is obtained.Repeat e) using the handbrake or parking brake as appropriate. Pump the brake pedal slowly until bubble-free fluid issues from the bleed screw.
the fluid leaks past the piston and the brake slowly released Brake Dragging-Brake that does not fully released when the brake pedal is released. As the drum is heated.it expends in a bell mouthed fashion. CAAIP 7 .this slick surface does not produce uniform friction and will cause the brake to chatter or squelling Brake Fading-The decrease in the amount of braking action that occurs with some type of brakes that are applied for a long period of time.Air in the system also could contribute to dragging brake Spongy Brake-Because of the air presence in the system or deteriorated flexible system hose Brake Grabbing-Caused by oil or some form of foreign matter on the disc and lining.The brakes are partially applied all the time which cause the lining wear rapidly and heat produced. lack of fluid in the brake system or improperly adjusted mechanical linkages REFERENCES 1.The brakes are applied but as the pedal is held down on a pressure.True fading occurs with overheated drum types brake.This will decrease the amount of the drum in contact with the brake shoes and decreases the braking action Brake Creeping-A condition that are similar to brake fading where an internal leaks in the brake master cylinder.BRAKE DEFECTS Glazed-Glass like surface form on the rotating disc when localized overheating occurs.In addition worn disc and drum can cause grabbing Excessive Brake Pedal travel-Caused by worn brakes.
Landing Gear Note 4. CAIP Part II 3.wikipedia.2. www.com 8 .
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