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map. Proof:

⇐ Let H = { x+iy: y>0} in C. Axiom: The metric of upper space model of a 2 +dy 2 hyperbolic plane is represented as dx y , also called the Poincar´ e half plane 2 1 t1 T , α´ )) 2 dt model. Proof : Consider α = [0, t] , t∈[t0 , t1 ] Arc length = t0 (g(α´ t t1 t1 e arc length # = t01 1 t dt = ln(t)t0 = ln t0 which is the Poincar´ This gives a two-dimensional perspective of a hyperbolic geometry. The straight lines, or geodesic, in the hyperbolic plane are circular arcs perpendicular to the x-axis. Therefore, a geodesic includes two points on a curved surface. This model is comformal. Let us consider the isometries from H to itself. +b If a, b, c, d ∈ R and ad-bc > 0, then the M¨ obius map z→w= az cz +d =f(z). Becomes restrict to a bijection from H to H with a uniform inverse, i,e; w→z= dw−b −1 (w), and we see that the inverse of any M¨ obius map is again a M¨ obius −cw+a =f map.

(ad−bc) +b We are going to take the derivative of w= az cz +d ⇒ dw= (cz +d)2 dz and substitute |dw| 4|dw| 4|dz | dx +dy +dv = |4 . This implies this into du v 2 w −w ¯ |2 . Therefore, |w−w ¯ |2 = |z −z ¯|2 = y2 that an isometry from H to H is a M¨ obius map. The M¨ obius maps z→-¯ z , and thus the composition is also an isometry from H

cz +a to H. i,e; (f◦f −1 (w))(z)= c( − =z =I(z)= (f−1 ◦ f) dz −b )+d −cz +a 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

a(

dz −b

)+b

The isometries f:D→ D of the unit disc model of hyperbolic plane are also M¨ obius transformation, since they preserve orientation, or as shown above with z →z ¯ if they reverse orientation. There is another M¨ obius transformation that −a map D onto itself of the form z → w= eiθ ( 1z− ) where a∈D and θ∈ . These are a ¯z

−|a| ) 2 −2 isometries since when substituting w and dw = eiθ (1 (1−a ¯z )2 dz in 4(1 - |w| ) provides 4(1-|z|2 )−2 |dz|2 . The group of isometries of H acts transitively on H because if a+ib∈H ⇒ b>0 i.e; the transformation z→bz+a is an isometry of H which takes i to a+ib. Likewise, the group of isometries of D acts transitively on D, since if a is in D then −a the isometry z→ 1z− a ¯z maps a to zero. The subgroup of isometries of D consisting of those isometries which ﬁx zero contains all the rotations z→eiθ z about zero as well as z→z ¯.

2

⇒ −i Now, the isometry from H to D given by w→z = w w+i takes geodesics to geodesics and it is the restriction to H of a M¨ obius transformation C∞ →C∞ and it takes

1

it takes geodesics through 0. It preserve distance since it takes a point on a geodesic a distance r from the origin to other point of same distance and each rotation is a M¨ obius isometry. Let the M¨ obius isometry G take F(0) to 0.circles and lines to circles and lines. the geodesics in D are the circles and lines in D that meet the unit circle 90 degree angles. Therefore. Since this is an isometry ﬁxing 0. thus acting on those geodesics by a rotation or reﬂection. Therefore. we are ready to show that every isometry is a M¨ obius transformation as above. In conclusion. # 2 . and thus preserves angles and maps the cartesian axis to the unit circle in C. RGF=1 and F = (RG)−1 is a M¨ obius isometry. It preserves angles. Assume F:D→D is an isometry. ⇒ we need to show that GF is M¨ obius.

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