¯ ¯ The N¯ ılarudropanis . ad and the Paippaladasam .

A Critical Edition with Translation of the Upanis . ad ∗ ¯ and N¯ ar¯ ayan ıpika . a’s D¯ Timothy Lubin

The N¯ ılarudropanis . ad (NU) is a hymn praising Rudra, a divinity associated in the Veda with the thunderstorm and regarded as both causing and curing illness. He is a figure of awe who receives apotropaic and propitiatory offerings in the Vedic cult.1 His eventual rise to a position of greater importance begins with his being identified with the fire altar in the Agnicayana ritual, a doctrine ´ developed particularly in the Yajurveda.2 The Satarudriya , a Yajurveda litany to Rudra (MS 2.9.2, KS 17.11, TS 4.5.1, VS 16.1–14), is recited during that rite; the NU constitutes its Atharvan equivalent (and, in its first two khan .d . as, a partial parallel). The hymn consists of twenty-six stanzas culled from the Paippal¯ adasam a . hit¯ (PS), in many manuscripts grouped into three sections (khan .d . as). These extracts include a continuous run of seventeen stanzas, viz., the third and fourth hymns of PS book fourteen, followed by a group of three stanzas from book nineteen, and (as the final khan .d . a) six individual stanzas (including four from the twentieth book). The khan ar¯ ayan .a .d . a divisions are reflected in the commentary of N¯ Bhat .t . a (between ca. 1500 and 1700), who includes the NU as the sixteenth in the 3 collection of fifty-two Upanis . ads of the Atharvaveda. The arrangement of the PS stanzas in the NU khan .d . as is as follows:
Khan .d .a 1 Khan d . .a 2 Khan .d .a 3
∗ The

= = =

PS 14.3.1–9; PS 14.3.10–14.4.7 and 19.22.1–3; PS 8.7.9, 19.5.8, 20.55.10, 20.60.7, 20.62.6, 20.62.7 (the final stanza found only in Orissa manuscripts of the PS).

materials for the edition contained herein were mostly collected during 1998 thanks to funding from the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities, in the form of a senior fellowship of the American Institute of Indian Studies. An initial collation was carried out with summer funds from Washington and Lee University. Other manuscripts were procured during my tenure of a Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad fellowship and an N.E.H. fellowship in 2003–2005, when, as an affiliated researcher of the Institut franc ¸ ais de Pondich´ ery, I completed most of the edition and translation. I gratefully acknowledge the kind cooperation of the several institutions that allowed me to photograph, or provided copies of, the manuscripts used for the edition. I thank Arlo Griffiths for his advice and suggestions at many points, and for providing his provisional edition of all the stanzas from PS 19 and 20 that are cited here. 1 On Rudra in the Veda, see A RBMAN 1922. 2 On this, see O BERLIES 1988. 3 On N¯ ar¯ ayan . a and his date, see G ODE 1938.



NU manuscripts generally number either the khan .d . as only or the individual stanzas (sequentially, without taking account of the khan .d . a divisions). To reflect both systems, the stanza numbers used here include the khan .d . a number followed by the sequential stanza number (1–26), so that khan d a 2 begins with .. stanza 10, and khan .d . a 3 begins with stanza 21. The manuscripts’ divisions of the last four stanzas are spurious (as shall be explained, p. 116) and have been revised to reflect the sense as well as the stanza divisions of the corresponding PS stanzas. For the present purposes, the name NU will be used to designate this particular collection of the stanzas per se, as distinct from their form and distribution in the PS. Name and Subject The name N¯ ılarudra applied to this group of stanzas derives from the repeated use of compounds beginning with the adjective n´ ¯ ıla (‘blue’), two of which are ´ epithets applied to Rudra. Thus the word n¯ ılagr¯ ıva (‘blue-necked’) occurs in the first two stanzas of the first khan d a (1.1 and 1.2), and in the opening stanza .. of both the second and third khan ¯ ıla´ sikhan .d . as (2.10 and 3.21). The epithet n´ .d .a (‘blue-crested’) occurs in the second stanza of the second khan .d . a and all the last four stanzas of the third. The inclusion of 3.22 seems to have been based mainly ´ on the occurrence there of the obscure term n¯ ıl¯ agalasa ¯ l¯ a ‘the one with the bluish ineffectual poison (?)’ (or n¯ ıl¯ akala´ sa ¯ l¯ a [PS]). The compound n¯ ılarudra itself does not occur. The six stanzas of khan .d . a 3 seem to have been added simply because the term n¯ ıla occurs in each of them. The first seventeen stanzas, corresponding to PS 14.3 and 14.4, are the core of the Upanis ılarudra.4 The . ad, and are probably the earliest referent of the title N¯ division between the first two khan .d . as does not correspond to the division between the two Paippal¯ ada hymns, but it is more natural and elegant insofar as NU 1.1a and 2.10a are parallel in structure, differing only in the tense (and person) of the verb: a ´ pa´ syam versus a ´ drs ´an. These verbs evoke a vision of Rudra’s ˚ self-manifestation in the lightning-flash: the first is a personal testimonial of the poet; the second invokes as witnesses all those others who have beheld this epiphany. Together, they capture the moment in which Rudra descends from heaven to stand upon the earth, glowing red, and with a blue neck or crest, attributes that probably allude to the flashing bolt of lightning itself.5 At the same time, Rudra is associated with the mountain, the place on earth nearest to heaven and often indistinguishable from the approaching storm clouds. If the lightning in the sky is Rudra’s form, it is simultaneously his weapon:
sequence is nearly the part shared in common by the NU and a ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’ included in a ritualistic ms. of the Paippal¯ ada school found in Orissa; see below (p. 86). 5 Later accounts in the Mah¯ ´ abh¯ arata and the Pur¯ an blue neck to his having . as attribute Siva’s swallowed the poison produced during the churning of the milk ocean: e.g., MBh 1.18.42; AgniP 3.8cd–9ab.
4 This



the lightning-bolts that strike at man and beast are the arrows that he shoots from his bow. In a tone of awe and reverence, the poet seeks to ward off Rudra’s ´ harmful fury (manyu ´ ) and anger (bha ¯ ma) (1.4), urging him to approach with his ´ bow unstrung, putting away his arrows (2.12–14). This is his ‘benign form’ (s ´iva ¯ ´ tanuh ¯ . , 1.7–8), which is (in euphemistic terms) not merely harmless but positively beneficial. He is summoned to bring medicines, and especially to heal whoever has been struck by an affliction called v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a .6 The last three stanzas of khan .d . a 2 and all of khan .d . a 3 are of quite a different cast. 2.18–20 is a trca addressed to the Sarpas, supernatural serpent spirits said ˚ to dwell in various realms: on the ground, in the air, and in the sky (18), in the rays of the sun and in the water (19), and in trees and in holes (20). Those in the earthly locations surely include actual snakes, although some invisible snakedeities may also be envisioned. In the Yajurveda, this group of stanzas is recited over the place where a lotus leaf, a gold plate, and a golden figure of a man have been placed over the hoofprint of a horse in a rite called rukm¯ adyupadh¯ ana, near ¯ the start of the Agnicayana procedures. In the grhya sphere, the ApMP 2.17.5–7 ˚ allots them for recitation with an a ¯ jy¯ ahuti. Given the theme of the NU, the serpents in the atmosphere (ant´ ariks . e) might perhaps be identified with the lightning, an idea supported by the reference in 2.20 to the arrows (´ ıs atudh¯ anas (‘sorcerers’), a class of beings as. u) of the Y¯ sociated with the Sarpas. This, then, provides a point of contact between these stanzas and those that precede: the Y¯ atudh¯ anas (and, perhaps, the Sarpas of the atmosphere) shoot arrows; their inclusion in the NU suggests that the redactor may have considered them to be, like the Maruts, under the command of Rudra or a manifestation of his dangerous power. The final khan .d . a gathers together a diverse group of stanzas without parallels outside the Atharvaveda. The first of these (3.21), although it actually is addressed to a medicinal plant, may continue to refer to snakes: svaj´ as (vipers? 7 ´ pythons?) of different colors. One of these is a ‘blue-necked’ (n¯ ılagr¯ ıva) viper. The next stanza, corresponding to PS 19.5.8, continues to name colors, though the identity of the bearers of these colors is not clear. The NU closes with four stanzas drawn from the end of PS 20. Again, the presence of the epithet n´ ¯ ıla´ sikhan .d . a may have sufficed to justify their inclusion ´ here. They include: an invocation to Sarva N¯ ıla´ sikhan .d . a, the Blue-Crested Bowman, that he might have mercy on one whom he has afflicted with disease (3.23, which is obscure and perhaps corrupt); an appeal for his aid in defeating a rival (3.24); and a pair of stanzas revering him as sabh¯ apr´ ap¯ adin ‘he who is on his way, or who habitually goes, to the assembly’, drawn by a pair of yellow mules (3.25–26).
the discussion of this term on pp. 90–92, below. ´ ¯ n¯ am an, taking it as an accusative plural of the stem . reads the word svaja . as svajan¯ svajana, while only one manuscript (Z) gives the original reading svaj¯ an¯ am . (see the note on this stanza below, p. 114).
7 N¯ ar¯ ayana 6 See

. are known to disclose the oneness of the soul and Brahman. And the thirty-seven others [are classed] according to the division of the Paippal¯ adins. ads — may have come about because of the Upanis . urik¯ Culik¯ ¯ a. ad. and thus the first of the ‘paippal¯ adin’ Upanis . and Al¯ ata´ santi.. ad. ado bhavanti s .d . | 8 mun ad¯ ıs tv al¯ at¯ ant¯ a vijney¯ ˜ a brahmavedasya 1 . 8 em.4 (which is an extension of the . the NU is wedged between seven ‘Yoga Upanis . 3 ˚ ´ 1. Advaita. Atharva´ sikh¯ a. Pra´ snak¯ a. an authentic extract from the PS. ad. ads’. Ks a.10.4. 2. closely parallel fourteen stanzas from the the manuscripts (e. 2 n¯ ılarudraprabhrtaya a ¯s ´ram¯ ant¯ ah ırtit¯ ah . ads from western India: pancada´ ˜ sopanis ´aunak¯ ıy¯ an¯ am .10): here. All these.d . since the fifteen ‘s ´aunak¯ ıya’ Upanis ads are given precedence. Pr¯ an ¯ gnihotra. . Brahmavidy¯ a. viz.84 TIMOTHY LUBIN The N¯ ılarudra and the Paippal¯ adasam a . ads added later it was the one with the best Paippal¯ ada credentials. The first two khan . ads] of the Brahmaveda.. Vaitathya.. ak¯ saptatrim ´at tath¯ any¯ as ´ ca paippal¯ adiprabhedatah . as.4. Garbhopanis . | evam pa nc¯ ˜ a s ´ addvyadhik¯ a brahmavedasya n¯ a nyatah . merated in AVPari´ s 49. ISTU. These are precisely the fifteen enu. ukya . Mahopanis . excepting the first three stanzas and the last three. with the Al¯ ata[s ´a ¯ nti]. . Atharva´ siras. with the Advaita and .4. 10 An exception is the list of 28 Upanisads in AVPari´ s 49. Brahmopanis . The rest of the .d .9 ´ This collection was most likely made by a Saunak¯ ıya. from the N¯ ılarudra to the A´ separate statements. all of which are inserted after the M¯ Al¯ ata´ santi omitted at the end. the Mun a. [though] containing 3. p. The pivotal position of the NU — it almost always is the sixteenth in 10 the collections of fifty-two. 83) show the singular form mun d ak¯ a dis . Fifteen Upanis ıyas: . ak¯ . prthagv¯ . ads’ and seven ‘Sam asa Upanis an ¯ . As an Atharvan eulogy of Rudra. the NU is one of the loci cited to show ´ that Siva is extolled as God in the Veda.s . 9 It is not clear to me why the first fifteen are not included as teaching the same basic doctrine. prak¯ .d . ny¯ . count of their following the NU. ukya Upanis ads in the collection are classed as Paippal¯ a din.d . .g. ¯ srama. in the sequence. sarv¯ . and not otherwise. thus [there are] fifty-two [Upanis . hit¯ The NU’s special position in the development of the Atharvavedic canon is illustrated in a set of three stanzas appended at the end of some codices of the fifty-two Upanis . shorter one at 49. ads of the Brahmaveda belong to the Saunak¯ they are recognized as beginning with the Mun d aka and ending . and BORI 1/A1883–84. M¯ an ¯ . . perhaps solely on ac. | ˚ et¯ ah ah aky¯ a j¯ ıvabrahmaikyabodhik¯ ah .a .

jyes . mantram anye tu sam . . | (LP 1. and the manuscripts used to constitute the text. . | pat . sakrd apy evam apya mucyeta m¯ anavah . a. cf. sam .37–41). Indeed.14 It must be noted that many other references to the N¯ ılarudra understand it to be a hymn (sukta ¯ ). AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 85 ´ first part of the Satarudriya in the Yajurveda. ´ Vedic texts for use in linga ˙ cult reflects a desire to ground Saiva worship in the tradition of Vedic recitation-based piety. While the ‘Rudra’ ´ (i.. ad’. . 97). These N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ manuscripts are treated here as parallels and the variants therein are noted after each edited stanza in the edition. four Devan¯ ¯ in collections described as “Atharvaveda Suktas” belonging to the National Archives. . am . . as well as an ‘Atharva´ siras’ (whether the 13 The application of these Upanis ad of that name or another text is unclear). with the sole exception of the ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’. ca tatparas tu samuddharet (AgP 96. may be liberated’. am .27).15 The most striking feature of these collections. Kathmandu.11 and the NU is often treated as the Atharvan equivalent of that hymn. . this ‘N¯ ılarudra’ is mentioned along with a variety of mantra texts. am . should make s ´a ¯ nti recitations consisting of groups of mantras from their respective collections. tu bh¯ . the Satarudriya ) and the Purus ¯ are mentioned for the Yajurveda.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS .24. see p. of the Atharvaveda. 164.27. . tath¯ . sva´ vedap¯ arag¯ ah s ´ r¯ ı s uktam ¯ p¯ a vam¯ a n¯ ı s ´ ca maitrakam ca vr s a ¯ kapim | r gved¯ ı sarvadigbh¯ a ge sarvam etat . We also find a ‘N¯ ılarudra’ listed in the Lingapuran ˙ . This is confirmed by the fact that. ¯ . . . ma’.e. a among the mantras to be recited during the bathing of the linga ˙ (LP 1. and the 12 ‘Atharva´ s¯ ırs . g¯ daks in e rudram purus as uktam ¯ ca s ´ lok¯ a dhy¯ a yam vi´ s es atah | br¯ a hman am ca yajurved¯ ı pa´ s cim¯ a y¯ a m sam.41.. . ad. tathaiva ca | uttare ’tharvas¯ . m¯ asuks ¯ . asukta the Atharvavedin should recite the ‘N¯ ılarudra’. below. ˚ ˚ samuccaret devavratam arun thas¯ ama rathantaram ıtim et¯ ani s¯ amaved¯ ı tu . ˚the abbreviation ‘NU’ is intended to indicate both the text here edited.39c–40b).27. 15 In this article and edition. (LP 1. m¯ asuks ¯ . 14 mantr¯ an ˙ . . The Agnipur¯ an . . pavam¯ .. including those of the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ from Nepal. heyur br¯ .27). i . ad and is thus composed entirely of stan16 zas drawn from the PS.77. ca pancabrahma hot¯ aram li ngas ˙ uktam ¯ ca atharva´ s ira eva ca | as t a ¯ ngam ˙ arghyam rudr¯ a ya dattv¯ a bhyarcya yath¯ avidhi . . mam ırs .d . a’. 12 japeyur j¯ apinah am ahman ¯h ´a ¯ ntim sa ¯ kh¯ a. besides the rather numerous manuscripts of the ‘N¯ ılarudropanis agar¯ ı copies of a ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’ are included . . . one on each side of the fire. HIT A . 11 These .a . . | purus . ca s . is that they contain hymns of the ´ Saunaka recension exclusively. in which the sukta ¯ s are identified individually by name. 2. the ‘Suks ¯ . and filmed by the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project (NGMPP). 1. uccaret n¯ ılarudram atharv¯ ı suks ¯ . 16 The text of this ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’ shares several distinctive features with that of the NU trans´ arad¯ mitted in the S¯ a manuscripts (X and Y. . . in lay´ ing out the rites for consecrating a Siva-linga ˙ . . for instance. ca s . kalpam eva ca n¯ ılarudram ´a ¯ kteyas tath¯ a rudram ´obhanam | v¯ am¯ ıyam anam ˜ tathaiva ca . these Vedic texts are described as ‘mantras by means of which a man. . sn¯ . ca s .27. rather than an Upanis . khyam . hit¯ . having bathed the linga ˙ even just once [while reciting them]. 13 sampujya s ´ivasuktena ¯ tryambakena s ´ubhena ca | japtv¯ a tvaritarudram ´ivasam . which is identical with our Upanis . s . .76–78. prescribes that adherents of the four Vedas. . yair lingam .

preceded by PS 2. . 6r2: adyahety¯ a . and this Orissa ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’ shows none of the small variations from the PS text that are distinctive of the NU. ˚. . Two S¯ a manuscripts were also available to me.. hit¯ Atharvaveda as it was known in Orissa. perhaps even that the writer meant simply to add n¯ ıla to the name rudrasukta ¯ (although the name ‘Rudrasukta ¯ ’ is known from other sources as well. this ms. it contains PS 14. §2E. .22–26 are not found in this version. it is noteworthy that the NU is not included in Atharvaveda Upanis .17 The one example known to me from Orissa occurs in a collection of hymns. 38r2). 20 This explanation of the absence of the NU in Upanisad collections from Orissa was sug. See his paper in this volume.18–20 and 3. i ek¯ . to appear in the Groningen Oriental Studies. Rather. 18 The hymns are frequently preceded by a statement of their ritual application (viniyoga).86 TIMOTHY LUBIN testimony for the NU. ad collections from Orissa. prescribes the recitation of a ‘N¯ ılarudra’ (atharva´ sira-´ sikh¯ adin¯ ılarudram japati . 35r1–3.21). and that no Orissa manuscripts containing the NU version of the text are known.3. evam p urvoktavidhin¯ ¯ a atharva´ s ira´ s ikh¯ a rudras ukta(+ ¯ n¯ ı las ukta)m ¯ adhy¯ a pakatvena tv¯ a m aham vr n e . f. 37r1) or simply as the N¯ ılarudra (thrice in . circulated in the Paippal¯ ada communities. Given the fact that it contains Paippal¯ ada stanzas (including one attested only in the Orissa manuscripts of the PS). 21r1–2).16. These three works are mentioned together also in f.7. ff. found in the ¯ ˜ ¯ collection of the late Vaidyan¯ atha Pan d a and his son Mr tyu njaya Pan d a (village Sankh¯ amari.. there was no reason to transmit them 20 separately as an Upanis . gested by Arlo Griffiths. NU 2. and photographed by Arlo Griffiths in June 2005. the NU has come down to us al. . For the N¯ ılarudra. ambiguous name n¯ ılasukta ¯ has been added interlinearly after rudrasukta ¯ . including the four collections of Atharvan sukta ¯ s from Nepal used in this edition). Such collections were likely compiled to serve as treasuries of mantras used frequently in ritual practice. states: s ´a ¯ ntikarman ada´ sarudr¯ adhy¯ aye viniyogah . and at the end of the hymn. The hymn is referred to in this codex either as the N¯ ılarudragan a (f.18 However the ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’ included in this collection19 it is not the same as our NU. Whether as an Upanis ¯ . 19 This is a small ms. that has been listed with siglum Ni in §2D of Arlo Griffiths’ contribution to this volume. These and similar passages will be discussed in my edition of the Atharva´ siras. The .3–4 (no doubt the original kernel). 37r1). as well as one Telugu palm leaf. that is similar in form and function to the Devan¯ agar¯ ı collections from Nepal. ad or as a sukta ´ arad¯ most exclusively in Devan¯ agar¯ ı manuscripts. a ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’ is not entirely absent from Paippal¯ ada ritual compendia. Since all the N¯ ılarudra stanzas (in all versions) are present in the sam a of the .4 and 8. Orissa).9 (which latter occurs also in the NU as 3. However. f. ¯ ngirasakalpa Orissa manuscript connected with the A ˙ . and whose transcription has been made available to me by Griffiths. it seems possible that the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ was meant. among which a Graha´ sa ¯ nti. In light of the other passage. (f. containing various ritual texts. the sole example (known to me) of a manuscript in a south Indian script. 17 The . ad.

which closely 23 resembles [tnya]. . ad of the Brahmaveda’. These circumstances ´ suggest that it came into existence in western India. 24 It is quite possible that these ‘Nepali’ mss.. the NU. an error that would only be expected in a region (viz. where Saunakas and Paip22 pal¯ adas were both present. (2002: 40–44) discusses W ITZEL’s model. he postulated. and thus it found its way . ad rather than as a sukta into their Pari´ sis ta (49. ´ arad¯ W ITZEL proposed that the 15th or 16th c. Annette Schmiedchen’s contribution to this volume. The archetype of both of those. preserve an important marker of having earlier been transmitted there: the conjunct aks ¯ tnyor (for a ¯ rtnyor) in 2. It was ultimately ‘recatalogued’ by the Saunakas in western India as an Upanis ¯ . was a lost manuscript (*G) from Gujarat in late Gupta script. the existence of more than one version of the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ .13b . the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ was transmitted independently (as in the . meanwhile.. the Atharvan affiliation continued to be recognized.21 If this picture of the transmission of the PS is correct. ara tnyo of the already corrupt form a has been written jno ˜ . and where in any case the greatest concentration of NU manuscripts is found. but since the stanzas were lacking in ´ the Saunakasam a.26 = PS 20. 1250). which includes a stanza (3. One circumstance that adds further support for a provenance in western India is that many manuscripts. ad ´ by Saunakas. 1400). Z).62. it might have originated in Bengal or Orissa after the split of the Paippal¯ ada communities. actually belong to the group of (mostly Taittir¯ ıya) mss.4) as an ‘Upanis .g.7) found only in the Orissa manuscripts. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM Date and Provenance 87 While the stanzas themselves are of course as ancient as the PS itself. Secondly. After the Paippal¯ ada Atharvavedins shifted out of the region. with differing configurations of stanzas. .¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . HIT A . Maharashtra) where the conjunct letter jna ˜ is pronounced [dnya]. may have taken its current form in western India prior to the loss of the stanza in the transmission that produced K. 23 See C HATTERJI 1960: 78. hit¯ 24 ´ Nepali collections: see DE). In 1985. when King Jagajjaya Malla brought the Bhat supatin¯ ath to Nepal (W ITZEL 2000: 285. 293). the NU must ´ have taken shape as an independent text in a situation in which both Saunakas and Paippal¯ adas were present. otherwise. from the Konkan or Karnataka from around 1730. raises the question of where and when they took shape. and the fact that one of these was adopted as an Upanis . as of Pa´ 22 Cf.t . even some coming from other regions (e. tentatively dated to 800 CE. so that there would have been occasion for it to ´ be accepted as an Atharvan hymnal by Saunaka Brahmins. 21 G RIFFITHS .4. It is also possible ´ that devotees of Rudra-Siva who were Atharvavedins — especially in Gujarat. Kashmir S¯ a manuscript (K) of the PS descended ultimately from a Devan¯ agar¯ ı source (*D) produced in western India (ca. all the Orissa manuscripts would go back to a manuscript in proto-Bengali script (ca..



´ upata sect and the Atharvaveda were both strong — adopted the where the P¯ as N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ for cultic use, which could have favored its promotion to the sta25 tus of an Upanis . ad. The date when the NU first circulated as an Upanis . ad can also perhaps be defined in broad terms. The mention of the NU as the twentieth Upanis . ad in the longer and later of the lists in Atharvavedapari´ sis ta 49, and it absence in .. the shorter, might be taken to imply that the NU (along with the Yoga and ´ Sam asa Upanis canon of the Athar. ny¯ . ads mentioned there) entered the Saunaka vaveda literature as an Upanis . ad during the interval between the making of th th 26 these lists, i.e., the 11 –13 c. The N¯ ılarudra likewise is included in the group of fifty-two Atharvan Upanis ads commented upon by N¯ ar¯ ayan . a, but it never . appears in the collections of 108 Upanis . ads, which were compiled in South In27 dia. ´ ıkum¯ Sr¯ ara, the author of the T¯ atparyad¯ ıpik¯ a on the Tattvaprak¯ as ´a, cites a ‘N¯ ılarudra’ alongside other Upanis ads including the Atharva´ s iras , to show that . ´ ´ Siva’s advit¯ ıyatva is taught in Vedic sources as well as Saiva ones (ad TaPra 1). However, the words that he quotes (sarvo rudras tasmai rudr¯ aya namo ¯ ’stu) belong rather to a Yajurvedic source (TA 10.16 = MNU 291–292).28 Fur´ ther on (ad TaPra 5) he mentions a ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’ alongside the Satarudriya and other sukta ¯ s in a list of Vedic texts that broach subjects explained in the ´ Saiva scriptures: evam ´atarudriya-n¯ ılarudrasukta-´ ¯ svet¯ as ´vatare´ sa ¯ v¯ asy¯ atharva´ siras. s tac-chikh¯ a-raudrasukt¯ ¯ aran a ¯ dis v (sic) a ¯ gama-pratip¯ a dyam¯ a n¯ a n¯ a m arth¯ a n¯ a m sadbh¯ avo . . . dras tavya iti. .. But even if we treat the latter as testimony for our text, it does not help ´ ıkum¯ us much in dating it. Nothing is known about Sr¯ ara except what is said about him in a colophon: that he had offered a soma sacrifice and that he was ´ a ‘Siva-bhakta’. However, G ENGNAGEL has noticed that he quotes long pas¯ sages from the I´ sa ¯ nagurudevapaddhati, and judges him to be “ein relativ sp¨ ater ´ ¨ Vertreter eines von Sm¯ arta-Einflussen gepr¨ agten Sivaismus”. The Tattvaprak¯ as ´a itself is a post-Saiddh¯ antika work unknown to the Kashmiris, and so post-10th c. at least.29
´ upata religion was rooted scholarship increasingly points to evidence that the P¯ as early in its history in Gujarat; see B AKKER 2000; B ISSCHOP & G RIFFITHS 2003. It seems that at ´ upatas were Atharvavedins. On the other hand, there is no explicit least a segment of these P¯ as ´ upata use of the N¯ evidence for P¯ as ılarudra. 26 B OUY (1994: 65–67) proposes the 9th –11th c. for the shorter list (AVPari´ s 49.4.10) because R¯ am¯ anuja knows several of the works in it. He deems the longer list (49.4.4) of “twentyth th eight Upanis . ads of the Brahmaveda” to belong to the 12 or 13 c. (“probably” posterior to ´ ˙ R¯ am¯ anuja, but certainly no later than Sankar¯ ananda, who commented on many of the works mentioned only in this list, although not on the N¯ ılarudra). 27 The single manuscript in a southern script (Z in Telugu characters) is most likely a transcript descended from a N¯ ayaka-era Devan¯ agar¯ ı exemplar. 28 TA ¯ 10 is known also as the Y¯ ajnik¯ ˜ ı Upanis askara Mi´ sra . ad. The commentator Bhat .t . a Bh¯ names this brief section the ‘Tvaritarudr¯ anuv¯ aka’. 29 See G ENGNAGEL ’s remarks (1996: 18–21) on the date of Bhojadeva, the compiler of the
25 Recent



To summarize, the expansion of PS 14.3–4 with other PS stanzas to constitute different versions of a N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ likely took place in western India at th some time before the 13 c., and probably even before the 10th c., since the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ was already well established as a distinct Vedic text in the LP. We can also tentatively conclude that one of these versions attained its status as an Atharvan Upanis . ad (presumably in its current form as the NU) sometime during the 11th –13th c. However this gets us no closer to discovering at which time before then a N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ — one with this particular assortment of stanzas (or the somewhat different set transmitted in Orissa with more fidelity to the text of the PS) — came to be compiled and circulated independently of the PS. We can only suppose that its form was still not set when Paippal¯ adins were still present in western India. Relevance for Establishing the Text of the Paippal¯ adasam a . hit¯ Aside from its historical significance as an extension of Atharvavedic mantras ´ into post-Vedic Saivism and Sm¯ arta eclecticism, the NU also provides valuable testimony for the text of the corresponding stanzas of the PS.30 L OPEZ, in his 2000 edition of PS 13–14, took account of the NU’s readings, but without any reference to manuscripts, and relying on a mechanical reprint (in S HASTRI 1970) of the inferior Adyar edition (K UNHAN R AJA 1933). The NU manuscripts would seem to be important (a) because they are relatively numerous (as compared to extant Paippal¯ ada manuscripts), (b) because they largely derive directly from western India and thus from a region that was important in the development of the Atharvaveda tradition but that is not directly represented in the body of known PS manuscripts, and (c) because three of the manuscripts of the Upanis . ad as well as four manuscripts identifying the same text as the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ give an accented text. The last of these factors turns out not to be very significant, since the accenting in the manuscripts (especially those from Nepal) appears quite faulty and at certain points (e.g., 3.23a) shows signs of having been added to a previously unaccented transmission, rather than representing a continuous tradition. On the other hand, in the annotations to the text I find occasion to note a number of cases in which the NU readings do throw light on uncertain readings in the text of the Sam a. These cases include 1.1b, 1.2ab, 1.5ac, 1.6d, 1.8d, . hit¯ 2.10a, 2.13b, 2.15c, 2.16bd, 2.17a, 2.20b. It should also be recalled that the NU manuscript tradition offers the only support external to the Orissa sources for PS 20.62.7, which is not found in the Kashmir manuscript of the PS.
Tattvaprak¯ as ´a. 30 PS 14.3–4 has now twice been edited with the use of Orissa manuscripts, but neither edition can be regarded as fully satisfactory. While B HATTACHARYA 1997 offers us a first edition of books 1–15 using Orissa manuscripts, G RIFFITHS (2002: 40–51, 2004: xiv–xvi) has called attention to methodological inconsistencies in that edition. L OPEZ 2000 is quite unreliable as well (cf. my notes to the edition below, and G RIFFITHS 2004: xvii).



A Note on v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a The second half of 1.3 (≈ PS 14.3.3) has remained obscure, partly because of a change in the wording in the NU, and partly because of uncertainty about the meaning of v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a. The replacement of the PS reading ks ´mam . epam by [’]ks .e in the NU tradition, a case of a more common word replacing a less common one, has only complicated matters.31 By connecting v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a ingeniously with the root van ‘win’, N¯ ar¯ ayan . a is able to take this word as an epithet for Rudra meaning ‘he who brings about acquisition (v¯ ati = pr¯ apti, yoga)’. This then complements the idea that he has removed aks . ema ‘the absence of security’, and in 32 so doing ensures the ideal of yoga-ks . ema ‘getting and keeping’. The older meaning of this stanza was quite different, although the clue to recovering it likewise depends on the relationship between the same two words. The verb ks . ip in the Veda sometimes has the sense of ‘strike or hit (with a weapon)’ (e.g. RV 1.182.1–3); accordingly ks am: ‘a wound caused by . ipt´ ˚´ shooting or throwing’ (SS 6.109.3), ks ´ : (masc.) ‘an archer’ or (neut.) ‘a . ipan .u missile weapon’ (RV 4.58.6) and the later word ks . ipaka: ‘an archer’ (M ONIER ˚ W ILLIAMS, s.v.). PS 15.16.6, in which the collocation v¯ at¯ ık¯ aren . a . . . ks . iptasya occurs (see below), comes in a series of stanzas referring to puncture injuries. Hence, also in our context we can understand ks ´pa as ‘wound caused by a pro.e jectile’. Although some authorities have been content to identify v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a (= v¯ at´ ¯ ıkrta ˚ ´ ¨ [SS 6.44.3, 6.109.3]) simply as ‘a particular disease’ (e.g., B OHTLINGK & R OTH , ´ s.v.), it occurs always in connection with puncture wounds, esp. ks a (see SS . ipt´ ´ 6.44.3, W HITNEY observes that “v¯ 6.109.1). In his note on SS at´ ¯ ıkrta, like v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a, ˚ is too doubtful to render; its derivation from v¯ ata ‘wind’ is extremely unsatisfactory . . . ”. Nevertheless, Z YSK (1993) considers v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a a sort of gastric com33 plaint, perhaps prefiguring the later tri-dos . a humoral theory. It is healed by ´ vis ¯n ¯ 34 (or vis ¯n ¯ ),35 a plant (= pippal´ ¯ ı/arundhat´ ¯ ı?),36 and by j¯ al¯ as ´ , a liquid .a .a .a . aka .a ´ remedy consisting of rainwater conceived of as ‘Rudra’s urine’ (SS 6.44.3; cf. ´ 6.109 Z YSK sees the ailment as in6.57.1–2) or maybe of actual urine.37 In SS ´ 6.44.2) in addition to v¯ volving a discharge of blood (a ¯ sr¯ av´ a, SS at´ ¯ ıkr . ta (p. 213).
distinctive reading of the NU tradition, ks . emam, had been established in the tradition at least by N¯ ar¯ ayan a’s time (if he did not introduce it himself). He reads it as ’ks . . emam, i.e., aks emam : ‘He has utterly removed your lack of security. By this is meant [Rudra’s] agency in . safe-guarding [what one possesses]’ (tav¯ aks ına´ sad anena ks aritvam uktam). . emam an¯ . emak¯ 32 See p. 129, below. 33 He suggests that v¯ at´ ¯ ıkrta “may be a symptom manifested by a victim of a wound” and “a ˚ ´ 9.8.20. form of dyspepsia” (Z YSK 1985: 212–213, cf. p. 32 n. 9); SS 34 PS 19.31.12cd: prthivy¯ am thitam asi vis ¯n ¯ n¯ ama v¯ at¯ ıkr ı (as quoted in Z YSK 1985: . tabhes . nis .. .a .a . aj¯ ˚ 211). 35 SS ´ 6.44.2. 36 On the pepper plant pippal´ ´ 6.109.3. ¯ ı in its role as a remedy for v¯ at´ ¯ ıkrta and ks a, see SS . ipt´ ˚ 37 B LOOMFIELD (1891: 425–429), relying on Kau´ sS 31.11–15 and the commentaries thereon.
31 The

but these are more awkwardly construed . In these three stanzas. The third instance should be similar. a. .a arundhati tvam asi vis ¯ .16. to Bhavena. a ca ks ..¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . the meaning is clearer: digdhena ca viddhasya-aghasy¯ aghavis ¯ ca y¯ a| . v¯ at¯ ık¯ aren supatin¯ a. the afflicted is struck by something sharp which introduces a poison with the capacity to stun. then. tasy¯ . this stanza is third in a sequence in which the first p¯ ada of each stanza contains an instrumental and a genitive. In the first two cases. And of one bitten by snake[-venom] . . a. But in what looks like a secondary extension of the pattern. ipt´ with the preceding instrumentals. marks a transition: whereas the instrumentals in the preceding stanzas designate the instrument of the injury. .. adus . those in the following stanzas name a personal divine agent. adus . asya vis .6 verbatim. . and of the ill which is the illpoisonous [arrow]: O Arundhat¯ ı. 39 (digdhena ca viddhasya. and the other three p¯ adas are a refrain: ‘. Ugren . -aghasy¯ aghavis a ¯ ca y¯ a | arundhati tvam asi vis ¯.¯ we consider the parallel construction of the first p¯ ada of each stanza in 15.4– 6.3) follow which repeat 15. too. tasy¯ . hence my preference to interpret them as masculine terms referring to the injured party. . Being struck by lightning might well be considered analogous to an attack with a translation (2004–05: @@). iptasya-[aghasy¯ . . .. HIT A . Rudren .6 as showing a connection between this disease and shooting. v¯ at¯ ık¯ aren . adus . These of course are all names of Rudra Mah¯ adevena. . . ı] v¯ at¯ ık¯ aren aghavis ¯ ca y¯ a| .16. . and render him unconscious. the concomitants of Rudra’s approach). tasy¯ . Sarven ¯ ¯ nena.16.16. .. . you are the poison-spoiler of its/his poison’ (. In fact. das ta ´ m (‘bite wound’). you are the poison-spoiler of its/his poison.a arundhati tvam asi vis ¯ . I´ sa (though treated as distinct deities in some contexts). . . . is also possible to see here genitives of the neuter nouns viddh´ am (‘puncture wound’). paralyze. ”. several stanzas (PS 15. respectively. asya vis . an ı] . a ¯ heyena ca das tasya. iptasya-)..a ¯n ı). and of the ill which is the ill-poisonous [arrow]: o Arundhat¯ ı. the word’s seeming connection with wind. . and ks am (‘shooting wound’). changing only the first ´ word. .¯ a ¯ heyena ca das tasya-[aghasy¯ aghavis ¯ ca y¯ a| . but he mistranslates: “And with the v¯ atikara-disease (sic) of thrown (arrows) and the dangerous poison of evil (?) .17. .7–15.38 If .¯ Of one pierced with a poisoned arrow. an ı .. . . the word in the instrumental case designates the proximate cause of the malady. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 91 L OPEZ (2000: 352) cites PS 15. a ca ks . asya vis . and the fact that it was considered an apt epithet for Rudra.a arundhati tvam tasy¯ a si vis asya vis ad us ¯ an ¯ . a.. 39 It 38 G RIFFITHS ’ . . a ca Devena. Pa´ . How is it that this transition came about? Considering the nature of the injury and its effects. There is another factor to consider. Stanza 6. And of one struck by v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a . I propose that v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a may mean ‘lightning-bolt’ or ‘lightning-strike’ (from its association with wind and storm.

a manages to discern in 1. H. this explanation of the term is by no means the only plausible one.57. correct in its explanations. a.1cd). s ´ 6. and it is worth noting two other possibilities: that v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a is either (a) a condition (such as infection) associated with a wound caused by an arrow or bite.44. and justifying grammatical forms by reference to P¯ an .11 (aks . The first (recorded in one manuscript. In NU 1. or pustules described metaphorically as Rudra’s ‘arrow with ´ 6.d . Ed1 ) restricts itself mainly to decomposing sandhi in potentially ambiguous cases. but not always. 40 This . abhais .2 might In either case.22. Moreover. inian rules. where he proposes an emendation of the second p¯ ada of 3. the flow (a ¯ sr¯ av´ a) mentioned in SS be of pus rather than of blood. is the understanding of S¯ ayan artham . boils. so that men can know which actions will lead to desirable fruits. the lightning-strike or its effects. especially in the last khan . (b) an outbreak of unopen sores. 3. The dual meaning — ‘lightning-strike’ and ‘[God of the] Lightning-Strike’ — would permit the semantic shift from ‘shot or struck down by something’ to ‘shot or struck down by someone’. are banished by an appeal to Rudra. Similarly. N¯ ar¯ ayan ıpik¯ a .3. ads. apuccha in 3. v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a. this concern is less prominent.3cd a ´ reference to Siva’s beneficent role in conferring yoga and ks . a’s D¯ N¯ ar¯ ayan . a shorter one and a longer one. What we call the electrical current acts like a poison. V¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a personified. and of Ke´ sava ad Kau´ sS 31. His D¯ ıpik¯ a on the NU comes down to us in two forms. and the Bibliotheca Indica edition. This commentary is often. ajyam ‘a remedy for intact sores’). On the other hand. ajy¯ . or. though. glossing terms (often citing a definition from the Vi´ svaprak¯ as ´a). The adjective kalm¯ as ara . SS . a commented upon a corpus of fifty-two Atharvan Upanis .24 celebrates Rudra as a hero in removing doubts about what is right or wrong. Rudra’s arrows are the standard poetic metaphor for lightning in the hymns. ‘for the healing of wounds without opening’). in his view. atavran . but N¯ ar¯ ayan . He interprets 2. ema upon his devotees. a’ (another instance of Siva being identified with a figure whom elsewhere he subdues). a (mukharahitavran . to see how the author resolves some of the problems posed by corrupt and otherwise obscure passages. abhais . um e . the D¯ ıpik¯ a is a good illustration of the reception and theological assimilation of a Vedic hymn in Sm¯ arta Hinduism.21 he sees as alluding to ‘the Lord of Ked¯ ´ in the form of Mahis . and it must be admitted that it is not much help in establishing the text. In the older stratum of the text.92 TIMOTHY LUBIN sharp weapon. leaving the victim paralyzed or unconscious. It is interesting.40 a single shaft and a hundred points’ (´ ıs ´katejan¯ am ´at´ as ´aly¯ am. infection or sores. in accordance with traditional interpretations.10 as demonstrating that bhakti confers (thanks to divine grace) a vision of Rudra inaccessible even to yogis (see note 81 below).

´ ´ ´ ´ 19. ´ 6.1567 = Nepal-German ¯ Manuscript Preservation Project (NGMPP) A 588/16. the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ is on ff. warrant is found in a piece of s ´ruti for a number of later ideas. Rudrasukta (SS 3. The Manuscripts This edition of the text is based on twenty-six manuscripts. Kathmandu (NAK). ads. to refer to Rudra’s descent as avatar in the form of Kum¯ ara(s). and “Atharvavedasam a” in the . 37v–39r. five of them accented. ´ odhana Man B: Vaidika Sam . ala. no. Kathmandu. 4138. ads. C: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. and the two mules ´ of 3. .3: Siva again took avatar form to swallow the poison produced by the ‘herbs thrown into the water’ during the churning of the ocean. ´ ´ ¯ ¯ Apar¯ ajit¯ asukta (SS 6.67–72). ic mythology. making numerous connections between the Vedic revelation and the Pur¯ an . sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis .¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . . this anonymous redac´ tor also offers an alternative explanation of 1. HIT A . no. E: National Archives.n two particular earthly realms.2 (wrongly labelled ‘N¯ ılarudrasuktam’. N¯ ¯ ngirasas ¯ ˙ ¯ ¯ NGMPP as the Dv¯ arap¯ alasukta).1. . ´ ¯ ˙ ¯ ¯ ¯ Angirasas ukta. N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ is on ff. An interpolation ad 3. N¯ ılarudrasukta. third in a collection of ‘hymns of the Atharvaveda’. Ed2 ) reveal a much more vigorous manuscripts and the Anand¯ as effort to elucidate the religious significance of the hymn. Based on the reading jal¯ asabhes ıh . Audumbarasukta (SS The independent svarita is marked by the use of a horizontal bar below the svarita syllable as well as below the syllable that precedes. ˚ D: National Archives. Brahman’s mind-born offspring. The .9–12). la¯ beled “Atharvasuktam” on the NAK label. takes the word avarohantam . The accentuation of the text is very faulty at points. thirteenth in an incomplete collection of Atharvan Upanis .2226 = NGMPP A 588/17. 5. The NU is on ff. 18r–20v.s . In this manner. during the creation of the world. The manuscript shows some prs tham¯ atr¯ as.d .1–10) (listed by the ¯ The codex of 12 folios contains: the Atharvasukta (SS ´ 19.26 are explained as the parallel forms in which Vis preside over .d . no. aj¯ . The NU is on ff. 54v–56r.. All but three (XYZ) are written in the Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. 7r–10r.21–23). no. The accented manuscripts are: ´ odhana Man A: Vaidika Sam . A ukta (SS ılarudrasukta. ¯ ¯ ¯ S¯ antisukta (SS 19. inserted ad 1. 4139. but in general it agrees closely with that of E. 1/1907–15. a short itih¯ asa. ads. third in a collection of ¯ ‘hymns of the Atharvaveda’. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 93 The interpolated passages in the expanded version (preserved in the other ¯ ´ rama edition. u and Siva . The NU is on ff. Thus. sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . 4. and “Atharvavedasam hit¯ a ” in the NGMPP catalog CD. and are on Indian paper unless otherwise noted.s . [Rodhasasukta] SS 6. no. hit¯ NGMPP catalog CD.21 sees the mention of Hari beside N¯ ılagr¯ ıva as a reference to ’the oneness of Hari and Hara’. ala. The codex of 83 folios contains: the Atharvasukta. labeled “Atharvasuktam” on the NAK label.40 (not so named in the text). SS 11.26–27).31). 4v–6r.

Varun ´ 18..81 [86]). SS 4. Stanzas are numbered consecutively. other Nepalese manuscripts exist.30). .25.6. SS 4. and “Atharvavedasam a” in the NGMPP catalog CD.1–7.ac.1). ´ ´ Praj¯ apatih . Durg¯ ˜ tyadhidevo Brahm¯ a.1–7. . the Pratyadhidevat¯ ah ’gnih . Bhaumapratyadhidevah . . . ˚ ´ 1. the .6.1405 = NGMPP A 588/18. In several cases. so all conversions are to be taken cum grano salis — 41 Two . ´ 19. They are: ¯ NAK 4.28cd–33. Adalambukamekasukta (?). R¯ a hupratyadhidevah Sarpah .4. Bhau¯ ¯ ¯ with new folio numbering: Suryas ukta (SS (SS ´ ´ ´ 7. SS . NGMPP E 1601/16. SS 2. SS .41 The unaccented manuscripts are: F: Oriental Institute.2.19. Agnih .27. .1).98.t . (Suryapratyadhidevo . hit¯ some rules for the performance of the upanayana and the harit¯ alik¯ avrata (1r–23r). ´ ´ Skandhah .5.6). (Vin¯ .31). including the idiosyncrasies of the accentuation.24.125). Dev¯ ısukta (SS ajit¯ asukta.. Photographs of this manuscript were not made available to me.18. Kuberah ´ 6.2.24[25]. Naks atrah . Yudhasukta (SS 7. .2. Brhaspatisukta (SS ˚ ´ ´ 17. ¯ ¯ 17. SS ´ 6. Apar¯ ajit¯ asukta.94 TIMOTHY LUBIN ´ 4.6[4].20).4. the codex con.19.3b–26. ´ ´ 4.5.1. SS . see also below). . 11. N¯ ılarudrasukta. . the Adhidevat¯ ¯ not traced in the SS (SS ah .84. ¯ ¯ .n ´ SS 7. 4. .31). SS Sanipratyadhidevah . Sanis ´ ´ 11.93.23. SS adhideva Indrah . SS .. ah .n ˚ ´ ´ ´ ´ 1.63[65]. ads. Paus (SS ukta (SS . but could not be collated for this edition. Vis . and Rudrasukta). asukta. SS 2. ¯ ¯ ¯ which is cancelled).27. Apar¯ ´ 1.27. . Rudrah . . Indrah an ı. R¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Sukras ukta (SS ukta (SS ahusukta (one stanza. they are the Atharvan A ukta. 6. . SS . Unfortunately. Brhaspatipratyadhideva Budhapratyadhidevo Vis . R¯ ´ 13. V¯ ´ ´ ´ ¯ ´ SS ayuh . and the As t av¯ a savah ( Adityah [stan. SS 5. . . with no division into khan . . .19.2. .e. 1. SS 6. Arkah .12). Brahm¯ a .98. SS 1. Rudrasukta.1. S¯ Purus (SS Saurasukta (SS .4. .1.26[27]. Sakunas ´ ´ 7. .kyoto-su. I´ ¯ sa ¯ nah Nirrtih ayuh . ´ ´ ¯ adhidevo Rudrah (Sury¯ .64–70 [inc. N¯ ılarudrasukta. ´ ´ ¯ SS 13.. Ketvadhideva Indrah Yamah ahvadhidevah alah .1–3. V¯ ´ 4. as in 1. followed by a group of unaccented Atharvan hymns written in a different hand (according to the NGMPP ¯ ngirasas ¯ ˙ ¯ ¯ ¯ CD. . “Atharvavedasam a”.23.26[27].1–3). hit¯ ¯ ngirasas ˙ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ tains: A ukta. SS 7. . . ´ or PS). 115v–116r) records a date of ¯ sam vat 1670 A´ s vina bright 15 Friday (i. Yamah ´ 6. 42 Here and below.1–7. . . SS . Somasukta ´ 6. SS Somapratyadhideva Apah . ´ zas omitted]. . SS 2.24[25].26.2).1. Budh¯ a dhidevo Vis n uh .1–3a. ¯ ¯ ¯ sukta. labeled “Atharvasuktam” on the NAK label. Apar¯ ajit¯ asukta. Rudrasukta. K¯ . asukta ´ 19. the Pancalokap¯ ´ 1. SS ´ 7. . .42 ..12. ´ ´ 12.24[25]. SS 4.1. .2.31. Yet there are some real differences. SS . . Sukr¯ ´ ´ 6.d .1–7. ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Rodhasasukta. SS 2. SS 1. SS al¯ ah ayakah a. SS . uh .39–40.93.69. ¯ ¯ ¯ masukta (SS 4. According to the NGMPP CD. Sanyadhidevo ´ patyadhidevo Brahm¯ a.1. no. The NU is on ff.3–4. Sunday. 44 unnumbered folios.8d. sixteenth in a collection of 49 Atharvan Upanis . Audumbara.¯ .. uh . . Bhaum¯ a dhidevah . acc. Ak¯ a s ah . 17. 37r–38r. SS 7. Ketusukta ´ 7.]). . ˚ ´ 4. The colophon (ff. Ek¯ ada´ sarudrah . Ketupra.2. as.1).26[27]. . I was not able to find a matching weekday. Sukrapratyadhideva Indr¯ . A´ s vinau.128). Brhaspatih . ikasukta ´ 17. SS ´ 6. the photographs of the hymns supplied by the NGMPP were mostly illegible.25. SS 4.1.jp/~yanom/pancanga/>). SS 1.80[85]. Brahm¯ a . Madhusukta (SS ´ antisukta.8 [9]). Bhuh ´ 7. .11.31–34).1. Anantah ´ ´ ¯ SS . Baroda.34).24. 4.128. .2. 29 September 1613 CE?). Da´ sadikp¯ al¯ ah (Indrah . The codex contains . Madhusukta. Som¯ a dhideva Um¯ a . my attempts to convert the dates were made with the use of Michio Yano’s “Pancanga” program (<http://www. SS 10. The read˚ ings generally match those of D. ´ 4. Br has. 7332.

210v) reads: sam arga´ s¯ ırs suddhapratipad¯ a budhadine [14 November 1640 . The post-colophon (f. 4856. 1. ado bhavam . but seemingly by the same hand. N¯ . 11529. The NU is on ff. which often crop up in the middle of a line. Though it shows many patent mistakes. ala. especially as it is preserved in X.d .a . a’s D¯ . also numbered 1v–3r. The NU is on ff. col¯ haps 18 aks anaj¯ ısutavilla (?) j¯ ıyena l¯ ıs ¯ vitam a. acc. ads. e m¯ . 4816. 8. a´ CE ] likhitam idam . k¯ . ˚ often indistinguishable. t¯ . n and t are very frequently confused. t¯ . . sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . The NU is on ff. ¯ is on ff. and it also preserves some correct readings not found in other sources. with n. despite the fact that it seems to have been written by someone ignorant of Sanskrit: although the hand is clear. ak¯ . ˚ 43 The sarv¯ ah pr thagv¯ a ky¯ a j¯ ı vabrahmaikabodhik¯ a h 3 .s . v. . 69v– H: Oriental Institute. The stanzas are numbered 1–27. a’s D¯ 27v. preconsonantal r and anusv¯ ara. I: Oriental Institute. no. cada´ . pam . no. 134/1880–81. paly¯ . probably retained from the exemplar. . 7/66 f.e. ads dated sam CE ).s . It has been corrected to agree with ´ arad¯ readings found in the S¯ a transmission.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . 70r.d . ads. a divisions are noted secunda manu. The mula ¯ text of the NU is written in the margins around the commentary as an afterthought. H and M descend from a common ancestor.. ads dated sam The codex concludes with some stanzas classifying the Upanis ads by s ´a ¯ kh¯ a: . . thirteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . HIT A . khan .d .a. vat 1784 (1727 . ˚ sam vat 1842 jes t havadi navam¯ ı 9 bhaumav¯ asare (Tuesday [i. 52r– 53v. 49v–51r. th and py — errors which have not been reported. pustakam . as. vat 1697 vars . ta**. beginning on f. vijney¯ hmavedasya 1 saptatrim ´as tath¯ any¯ as ´ ca pais adiprabhedatah as ´adhy a. in. acc. 5888(m). post-colophon reads (f. these stanzas are also found at the end of BORI no. vat 1842. b. 2 n¯ . part 3. 103–104). N¯ ar¯ ayan ıpika .a consistently uses prs tham¯ atr¯ as. al the precise size of the necessary grain I am not competent to estimate.. ch for cch. no. and are not always marked off by single or double dan . 84–84. Stanzas are not numbered. ks . pam sopanis ´aunak¯ ıy¯ an¯ am adis tv al¯ at¯ am am ˜ a bra. 1 June . acc. See my discussion of the stanzas on p. evam . 54v–56r. pp. this manuscript provides valuable˚ testimony especially for the D¯ ıpik¯ a in that it omits several passages also omitted in the Bibliotheca Indica edition. a is sometimes written for kr. Orthography: doubles dental and retroflex stops after r. G: Oriental Institute. which unfortunately was inaccessable to me. This manuscript preserves many apparently old and authentic readings. sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . including that resulting from external sandhi of t + s ´. | et¯ . mum .d . ´ odhaka Man K: Bh¯ arat¯ ıya Itih¯ asa Sam ar¯ ayan ıpi.d . Baroda. sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . c¯ dhik¯ a brahmavedasya n¯ anyatah ılarudraprabhrtayo a ¯s ´ram¯ am ah ırttit¯ ah ah . no. and c . . 1785 CE). c and v. 43 According to the BORI catalog (vol. likewise.. aras follows] madam lis ¯ dikajayosu . Wednesday?]. 165v): . ti s .s . no. Baroda. omitting the number 21. ´ odhana Man J: Vaidika Sam . lekhakap¯ . prak¯ . Baroda. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 95 Place of origin: adya s ´r¯ ıpattanamadhye n¯ agarajn¯ ˜ at¯ ıyapam ı [effaced run of per.

ads. 304/5048. . ra. Dhy¯ anabindu. . . no. . by N¯ ar¯ ayan . Thursday?]. AH 1112. no. ads. a´ ´ J¯ ı Kriy¯ av¯ am cha. is on ff. for kh (e.9e. 58/944. ads. Hemistichs are marked off with dan the khan tham¯ atr¯ a in the first word of 1. ˚ occurs in the last syllable of 1. ¯ ´ rama. 14r–v. vat 1757 varas . R: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. The NU is introduced with: s ´r¯ ıbrahmaved¯ aya namah . The NU is on f. with the mula ka ¯ stanzas.. . e galitaposam¯ dhe s ´r¯ ı amad¯ ab¯ adar¯ ajanagaramadhye las ´r¯ ın¯ ar¯ ayan ın¯ ı kriy¯ av¯ am ı .d . . first in a collection of 8 Upanis n ıpika . the year 44 in the era of Alamg¯ ır). N¯ Amr tabindu . no. Sr¯ ı Suj¯ a yatap¯ a na. as.d . European paper bearing the watermark O: Anand¯ as ¯ . ¯ ´ rama. The NU is on ff. vol. . fifteenth in an incomplete collection of 17 Upanis . without noting khan . In the mula double dan . sa. ads. alamag¯ ır¯ ı (written in the auspicious royal city of Ahmadabad. Orthography: occasionally writes s sis ¯ ya in last stanza). . separately foliated. 1.. . Nawab R¯ a makaly¯ a n a-J¯ ı N¯ a garapat a. . 58r–60r. Wednesday [i. Hemistichs are marked off with dan . but only the khan . sixteenth in a collection of 52 Upanis ¯ . were ex- . a’s D¯ 2v. .d . The post-colophon reads (quoting from the catalog. separately foliated. ¯ ´ rama. .11d. omitting the number 21. aj¯ . a’s D¯ . V¯ ak¯ anav¯ ıs¯ ı. part 3. H. as.d . one prs tham¯ atr¯ a . . matat ıtav¯ are navar¯ ahut¯ ¯ a avak¯ as ´ap¯ am¯ ılas ¯ chete 123 s ´a ¯ j¯ anasana . . ˚ Two independent svaritas are marked with the numeral 3. 27v–28v. The NU is on ff. as are numbered. P: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. no. 44 .. There is one prs . 124): sam aghavada 10 bu. Tejobindu . .d . Orthography: shows one instance of a Gujarati k in 2. s . sixteenth in a collecL: Anand¯ as tion of 52 Atharvan Upanis .9e. yu 1112 hijar¯ ı m¯ apu . . and Yogatattva Upanis ad s). ads. N¯ ar¯ ayan ıpika ¯ stanzas. The stanzas are numbered 1–27. chan¯ de r¯ amakaly¯ an aj¯ ı n¯ a garapat an ¯ ı nav¯ a ba s ´ r¯ ı s ´ uj¯ a yatap¯ a na n¯ ı c¯ a kar¯ ı v¯ ı ra bhaj¯ a man¯ ı v¯ a. Ham adabindu.e. as are numbered. no. nila´ . all in collections of 52 Atharvan Upanis . 1r– .a . on ff. no. ads. The NU is on ff. 50r–51v (60r–61v in renumbering). The NU on ff. ads (comprising the Brahmabindu. Cf. . as are numbered.d . Yoga´ sikh¯ a. no. . itam . 1r–3r.. sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . . adsby s 44 The following BORI manuscripts. only the khan . 57r–58v. 3 February 1701 CE. 44r–45v. is on ff. 252/4019. seventeenth in a collection of 59 Atharvan Upanis . S: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. separately foliated. with the stanzas. The codex con44 cludes with the stanzas classifying the Upanis ´a ¯ kh¯ a. . 1/A1883–84. . in the year 123 in the era of Sh¯ ah Jah¯ an. no. 133/1880–81. ads.g. . p. as. . ads. al¯ . . only . with the mula “Lumsden & Son 1853”. hemistichs are marked off with .d . ¯ ´ rama. . a divisions. ads.d . N¯ ar¯ aya¯ . sixteenth in a collection of 52 Upanis .96 TIMOTHY LUBIN ¯ of the NU. Orthography: doubles v after r. Q: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 1r–3v. Hemistichs are marked off with dan . The NU is on ff. 31(1)/A1881–82. as are numbered. 97/1235(-). C¯ akar¯ ıv¯ ıra Bhaj¯ ama.d . . sixteenth in a M: Anand¯ as collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . k¯ anav¯ ıs¯ ın¯ ı ji . sixteenth in a colN: Anand¯ as lection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . 29/1884–86.d . an . as. . . only the khan .

c¯ . . ms. The codex concludes with the stanzas classifying the Upanis ´a ¯ kh¯ a. They are listed here by the numbers used in S CHRADER 1908. at”. . and 328/1883–84 (ff. ff. 10/1882–83 (ff. . 13. The Library seems at one point to have possessed three other manuscripts of the NU that are no longer traceable. ´ arad¯ 9 B 171. but the number is now attached to a copy of the R¯ . vat 18 74 k¯ . in the 82-folio codex. and other changes in lighter black ink and in another hand which almost always corrupt the text. S CHRADER does not list this manuscript. The NU is on ff. . . .. amined but not included in the collation: 2/1891–95 (ff. W: National Archives. 39v–40v of a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . no. very carelessly written. A number according to the new system used by the library is lacking for all three. part I (1926). Wrongly 45 identified by S CHRADER as “N¯ ılagr¯ ıvopanis . S CHRADER does not list this manuscript. 233/1882-83 (ff. ads. ˚ Probably copied from an original showing the inverted bha resembling ta. 60r–61v]). including confusion of ta and na. by the Pandits of the Library. HIT A . 45 The following Adyar Library manuscripts were examined but not included in the collation: PM 169 = 9 B 166. The NU is on ff. . 116r) gives the date sam vat 1807 [= 1751 CE ]: ity . sa and s ´a. . PM 486 = 9 G 52. 94v) gives the date: sam arttika´ suklanavamy¯ am asare (Monday [i. The 1926 catalog identifies it as N¯ ılarudropanis ar¯ ayan ıpik¯ a. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 97 T: Adyar Library. . 18 November 1817 CE). This manuscript is . .3d (f. ase saptamy¯ am raviv¯ a sare n¯ a garaj n¯ ˜ a tiyam et¯ a s¯ a m aj¯ ı sujacatrabhujena likhyate s ´ r¯ ı kr s n a ¯ rpan . 51r–v). The 1926 catalog identifies it as N¯ ılarudropanis am¯ ayan . 2. 52r–53v). ads copied in 1751 in Gujarat. PM 513 = 11 D 54. This manuscript does not appear in the new list. 26r–26v. 27/1895–98 (ff. The NU is on ff. Kathmandu. . . sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . The NU is on the last leaf (f. S CHRADER describes a collection of Atharvan Upanis a script. . as. Damaged and illegible in many places. The postcolophon (f. 28v–29v.. PM 484 = 9 F 130. The library itself lists it as “not found”. Devan¯ agar¯ ı script. A 896/3): Caturvedabrahmasiddh¯ ante catus as ´adupanis . with a very high number of errors. Tues. . The NU in two folios. The NU is no. . a’s D¯ . atharvan ¯ ı yopanis adah sam¯ a pt¯ a h cha sam p urn ¯ am sam¯ a pta sam vat 1807 vars e m¯ a rga´ s ¯ ı rs am¯ . l. since it does not. an alphabetical title index. 10). ad with N¯ ¯ Apastamba´ srautaprayoga. . 29r–30v). 26r. adsby s V: Adyar Library. on the other hand. . since in a few corrupt passages ta is written for bha. The text shows two sets of corrections: cancellations using yellow paste and some overwriting. 134/1880–81 (ff. . 48r–49v). The codex concludes with the stanzas classifying the Upanis ´a ¯ kh¯ a. am astuh . ads on paper in S¯ written c. .e. ad. . The postcolophon (f. drav¯ day?]. . no. and which have not been recorded in the critical apparatus. PM 485 = 9 F 99. sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . its readings have not been included. but the number is now attached to an . help in doubtful passages. 1700. pam .181 (filmed on NGMPP reel no. Divided into khan . seemingly performed by the original writer and usually improving the text. adsby s U: Adyar Library. 54r–55v. The 1926 catalog does not have a listing for this manuscript under the heading N¯ ılarudropanis . 29v–30v). 34 J 31 = 77471. followed by the numbers used in A Catalogue of the Samskrit Manuscripts in the Adyar Library.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . adah . 43v–44v). . there is one likely case of vestigial prs tham¯ atr¯ a in 2. 42/1892–95 (ff. no. Contains many patent errors in the copying (mostly not reported).d . not dated. ad. 34 J 6 = 77446. . 236r–239r). ads. | 9 cam . ˚ s ´r¯ ıkachade´ se m¯ ad av¯ ı vam daranevis e s ´ ubham bhavatuh kaly¯ a n am astuh . a. 50r–51v [renumbered in Arabic numbers as ff.

The NU is on ff. one might have expected sarva with s ´arva’s accent. and is replete with canceled readings that cannot be read.24. prak¯ . FJ). Janert Collection.a .3a.23 and 3.. This manuscript has not been used in constituting the text because it appears quite contaminated. For instance. printed on the upper left margin. . In any case. Z: Staats.g. 46v–47v. ala. If the accentuation had been orally preserved. sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis . no. 47 But for a possible case of original accentuation continuously preserved in the manuscripts. Y: Staatsbibliothek Berlin. I 10 (VOHD II.a .. Numerous corrections have been made to the text. in 3. Janert Collection. O. no. ¯ ´ rama. 985/11920. Shows affinities with H as corrected by another hand. running no. and Q. . 46 One .3d. must derive from a common archetype. py etu (as all other NU mss. Eighteenth in further copy of the D¯ ıpik¯ a was consulted: Anand¯ as a collection of Atharvan Upanis ads with N¯ a r¯ a yan a’s D¯ ı pik¯ a written on modern lined note paper. This manuscript and the next. ads. Bound paper ´ arad¯ manuscript in S¯ a script.47 The accentuation of the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ manuscripts (DE) is very faulty in general. 288/4612 .g. In eight numbered folios. 1168). is recorded instead of the older reading s ´arv´ a (which. ad 1.g{Ma.(ra. Cod. 130v–131r (33v–34r. as well as the unique use of the archaic graph +IÁ for ¯ ı in the word ¯ ımahe ad 1. described above.a. Paper ´ manuscript in S¯ arad¯ a script. forty-fourth in a collection of 45 works.2. ¯ is represented in manuscripts H. and the word nMa. The stanzas (written in red) alternate with blocks of commentary. as renumbered in Arabic numbers). see the annotation to 1. 195r–197v. 50.8. ad 1. rather than that it records a continuously preserved oral tradition. a’s D¯ . The D¯ ıpika as well as in: ´ odhana Man D¯ ı1 : Vaidika Sam ar¯ ayan ıpik¯ a is on . read) or vy etu (the PS reading). K. The aks . N¯ ff. sixteenth in a collection of 52 Atharvan Upanis .46 D¯ ı2 : Anand¯ as The accented manuscripts ABC broadly agree in their readings. aras pa and va seem in many cases to be indistinguishable: e.98 TIMOTHY LUBIN X: Staatsbibliothek Berlin. 4 no. 49. 4163.9. ads.g. however. D¯ ı2 . One gets the impression that the accentuation was added at some point to an unaccented text.n .ba:= on the right. is written correctly in 3. which deviate more widely from those of the PS than those of some of the unaccented manuscripts (e.25). The NU is on ff. running no.und Universit¨ atsbibliothek Hamburg. Palmbl.d . since they share several obvious scribal errors (not included in the apparatus): e. no. 1. ¯ ´ rama. correctly accented. pratyas ¯ t | pratis ¯m as ´ayastv iti ad 1.s . Palm-leaf in Telugu script. s´ arva. mostly Upanis . These are the final hand-written copy sheets used in printing the 1895 edition. ¯ ´ ramagranth¯ with the initials of the Anand¯ as alaya A.9. gal¯ . The NU is on ff. it gives exactly the text of the edition. and pim ah . ads. in its corrected form.n . 6v–8v.

Unfortunately. whether ‘correction’ to an ‘easier’ reading49 or to one found in a well-known parallel. That said. or confusion of similar characters or forms. I have chosen to preserve deviations from the older form of stanzas (whether accidental or intentional) to the extent that they belonged to *N and were found meaningful by the commentator. the doubling of the first n in the Vedic form ane´ sann (2.2a. An important variation at 1.. 48 See . and it allows us to set in relief some of the ´ ways in which later Saiva tradition made sense of the Rudra of the Veda.15c) as if it somehow contained the compound anna-¯ ıs ´a-. a rather subjective process — the following tentative groupings emerge.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . leads progressively to further corruption ending in utter nonsense: W EST 1973: 52–53. HIT A . That is to say. Contamination is evident in cases where manuscripts have been corrected to show variant readings attested in other manuscripts (many cases are noted in the apparatus). there are a few instances in which the adopted reading diverges from what appears to be the correct text of the PS. on occasion it seems possible to formulate a ‘stemma variantium’48 in the case of a particularly distinctive shared reading that is unlikely to be attributable to (1) a common pronunciation or scribal error. we find that an inserted word [’]gnau in 1. At the same time. when miscopied. As a consequence. or (2) a deliberate change to the text.6c exhibits a major branching: *Ψ = sarvam ij CFGHac IKLMOPQTUVWZ *Ω = three subgroups: sarvam idam DE sarva ij ABJNR sarva imej SXY (and secunda manu in a *Ψ ms. presence or absence of visarga or anusv¯ ara. H pc ) In the three manuscripts derived from an exemplar reading sarva imej. as distinct from the parallel stanzas in the PS. In such cases. the manuscripts do not represent a closed tradition.g. it is undeniable that the PS provides an invaluable frame of reference both for editing and for interpreting the text.. discussion of the NU’s divergence from the PS stanzas on which it was based is reserved for the notes. the aim is to determine as far as possible the form of the archetype *N from which all the manuscripts used here are assumed ultimately to be derived. ad’ and in the Nepal manuscripts calling it the ‘N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ ’. After screening out likely coincidences and solecisms of this sort — admittedly. such as incorrect vowel length. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM Editorial Policy 99 The edition presented here is of the N¯ ılarudra litany as recorded in all manuscripts recording the text as ‘N¯ ılarudropanis . 49 E.

all instances in which the editions of 1872 (Ed1 ) and 1895 (Ed2 ) diverge from the text as accepted here (on the basis of the six manuscripts available to me) are recorded in the lower register of the apparatus. The text of the fourth is incomplete. A sigma (Σ) stands for all manuscripts of the unaccented text of the mula ¯ (i. and divo ABCFJPW : divi elsewhere (except T) (2. Only manuscripts have been used to constitute the text of both the stanzas and the commentary. 50 The . D. and it was therefore left out of further consideration.5d: him ıt FHac LMOPQTUW . C. ˚ The three *Ω manuscripts (ABR) break ranks by reading adrs ´yam . however. some of the incorrect readings may result from independent errors. more than half of the *Ψ ˚ ˚ manuscripts have preserved the original adrs ´ann (with U anticipating this form also in 2. all except A. erroneous. and full of readings adopted tacitly and uncritically from the commentary or from Yajurvedic parallels.15c. The second of these was found simply to reproduce the text of the first. L OPEZ cites a mechanical reprint of this edition. The lemma and major branching *Ψ–*Ω is generally supported by a variation at 2. and K UNHAN R AJA (1933). and *Ω (more nearly correctly) reading adr . . I and K stand apart in sharing a couple of features: asya s ´es . CGIKVZ Within the former of these groups. B. at 2.7c. it has not been deemed necessary to record the readings of any of the printed editions. s¯ him ıh . In the case of the D¯ ıpik¯ a. and the possibility of contamination..51 For the stanzas. in both places (likewise J in ˚ p¯ ada c). O and Q share the reading s ´aravy¯ an in 1. these forms have not been deemed a secure basis for use in a stemma.19a). the widespread confusion evident from the oddities of orthography here. J IBANANDA V IDYASAGARA (1891).10a). although four earlier editions have been consulted: those ¯ PAT ¯ of R AMAMAYA TARKARATNA (1872)..E (1895). included in S HASTRI 1970. given the closeness of the forms.10a. However. avah .g. with *Ψ reading adrs ´yam s ´am . .100 TIMOTHY LUBIN ugro [’]gnau X → ugro gro S → grogrogro Y The *Ψ group splits along the following variation in 1. its text of the D¯ ıpik¯ a closely ¯ follows that of R AMAMAYA TARKARATNA. 51 In his edition of PS 13–14. and the omission of tava in 1.e. because the differences are so small. s¯ . Within the latter. 50 for asyes avah in 2. and E).16d). Some others of the *Ψ group join the entire *Ω group in preserving the original adrs ´ann ˚ there.10c. a’s quotations from other works are identified in the upper register. . asman JQRSUZ : asmin (or yasmin) elsewhere (2. The sources of N¯ ar¯ ayan . The following conventions are employed in the critical apparatus: Sigla are shown in bold type. agreeing even in such details as punctuation. I hasten to add that the distribution of several other significant variations in the text cannot be reconciled with these groupings: e.7c. A . These may represent scribal corrections or.

In such cases. prthiv¯ . M. ] ABCGHIJKLMNPSTWXYZ.´ I saw you descending from the sky. prthiv´ ¯ ım a ım ´ ıva AB . GHZ. blue-necked. ara in the manuscript that he was recopying. tv¯ . aras (or portions thereof) whose reading is uncertain. E. hari om . prthiv¯ ımama FJ KP. crested.3. ˚ . ¯ om prthiv´ ım av´ ah .1 ≈ PS 14. where both forms are elsewhere attested. ara (or part thereof). | ˚ ´ pa´ ´ syantam ¯ ´ ikhan a syam a am ılagr¯ ıvam ınam . unless the unaccented form is found also as a variant in an accented manuscript. whether by the same or a different hand. The variations are mentioned in the annotations. Occasionally. all other parallels (or groups of identical parallels) cited are variants of the NU stanza. the exact reading found in the manuscript is given in parentheses after the siglum. Parentheses with a plus sign (+) enclose aks . rudr´ . a manuscript will be shown as giving a reading that was clearly intended by the writer but which was miswritten. Curly braces ( { } ) enclose cancelled aks . aras (or parts thereof) inserted marginally or interlinearly. )T (→ asrtam .d . s . tam . so that the reader may form an accurate idea of the fidelity of the accented texts. an identical parallel (if one exists) is listed first. om.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 101 lemma sign ( ] ) are followed first by the sigla of those manuscripts giving the adopted reading. asy´ . In the case of an accented word. A raised dot ( · ) stands in place of an illegible aks . )UVWZ.1 om . accented sources as well as other manuscripts showing the same form without accent will be listed as supporting the reading in the lemma. alternatively. n´ . the readings before and after correction may be entered separately. with superscript ac added to the siglum to indicate the reading ante correctionem and superscript pc to indicate the reading post correctionem. A square cup ( ) represents a space left blank by the writer to indicate a missing or illegible aks . AB. prthiv´ . prthiv´ . A pair of question marks (? ?) encloses aks . separated by semicolons. tam . aras (or parts thereof). even if they are clearly spurious. Variant readings follow. → pa´ . Variants in accentuation have been reported. ´ pa´ ´ ¯ a syam avarohantam ıtah ım av´ ah . prthiv¯ ımayah SXY . down to earth. HIT A . and also to illustrate the close agreement of the Nepalese sources. An arrow (→) indicates a correction. I saw Rudra shooting [his arrows].] ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ac CFGHJLNOPQR S(a´ syam syam am . div´ . ˚ ˚ ˚ pc ac ´ syantam prthiv¯ ımatah ımima IL .] ˚ ac ac pc pc ¯ ´ va B CDEJ L OQRTUVW. tam . preceded by an equal sign (=). DFWOQRUV . prthiv¯ ıtava N a . Under ‘Parallels’. Text and Translation of the N¯ ılarudra Stanzas 1.

B.3. aj´ pc ◦ ◦ ac ´ H IJKLNO PQRS(→ j¯ ah ıj¯ ah al¯ as ıh asabhes . v´ . L OPEZ hesitantly accepts ava.2 ´ ¯ ´ dhi | ´ ’v¯ am a div´ a ugro aruks aty as ad bhumy¯ . av´ ah is accented however on the . bhumy` am → . d´ ıva C ugro] ◦ amtat) JKLMNOP X. inam D. ugro gnau div´ a] ABDEΣ.´ rudr´ am . p´ as syatem´ am ai DE. pa´ syatepra G vilohit´ am] ACFGH IJKLNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. chandasi). Rudra whose medicine is urine.¯ . )XY. bhumy¯ am DEΣ a ´ ¯ sah ´ yatem´ pi M j´ an¯ asah an¯ a?sya? → j¯ an¯ asa T). at] ABDEFGI( ks . H M ab. The Kashmir manuscript has v¯ aruks . v¯ ¯ khyat H ¯ ¯ QRSTUVWXYZ. p´ . sulohitam .d . CΣ b.a . aj¯ . . at and the corrupt form us tamad (for as th¯ ad?). not striking men. at pr´ . let your v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a also go. The Orissa PS manuscripts show second-person verb forms.2. X ´ ikhan ´´ ´´ s ınam] ABCΣ. ultimate. The accented manuscripts read a ´ va. n¯ . s .a ` ¯ ¯ ´ dhi] ABCDEFGHIJKLNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. jana p´ as am . jal¯ as a bhes ı Z. which refers to Rudra as ‘him’ rather than ‘you’.2 = PS 14. .3 ´ ety av¯ ´ jal¯ ¯ es ırah¯ a rudro as ı| . aj´ ´ ´ v´ ı te ’ks e mam an¯ ı na´ s ad v¯ a t¯ ı k¯ a r o ’py etu te . ] ACDEΣ(j¯ . ´ ty ABCDE ¯ ¯ ety] Σ.70: amna udas ¯ ’va ity ubhayath¯ a . ] ABDE. The NU manuscripts are unequivocal in giving third. ajah . jal¯ . is hapax legomenon. viloh´ ıtam ac B. He has removed your insecurity. vilohit´ From the sky the mighty one has descended. v´ ılohitam DE. DE. aj¯ . pa´ syatemaham . .3. ´ ´ . jal¯ as ıh . a . B HATTACHARYA prints iva. he has taken his stand upon the earth. abhes . pa´ . rudram . h¯ ´ ´ yatem´ j´ an¯ asah as am ılagr¯ ıvam am . muncantam . but N¯ ar¯ ayan . abhes . The NU manuscripts provide support for both these readings (and others). 1. look at him: the blue-necked.3. a?bhumy¯ am? C. PS 14.102 TIMOTHY LUBIN ´ p´ ´ yantam ˜ asya tam as . the red one. pc HMSXY. ay¯ ..´ .t . As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 8. a more natural form. j´ . att C. IKM.. )TUVW( s . Here he comes. ABCF . grogrogro Y ’v¯ aruks .d . and L OPEZ accepts these as correct. 1.3 ≈ PS 14. and these are more natural in the context of the second hemistich. e jal¯ as ı] G. ´ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRTUVWZ. The form div´ ıtah . DEY. person forms. aj´ .] ´ yatemam ACFIJKLNOPQRTUVWZ. H M . abhes . Hence the NU supports (and corrects) the Kashmir manuscript on this point. s ıkhan ıkhan ınam E . O people.1b reads divatah . ugro gro S. v¯ aruks arun bhumy¯ am] AB. B . abhes ..d . a’s reading is probably the best (cf.

1–2. to your anger! Homage.27. Likewise. despite the change of vowel? b.57. O Bhava. bh¯ as¯ aya Q.3. 5.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . Homage. abhes . homage! ´ ¯ m¯ bha aya] ABCDEFIJKNOPRUVW. plus the . O Bhava. the accent on the ultimate prevents us from reading it as a bahuvr¯ ıhi and ´ requires that we accept jal¯ as abhes aj ¯ ı . most manuscripts here read jal¯ as ¯ ıh .a who defends the etymology and definition proposed originally by B LOOMFIELD 1891: 425–429. see E MENEAU 1988: 195. Reluctantly. which is in fact the reading of the PS. ks .6a. and this reading probably was present in *N. is . 1. PS 2. and to your arrow. which .1. is the form shown by G and printed by B HATTACHARYA (1997) and L OPEZ ´ 6. av´ Parallels: MS 2. bcd. M ACDONELL 1910: § 375B). HIT A .4b. bh¯ ım¯ aya GT. bh¯ av¯ aya HLMX. ave n´ amah adas. (2000). ..9c). bha´ v¯ aya S. ave] ABCΣ.e . .5. but it may well have arisen as a misreading for the PS’s vy etu (in which case the error can be compared with the reading p´ ıte in p¯ ada c in D and E). The PS reading of this line means: ‘He has caused your wound to disappear.e 92). see the remarks in the introduction (pp. Might this unanimity suggest that the original accent has in this case been faithfully preserved. All the Yajurveda versions omit this p¯ ada. Although the usual form of Rudra’s epithet is j´ al¯ as . aj´ . VS inverts the latter two p¯ . KS 17.29.5. let him come who causes you to acquire’. citte X. .1(a).4a. ˚ ´ 8. 90– . MS and TS have the VS order. vitte HSV. let your v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a go away’. emam.11:254. SS 2.9. v¯ ı t´ e → vi t´ e B. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 103 v´ ı te] ACD(p´ ı) E(p´ ı)FGIJKL(cite)NO PQRTUWZ.2:120. KS reads: n´ amas te rudra many´ ave b¯ ahubhy¯ ´ am ut´ a te n´ amah o ta ´ ıs . a’s interpretation this line means: ‘He has removed your lack of security [reading ’ks .22.16–17 = TS 4. em Z). abhes . Even if this could be accepted as a rare masculine form (cf. a.16. · · · Y ıs e DE . based on the stem jal¯ a s abhes aj´ ı n.2). I have refrained from emending to ks ´pam because this reading has been accepted by tradition as au. For the meaning of jal¯ as ´ (j¯ al¯ as ´ in SS . The accented manuscripts’ e ´ty should not be accented. aja (RV 1. All the manuscripts record ks .e thentic and (thanks to some exegetical gymnastics) meaningful: by N¯ ar¯ ayan . ´ mam] DEΣ (ks datte M ks am ABC . in spite of the poor sense it yields. it should by sandhi rather produce a ´ iti. cd.a . em´ ´ a.4 ´ ¯ m¯ n´ amas te bhava bha aya n´ amas te bhava many´ ave | ´ ´ ta ´ n´ amas te astu b¯ ahubhy¯ am uto ıs ave n´ a mah . . | ut´ . On v¯ at¯ ık¯ ar´ a and [’]ks ´ma.4 = PS 14.1. if the preverb a ¯ is understood to be present. ema]. . to your wrath! Homage be to your arms.43. The unanimous reading [’]py etu is possibly original (with the implied sense of preverb v´ ı carried forward from p¯ ada c). VS 16.

a)WYZ. ?]). to ˚ ˚ giri´ srit¯ am .1–2. I have accepted him ıt here for two reasons. giri´ . according to my tentative stemma. tam . ´ anta E. giritra is found in paral´ lels in the KS. and emends. giri´ . kuru S TX . . s¯ . him ıt represents a shift of subject (with the .. 52 Only three NU manuscripts show kuru. j´ instead of purus ´ . u ma . um . . TS. which is read by N¯ ar¯ ayan . d. ´ Parallels: MS 2. Secondly. Although the PS and all Yajurveda parallels read him ıh . those manuscripts which read him ıh . am agat . um . and does not make sense describing an arrow.5 ´ ¯m ´ ´ stave | ıs santa h´ aste b´ ıbhars ya . DFHJLNPR(giris sante XY b´ ıbhars . giritra.6. and SvU. y] AB. am . nna t¯ . tam . . krn . Let it not harm my men. y CDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRTUVXYZ ´ ´ ¯m ¯m giritra ta ] ABCDFGHJLMNOPQRTVW (girim a)Z. C. u instead of the ˚ 52 ‘younger’ form kuru.a ¯m ¯m ´ iva ama ıt purus s . s¯ . that you carry in your hand to shoot — make that benign. s¯ . . him ˚ CG(rhis¯ ıh ) I (him s¯ ı (+h )) KVZ . . VS.11:5–6 = TS 4. giri´ ´m giri´ santa] ABIGKMOQTVZ. gir´ ıs sa sam . W omits p¯ adas ab. should be giri´ . O Mountain-Dweller. B HATTACHARYA hesitantly prints is . The NU manu. giritra pc tam am an U krn . am . gir´ ıtra ta . a. giritra ta ˚ The arrow.1–2(d) = VS 16. 1.a ¯ n m´ ama. However the compound giri´ srita is not attested elsewhere. . on the basis of a single corrupt reading from an Orissa manuscript (M¯ a1c : giri´ srrtam srt¯ am . It is perhaps noteworthy that the NU and the PS read krn . is a vocative found elsewhere. Despite noting the parallel texts. The Yajurveda versions have purus ´ .5.2:121.5 ≈ PS 14. . . Though it might possibly have originated as a misreading of giri´ sa. s¯ . L OPEZ emends to *is scripts unanimously support is um .3 = SvU 3. [perhaps misreported. on the basis of a NU edition. with only the MS showing giri´ sa. giri´ . There is no PS manuscript support for ´ ıs . Y. it appears to belong to the archetype of the NU. giritra t¯ . aka. E. tam . O Mountain-Protector. IKX. u] ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRS U ˚ ◦ ac ıh V(krn him ıt] ABDE(h´ ım . s¯ . )U. . giritrit¯ . : ‘make that mountain-leaning (arrow) friendly’. s¯ new subject not explicitly stated): it is thus the lectio difficilior. um . (CGIKVZ) descend from a version that may have been influenced in this place by the read´ ing of the widely known Satarudriya .1.3. which is found in all of the Yajurveda versions. First.y a ´ ´ ´ ¯ n m´ ¯ him ´ .104 TIMOTHY LUBIN insertion of n´ amas te astu dh´ anvane as p¯ ada c.9. bibhars . )FHJLMNOPQRSTUWXY. a and glossed giriraks . KS 17. L OPEZ (2000: 269. c. s¯ . 319) combines this word with the following t¯ am .

uh . ´ ´ sat] ABC.2(e) = VS 16. ma. m´ . ayaks am . though denoting a wasting illness such as tuberculosis in particular.9.5. DEΣ . It is interesting to note that those manuscripts giving the hybrid reading s´ arva ´ ıj j´ agad appear to reflect a familiarity with a version of this p¯ ada that has the MS’s wording. sum´ . and [Rudra] favorable to us. nam . yaks . IK . uh ` ¯ 1)GHIJ(´ ´ aravy¯ ´ aravy¯ vya saravy¯ a1 → s a3)KLMN(´ saravy¯ a3) PRSTUVW(´ saray¯ a)XYZ. One comes away with the impression that the MS has the most natural construction.1. F . om. m´ ´ yaks ACGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. your bow has become benign. y¯ OQ ya a AΣ t´ ava] DE. . which can be understood as attribute to j´ agat. ´ ´ ¯ ch¯ ¯ ch¯ g´ ıri´ sa a] ABCDFHIJKLMNOPQRSUV(girich¯ a)WXYZ.7–8 = TS 4. babhuva . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 1. ayaks my´ a m B . . giri´ sa a E.4. ´ ` ¯ ¯ a DE ´ aravya ¯ ] ABCDEF(´ ´ saraıs babhuva] ABCΣ. hastesmi G s´ arvam ´ ıj] CFGHac IKLMOPQTUVWZ. for the sake of life. ◦ G vad¯ amasi] ABDEFHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY(v¯ a )Z. tava ABCFGHJLMOPQRSTUVWXYZ. ˚ That arrow of yours is most benign.7 = PS 14. . the MS here stands apart from its peers: y´ ath¯ a nah arv¯ a´ ıj j´ anah e sum´ an¯ aa ´ sat ‘so that every person shall be well.6 ´ ¯ ch¯ ´ iv´ a vad¯ amasi | s ena v´ acas¯ a tv¯ a g´ ıri´ sa ´ ´ sat y´ ath¯ a nah s´ a rvam ı j j´ a gad ayaks am an¯ aa . but without the MS’s distinctive vowel sandhi (a → a ¯ before an accented word-initial vowel). All other parallels agree with the NU/PS here. tay¯ a N.3–4.] . sarva imej H SX (ime)Y j´ agad] ABCΣ. HIT A . v´ ad¯ amasi C. sarva . ayaks my´ a m . jag´ ad DE ayaks am . sam . | . cd. with the other Yajurveda versions introducing changes that make the line clumsy. babhuv´ s . a mam DE . suman¯ a DEΣ a Parallels: MS 2. On this basis.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . As with the previous stanza.3.2:121. KS 17. Show us kindness with it. .11:254. so that the whole world shall be disease-free. ] (which could refer to Rudra) in place of the PS neuter form sum´ ano. m´ With a benign word we invite you. The manuscripts uniformly give the masculine form sum´ an¯ a[h . is . s´ pc ij JNR. Benign is that shot of yours. s . s´ arvam ´ ıd´ am arva ´ ıj AB. probably means disease in general in this form compounded with alpha privative. ] ABC. 1.7 ´ ´ ¯ ta ´ ´ iv´ ´ iv´ ¯ te dh´ ya ıs atam¯ as am anuh . a clumsiness that the PS removes by completing the transition from masculine to neuter subject. the difficult reading sum´ an¯ a may be more original in the PS than the reading sumano actually attested in its mss. giri´ sam . O Mountain-Dweller.6 105 ≈ PS 14. gam´ disposed toward us when we meet’.3. s an ´ ¯ ] BCDE. s´ . . uh ´ ` ´ ´ iva ¯s ´ aravya ¯ ya ¯ t´ s ava t´ ay¯ a no mrd a j¯ ı v´ a se . asat DEΣ sum´ an¯ a] AB. DE. suman¯ a C. .

d. d. is problematic.18–19. .8 = PS 14. which is not frightful. gir´ ıs abh´ ı E. ´ ´ p¯ ´ ghora ¯ p¯ ´ in¯ ´ ghora ¯ ´´ a apak¯ as ı] ABCΣ.1(c).11:254. VS 16. may be the widely attested participial form.) J(1 → 3) N(3) T(3. cancelled). stating: “Though not attested. *N may well have read c¯ aka´ sat. a. c. aya.8 ´ ´ ´ ´ ¯ p¯ ´ in¯ ¯ a ´ ghora ¯ tanur ¯ te rudra s ´ iva apak¯ as ı| ya ` ¯s ´a ´m a g´ ıri´ sant¯ abh´ ı c¯ aka´ sa t´ ay¯ a nas tanva . although it is true that visarga is easily lost. tamay¯ That benign form of yours.1. The last word of the stanza.2. O Rudra. Four otherwise unaccented manuscripts insert the numeral 1 or 3 to mark ` the independent svarita in the word tanva ¯ : J(1 → 3) N(1 → 3) R(3) T(3. c¯ aka´ s?¯ ıhi? Mac .11:255. c¯ aka´ sam → c¯ aka´ s¯ ım T ´ Parallels: MS 2.. However.1(b).9. . Four otherwise unaccented manuscripts insert the numeral 1 or 3 to mark ` the independent svarita in the word s ´aravya ¯ : F(1. The hypermetric form c¯ aka´ s¯ ıhi found in all Yajurveda versions might even have been introduced as a normalization.106 TIMOTHY LUBIN Parallels: = KS 17.7–8.3. Alternatively. The Yajurveda-based variant c¯ aka´ s¯ ıhi. which can be understood as an imperative form based on a thematized stem c¯ aka´ sa-. a apak¯ as ın¯ ı DE g´ ıri´ sant¯ abh´ ı] J(◦ t¯ at¯ abhi)OQRT ´a ´ nt¯ ´m UV. KS 17. N¯ ar¯ ayan . a proper intensive imperative. c¯ aka´ sat. Given that the Kashmir manuscript reads c¯ akas ¯ and the Orissa manuscripts he used all read c¯ akas .2:120. TS 4. tv¯ . look at us. a second-person form. a explains: ‘[It is] the prayer. this convergence remains elusive. “He shall manifest [that form] exceedingly” (ati´ sayena prak¯ as ´ayatv iti pr¯ arthan¯ a)’. a form of the intensive stem c¯ aka´ s. g´ ıri´ sam abh´ ı ABFGHIKLMNPSWXYZ. c¯ aka´ savat Z. The almost unanimously attested NU reading. the only such instance in this ms. not evil-looking — with that most benevolent form. B HATTACHARYA prints c¯ aka´ sa. c¯ aka´ sat ABCDEF(v¯ a◦ )GHIJ(v¯ a◦ )KLM pc NOPQRS(◦ s ıhi}t)UV(◦ s ıat)WXY. c. which is not frightful. TS reads: t´ ay¯ a no rudra mrd . giving a more common form while preserving the sense. O Rudra. SvU 3. giri´ sa abh´ ı CD . not evil-looking — with that most benevolent form — O Mountain-Dweller. TS 4.5. to yield a syntactically disjunct sentence: ‘That benign form of yours. seems to confirm this choice. the manuscripts converge on this form with little variation” (p.5. L OPEZ emends to c¯ aka´ sah . if it were interpreted as a third-person singular subjunctive. On this basis. it (your benign form) shall shine upon us’.a .1. the emended form is accepted here. cancelled). 214). ˚ 1.5. it might have arisen from mistaking the nominative string in p¯ adas ab as the subject.3–4. tv¯ ´ {¯ ´¯ c¯ aka´ sa] em. this form may have been introduced by a scribe who did not recognize the nonce form c¯ aka´ sa and presumed that a final letter had been omitted. O Mountain-Dweller.

sahasra´ s o DE Σ (sahasro Z ) . D and E duplicate 9ab (E omitting the word arun ´ ) at . Variants in the Satarudriya : ut´ a babhruh ´ . | .2:121. a). v´ . L OPEZ emends to adar´ .11–13 = KS 17. inmahe Y. .a . sumang´ ˙ alah e cema ¯m ˘ . u tv¯ a E . 2.a the head of this stanza. a’s reading. (with gun .6. could hardly be a first-person singular aorist form. MS. and the women fetching water [have seen] you. a ´ drs ´ am ¯m ´ drs ´ yam a .1. ut´ a tv¯ a DEHM drs . ¯ ınmahe HS(◦ ye → ◦ he). and B HATTA ˚ ´am sam therefore prints adrs . TS 4. ˚ ˚ ◦ ˚ ´ ´ ¯ ´ yam ´ ¯ ı lagr¯ ı vam ] ABC Σ . ¯m ed ımahe 1 ’vais .3(h). a ´ drs ´ yann A adrs . . DE ´ ´ ¯ ya] ABCFGHIJKLMNOPQRUVWZ. a DE(? svarita mark omitted) ABCDEFGIJKLMNOPQRTUVWZ. ] ABCDEFGHIKMOPTUVWXYZ. n¯ ı lagr ı vam adrs G tv¯ a ] ABC Σ .2–3(g). DE. s . VS 16. a ´ run ´ DE as´ au] ABCΣ. viloh´ .11:254. s u tv¯ a D n . uta tvo ˚ ◦ dah¯ ◦ ah¯ ´ tv¯ ary` ah ary` ah uto a] ABCFGIJKLNOPQRSTUVWYZ. hed . in 1.a .7.a ˚ Parallels: MS 2. ´ sau DE ´ ABC. a . ˚ ´ ´ ´ tv¯ ´ v¯ ¯ a ¯ ni t´ ¯ uto a v´ ıs a bh ut asmai drs t a ya te n´ amah . ceme DEΣ abh´ ıto rudra . n´ . adrs ´a ´m ´ yann BFLOPQRVW. ´ ´ ˙ bc.9. om . u AΣ(ciks . . and the red one. TS 4.a ´ ´ ¯ ´ ´ ´ ¯ diks a h sahasra´ s o u s rit y´ e cem´ e abh´ ıto rudra .a ´ ut´ a] ABDEΣ(uta uta X). d´ . u] ´ ´ . adrs ´ ann u◦ M ut´ a tvo◦ ] ABFGHIJKL NOPQRSTUVWXYZ. ◦ ´a ´ drs ´ an] em.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . n DE. .3. red: both the herdsmen have seen you. TS). . ´ ¯ ] ABCDEF v´ ılohit´ ah cem´ e] ABC. )CDE. s ah QS (sru sahasra´ s o] BC . ] ABCΣ. uta . IK ´ GIJKLMOPQRS pc TUVWYZ.9 107 ´ ut´ ´ vilohit´ ´ arun a babhrur ah as´ au y´ as t¯ amro . adrs ˚ ˚ ˚ ◦ ˚ ` C.t . DE ´ ann] CGHIJKM NSTUXYZ.13–15. . a t¯ amro] amro DEΣ arun . a. VS 16.8–10 = KS 17. abhito rudro HNSac X. rudr¯ a abhito Y diks . t¯ ´ ] ABCΣ.5. which is also N¯ ˚ ation from the parallel form apa´ syam ada which is otherwise identical.11:254. (KS.2:121. blue-necked. . vilohitam . and all beings [have seen] you: Homage to you who are seen! H inserts p¯ adas cd interlinearly. diks ´ rita ¯h ´ rt¯ B(diks s ah .11–12.1a.1. a Z).a That coppery one. h´ . and insert the stanza number 10 after 2. ). ´ ¯m ¯m ¯ ’vais ed ımahe] .10 ´ drs ´ an tv¯ ´ ¯ a avarohantam ılagr¯ ıvam am | . B. ] ACΣ. HIT A . uta ´ tvo◦ DE.a .t .5. uta C vilohit´ ah ] ABCFGHJLMNOPQRTUVWXYZ . . a p¯ CHARYA .10 = PS 14. vilohit´ ˚ ´ ¯ adrs ´ ann ut´ ut´ a tv¯ a gopa a tvodah¯ ary` ah | .3.. y´ e cainam ˘ (VS). the ruddy. ˚ DE vilohit´ am ıtam ılohit´ am ut´ a tv¯ a] ABCDΣ. sah´ a sra´ s o A . a ´ drs ´am . the brown.9. y´ ˙ (TS). inmame X Parallels: MS 2. a] ABCΣ(· · · d . The ˚ variant adrs ´yam ar¯ ayan . h´ . DEJNSUXY( s .a . uh . likely results from persever. vais .. and these Rudras all about. dras ¯ ya DEST tvo X. ABCFHIKLMOPQRTVWZ. ˚ They have seen you descending. .10ab. lying in [all] directions by the thousands — we appease their wrath. up´ a tv¯ aE . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 1.9 = PS 14. u X) ˚ ◦) ´ rut¯ ´ JLNR.a¯ .

10. [MS: id´ .1 ´ ¯ ya sahasr¯ ¯ ya v¯ ¯ n´ amo ’stu n´ ıla´ sikhan aks aj´ ıne | . .12 = PS 14. (the VS omitting p¯ ˚ ˚ e).2:121. asya] ABCΣ. the impetuous..3.11:254.108 TIMOTHY LUBIN The same may be true of the om .5. see AiGr I: §280 and W HITNEY 1905: cxxiv–cxxv.. This reading must also . A parallel for the rest of this stanza is found in the Satarudriya : as´ au ´ y` o ’vas´ arpati n´ ¯ ılagr¯ ıvo v´ ılohitah | ut´ a inam gop a ¯ adr s ´ ann ut´ a inam [TS. | ut´ .3(i). asy´ a DE s´ atv¯ anas] BCFGH(satv¯ a(+na)s)IJKLMNOOQRSTUVWXYZ. KS. n´ .a ´ tho y´ a e asya s´ atv¯ anas t´ ebhyo ’h´ am akaram amah .d . st as required by P¯ be restored in PS 14.a For v¯ aj´ ıne: m¯ ıd ´ . Variants for n´ ¯ ıla´ sikhan ¯ ya: n´ ¯ ılakapard¯ aya (MS). This has .d . TS. inian sandhi. The redactor of the NU/PS version has deliberately changed the first p¯ ada of the stanza to recall the opening words of the Atharvan hymn. cited by G RIFFITHS 2004: lvii. which is unstrung! I have done homage to both (your) arms. I have preferred the smallest emendation necessary to give a good form. .4.8. VS). Homage be to the Blue-Crested One.1. t´ Homages to your bold weapon. hus ´ d.14–15. a third-person plural aorist form. KS 17. p. VS). in Devan¯ agar¯ ı manuscripts.a . ham DEΣ Parallels: MS 2. n´ . as n. ay¯ . . It is a distinctive feature of the Paippal¯ ada tradition that word-final n + t frequently 53 does not result in m an . And I have done homage to those who are his warriors. TS. ´ ¯ nas A. .2 ´ ´ ¯ yudh¯ ¯ n¯ ´ ve | n´ am¯ am aya atat¯ aya dhrs . in other Vedic texts. ´ bcdef. and reading adrs ˚ the virtue of agreeing with the same form in p¯ ada c. TS 4. VS 16. si ta a . VS: a ´ dr s ´ ann ] . to your bow.n ˚ ´ ¯ bhy¯ ´ ubha am akaram amo b¯ ahubhy¯ am ava dh´ anvane .16–17. ab. 87]. n´ ¯ ılagr¯ ıv¯ aya (KS. also 1862: 417 [rep. The Satarudriya reads: ’h´ am am ebhyo ’karam amah . ˚ ˚ ´ udah¯ ary` ah ainam ıs ´v¯ a bhut ¯ a ¯ ni s´ a drs to ´ mrd ati nah ada . the Thousand-Eyed. the insertion of s is not consistently applied in this context. and with all the other plural subjects in the stanza. reading m ´an. 2.a . e (MS. 53 Even . anusv¯ ara before dentals is almost as a norm treated as an acceptable equivalent of n. added here in G (though this may simply be meant to indicate the start of a new chapter).11 = PS 14. s´ s´ atva atv¯ anam´ as DEP ’h´ am] ABC. Moreover. v´ .9. ] t´ .4. 2. n´ .

XY. HIT A . pra munc´ K pc ´ ABC dh´ anvanas p´ ary] F(dhanvanaspary → dhanvanas ·· )JPT UV. dh´ anvanasyury Tac Z.18–19 = TS 4. a. b. dhanvanasyam NR.˚ pc ´ n a ve] ABC Σ . ak´ a · .9. ubhayor a ¯ tnyor jy¯ ¯ tnyor jyam ubh´ ayor a am . For akaram the Satarudriya reads ut´ a te . while OP preserve the immediately preceding r. tat¯ . dh´ r s n ave DE akaram ] ACDEFGH IJKLNOPQRSTUVWXY . L OPEZ adopts a ¯ rtni yor on the strength of the NU.~yua.~å. Q. dhanvanasyur IKL pc OQW. Several of the corrupt readings for dhanvanas pary arose through anticipation of the vowel u and confusion of p and y in conjuntion with s: ◦ .yRua◦ or ◦ . ABC(ubhayo) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ jy¯ yo r¯ ajnor y¯ am JNRS (urbhayo raj ner) T (r¯ a j no { r } ) U V (saj nory¯ a ).1. ubh´ ¯ jnor ˜ jya ¯m ´ bhayor¯ arjnyor jy¯ am arjn¯ ayo ra DEGH LZ. Considered together. This correct.4(o). ubhayo r¯ ajno a)h a · or jy¯ am ajn?ey¯ am a . dh´ anvanas ac pc tvam DEH MXY. Several other manuscripts. ?rjy¯ ´ ¯ bhagavo vapa] H pc h´ asta] ABCΣ. and lay aside. p´ . par¯ a AC ta ABCFHIJKLMNOPQRSUV(t¯ a {is a bh´ agavo v´ apah . dhanvanas · Lac pc ´ ´ ¯ rtnyor jya ¯ m] em.2:121.3–4(k) = VS 16. 2. dhanvanasyurth G. ˚ ac → ak´ aram ..2:121.pua.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . avah Unfasten the string from both ends of (your) bow. dhanvanos tayor H . n´ amas te astv (TS). KS M . give the Yajurveda reading tv´ am in place of p´ ari. si ta] ABCΣ.3 ´ ´ ¯m | ¯ rtnyor jya ˜ dh´ pr´ a munca anvanas p´ ary ubh´ ayor a ´ ´ ¯ bhagavo vapa ¯s ´ ca te h´ asta ´ ıs ar¯ a ta ya . ubhayo r¯ . ubhayor a . FM .11:254. t¯ Parallels: MS 2. these readings may indeed point to an original conjunct rtny. VS). uac ´ ´ ˜ ˜ ar)P. All PS manuscripts read a ¯ tnyor.54 which B HATTACHARYA hesitantly ac´ cepts. ac ˜ y(+¯ ˜ IKW..5. hast´ a DE p´ ar¯ a] BDEΣ.5. Yajurveda variants: n´ amas ta (MS. L OPEZ refers to a reprint of this (S HASTRI 1970).yRua◦ > ◦ . a an¯ am aya Z. Alternatively. B. 54 L OPEZ ´ (2000: 237) mistakenly reports the Kashmir reading as a ¯ lnyor. ´ original form a ¯ rtnyor has left traces in the extant readings: FM pc show the correct consonantal conjunct tny.pa. . n´ ´ ´ ¯ yudh¯ ¯ yudh¯ ¯ yudh¯ STUVWXY. . the appearance of this r in FM pc may have been influenced by the following conjunct rjy.11:254. ´ c. avo}bhaga vapa)WXYZ.14. DET . ˜ ˜ a DE.1. a.18–19 = KS. pramuncya ˜ pr´ a munca] ABCFGHIJLMNOPQRTUVWXYZ. TS 4. This (a ¯ rtniyor) is the reading of the Adyar edition (K UNHAN R AJA 1933).yRua◦ .16–17. ubhayo r¯ ajno am . including the N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ collections from Nepal. . ubha. uta te H M Parallels: MS 2. O(¯ . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 109 ´ ´ ¯ yudh¯ ¯ n¯ n´ am¯ am amo si t´ a DE a aya atat¯ aya] ABCFGHIJKLMOPQR .13 = PS 14. .~å. a ay¯ an¯ at´ at¯ aya DE. which it has adopted from the TS parallel. ubhayo r¯ . the arrows that are in your hand. O Lord. ending in bhara) through eyeskip. .16–17 = VS 16. ´ G omits ta ¯ bhagavo vapa (and the entire following stanza. a ay¯ acat¯ aya N dhrs . dhanvane(+na)sya?m? S.4.

2.14 ≈ PS 14.nW . dh´ . .2:122. . be benign and benevolent toward us. s Having unstrung (your) bow. .1–2. anne´ ◦ ◦ ´ am ´ am ´ ann XY.4. MS). sum´ ´ be a conflation of the PS reading with that of the Satarudriya . which however are unanimous in every case. (+´ sam )bhu { ks ya } r a B . . ´ ´ ´ ˙ ut´ ´ alyo ba ¯n ˘ ´´ ´ va ¯n ¯ n uta DE ´ ikhan s ıno v´ ıs am a] ABCΣ.10. However. (and) having cut off the tips of (your) arrows.13. ´ arad¯ b.4(l). ava R ´ ivo a ´ sya DE ˙ ABCΣ. av¯ . IK.9.13). In the Satarudriya we find the variants pra´ s¯ ırya (MS). a´ . ava . . an¯ . n´ ´ ´ ´ ambhur ´ a ¯ ] AFHIJKLMNOPQRTUVXYZ.d . bhara DEFL MNW. ?v´ ı ?s am gatih DE . .5 ´ ˙ ut´ ´ ikhan ´ alyo ba ¯n ˘ v´ ıjyam anuh ıno v´ ıs am a| . a atya C s´ ahasr¯ aks . u te ABCFH ac ◦ ¯ ´ aryya → ni´ ´¯ L PS(´ sato )W ni´ s´ ırya] FH (n¯ ıs saryya)LO(ni´ s¯ ıyam ıs ırya .20–21. udh¯ . VS 16.d . s nis a ng´ a tih ] AB Σ .a s . mukham ´ . udhe | ´ ´ ¯ bhava ´ ambhur ´ a ¯ n¯ ´ as ´ ivo ´ nah ¯ ´ alya am ırya s ni´ s´ . a ´ nen´ ´a ´ nn E.5–6.4(m). .´ ´ ne´ ´ ´ ˙ a sann asy´ es avah s iv o asya nis a ng´ a tih . sahasr¯ ´ ´ ´ tes hasr¯ aks a ACHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ( a ks a DE s a .1. annen IK. bhura → bhuva H Parallels: MS 2. . Parallels: MS 2. n) GLMOQRV( s . avah ´ es ´ ivo ´ asya] ABCDEFGHJLMNOPQSTU VWXYZ.5. the Kashmir PS manuscript also reads s ´ates . n).5d) ´a ´ tes avat´ atya dh´ anus tv´ am ahasr¯ aks . . G omits this stanza through eyeskip (see apparatus under 2.d . ute. udhe] pc pc pc ac ´ at´ ´ ates ´a ´ tes H IJKL MNOQ RTUVYZ. vi´ s¯ ırya ABCIJKMNSTUY s ´ ` ´a ´ mbhur a ¯ CD(´ ¯ ´ am s sam◦ )E(´ sam◦ ).4. The PS reads a ¯ cara instead of a ¯ bhava (or a ¯ bhara). (a variant found also in the Nepalese N¯ ılarudrasukta ¯ s and in T). Almost every word of this stanza is incorrectly accented in D and E. s . mukh¯ . n). and tipless (his) shaft. .5. TS 4. a] BF. . pc ac L OPQRSTUVXY. (KS. )PQRVWXZ. s . 2.11:254. D E. s ıkhan salyo . . O Thousand-Eyed. ´ vat´ avat´ atya] ABDEFHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. TS 4. sa◦ ksam). his quiver (is) benign. ´ ´ ´ d. O Hundred-Quivered. n)U( s .´ . bhuv¯ . ´ ´ c.10. asya s ses s . The NU reading as it stands appears to . ino vi´ ◦ ◦ ´ ne´ ´m ´ am ´ am a sann] ABCD(´ ane´ sa sann FHJNPST pc .4 (d = 3.3–4.1. X and Y). nis am gat´ ı h C . av¯ . The Satarudriya has: s ´iv´ o nah an¯ a bhava [MS: na edhi sum´ an¯ a]. Stringless (is) the bow of the Crested One. L OPEZ adopts the Orissa reading vapah . . Like several of the NU manuscripts (though not those in S¯ a script. VS 16. .9.2:122. avah . his arrows have disappeared. despite the poor sense it yields. KS 17.11:255.] . .110 TIMOTHY LUBIN d. s . udhe DE. anye´ ( s ıs as sam asy´ es .15 = PS 14.s aW bhava] ABCIJK . bhavat Z. . KS 17. s´ . s es ı H X. B HATTACHARYA is right to accept the Kashmir text’s vapa. n)Z( s .

11:255.16 = PS 14. should likewise ¨ be corrected. and nis ˙ ın . far away’. ava[h . yielding an awkward construc. It is much preferable to accept the readings of NU manuscripts JQRSUZ (even though these may in some cases be corrections of the written tradition. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 111 ´ a. MS 2. reading asmin. .¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS .d .12. he also reads astu instead of ut´ c. The error can be explained as a case either of the writer expecting a locative next to n´ ı dhehi.9.) All manuscripts of the PS also support this reading as well. b. which is how . TS) and nis ˙ ı ‘sheath’ (m. udh´ t´ av¯ ar´ e] ABCΣ. or of anticipation of the i of n´ ı. y´ ACFGHIKLMNOP TVWX. . ´ ıs ar´ e DE asm´ an] JQRSUZ(asmav¯ are asman). asm´ ın . ang´ . [which is] your quiver. while L OPEZ adopts this reading ˚ from the NU edition he used. ang´ compare nis ˙ athi (MS. (Although heti is sometimes masculine in later Sanskrit. it is feminine in the Veda. The MS. HIT A . v´ ıs ´alyo ba ¯n an could also mean ‘arrowless (his) quiver’. a understands it. aktu vi´ . a asmin B Parallels: = KS 17. ´ b. This form is unanimously supported by the NU manuscripts. cd. instead of s . udhis tav¯ ´ smin DE.5. . parito K is ıs . which also reads asm´ ın in VON S CHROEDER’s edition. KS.4(p) = VS 16. B HATTACHARYA and L OPEZ both print + ane´ sann. asm´ ın must be correlated with y´ a is ıs t´ ava. 2. ang´ ´ ‘one with a sheath’ (SS). To make sense of this. The Satarudriya has a ¯ bhur ¯ (or a ¯ bhur ´ [TS.. a. Y omits p¯ adas bcd by eyeskip (from hetir in this stanza to the same word in the first p¯ ada of the next stanza). And put this quiver of yours far away from us.4. The Satarudriya reads kapard´ ınah ´ikhan ınah . Let the missile of your bow avoid us on every side. Note the exceptional divergence of D and E ´ here. VS]) instead of s ´iv´ o. This reading is wellattested in the NU manuscripts. in accord with Buhler’s manuscript cited therein. udh´ tion: ‘And put that [arrow] in this. takes t´ ´ reading would require emending to ta ¯ m. angadh´ . MS and VS read asya ya . . as in the next stanza. p´ ari te] ABCD(t´ e)E(t´ e)FGHIJLMNOPQRSTUVW(par¯ ıte)XYZ. aktu. avah . ].3–4. B HATTACHARYA emends to vrn .1. For asy´ es ¯´ ıs . | ˚ ´ tho y´ a a is udh´ ı s t´ a v¯ a r´ e asm´ a n n´ ı dhehi t´ a m . For nis ˙ ati. N¯ ar¯ ayan am to refer back to het´ ır. whether based on oral tradition of the PS or contamination from the Yajurveda oral tradition). ´ ´ d.2:122. av¯ N¯ ar¯ ayan a.1–2 = TS 4.) (VS). accepting this .6 ´ ¯ n vrn sv´ atah p´ ari te dh´ anvano het´ ır asma .´ .

7. hus .18 = PS 19. ya ¯ s CF(→ y¯ ya at)Hac MP. those in the midspace. The Satarudriya reads t´ ay¯ asma ¯ n vi´ sv´ atas tv´ am in p¯ ada c (and KS has ayaks m´ e n a in d).11:254. a.4.7b above. sarp´ . it is not clear whether he emends to m¯ ıd tama or adopts it from . . 2.1–2 = TS 4. hus .. m´ ´ ´ disease’. ◦ tor S). | . div´ ı D(d´ ıvi)E.u | ¯ m apsu ´ s´ y´ es adas krt´ am ebhyah ebhyo n´ amah . t´ ay¯ a .t .11. O Most Bountiful One — your bow is in (your) hand! — with that.. ..4(n) = VS 16. Kashmir .17 = PS 14. . ama h´ ´ ¯ a n ayaks m´ a y¯ a p´ a ri bhuja t´ ay¯ a tv´ am vi´ s v´ a to asm ... ms. ´ ¯ ¯ CEN.19) due to eyeskip.14. 83) on stanzas 2. medustama BD(m´ ı ) HIJKMOPQTUVXYZ. e y´ Homage be to the serpents.t . y´ e div´ ı] ABCFGHIJKMNOQRSTUVWXZ. m¯ ıdus t ama FGLR .. m´ in transmission of a vertical stroke over the first aks . . KS reads prthivya ¯m a ´ dhi.: mitus tama. ‘with that [missile] which confers freedom from .18–20. a ay¯ a ABDE(double accent resulting from the loss . hus .8. i.1 ¯ ´ nu | n´ amo ’stu sarp´ ebhyo y´ e k´ e ca prthiv´ ım a ˚ y´ e ant´ ariks e div´ ı t´ ebhyah ebhyo n´ amah . ye devi LPY ¯ Parallels: = MS 2.7–8. . 1.22–23. ˚ 2. . ´ ´ ¯ ] ABDEGHIJKLNOQRSUVWXZ. which is free of disease. sarp´ . ˚ KS 16.e.22. ara?) Parallels: MS 2. .. babh uva DE Σ vi´ s v´ a to] ACDE Σ ( . embrace us on every side! Y omits y¯ a te hetir by eyeskip (see 2. . t´ . .17.16). MS has s ´iv´ am babh uva ¯ . KS 17.a ˚ ..12–13. ´ vato B ´ yaks v´ ıs ayaks ay¯ a] CΣ. See my introduction (p. ´ b. t¯ misprints?). . B HATTACHARYA prints mid hus t ama .19 = PS 19.3(g) = VS 13. cf. The NU manuscripts provide ample testimony for the form m¯ ıd tama. (With) that missile of yours. Since L OPEZ records the NU reading as m¯ ıd ama (two . TS 4.9. m¯ ı d us t ama A (mi .2 ´ ¯ ´ y´ ¯ y´ e c¯ am ´ ı rocan´ e divo e ca suryasya ra´ sm´ ıs .15: whichever ones [move] along the ground. ´ b. yo T m¯ ıd .7 TIMOTHY LUBIN ´ ´ ¯ te dh´ ¯ te het´ anuh ır m¯ ıd aste babhuva ya .5 = RVKh 2. ayaks ay¯ a. cd.112 2. the NU.. hus .2:122.5. . which is not transmitted in the PS tradition (Orissa mss. . ama] ◦ ◦ )S. .: madhus thama).6 = ApMP 2.22. homage! G omits p¯ ada d (and p¯ ada a of 2. hus . m´ .2. . s t ama W babh uva] ABC . [and] those in the sky: to those serpents. .

TS.8. but Arlo Griffiths’ provisional edition of this stanza emends to include v¯ a. MS. MS. MS reads: y´ e am¯ ı. or to those which lie in holes in the ground. MS: ya ¯ v´ anasp´ at¯ ın¯ am. ye Y.tes u] ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWYZ .7.18) due to eyeskip. 2. O Arundhat¯ ı. and those in the rays of the sun. VS: y´ e v¯ am´ ¯ ı. A v¯ ava. TS 4. TS 4. 2 . The NU evidence provides almost unanimous support for this emendation to PS 19. KS. . All manuscripts of the PS show the same reading as Y. u (PS. div´ ı DEHIKLMNOQRSUVXYZ. TS. svaja .22.15:97. homage! G omits p¯ ada a (along with p¯ ada d of 2.9 ´ ´ ¯ n¯ ¯ ¯ n¯ y´ ah am ılagr¯ ıvo y´ ah am arir ut´ a| . Although it appears to belong to the archetype of the NU. 3. KS. and is alone in having them in the same order as in the PS and the NU. to those serpents. .15:238.3(i) = VS 13.15:97.a ´ ´ rocan´ e] BCDEFHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWZ. ´ a. v¯ am´ ı ABCT(◦ mi)VZ . KS: y´ e v¯ ad´ o.17.7. KS 16. .16–17.20 ≈ PS 19.2. which moreover offers the closest parallel to this group of stanzas.14–15. KS read: y´ e apsu ´ s´ ad¯ amsi ˘ cakrir´ e (phonetic differences aside). and the green one of the vipers.2.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . MS. ApMP). sma T ¯ Parallels: MS 2. ] BCDEΣ. the reading ye v¯ avat´ es e [a]vat´ es . homage! ´ ´ ´ tu¯ ] ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW. ya ´ ¯ n¯ dha an¯ am y´ e v¯ a] ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWZ.u s To those that are the arrows of the sorcerers. ¯ ¯ m¯ ¯ c¯ am´ ı] D(c¯ am¯ ı)E(c¯ am¯ ı)FHIJKLac (→ s ı)MNOPQRSUWXY. KS 16.8. RVKh read: y´ e v¯ a suryasya ¯ . rocano Y. c. ˚ ´ b. O plant. KS reads: y´ es a y¯ atudha ¯ n¯ a. VS 13. ¯ Parallels: MS 2. VS: y´ e v¯ a v´ anasp´ at¯ ımr ˘ a ´ nu.22. [and] the spotted-tailed. ´ a. avo y¯ ´s ´e ´ rate t´ y´ e v¯ avat ebhyah ebhyo n´ amah . ya XYZ ¯ n¯ ¯ ya y¯ atudha an¯ am . you shall devour [them].3–4. u v¯ ´ ˙ b. rocate X divo] ABCFJPW. or to those of the trees. yo v¯ aX y´ e . T inserts this stanza marginally. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 113 And those in the bright vault of the sky.21 = PS 8.15:238.5–6. RVKh: y` e ’d´ o.e .7. y´ . u instead of y´ .3(h) = ApMP 2. apucham os . ˚ ˙ c.7. . rocane A. MS begins with y´ a.3 ´ ´ ¯´ ¯ n¯ ya ıs atudha an¯ am e v¯ a v´ anasp´ at¯ ın¯ am | . TS.7 = ApMP 2. sarp´ . those whose seat is made in the water: to those serpents.3b.6 = RVKh ˚ 2. KS) may be a borrowing from the TS (= ¯ VS. h´ ´ ¯s kalma ay¯ asy arundhati .14.8. adhe jambh´ The blue-necked of the vipers. n´ . HIT A .92 . svaja .17. yo v¯ a pavat es u X .

n´ . dhati ABCFG( ru. Rgvedic pattern of occurring mainly with imperative or subjunctive ˚ verb forms. 57 This also explains why they are transmitted together under the name ‘Rudrasukta’ ¯ in the Nepalese manuscripts D and E.1. svaAB CDEFGJ( n¯ am) am) PQ( nam) am) am) jan¯ an HIKM. bh´ ◦ ´ ¯ ) E. apuch´ ´ kalp¯ as apuchan G os adhe] BCFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWX Y .16. Brhaspati. . In both instances of the word. Homage to them both. jabhay¯ ´ n¯ ab.10. instead of svaj´ an¯ am ar¯ ayan . the black snake [is your] protector. . and Yama. bh´ . . ayat¯ . pp. ))KNPRSTUXY. despite its not conforming to the older. h´ ar¯ ırutah . These hymns are together given the title ‘Rudragan s 32. the specific identifications noted here. But I take this as a case of ‘sa-fig´ e’. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˘ NO( n¯ ˘ ˘ RST( n¯ ˘ U( n¯ ˘ VW(stva )XY. esp. and serpent powers that protect. v¯ . dhat¯ .25 refers to two stanzas (rcau) which it calls digyukte. kalma . Soma.114 TIMOTHY LUBIN ´ ¯ n¯ (a) svaja am an¯ am an¯ an)DFI(svajan¯ a(+m . and that pro´ ´ ´ tect the piled Agni: sam´ ¯ ıc¯ ı na ¯ m¯ asi pra ¯ c¯ ı d´ ık | t´ asy¯ as te ’gn´ ır a ´ dhipatir asit´ o raks ¯| . DE. a. p´ rd¯ aku (Russell’s viper). perhaps for deictic or emphatic effect. the governing lord and the protector! Let them two show us kindness! I place him whom we hate and who hates us in your jaws’.17 they are also included in . a’ in AVPari´ the ‘Raudragan . kalma ¯s ıva (spotted-necked snake) (corre. ] Z. ‘towards (his) devotees’.5. This passage seems to be an adaptation of SS 3.a . FJNOPQRTUVW.55 svaj´ a (python?).26 and 3. 55 For . 56 For instance. s ´vitr´ a (white snake?). svajan¯ an¯ am (b) svaja am an¯ am . The original sense is clarified by a comparison with TS 5. hari{·}tam . In other words. jam ´ urum D(jambhy´ aya as aradhati R . 235–237).56 The Kau´ sS 14. ´ ˚ respectively). apucham] BDEFHIJKLMNOPQRSTUW( putsam) XYZ. N¯ understands it as a masculine plural (svajan¯ an). a’. the word asit´ a (black snake) is changed to the names ˚ of various other snakes. svaj´ . . svaj´ . jam aya . . har¯ ır uta . JL . dvis . jam ay¯ as . harer uta SXY. a larger grouping.57 in 32. ABC(svaj´ . ita ´ ´ ´ y´ as ´ ca ¯ dhipatir y´ as ´ ca gopta ¯ ta ¯ bhy¯ am amas t´ au no mrd am | t´ e y´ am o y´ as ´ ca no . os adhe ADE. which has better readings. or other attested readings. agr¯ lated with governing lords [a ´ dhipati] Indra. or as predicate of a first person subject in a copular phrase.27. bhayasv¯ . j´ your governing lord [is] Agni. ◦ ´ carum os ı Z jambh´ ay¯ asy arundhati] em. the cardinal points. which contains a sequence of expiatory mantras directed to the gods that govern. see L UBOTSKY 2004. t´ ıra´ scir¯ aji ˚ ´ (banded krait). M. sva◦ ´ ¯ n¯ j´ an¯ an EGHM OQVW(stva ). t´ e here anticipates and ‘doubles’ the unexpressed vay´ am. ] Z. Only a single manuscript (Z) retains the correct form svaja ¯ am . Aligned by name. . Varun . a constraint that was greatly relaxed in later Vedic prose (see J AMISON 1992. The pronoun t´ e in the TS phrasing of the formula ‘whom we hate and who hates us’ (occurring thus also in numerous places in the MS and KS) is dismissed by K EITH (1914: 342) as “hardly more than an anacoluthon”. svajan¯ an¯ am L h´ a rir ut´ a ] ABC (h´ ı rir) G (ah¯ arir)IKLZ. dhati M. plural dadhmah in the SS ´ agrees better with the preceding first-person plurals . than TS dad¯ ami..27. adh¯ ´ ¯s ´ carundhati dhati)H(◦ rum ı)IJKLNOPQSTUVWX(◦ rudhati)YZ. harita → harer uta H ◦ ´ ´ ¯s ¯s kalma am AC.. D¯ arila ˚ ´ identifies these as the first stanzas of SS 3. m´ ˚ dv´ es ti t´ am am ambhe dadh¯ ami | ‘You are the eastern direction. In the succeeding series of vikrtis. . glossing with bhakt¯ an prati. I have retained the translation ‘viper’ for svaj´ a because a harmful snake seems to be meant.

n¯ ı l¯ a gala´ s ı l¯ a h OQ . SS ´ babhru´ ´ s ca babhrukarn ´ .~va◦ > . pa´ The brown and the brown-eared. n¯ ı lagalam¯ a lah S ( → s¯ a lah ) Y .Na va. ena ca | n¯ .5.pa. n¯ ıl¯ akala´ sa ¯ l¯ a | .8 ´ ´ s ca babhrukarn ´ ¯ l¯ ´ iv´ babhru´ s ca n¯ ıl¯ agalasa as ah sya | . The Kashmir ms.}Ba. the scribe’s eye skipped from | ba to vi. vidv¯ vidhin¯ as ´rapayed budhah .): Look! G omits this stanza and half of the next. pa´ vas sc¯ a.a.3. .ya.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS .8: †babhru´ s ca babhrukarn s ca n¯ ıl¯ akala´ sa ¯ l¯ as ´avah sya† |58 . a´ . ´ babhrukarn s] ABCDEFHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWY. the one (f. . . The affinity between these mantras and NU 3.16. W. n¯ ı l¯ a gagalasyal¯ a h Z . a’s reading of p¯ mediate stage in the corruption of the underlying form .ja.~va. s . It is likely that the archetype had the correct reading. . n¯ ıl{a ıva´ s ca yah ılas¯ al¯ a V s ah . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 115 If the similarities noted here were not enough to show a close connection ´ 3. pa´ {tau}s ´ava´ sa´ sya V/122. n¯ . n¯ ı l¯ a galag?r?¯ a l¯ a h . babhruvarn s XZ n¯ ıl¯ agala. ara: . HIT A . j´ ambhe [dadh¯ ami] in TS — despite the nearly .ja. Most manuscripts have the last reading.22 ≈ PS 19.21 can be seen even in the ´ similarity of wording: svaj´ a mentioned alongside kalma ¯s . Hence. the benign (m. n ı l¯ a galas a l¯ a h B . jambh´ ay¯ asi here. ¯ n¯ ılagajamalah X . (+n¯ ı )l¯ a galas a ah .a. a´ ◦s ◦ )NPR(◦ s¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ¯ l¯ ¯ l¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ l¯ sa a] Tac .s . pa´ ´ 6.ya.) with the bluish ineffectual poison. as we find it used in the Agnicayana liturgy of the Yajurveda. apuccha here.ja. .[ea.5 for use in the performance of the Brahmay¯ aga: hutv¯ abhy¯ at¯ anamantr¯ am ´ ca tato rudragan ılarudrai´ s carum an . M.( ãÉa◦ . an eyeskip encouraged perhaps by the fact that in both positions. its title must therefore derive from association with a rite for Agni in his fierce guise as Rudra. n¯ ıl¯ agalasa ah AFIJKL ( a a h ) U . the word babhru occurs shortly afterwards. n¯ ıl¯ agalam¯ al¯ a(+h ) H . pa´ 58 The .Na. .ya. a´ .22. d. n ı l¯ a g´ a lam¯ a lah DE .3cd–4: Cf. . beginning with the second aks .a.5.23c. G actually reads: Á Á ba:+.ya. pa´ sy´ eta DE PS 19. ara of 3.26–27) and the NU. alongside ´ kalma ¯s ıva in TS.a◦ > .}Ba.Zua . pc ´a ¯ l¯ ¯ }agr¯ ´ iv´ ´ ivah n¯ ılagr¯ ıvam a T .a:(õ. a´ s ca ¯ pehi n´ ır a ¯ la ´ ´ ´ ´ alasa ¯ l¯ asi purv¯ ¯ a sila ¯ nj¯ ˜ al¯ asy uttar¯ ´ a | n¯ ıl¯ agalasa ¯ l¯ a Orissa PS readings for p¯ ada b are: n¯ ıl¯ akala´ sa ¯ l¯ a | savah sya Pa Ji4.}Ba. up to and including the first syllable of 3.a. DEFHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ pa´ sya] ABCFHIJKLMNOPQRS UVWYZ. s . The name Rudra does not appear in this hymn.ya.}Ba. pa · sya → yasya T. ] ABC. . pa´ sy¯ a X. N¯ ar¯ ayan ada d as jambhay¯ as ´v arundhati represents an inter. . agr¯ opposite implication.ja.a. n¯ ıl¯ akala´ sa ¯ l¯ ah sya JM. reads: n¯ ıl¯ akala´ sa ¯s ´a. a´ . ◦ ´ ¯ C. .~ya◦ > .}Ba. .ja.a.Brua. | savah . while one ◦ (M) has seemingly retained two versions of the ambiguous aks . a (SS are both prescribed by AVPari´ s 19b. 3. there is also the fact that they between the Rudragan . .

yato ABFG HIJKMNOPQR( tah . DE bhav´ ena] ABCFHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. 4. G omits p¯ adas ab and the first aks ada c (see apparatus under 3. p. ◦ ´ DE. )STUVWXY. babhrun . which confirms that the visarga often read at the end of n¯ ıl¯ agalasa ¯ l¯ a 59 is spurious and that the accent is probably correct.a ¯m :! +:pa. virup . by Bhava. so I have corrected the numbering accordingly.a ¯ ] ABCD EFGIJKNOPQTUVWYZ.a ´ ¯ ] em. or by making no division at all (Tac WZ). s´ . hence. O poisonless one [reading.. a’s reading (OQ) or the emendation proposed by him (M) (see the translation of the commentary on this stanza below.23 = PS 20. a] em. The three Orissa manuscripts used by Arlo Griffiths to edit this stanza insert a dan ıl¯ akala´ sa ¯ l¯ a.. 1996: 51.e ´ .[ea.a ¯ va ¯ cam v´ ırup¯ ato hat´ am . 640. . by the father of the Maruts. yato the interpretation of the words in this stanza. y´ . (or s .4 mentions also alasa ´ [you have?] a bluish ineffective poison [. a D(? . a. also M AYRHOFER 1992: 126. by including it with the preceding hemistich (ABCDEFKNPRSUY).55. . whose eyes are distorted. 59 On . 3.v!a. The manuscripts of the NU deal with this word by setting it off with a dan . HSM vadis ato] vadis adis . ?]”.d . easier still in S¯ a — has given rise to the readings of the Kashmiri and Nepalese manuscripts XYDE (W is corrupt here) and H. SS ¯ l¯ a ´ ´ and sila ¯ nj¯ ˜ al¯ a. Partially parallel is SS eared one: go away.a . ara of p¯ ac pc ´a ´ rven ´ arven s arven en . a n´ .e . 132). by including it with the following hemistich (Hac IMOQ T pc X). en . [the thought] of him who is about to raise his voice is struck down. a babhrun . s . ´ 6..16. en . babhrun ¯m ¯ . vadis . s ´ivah ´avah . a ABCΣ. sarv´ . Both the brown and the brownab. nir¯ ala].22). pitra . ena bhav´ ´ ¯ aks ´n ´ . LX. .Na)E babhrun . y´ ´ By blue-crested Sarva. The variant readings for n¯ ıl¯ agalas¯ al¯ a in several of the manuscripts reflect N¯ ar¯ ayan . v´ . . You have an inocuous poison before. with the commentator. a ABCFH IJKLNOPQRSTUVWXY.10 ´ ´a ´ rven ¯ ´ am ¯| s ıla´ sikhan ena marut¯ . The hypermetric word pa´ sya is a source of some uncertainty. The visarga added to this word probably anticipates the visarga of the following word. see H OFFMANN 1956: 9–13 = 1975–76: 390–94. bh´ avena DE pitra ´ ´ ¯ ABCΣ−G ¯ aks ¯ aks ´n ¯ a ¯ ks pita v´ ırup¯ ırup¯ . by the brown one.!a.d . Reading m for s ´ arad¯ — easy enough in Devan¯ agar¯ ı.d . thus throwing off the numbering.. The sense of the stanzas requires that they be divided as in the PS. according to the PS).16. you have a mineral-salve [poison?] after.116 TIMOTHY LUBIN ´ 6. a] em. the reading of the 1872 Bibliotheca Indica edition (followed by the 1891 edition): n¯ ılagalam¯ alah . a or space on both sides (H pc JL). a H MZ. a after n¯ Many manuscripts (and earlier editions) treat the first hemistich of the next stanza as the continuation of this stanza.3cd–4: “3cd. v´ ..

´a ´ rva] em. as noted above. pit¯ janako brahm¯ a yena ¯ ıs ´varen a hatah tam tvam pa´ s yety anvayah ). o veda devo brhaspatih .. en . the accentuation of this word in ABC seems not to preserve the ancient pattern: the accent on the antepenult of the first word is correct for s´ arven ´arv´ en . . the begetter of the soul alone.25c). yato hatam The emendation of hat´ ah am. + virup¯ ¯ aks ¯ v¯ acam .) Also wrong is the double accenting of v´ ırup¯ ¯ aks ´n . (It is also possible that the accent s ´a ´ rven . as exemplified in N¯ ar¯ ayan a’s explanation . sarvar¯ aja → sa(+va)rpar¯ aja ´ ¯ ¯ ı la´ s ikhan d en´ L.. n . n¯ ıla´ si R v´ ıra] D(v´ ıra)E. . HIT A . under. hat´ ah . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 117 vadis et´ e → vadis adis hat´ am] em. a. yatah . .60 is to treat it as if it did indeed read pitr¯ a. ABC. which. vibh´ ´ O Sarva the Blue-Crested.55.. assumes. vadis . ikarman . vidis . am ˚ s ´arven a n¯ ı la´ s ikhan d ena bhavena marut¯ a m pitr¯ a| . 3.a may anticipate the correct form s ´a ´ rva at the beginning of 3. rva W n´ ıla´ sikhan d a] ABCFIJKLNOPQUVW . of course. . a is correct. d. s´ s arva ABCDEFGHIJKMNOPQRSUVXYZ. 127. . a but not for s . and the NU tradition. was not part of the earlier context of this stanza. O hero in deed after deed. The reading pita ¯ in the manuscripts. a v´ ´ ´ ¯ m asya pra ¯s ´ am ima ened´ am aj¯ amahe . N¯ ar¯ ayan . yato L pc ac DEFGHIJ KMN OPQRSTUVWXYZ. the integral connection of the preceding word pa´ sya. cannot be construed. who reads hatah .e . yato Z. . ´ b. jahi y´ . . | ˚ indro yad vrtrah¯ a veda tat satyam . In PS 20.a . R a. a . ‘look’ at him [i. 132. hitah . was suggested to me by Alexander Lubotsky. hatah . the PS reading found also in two of the NU manuscripts. a babhrun . om.24 ≈ PS 20. a. strike down that petition ´ (? pra ¯s ´) of him with whom we share in this.i | . . vadis . yeto C. obviously an error for PS pitr¯ a. the Lord]” (atha v¯ acam a deham¯ atrasya . y´ . LN . This explanation .e. of it.d . vy¯ . ¯ DEGHMSXZ.9–10 this stanza is paired with another: yad veda r¯ aj¯ a varun . cittamohan .24... ) by the Lord (who is) ‘the father of him who will raise his voice’ = Brahman.60. you who are ‘struck down’ (hatah . attempts to make sense of the stanza as follows: “The construction is: Now. (found in all PS and NU manuscripts) to hat´ standing the subject to be cittam from the prior stanza..7 ´a ´ rva n´ ¯ ¯ s ıla´ sikhan ıra k´ arman . Assuming that the reading s ´arven . Y omits most of this stanza and half of the next due to eyeskip (from n¯ ıla´ sikha◦ in p¯ ada a to the same in 3.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . a. v¯ ıra ABCFGHIJKLMNOPQRSUVWXZ 60 See pp. .

25 = PS 20.a ´ Homage to Bhava. W kum¯ ara´ satr´ ave] AB( s ´ atrave FGHIKMNPRSWXZ. i] CDEFGHIJKLMN O(karman . not found in this form in any of the manuscripts. i AB ´ ´ ´ ¯ m A. asy¯ ◦ ´ ¯ mahai ABCN. Nevertheless. kum¯ ´a ´ mbhave DE kum¯ ar¯ aya s ar¯ aya s sabh¯ apr´ ap¯ adine] ´ ¯ pr´ ap¯ adine C. vi.118 TIMOTHY LUBIN ◦ i{karmani})UVWXZ. k´ arman .d .61 It was probably 61 One early example of this is the passage in the Mah¯ abh¯ arata (7. ikarman . so that the accent would also be appropriate for sarva (the form actually appearing in the manuscripts). . ´ Cf. sabha a. ik´ .6 ´ ´ ¯ ya n´ ´ arva ¯ ya n´ n´ amo bhava amah amah ara´ satr´ ave | . vibhaj¯ amahi R PS 20. as is the double accenting of k´ arman arman . (+ya) ima ¯m B ¯s ´ am ´ ima asya pra ] ABCFGHIJKL MNOPQRSUVWXZ a sya . kum¯ ¯ ¯ ya n´ n´ amo n´ ıla´ sikhan amah apr´ ap¯ adine .d . i in AB.d . However. the latter reading seems to have belonged to the NU from the beginning of its circulation as an independent text. aye)JLOQTUV. ´ ´ ¯ r´ ´ am ´ i → asya pr¯ ´e T ¯ mahe] em. However. The unaccented p¯ ada-initial v¯ ıra found in the manuscripts is incorrect. would in fact be accented on the first syllable at the beginning of the p¯ ada. vibh¯ bhaj¯ amahe GHIJKLMOPQSTUVWX(vibhra )Z. the vocative s ´a ´ rva. homage to Sarva. has. a v¯ . . y´ a . Like 1. sabh¯ aprap¯ ad´ ıne DE ABΣ( bh¯ a◦ W). sarv¯ aya G. The epithet Kum¯ ara´ satru. . DE. the stanza opens with a catalectic p¯ ada containing a vocative invocation of the god. SS 2. prisingly. homage to him who goes to the assembly! Y omits p¯ adas ab and the first word of c due to eyeskip (see 3.57. om. ikarman . ´ ¯ m] CDEFGHIJKL MNOPQRSTUV(i(+m¯ k´ arman arman ima a)m)WXZ. 3. above).62.27. ik´ . abhes . ´ ¯ ya] ABCD(´ ´ arva n´ amah sarv¯ aya)E(´ sarv¯ aya)FHIJKMNOPQRSTUVXZ.i | im¯ am asya pr¯ as ´am jahi yenedam vivad¯ a mahe . not surb. i)PQRST( n .60.1–5 as well): rudra ´ j´ al¯ as ¯ ıla´ sikhan armakrt | .5.7: s ´arva n¯ ıla´ sikhan ıra karman . homage to Kum¯ ara’s foe.s .. krum¯ ara´ sa L.49–59) in which Arjuna . worried later audiences familiar with the Pur¯ an . . vibhaja aj¯ amahai → vibh¯ aj¯ amahe F. namah aya . d.6 (p¯ ada cd is the refrain of 2. ´ evidently applied to Rudra. v os . sabh¯ . s . The PS reading vivad¯ amahe (yielding the sense ‘with whom we quarrel over this’) is much better than vibh´ aj¯ amahe. the PS version of this stanza includes it as well. ic mythology which ´ makes Kum¯ ara (alias Skanda) Siva’s son rather than his rival. homage to the Blue-crested.24. v´ pra as a pr¯ as as vibhaja ıbhaj¯ amahe DE. sarv¯ ◦ ´ atr´ ´ trave C.27. a k´ ˚ ´ ´ ´ pra ¯s ´am pr´ a tipr a ¯ s ´ o jahy aras a ¯ n kr n . aja n´ . adhe ˚ a. The scansion of the overlong first p¯ ada could be rectified by omitting the second n´ amah .

1:119.20–21.17–21 = MNU 277–286) which become important in the later of aspects of Rudra-Siva (TA ´ development of the Saiva religion. thaka includes only the first mantra in the series (to Rudra Mah¯ adeva). address him as the defeater of another being seen as a threat. pracod´ tation to Rudra-veneration of the famous S¯ avitr¯ ı mantra (RV 3. and named ‘supreme lord of ghosts’ (bhut¯ ¯ an¯ am ´ sukum¯ adhipatir asi). AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 119 this doubt which inspired N¯ ar¯ ayan ar¯ aya s ´atrave. but G RIFFITHS (2006.57. 63 The K¯ a. Acknowledging that Rudra’s own character was ambivalent in the same way. e | 7. 64 The word s ´ ´ ´i´ suma ¯ ra or s ´im ´uma ¯ ra denotes the Gangetic dolphin or the crocodile. For example. aya The change of the NU’s kum¯ ara´ satrave to kum¯ aragurave looks like a deliberate ‘repair’ performed on the older source text. Its ety. Si´ sum¯ ara. 62 The syntax of this stanza is awkward. hit¯ What was the relation of Rudra and Skanda in the earliest references to them? Skanda’s early character was that of a demon that attacked children with illness. n.51 ¯ s nityam ıla´ sikhan ´uline ¯ divyacaks . construed ˜ as a compound. while invoking him for his healing powers.63 In ´ both Sam as. TA 10. The first two words.50 ¯ ¯ kumaragurave nityam n¯ ı lagr¯ ı v aya vedhase | . ´ ¯ 10. the fourth of the Pancabrahma-Mantras. The name Kum¯ ara does occur in the Vedic literature.52ab .10).9. The impression that this stanza is a later interpolated extension ˚of the pattern is reinforced by its absence in the corresponding passage KS 17. which in turn is a loose adap. skand´ . esp. in . due to the insertion of datives and the verb vidmahe into a sentence that was not intended to accommodate them. No Vedic narrative concerning such a defeat is known to me.57.49 pa´ sun¯ ¯ am . a to read two datives. on account of its omission in one manuscript and other irregularities in other manuscripts. . is invoked also as Si´ ara (or even . MS 2. as implied in the epithet kum¯ ara´ satru. n¯ .1. we may still suppose that one might. Several of the names of Mah¯ prays for the P¯ as adeva in the first part of this invocation seem to have been drawn from the NU: ¯ s ´ arvaya ¯ rudraya ¯ varad¯ namo bhavaya aya ca | ¯ ca kapardine 7. This leaves the question of what the epithet refers to. ¯ dhumr¯ vilohitaya ¯ aya vy¯ adh¯ ay¯ anapar¯ ajite 7.11 reads: t´ at ¯ ´ ´ kum¯ ara ¯ ya vidmahe k¯ arttikeya ¯ ya dh¯ ımahi | t´ an nah ah ay¯ at (cf.57. a.62. Skanda’s ´ subordination to Siva in later mythology can be seen as consonant with his defeat by the latter.19. 6) has identified in Tumburu a perhaps similar instance of a deity hostile to Rudra in ´ the Atharvaveda who becomes associated with him in later Saiva texts. the alternate form s ´im ´um¯ ara seems to suggest that it is a loanword rather .64 Rudra ´ upata weapon.. pataye nityam ugraya ¯ tryambak¯ ´ ambhave | mah¯ adev¯ aya bh¯ ımaya aya ca s ¯ ıs ´a ¯ n¯ aya bhagaghn¯ aya namo ’stv andhakagh¯ atine 7. pracod´ MNU 75). and ‘best of ghosts’ (bhut¯ ¯ an¯ am ´res tho ’si).11:253. This comes in a series of variants of the formula t´ at purus ´ . identified with a constellation. HIT A . VON S CHROEDER (in his note 8 on this stanza) deems it “verd¨ achtig”. At the end of TA ´ 2. us .57. the Satarudriya immediately follows.s mology is disputed. s . were taken over as Tatpurus names .6 = .a ¯ ya vidmahe 62 ´ mah¯ adeva ¯ ya dh¯ ımahi | t´ an no rudr´ ah ay¯ at.s ¯ than a compound containing the word s ´isu (see M AYRHOFER 1996: 641–642). .d .¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . kum¯ place of the compound kum¯ ara´ satrave.

26 = PS 20.d . 3. 65 This was suggested to me by Arlo Griffiths. perhaps the one where 65 ´ the pra ¯s ´ (3. a is included for the convenience of the reader. Could this be a reference to a cultic observance? The D¯ ıpik¯ a of N¯ ar¯ ayan . or at least correlated with Bhava and Sarva. On the other hand. The mules convey N¯ ıla´ sikhan . namah . ´ va◦ SXY). Whether this is the result of a scribal error or a deliberate word-play. I have punctuated the text according to its sense. ab. The text of the stanzas as read by N¯ ar¯ ayan . It might even be that the ´ sun and moon are identified with.. a: Edited Text and Translation In the text of the commentary.24) is contested. a´ ´ C ¯ a´ svatar´ au] ABΣ(¯ as svat´ aro gardabha ´ ¯v A g´ arddabha abh´ ıtah . ‘By night. abhitah svarau M .5: naktam ı mrgayete div¯ a . alluding to Rudra’s reputation of bringing disease.62. and their sources are identified. words cited from the stanzas appear in boldface.62. the two yellow [mules] pursue [their course?]. skarau AHIKP. The ‘two yellow mules.a ´ n´ amah sabh¯ a pr´ a p¯ a dina ı ti 3 . and perhaps even most consistent. abhitasrarau L t´ a smai] ABC Σ . PS 20.d . . we might simply understand kum¯ ara´ satru ´ to mean ‘enemy of children’. form of ‘punctuation’ in the manuscripts is the practice ´ sum¯ Si´ arakum¯ ara. homage to him who goes to the assembly! ´ v] BCDEΣ. The most frequent. according to a variant reading). no other evidence is known to confirm or disprove this speculation. sarau | ´ ¯ ya n´ amah apr´ ap¯ adine ıla´ sikhan t´ asmai n¯ . a ´s ´ vatarau DE. sarau FG(abhivatah . two donkeys running on either side’ may refer ´ to the moon and sun. So far.7 [found only in Orissa manuscripts of the PS] ´ ¯ v abh´ ıtah y´ asya h´ ar¯ ı a´ svatar´ au gardabha . a to the assembly. by day. Since the use of punctuation is highly variable in the manuscripts. sabh¯ . abhitah . it might point to a notion of Kum¯ ara as ‘killer of children’. har¯ ˚ suparn aya ca s ´arv¯ aya cobh¯ abhy¯ am akaram . to that Blue-Crested one. the two red ones that are ´ birds. cd. abh´ ıtah . sarau] em. To both Bhava and Sarva I have paid homage’). sarau)O(abhitassa◦ rau). which are closely associated with Bhava and Sarva in the PS hymn in which this stanza occurs (cf. quotations from other works appear in italics. Readings that differ from those accepted in the edition of the stanzas themselves appear in bold italics. abh´ ıtaskarau BC DEJNQRSTUV(ani )WX(itaskarau)YZ. seemingly the literal meaning of s ´i´ sum¯ ara. To him who has two yellow mules.120 TIMOTHY LUBIN as healer might then be invoked as the opponent of this child-killer. arohitau | bhav¯ . two donkeys running on either side. om t´ a smai DE . .

AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 121 of writing words in pausa form (as if sentence-final) — even in mid-sentence — for clarity. normal sandhi has been applied. I have made use of a comma to serve as a half-dan .a . Sometimes these are strung together to recreate the syntax of the original in double form. n¯ . e´ . D¯ . s . that is. in which an editor has made a number of substantial changes unconnected with the variants recorded at the bottom of the page. shorter state of the text. These are lacking in H (and in Ed1 ).n . . a. I have included them in the text and translation. e´ . In this edition.. where they are identifiable by the use of a smaller typeface. Text apa´ syam avarohantam ım avah . On the whole.1 1 n¯ ılarudropanis sy¯ am .66 In the translation. divitah . Both editions seem to have silently incorporated a number of conjectural emendations.d .s . besides the simple errors that are found in them. and are not to be deferred to as giving superior readings overall. however. ad 1. and are enclosed within single quotation marks. e´ . 1. At times (e. There are a number of passages.d . however. as. tv¯ .d . inam ´ r¯ ¯ ya namah s ıgan sa . To make a readable translation. followed by a synonym or paraphrase with the same inflection. Much of the D¯ ıpik¯ a consists of simple glosses: a word from the text is cited (usually in the same form as it has in the mula ¯ ). a’s gloss. HEd2 . I have been reluctant to clutter the text with dan . s . a´ .9). H and Ed1 show other corruptions of their own. rudram . but found in the group of Pune manuscripts (and in Ed2 ). khan .g. adi s . 66 Evidence ´ r¯ ¯ ya namah ´ r¯ ¯ ya namah ´ r¯ ¯ ya namah ´ r¯ ¯ ya namah 1 s ıgan sa ıgan sa ıkrs ı2 . as are quotations from other works (which are duly identified). that I suspect of being additions to an earlier. HIT A . Ed1 . for reasons of clarity. s ıkrs ı1 .d . but I also felt it would misrepresent the text to apply sandhi even in places where the sandhi-less reading seems to have been a deliberate measure to ensure clarity. om. tha. ranging in length from a single word to a few lines. both to mark a break within a sentence and (in a few cases) to indicate a place where. od .n ˚ ˚ om . prthiv¯ . or if the very form of the word is at issue) — are enclosed in double quotation marks. I have inserted an equal sign (=) between the paired elements of these glosses. the D¯ ıpik¯ a acts virtually as a padap¯ a.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . ] KOQ. The glosses follow an equal sign. Except cases of the latter type. words quoted from the stanzas — whether the English equivalent or the original Sanskrit (if translating it would duplicate the translation of N¯ ar¯ ayan . akatrayam | ¯ ´ rama ediof such emendation is to be found in the galley-sheets for the Anand¯ as tion (see note 46 above). | ˚ apa´ syam asyantam ılagr¯ ıvam ´ikhan . the scribes avoided applying external sandhi.a . Rather than relegate them to the notes. D¯ .

ipantam ks 7–11 anen¯ avat¯ araprayojanam uktam | ayam adis . bhes aj¯ a s HEd . rudr¯ . . o barhacud . bhais ajya´ s Q . at praty as . av¯ ır¯ an ap¯ ani hanty .. .a ˚ ¯m n atat¯ am s t v¯ a tam bhay¯ a t tamase nyayojayat | sa bhuvi tapa´ s cac¯ a ret¯ ı tih¯ a sah ] om. rudrasam . jan¯ asah pa´ s yatemam n¯ ı lagr¯ ı vam vilohitam 1.. ipt¯ . ◦ aks a samudramathan¯ avasare samudre . ayor] s sva-Prak¯ as ´a d 14 adhir . asam . kum¯ . bodhane ceti] sam . . . a ety av¯ . |a ¯ es ırah¯ a rudro jalasabhes ıh . asu . . om. . H . ) Ed1 20–21 v¯ . khy¯ . ajya´ tvam an¯ ad eva | yad v¯ a samudramathan¯ avasare samudre ks an¯ am os .u ´ v¯ srs t im akurvatsu brahman ah krodh¯ ad utpannah kum¯ aro ruroda ten¯ as asya rudra iti n¯ ama . . adh¯ . inam 9 11 ´ ikhan ı tam tarad asy¯ ast¯ ıti s . jal¯ as¯ ah . t¯ a s Ed 19 bhes ajya´ s ] OEd .d . a.122 TIMOTHY LUBIN 3 5 7 ´ rutirupen ¯ . epan . tapase Ed2 12 asy¯ ast¯ ıti] KOEdΣ . nodhane ceti KD¯ . (v. e ks . emam an¯ 1. v¯ ˚ ˚ tapa´ s cac¯ aret¯ ıtih¯ asah ´ ikhan ´ikhan ¯ .1. . adhasΣ 1 2 . . | tayor anya. t¯ at Ed1 6 tv¯ am] ΣEd2 . .a ´ vare As ¯ jjaserasuk As ¯ ıs ´vara] adhir ¯ ıs ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 1. bhovajya´ s D¯ ı1 1 2 1 . ruda Q 9 ten¯ as asya] OQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . em.t .. yoga¯ siddhipradam ılarudram syam iti | divito divah ım .50 . ¯ n | anen¯ avat¯ araprayojanam uktam | ayam asyantam . putrah . p¯ . . | yad v¯ . | jan¯ . bhay¯ . ipt¯ . . ‘tv¯ a ’ tv¯ am Ed1 7 asu ks ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . . | . sam hant¯ ıty Ed1 18 ety¯ agatya v¯ ır¯ an daity¯ an hant¯ ıti v¯ a] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 .4. stauti apa´ . 3 devam ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . | jalaks .47 . . . ˙ ´ akatvam D¯ ı2 . dus . ] KOQD¯ . bodhane ca As . bobhajya´ sK 19–20 amangalan¯ as ] KOQD¯ ı D¯ ı Ed . asy¯ asti HD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 . . odakatvam . vis ks an¯ am os ın¯ am udbhutam atum avat¯ ırn ad evam uktam] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 .d . . ayoh ¯ ntavarga 28 11 s ´ikhan ¯ . ipantam .. iti Σ 2 1 2 . u sr . bodhane ceti pratham¯ .a . aj¯ . sanak¯ . o barhacud . . stauty apa´ aspar´ sayogam uktv¯ a tatsam ayapravartakam . . sak¯ . h¯ . brahman .t . asy¯ ast¯ ı ´ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ Q 13 divah sak¯ a s a d] Σ Ed . | av¯ .a . im akurvatsu brahman ˚ ´ v¯ ´ ca ten¯ as asya rudra iti n¯ ama dattam tata ek¯ a da´ s a sth¯ a n¯ a ny ek¯ a da´ s a n¯ a m¯ a ny ek¯ a da´ s a patn¯ ıs . ah .l. Vi´ .t . tatra Ed1 16 sam ı2 (sano◦ )D¯ ı1 17 hanty] ΣEd2 . ipt¯ . 16 sam ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 2.d .. ayor iti vi´ svah . ] HOD¯ 4–5 yogasiddhipradam ] HKOEd .. deva KQ 4 aspar´ sayogam] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . asu ks brahman adis s ad utpannah aro ruroda .a . devam . khy¯ . tata ek¯ . . | .¯ diva ugro ’v¯ aruks th¯ ad bhumy¯ ¯ am adhi | . putrah . . nirn . epan . adh¯ . HEd1 . 13 15 ´a ¯ d ugro rudrah divah as aruks ırn an | pratyas at prati. bodhane ceti] HOQEdΣ . paramagurum . ten¯ asya K 10 tamase] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 . atv¯ .3. i p¯ ¯ sah av¯ ırah¯ a | ety¯ agatya v¯ ır¯ an daity¯ an hant¯ ıti v¯ a | jale a ks epo y¯ a s¯ a m t¯ a jal¯ as¯ as ´ ca .. thiv¯ . . . . s . ¯ n¯ ¯m dadau | tatsrs am an atat¯ am s a tam at tamase nyayojayat | sa bhuvi . av¯ ırah¯ a saumyah a. e ks . nidh¯ ´ ikhan ¯ . ah . dr .a . ˙ ´ akat¯ a bhes s ca t¯ a et¯ ıty anvayah an¯ am os ın¯ am amangalan¯ as . . ema-nirn ¯ .t . o barhacud . ˚ ´ ca dadau | tatsrs ¯ n¯ dattam ada´ sa sth¯ an¯ any ek¯ ada´ sa n¯ am¯ any ek¯ ada´ sa patn¯ ıs am a.d . diva a k¯ a s a d? 15 iti] KOEd . HEd1 18 jal¯ as¯ as ´] ´ ´ ΣEd2 .t . eyam . . sanak¯ . .2 . ˚ ¯ ¯ ´ vara vacan¯ ıyah | yasm¯ a d adhikam yasya ce´ s varavacanam iti saptam¯ ı | bh umer ıs .97 16 a ¯ jjaserasuk] a ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 7. dr . n¯ .3 17 19 ¯ gacchati | na v¯ ety a ırah¯ a. aks emanirn odakatvam H 1 2 2 . ejakatvam .d . a tam s syam iti kram¯ at . |s . ˚ ´ v¯ HEd1 8 ruroda] K(rudroda) OD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . aspar´ syayogam H . asam . . ah . tam . krodh¯ . prad¯ . . yogasiddhim pradam QD¯ ı D¯ ı 6 avast¯ a d] ΣEd2 . bhumim avah avast¯ a d avarohantam tv¯ a m aham apa´ s yam iti mantradras t ur vacah . ity arthah asah ¯ jjaserasuk sam a| .t . av¯ . iti sv¯ a t HQ (? itit) D¯ ı D¯ ı . ad avat¯ s t h¯ a m sthitim kr tav¯ a n | bh umy¯ ¯ a m adhi | adhir ¯ ı s ´ vara ity adhih karmapra. pr . . | vi te ’ks ına´ sad v¯ at¯ ık¯ aro ’py etu te . rudr¯ . am om.

4. ] OD¯ . ut¯ . ave] KOQD¯ u te is api | utes 29 s a sam¯ asah ısam¯ asah .a 21–23 tava lokasya ¯ ks ına´ sat | anena ks aritvam uktam | alabdhal¯ abho yogas . suman¯ 1.a .a .138 32 nip¯ atasyeti] nip¯ atasya ca As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı . ot .a . 1. . ] KOQD¯ . idam anarthako) 33 nip¯ ata´ s ca] HEd1 . D¯ ı2 (eyeskip) 21 tava lokasya ¯ ks ı1 EdΣ . babhayustitutayasah . arup¯ . at . eptum ity arthah ´ ´ ´ s yan giri´ s yan | sam bandhas¯ a m¯ akam ks eptum? giri´ s antam s yati s yan gireh . krn . ave namah .a ˚ 21 23 25 1. tah .46 34 linarthe ˙ let let ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı .u | .5 27 astave | asu ks . emam . tav¯ aks 21 vy] . KQ .s . giri´ . HEd 30 babhayustitutayasah ] OQEd 1 2. atv¯ . let ¯ n D¯ ¯ n D¯ ¯t ¯ v Q. girin . ¯ ´ vabhayustirutayasah D¯ ı . karot¯ . ..4 ¯ avasth¯ ¯ aya | bh¯ amah a | ut¯ api | u ta is an . yevalopah D¯ ı . . emam ¯ ha v¯ tatk¯ aritvam apy a at¯ ık¯ ara iti | v¯ atih pr¯ a ptih | apr¯ a ptam pr¯ a ptam karot¯ ı ti v¯ a t¯ ık¯ arah . .94 . epan . ] HKQD¯ 33 35 .. om. H . om. babhayustitutayasah . ] KOQD¯ ˚ anirmalam H 32 nip¯ a tasye ti] Σ Ed . .¯ .l. tha 4. ´ am asy¯ ´ am D¯ ı1 . . ac O .a . bhy¯ . . sumanaskam | asad bhavet | linarthe let ¯d ¯ v ity at . e] asu ks .a 35 at ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . HIT A . s . ] ΣEd2 . led ı2 . led av Ed1 .a . ] linarthe . p¯ . nip¯ a tasya ca Ed 33 id anarthako] HD¯ ı D¯ 1 2 1 ı2 Ed2 . as . n¯ . palopah .a . mam . . as . o ’d .o d . epan . | girito s . .t . . y¯ . sarvam ij jagad ayaks . HQ. vad¯ . . y astave | . . ot . kuru | . giritra t¯ .. am 123 | te tava lokasya ¯ ks . tah . | so ’pi te ¯ ¯ gacchatu yogaks tav¯ apurval¯ abhakaro ’py etv a emakaro ’bhis ekajale sam . | yad v¯ . u’ kuru Ed1 .3. sukh¯ . . . ] Ed1 . babhayustitutayasah . u] ita´ . K 34 let ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ .136 33 idanto masi] idanto masi As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 7. . emam an¯ ına´ sat | anena ks aritvam uktam | alabdhal¯ abho yogas tatk¯ aritvam apy . lat . samasy¯ asti KD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 30 girito] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 . nihito . ‘krn 32 accha nirmalam ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . s¯ . hy¯ . . ¯ Ed2 31 giritra] H(giretra)OQ OQEd2 .4. om. ave b¯ y¯ am is santam . om. nip¯ atah KOQD¯ ı ı2 Ed2 1 D¯ . H(paloyah .. ot . vy an¯ .. . 34 bhavet] HOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . . yamalopah 29–30 yad v¯ a kam ´am am asti s . vis dh¯ ın¯ am udbhutam atum avat¯ ırn ad evam uktam . | tip | ita´ . ] HOD¯ . ad .t .s . bhy¯ . . ˙ ad abhis bhavatv ity arthah . . . K 31 kuru] ΣEd2 .a D¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ .7 34 ita´ s ca lopah s ca lopah ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 3. | . giri´ .a . )KQ. lit ¯d ¯ v] Ed2 . As .s .. | . aka | t¯ . vabh uyustrirutayasah D¯ ı 30 s am asy¯ a sti] 1 2 . | so ’pi te] om. le{d ı1 . u m¯ . emam ¯ ha] EdΣ . let ¯ d¯ let av H. uta . . emak¯ . babhayustirupasah K . o ’d . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM ¯ . eke viniyogah namas te bhava bh¯ am¯ aya namas te bhava manyave | namas te astu b¯ ahubhy¯ am uto ta is . ave HEd1 (‘utah . a}t . bh¯ asah 26 ut¯ api | u ta is ı1 D¯ ı2 .a . . ks . .a . krodho manyus tatpurv¯ .. bhy¯ . ˙ 6.a . o ’d . | mantraling¯ .¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS .a . | he . .1. ave Ed2 . um . | accha´ d¯ ırghah ata´ s ca | ayaks ırogam | suma.a . HEd1 26 bh¯ amah ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . ’). oprad . parasmaipades . Ed2 . | tam .2.t . ] kam . h¯ Ed1 29 yalopah ah O .| 27 asu ks atup¯ a. | .o . . tah . nye s a sam¯ asah santam | ch¯ andaso yalopah a kam ´am am . Ed1 22–23 apy a aha HKOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 24 ’py] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . . e | tavenpratyayas tumarthe | astum .97 35 let . kaly¯ s ´ivena vacas¯ a tv¯ a giri´ sa ¯ ch¯ a vad¯ amasi | yath¯ a nah a asat . as .4. . hy¯ ´ am asy¯ ´ am ´ am babhayustitutayasah asti s ı parvatotpannatv¯ ad is .6 29 31 acch¯ a vad¯ amasi | accha nirmalam amah sabdasya nip¯ atasyeti . pr¯ . parasmaipades . .100 29–30 kam ´am am . ath¯ ΣEd2 . haste bibhars s ´iv¯ am am a him ıt purus ¯ n mama . u As ¯d ¯ v As ’d ¯d ¯ v] let ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 3. oh giritra giriraks am ´ iv¯ am an ım . |s ´ am girito s tah sukh¯ ı parvatotpannatv¯ a d is oh ] om. palos . idam arthako KOQEd1 (v. . K 35 let ¯t ¯ v KO.a . o ’d . e Dh¯ . | apr¯ . | idanto masi | id anarthako nip¯ . epan ´ am s am ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 5. parasmaipades . emak¯ ¯ ha v¯ a at¯ ık¯ ara iti | v¯ atih aptih aptam aptam ıti v¯ at¯ ık¯ arah . pam valopah 2 . As 3. mam n¯ ah ˙ let s ca lopah . pr¯ . vy . | s . s . bhy¯ .

sattv¯ ano Ed2 . . arup¯ .11 ¯ aya v¯ ¯h v¯ ajine ’nnavate b¯ an a | s¯ ıdanti satv¯ ano gan .a atho ye asya satv¯ anas tebhyo ’ham akaram . dh¯ .7 . ayoh . ayor] s ´ cety] Source not identified. | tip | at . yanlud t¯ a l QD¯ ı . 37 s ´arur a ¯ yudhakopayoh ] Source not identified.. s . tam¯ . . | ati´ asau yas t¯ amro arun . ’ iti vi´ . . HEd1 43 adrs ´ ann] HOQ . . tamay¯ ´ ayatv iti pr¯ let sayena prak¯ as arthan¯ a| .d . | adrs . . dh¯ ´ arasya’ ity Ed1 . sy .n . upaks . lot HD¯ ı D¯ ı Ed 41 tip] HKOD¯ ı D¯ ı Ed . K 44 adrs ˚ ˚ ˚ KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 46 ’nnavate] ΣEd2 .l. ˚ ˙ kopayoh svah 38 j¯ ıvase] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . ayor iti vi´ ´ yat | ava s ´arasya cety av¯ ade´ sah | s aruvr tt¯ a d v¯ a siddham | s ´ arur a ¯ yudhakopayoh . As t a ¯ dhy¯ a y¯ ı 5. ] K( pahe abh¯ .a ¯ ˙ babhruh a | es ¯ m | ha | ¯ ıd ımahe k¯ amay¯ amahe . .. mrd . cf. ´ arasam ´ arasam ´ arasandh¯ 36 s atr¯ ı] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 .1. om. dh¯ . om. ¯ yudhe kope Aun a a ¯ dikapad¯ a rn ava of Perubhat t a 1. | ´ aro dadhyagrab¯ 36 s ´aro dadhyagrab¯ an an sva-Prak¯ as ´a r¯ antavarga 8 37 ava s ´arasya . | . p¯ . 2. | v¯ . a j¯ ˚ 37 39 ´ arasam ´ aram arhati | s ´ aravy¯ as atr¯ ı jy¯ a|s ´aro dadhyagrab¯ an svah .a . om. yadvud am d a t¯ a l H 41 let 1 2 . | vi´ . av s ´ arasya cety Ed2 ´ aruvrtt¯ ´ aruh cety] Σ. a tay¯ ˚ ˚ ’sm¯ an j¯ ıvase j¯ ıvayasi | y¯ a te rudra s ´iv¯ a tanur ¯ aghor¯ ap¯ apak¯ as ´in¯ ı| ¯ sat tay¯ a nas tanv¯ as ´am a giri´ sam abhi caka´ . netravate Ed1 46 satv¯ ano] ΣEd1 . |s . uh .8 41 ´ am ˙ ´ am a tay¯ a | abhic¯ aka´ sat | ka´ ser yanlugant¯ al s ´ am a ati´ sayena s ..a . a modaya | yad v¯ . | ye ceme abhito rudr¯ a diks ´rit¯ ah so . s aruh pum . tv¯ ˚ uta tv¯ a gop¯ a adrs ´ann uta tvodah¯ aryah .e a ˚ ˚ namo ’stu n¯ ıla´ sikhan ¯ ya sahasr¯ aks ¯ ya v¯ ajine | . | s ´iv¯ as ´aravy¯ a y¯ a tava tay¯ a no mrd ıvase 1. . ya n nam t¯ a l D¯ ı . adrs ´ yan D¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ .a . a uta babhrur vilohitah . . ya nlut¯ a l K . s . .a . vilohitam | . s sabd¯ ad Ed2 37 s ´arur a ¯ yudhakopayoh ] Σ Ed . e stutaye | ¯ ´ yam adrs avarohantam ılagr¯ ıvam . ◦ ¯ bh¯ D¯ ı2 43 vis ır¯ ah ı◦ )OQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . n¯ . yad v¯ a s t¯ ad . Vi´ . pingalah . 2. vr ˚ ˚ ´ aruvrttad) v¯ ´ aru´ ¯ (v. babhuva . tamay¯ .120 38 ugav¯ a dibhyo yat ] ugav¯ a dibhyo yat . atip QEd 42 1 ] HEd .u s . .124 TIMOTHY LUBIN y¯ a ta is ´ivatam¯ as ´ivam ¯ te dhanuh .e a ˚ ´ yan K ´ an] HEdΣ . Ed1 ˙ nam ˙ . adrs 44 bhut¯ ¯ ani] HOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . .n . . t¯ 1. s adh¯ ı H. hed . KOQD¯ ı 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 Σ 1 . ˚ ˚ ¯ dityavat prak¯ ´ am¯ ´ ur krpay¯ avirbhavantam a as anam amar¯ a api dadrs ity arthah . upaks . | ¯ bh¯ vis ır¯ ah . sahasra´ ’vais ¯m ımahe 1. am ˙ ˙ ˙ ¯ yanlu al O. t¯ ˙ . | ˚ ugav¯ adibhyo yat | j¯ ıvase j¯ ıvitum a he mrd a tanv¯ a no . | ˚ uto tv¯ a vi´ sv¯ a bhut¯ ¯ ani tasmai drs ta ¯ ya te namah . ‘ava s 37 s ad] Σ. ˚ ´ an | yogin¯ p¯ an¯ ıyah¯ arin sv¯ a vi´ sv¯ ani bhut¯ ¯ ani adrs am apy adrs ´ yam tv¯ am . s a Ed1 .2 .9 .] KOQEd2 . yah . HEd1 40 yanlugant¯ al] EdΣ . namah . s ayin¯ ı Ed1 37 ava s ´arasya .10 ˚ 1 43 45 gop¯ a gop¯ al¯ ah ´ ann apa´ syan | udah¯ aryah . ‘´ s arur a yudha2 .

av¯ . avah . | indrarupen .n . tava dhanvane 125 2. om.d .a s .55 .a . 2. )D¯ .13 . par¯ ¯ ubhayor aripratyaribhutayo r¯ ajnor ˜ dhanvano jy¯ am ˜ . H(eyeskip) . pr¯ arthyate D¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 . (?) Ed1 . na´ simanyor alighetvam sis 60 pus ¯ dy . dhanuh . lokes . . K. s 49 51 53 2. ˚ ˙ . dhanvanor Ed2 49 paripramunca ˜ ] HOQ ˜ ˜ D¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . parimunca K. ave | ˚ ubh¯ abhy¯ am akaram ahubhy¯ am .¯ . bhaktarahito KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 .a ¯ avatatyeti adhijyam a | sahasr¯ aks |s . ave pragalbh¯ . . udhis tav¯ 59 na´ simanyor alit .l.a . s . ¯ ˙ a s t¯ a h par¯ a vapa par¯ anmukh¯ an bh¯ avah | he bhagavah | y¯ a s te hasta is avo b¯ a n .¯ b¯ an am ırah salyo ’stu bhallarahito bhavatu vairis .n ˚ b¯ ahubhy¯ am kr tv¯ a dhanvane namo ’karavam ity arthah | . ‘pramunca’ Ed1 53 pr¯ arthayate] KOQEdΣ . dhanus tvam adhijya (v. aktu vi´ .. amumo valikhyetvam any ˙ ] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . mukh¯ . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM nam¯ am ¯ yudh¯ ay¯ an¯ atat¯ aya dhrs . om. krtv¯ .1.a 55 57 59 ¯ 48 ’karavam] HKD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . u As ¯ didyud¯ 60 luni ˙ pus ¯ dy any ˙ etvam] Cf. | luni ˙ pus ¯ dy any ˙ etvam | nis ˙ nis . KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 (eyeskip) 58 bhallarahito] ´ alyarahito Ed2 . u tatpra. udhayas tun . bhall¯ ahito H. matvararahito) em.14 ´ akrarupa ¯ ´ atam is ¯ . pus a. udhe | ni´ s¯ ırya s ´aly¯ an¯ am as ´ivo nah ´ambhur a ¯ bhava . ˚ ¯ nor ˜ jy¯ pra munca ˜ dhanvanas pary ubhayo raj am | y¯ as ´ ca te hasta is a t¯ a bhagavo vapa 2.a s ˚ ˜ up¯ ¯ a yasya tat sambodhanam | ni´ yajnar s¯ ırya t¯ ıks ıkrtya mukh¯ a mukh¯ ani no . si namask¯ . namo b¯ . a 57 v¯ a] HEd1 .15 ¯ . ˜ ¯ . angatih . paripramunca ´ ˜ s amayeti an¯ atat¯ am kuru | r¯ a j nor vigrahe lok¯ a n¯ a m kle´ s o bhavati | tatas tam . kara nn Q.16 .a . HIT A . sahasr¯ . . . eti pr¯ avatatya dhanus tvam aks ´ates . . . avah . | ˚ atho ya is are asmin ni dhehi tam 2. u hates . | n¯ .l. karann O 49 aripratyaribhutayo] HD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . ¯ api pratyaribhutayo KOQ 49 dhanvano] ΣEd1 . parasmaipades . . y etvam] HOQ(alitdy etvam ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . aya . abruvan KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 59 na´ simanyor alit . s ¯ Ed1 59 abhuvan] HEdΣ . | vi´ .¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . tomararahito (v. a jagad munca | tvam api kopam a krth¯ a iti bh¯ avah . na´ . svadhijyam ) Ed 56 a ¯ bhava ] 2 1 . ¯ bhara HEdΣ KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 .12 47 nam¯ am ar¯ ah atat¯ ay¯ an¯ atat¯ aya | dhrs aya | . s . s tun ´ y¯ ¯ yojan¯ abh¯ av¯ at | ane´ sann adrs a abhuvan | na´ simanyor alit y etvam iti v¯ arttikena . angah . . . si ta a . ino vi´ . . . .ditah . angatir pari te dhanvano hetir asm¯ an vrn svatah . dyl ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 3. . y etvam] Source not identified. .n ˚ ¯ ’sm¯ an s ´ ivah kaly¯ a n ar upah s ´ ambhuh sukhahetuh sann a ¯ bhava dh¯ a raya pos . av¯ ane´ sann asyes ´ivo asya nis ˙ . pr¯ arthate H 54 adhijyam ] Σ Ed .. u m¯ ˚ raks arthayate | . v¯ a| ˙ vijyam ´ikhan salyo b¯ an am ˘ astu | .

. .d . o bhakta. . KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 70–71 yad v¯ a n¯ ılagr¯ ıvo rudrah s ca. 2. kr . pa´ . hvas . om. harir vis . ‘apaks may¯ a ’ asajjay¯ a Ed 66 sadas kr tam ] 2 1 . sam . 172): kalm¯ G OP ALA B HATTA 1911. 74 kalm¯ as aks s as s an as aks s as s am . .d . a )QD¯ . aus . ye v¯ ye v¯ avat ´erate tebhyah . | tay¯ a tvam vi´ s vato asm¯ a n ayaks may¯ a pari bhuja 2. s . sarvatah . . yas taves . . . ˚ ˚ ˚ ces avah sarp¯ a h | te hi jan¯ a n da´ s anti | avat es u gartes u 2 . s as aks as an . sadavastutam D¯ ı D¯ ı . . apucham os . svajan¯ . e ye divi tebhyah .u | yes a ¯ m apsu sadas kr tam tebhyah sarpebhyo namah . adhe jambhaya´ 69 71 73 75 ´ am ¯ ´ ivah ked¯ ar¯ adh¯ ıs an bhakt¯ an .a . te hi te H. hvas . sarpebhyo namah . an . bhaktavatsalo na 2 1 .a . ] ΣEd2 . amety K.d . e kalm¯ .t . ¯ . ure ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˙ ˙ AC ¯ ARYULU ¯ ¯ ntavarga 19 (p. a )O (m¯ . o r¯ . ap¯ . udhir asminn is b¯ an apaya | .u s . | asm¯ . | . svajanam .t . . Ed2 . . hus . a˚ ˚ ¯ rupatv¯ at pucchavatt¯ a sam bhavati | .] . u´ . ura iti vi´ . mahis . kr . hi te KOQ 67 2 ] OD¯ ı1 EdΣ . hetim .n . . ama m¯ . es .a ˆ ¯ ntavarga 18 (p. kuru | os . harir vis n u´ s ca.n . 2. . m¯ ıd ıd .t . as¯ .n ¯ ¯ ekarupatokt¯ a] OQEd2 . . . am . asya hi t¯ ˚ ¯ rudrah .t . |a . . . a v¯ .20 67 sadas krtam ham atudh¯ an¯ an¯ am am ın¯ am .21 kalm¯ as . ˚ . e KOQD¯ 73 os ın¯ am ın¯ am . om. svajanam ¯ sv arundhati 3. ekarupabhokt¯ a KD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 . adh¯ . o r¯ . ap¯ . stauti | ya iti yah . . sevakatamam . e kalm¯ . . om. . 313) in U TVALA V E NKAT Vi´ sva-Prak¯ as ´a s 1930. kurus ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . mahis asvar upam KOQEd 69–70 bhaktav¯ a tsalyena] HEd . ah . .. bhavati | anena hariharayor ekar upatokt¯ a | he os adhe arundha. ked¯ a r¯ a dh¯ ı s e H 68 mahis ar upam 1 1 2 2 . adh¯ kalm¯ as aks as an svah are´ svarasya mahis . HEdΣ . amety (!) arthah .t .18 ye c¯ am¯ ı rocane divo ye ca suryasya ¯ ra´ smis . udhau tam . ´¯ ti rodharahite | tam kalm¯ a s apuccham kr s n ap¯ a n d urapuccham ¯s ´u s ıghram . ¯ HD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed1 . 2.n . o r¯ . ah . 2 cha Q. ura] kalm¯ . ap¯ . ase kr . sarpatir K (sapatir) OQ 67 te hi] Ed 1 1 2 Σ Σ . vanaspat¯ . . | y¯ .. ˚ ◦ ◦ 64 m¯ ıd ıdras ıdvas ı1 D¯ ı2 . hus . sarpebhyo namah . bhajaya KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 73 kuru] HEd1 . jambhaya svav¯ ıryen ıryavantam ın¯ am subhyo balapradatv¯ at | . ase kr .n . atu Ed1 . amety] H(m¯ . am . bhavati | yad v¯ . ˚ ter hi te D¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 .d . o r¯ . hi H 73 jambhaya] HEdΣ . Ed1 . bodhane | .19 ˚ y¯ a is atudh¯ an¯ an¯ am a vanaspat¯ ın¯ am | . e kalm¯ . harir uta | yah ılagr¯ ıvo yah . R ATNA .126 TIMOTHY LUBIN 61 63 vi´ svatah an parivrn tya raks . hus . . ˚. | ya´ ¯ v¯ atsalyena bhavati | mahis adrg rupam a n¯ ılagr¯ ıvo . . gr .t . ked¯ a r¯ a dh¯ ı s a KQD¯ ı D¯ ı Ed . ure ˚ ˚ 61 parivrtya raks pariraks 62 is om. ARA NG . sevakatama KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 . Ed1 64 secakatama] HEd2 . . . HD¯ ı2 ´ am ´ ´ ¯ 68 ked¯ ar¯ adh¯ ıs ] OEd . ˚ ˚ grham Ed 67 sarp¯ a h ] HD¯ ı D¯ ı Ed . krtam . ase krs .n . . e kalm¯ . . raks . nidhehi sth¯ y¯ a te hetir m¯ ıd tama haste babhuva ¯ te dhanuh . may¯ tay¯ a hety¯ a paribhuja parip¯ alaya | namo ’stu sarpebhyo ye ke ca prthiv¯ ım anu | ˚ ye antariks . udhau] ΣEd2 . Ed1 64 ayaks may¯ a sajjay¯ a ] Σ Ed . m¯ . ap¯ . havattamety Ed2 .n . atu] ΣEd2 . ah . cha K.17 . avo y¯ . secakatama | ayaks . 65 he m¯ ıd ıd a sajjay¯ a . | ked¯ . HEd1 71 he] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . atu | are sam . aktu parivr ˚ ˚ ¯ nantaram atho pa´ sc¯ ad raks . ] ΣEd1 .n .n . .. n¯ ¯ . ase krs . krs . arupam prati n¯ ılagr¯ ıvah s ca svajan¯ an bhakt¯ an prati harir haritavarn . bhavati | anena hariharayor . sadasadvastutam K 66 gr ham kr tam 1 2 . adh¯ . ˚ sadavaskrtam OQ . krs .

. . vadis . deham¯ a trasya Ed 80 he] KOQD¯ ı 2 1 1 . en . ah .. am . vedavihitapratis iddhakarmavis ayam 2 . vadis . pingalavarn . Ed1 . ] OD¯ ˙ ˙ Ed2 . HEd1 87 dvisarau] HKQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed1 . | n¯ . cf. sabh¯ ¯ aya skandarup¯ ¯ aya v¯ kum¯ ar¯ aya k¯ al¯ anabhibhut¯ a | s ´ atrave sam a. ah . pita virup¯ ¯ aks ¯ v¯ acam . prcchik¯ . 3. a v¯ .t . a´ sv¯ ay¯ am atau | dvisarau | abhitah . . n¯ ıl¯ agalasyal¯ asyal¯ as ıl¯ agala´ s¯ ıl¯ ah . . karn . KQ. v¯ .s . . HD¯ . yatah ˚ dehim¯ atrasya janako brahm¯ a yene´ svaren a hatas tam tvam pa´ s ye ty anvayah | . a n¯ . ah . evam . n¯ karn ıl¯ agala´ s¯ ıl¯ as ´ iva] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 (´ s¯ ıva). pingalavarn ı1 D¯ ı2 .] . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM ¯ ¯la ¯s babhru´ s ca babhrukarn s ca n¯ ılagala´ sı ´ivah sya | 3. n¯ . sarau gardabhau vartete | yath¯ a purus ottamaks etrasya n¯ ı lam¯ a dhavo ’dhis t h¯ a t¯ a . H 88 yath¯ a purus ılam¯ adhavo ’dhis at¯ a. nir¯ . tah . h¯ ked¯ araks ılarudrah ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . ◦a ¯ ¯ 83 vibhaktam ] HD¯ ı D¯ ı Ed . sam¯ ´ rutim¯ n¯ ar¯ ayan as atropaj¯ ıvin¯ a| . om. akarn . kumar namo n¯ ıla´ sikhan ¯ ya namah aprap¯ adine 3.23 127 ˙ ˙ babhruh . sarau OEd2 . . ¯ aya ¯ s ´ atrave | namo bhav¯ aya namah ´arv¯ aya namah . atah .i | im¯ am asya pr¯ as ´am amahe . evam araks ılarudrah . ah . sabh¯ yasya har¯ ı a´ svatarau gardabh¯ av abhitah . . | ´ am prcchat¯ ıti pr¯ at am as am acam . sarata iti abhitah . etrasya n¯ 81 83 85 87 89 91 . ah .a . s iva. avarn . a´ . om. i KOQ . hartre | sabh¯ prap¯ adine sabh¯ am prapadyate tacch¯ ı lah sabh¯ a prapr¯ a d¯ ı tasmai sabhy¯ a yety . vihitapratis iddhar upe Ed 81 pr cchik¯ a m ] Ed . Ed1 77 n¯ .24 ¯ he v¯ ıra karman | im¯ am asya janasya pr¯ as ´ am . jahi | vedavihitanis . apadav¯ ˙ 76 babhrukarn ı1 D¯ ı2 Ed2 . sam .22 . ´ iva Ed2 . .a . prachik¯ a m HKOQD¯ ı D¯ ı 1 1 1 2 Ed2 . ah . pr¯ . HIT A . om. ho yuktah ıy¯ arthe pratham¯ a pitrety arthah acam a . . vibhaktam KOQ 84 skandar up¯ a ya v¯ a ] KOQD¯ ı D¯ 1 2 Σ 1 ı2 Ed2 . ikarman .a . vibhaj¯ 77 79 3. i] HD¯ ¯ ΣEd2 . galavarn . akarn . sarau | tasmai n¯ ıla´ sikhan ¯ ya namah aprap¯ adine 3. yayos t¯ . hi H 80 karman ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . ah . Ed .d . | piteti trt¯ . iddharupe . | t¯ . kvacid avayave pingalavarn . ottamaks . a babhrun . babhruh . ah . yato hatah . etrasya n¯ . n¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ´ s ıl¯ a gale m¯ al¯ a yasya sah . a´ iva H. pingala´ iva iti p¯ at varn ıl¯ agala´ s¯ ıl¯ a s ´ iva ity atra n¯ ılagr¯ ıva´ s ca yah . karman 80 vihitanis . sabh¯ namah aprap¯ adine . sarata iti] KOQD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 EdΣ . | atha v¯ . ´ n¯ ıl¯ agalam¯ alah s ivah D 79 dehim¯ a trasya] Σ Ed . ikarman . ayam . i vihitanis . ah .d . etrasya n¯ dviruktih aptyarth¯ a| . 1 . j¯ . s . . ˚ 81–82 vedavihitanis iddhakarmavis ayam ] Σ Ed . ena bhavena marut¯ . .d . pim . om. s ´arva n¯ ıla´ sikhan ıra karman . . KOQ. ked¯ . karn .25 . | pa´ ¯| s ´arven ıla´ sikhan am . . jahi yenedam . . ] KOQD¯ . . m ula: n¯ ı l { a } galam¯ a l¯ a (+h ) s ivah H . pit¯ . s . . iddhakarma˚ ˚ ´ ayam ¯ | idam vis akurv ity arthah a. . iddharupe] . a vibhaktam mahe karmabhumibhogabh umir upen kurmahe | .t . abhitah 87 abhitah . .¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS .a . . ¯ ¯ arthah | a´ s vatarau | ı s ad unam a´ s vatvam av a´ svatarau gardabh¯ ad . HEd1 76–77 pingalavarn . | babhrukarn . | . . ena racit¯ aspas aky¯ an¯ am ılarudrasya d¯ ıpik¯ a . HEd1 . | yena karman .d . ah .26 . ¯ D¯ ı2 EdΣ . ikarman . jagat | vibhaj¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ .

ic account (e. because of Brahman’s anger when Sanaka and the other [mind-born sons of Brahman] were not performing the Emission [of the universe]. ) are included as the four Upanis ılarudra in the collection. 68 The short ‘itih¯ asa’ interpolated here recalls the Pur¯ an . “the fierce one” (ugrah .d . “pratyas ..) 70 = ‘Rudra’ “av¯ aruks th¯ at” = ‘established [himself]’ . ” = ‘from the sky’.. Having seen that the Rudras emitted from him were innumerable. divah sak¯ a s ´ a ¯ t is inelegant. he gave him eleven places. “upon the earth” (bhumy¯ ¯ am adhi).e.e. (As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 1. it refers to [God’s] practice of descending [into worldly form]. a of the Gaud ap¯ a dak¯ a rik¯ a (GK).. ..g. 1. The explicit identification here of N¯ ılarudra with Kum¯ ara is also seen in N¯ ar¯ ayan a’s reading kum¯ a r¯ a ya s ´ atrave in 3. eleven names.97).. inam =] ‘him [who is] crested’.5. 70 The gloss avat¯ ırn an could also be understood as meaning that he took earthly form as an . Having come about as the son of Brahman. used without a verb]. sarvayogibhih . the sixteenth [of the Upanis ılarudra] with . The locative case [used with it] expresses ‘higher than . a means “(peacock-)feather” or “tuft of hair [left .13–33) of the ascetical youths (kum¯ aras) born from the thought of Brahman as he contemplated the void before creation. it must be construed in the gloss as a genitive while the . 69 1. av¯ avatar. Comforting [him]. out of fear he consigned him to darkness. e´ . ad] praises N¯ supreme teacher. In Devan¯ agar¯ ı initial a ¯ might in some hands be confused with sa (or s¯ a). As t a ¯ dhy¯ a y¯ ı 1. Having spoken of yoga without sense-contact (aspar´ sayoga).67 [this Upanis ılarudra. .83) denotes the particle] adhi when it means “master”’ .d . . mantra): “I saw. 1. N¯ [a hymn] that has the form of Revelation (s ´ruti.. and eleven wives.82–94. 69 The tentatively proposed emended reading diva a ¯ k¯ as ´a ¯ t would be translated: “divah . understands as two separate epithets of the deity.25b (instead of kum¯ a ra´ s atrave ). AD Homage to Gan sa! [There are] three sections in the N¯ ılarudropanis . . ” and so forth. . “prthiv¯ ˚ “avah ” = ‘downwards’. By this. the four chapters of which (together with the M¯ a n d ukyopanis ¯ ad . inam: the Vi´ ¯ ntavarga 28): ‘s (ViPra d ´ikhan . 67 N¯ ar¯ ayana . ad..e.1. hence. The only attested reading.4.39ab) is: aspar´ sayogo vai n¯ ama durdar´ sah . Thus runs a legend. ads immediately preceding the N¯ vant line (GK 3. although it .128 TIMOTHY LUBIN Translation E LUCIDATION OF THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . not least because.68 Sikhan sva says . LP 1. This [god] has one or the other of those. the . Brahman] gave [the youth] the name Rudra. which he . After that. ads of the Atharvaveda].2. The rele. gloss itself prescribes an ablative sense for the word in the stanza. seer of the mantra. “I saw” you “descending” — these are the words of the . 39 of the Advaitaprakaran . at” = ‘descended’. a ´ dhi is a karmapravacan¯ ıya [i. According to [the rule] ‘[The term karmapravacan¯ ıya (cf... [Beginning from] the word “I saw” (apa´ syam): “divitah ım” = ‘to earth’. “asyantam” is the verb as in the sense of ‘striking’ = striking the wicked. the giver of the powers (siddhi) of yoga.d .4. [s ´ikhan . cf. includes the form divah from the m ula ¯ . . alludes here to the yoga mentioned in v. ). It praises that god [viz. ´ He performed Tapas on the earth. a preverb governing a noun. From the presence “of the sky” (divah . he [i. ” = ‘from the sky’.a after tonsure]”’. this youth (Kum¯ ara) howled (ruroda). i. instigator of the tradition of that [yoga]..20.

Let him “also” come (“etu” = ‘a ¯ gacchatu’). or trade (with a cart or wagon) — or. its ritual application (viniyoga) is in an Abhis .50) [and that the nominative form is . Those [remedies] in which [there is] “casting” (a ¯ sa) = ‘throwing’ (ks as¯ as and bhes ıs. cf. used] ‘also in the vocative sense’ (As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 2. “bh¯ ama” = ‘anger’. His (i. Rudra’s) agency in that is also men73 ati is ‘acquisition’. ease’ or ‘security’. tha 26. made by putting herbs into water. ”: the nominative case [follows the rules that] ‘[in the Veda (chandas)] the augment -as (asuk) is added after the nominative plural suffix (jas) after a stem ending in -a’ (As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 7. also him who brings about your new acquisitions.e. . or if [we read] av¯ ıra-h¯ a. asa-bhes ıh . [it means that] he strikes down unmanly deeds (av¯ ır¯ an . adhi) thrown into water have the capacity to destroy inauspiciousness.e.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . 73 This refers to the ancient pair of ideals. v¯ what is unobtained to be obtained. He goes to those: this is . This means: Let him who causes us ‘to get’ and ‘to keep’ become near in the water of Abhis . . aj¯ for remedy. ema means ‘rest. [Homage to these. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 129 which’ and ‘master over which’. On account of this trait of the mantra. ks . The meaning is: ‘[as] master of the earth’.e. By this is meant [Rudra’s] agency in ‘safeguarding’ (ks . [Rudra] “eti” = ‘comes’. as an accusative plural feminine dvandva compound naming two types of remedy: jal¯ as¯ a. HIT A .36 specifies that the verbal root s ´o. reads jal¯ .4.5. because Rudra is present in the waters of the Abhiseka rite (see below)? . military campaign (in a chariot). “manyu” (rage) is the state prior to that. 74 Dh¯ atup¯ a. eka. 1. “astave” (to hurl) is the verb as in the sense of ‘throwing’.] astum means ‘to throw’. a.1. 71 N¯ ar¯ ayana . [The second member of this compound contains the present participle belonging to the verb] s ´yati (he sharpens). To throw what? [To throw the] “giri´ santam”. the [dative infinitive] suffix ◦ tave has the sense of [the accusative infinitive suffix] ◦ tum: [hence. 1. he strikes down heroes (v¯ ır¯ an) = ‘demons’.can be conjugated thus. more abstractly.. ting and keeping’ or ‘exertion and rest’.] giri´ syan = ‘sharpening (s ´yan) of the mountain (gireh )’. ema) [what one possesses].] “and (u) also (“uta” = ‘api’) to your arrow (ta is . and bhes ı. “He has utterly removed your (“te” = ‘tava’) world’s lack of security (aks .3. eka.3.74 [hence. aj¯ 71 the connection. 1.] s ´yan. . The obtaining of what has not been obtained is ‘getting’ (yoga). See O ERTEL 1926: 226–227 for a discussion of the phrase’s usage in the Vedic literature. just because they become near to Rudra.. yoga is either ‘yoking’ — standing by synecdoche for such activities as plowing. as an avatar) to drink the poison that had arisen from the plants cast into the ocean at the time of the churning of the ocean. i) = sins. ‘not striking down heroes’ = “a-v¯ ırah¯ a” = ‘kind’.. i. ave)” = ‘to that which has the form of a shaft’. [i. yoga-ksema (or ksema-yoga). also O BERLIES 1998: 333–362. It is a genitive compound expressing general. ema)”.. taken here to be the same sort of preparation. epa) [of herbs] into water (jala) are jal¯ . [As regards] “jan¯ asah . ‘conjunction’ in the sense of acquisition. These glosses reflect differing understandings of the words.72 Or else it says: because he descended (avat¯ ırn . a. Or [it could be construed etya v¯ ırah¯ a]: “etya” = ‘having come’.e. v¯ tioned by the word v¯ at¯ ık¯ arah at¯ ık¯ ara means: he causes . in the fourth gan . i. aj¯ . a well-known word . usually translated ‘get.. who sees this compound as crystallizing the entire Vedic cycle by which lineages were established.. Herbs (os . 72 That is.[46–]47).

Or else: .130 TIMOTHY LUBIN ity of relation (sam am¯ anya). [The verb form ends with] the personal ending tip (i.4. However.7. He . ◦ ta. 3. but it has not been traced. ◦ yu.” ˚ = ‘asm¯ an’) live’ (j¯ ıvayasi). [The s ´aravy¯ a] merits an arrow (s ´ara): [hence. the mula ¯ written marginally around the 75 It is not clear how N¯ ar¯ ayana construes this compound in the stanza. Or [it follows the rule] that ‘kam and s ´am take [the suffixes] .1.3. ‘s ´aru means “weapon” and “anger”’.7). It is invoked here.2). “suman¯ ..e.. Make “that” (t¯ am) [arrow] “benign” (s ´iv¯ am) = ‘auspicious’.. ◦ ba. because of the arrow’s origin on the mountain. “We invite” (acch¯ a vad¯ amasi) = ‘we speak clearly (accha)76 = stainlessly’. As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 1.5.136).46). ti).4. ◦ tu. 77 I have not been able to identify the source of this rule. tamay¯ auspicious’.1. [The last p¯ ada says:] “Treat [us] kindly” . As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 5.1.97)..1. ◦ 3.1. . and the word “it” is a particle without mean. to produce the form s ´aravy¯ a from s ´ara. This would be consonant with reading c¯ 4.4.. i.5)]’ (As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 5. tah . “ j¯ ı vase ” = ‘you make us (“nah .78 ‘[The taddhita affix] yat is introduced after [nominal stems ending in] the phoneme-class u and [the class of nominal stems] beginning with go [to mean ‘suitable for that’ (tasmai hitam. ‘imperative’. 76 N¯ ar¯ ayan .75 . a subjunctive 79 form [is made. . ). ing. ◦ ti.c) or indeed the emended form c¯ aka´ sa. . 1.94). I have translated it (and its gloss) adverbially. ” = ‘having good thoughts’...2.. The long vowel of the word accha follows the rule that [there is lengthening] ‘also of a particle’ (As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 6. ‘And s ´ara [takes the suffix] ◦ ava [in place of ◦ a]’ according to [the principle of] substitution by ava. ◦ bha.e. 1. happy. [i. and ◦ ya’ (Asta ¯ dhy¯ a y¯ ı 5. s ´am . a treats accha as a particle. ‘the short i is omitted in personal endings of the active voice [of the subjunctive]’ (As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı . “ayaks ah . Hence. the insertion of the vowel a before the suffix is explained by the rule ‘[the ending] of the subjunctive form is augmented with ◦ a◦ or ◦ a ¯ ◦ ’ (As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı . a alternative derivation from s ´aru is also considered. ‘not darkened’. tah . . “Asat” = ‘(he) should be’: ‘the subjunctive is used with the optative meaning’ (As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı . in conjunction with the affixing of yat. bandha-s¯ The omission of the syllable ya [from the expected form giri´ syantam] is Vedic usage (cf. 78 This appears to be a quotation.. the gender is wrong.58). most .8.] ‘auspicious because of the mountain’ (giritah . 3. cf. Siddh¯ a ntakaumud¯ ı 1944).63–65). “s ´aravy¯ a” = ‘the bowstring that puts the arrow together [with its target?]’. O “Merciful One” (mrd a ). ). the arrow.e. “abhic¯ aka´ sat”: From the intensive stem of the verb ka´ s. a) = ‘gladden [us]’ (modaya) “for living” (j¯ ˚ “With that” (tay¯ a) form.. 79 HD¯ ı1 D¯ ı2 read here lot aka´ s¯ ıhi (Mac TS .77 Or else [s ´aravy¯ a] is derived from a transformation of the word s ´aru. [he is] auspicious (s ´am . “s ´am a” = ‘by that [form] which is exceedingly auspicious.. . even though he gives it the meaning of the homonymous adjective.6. ◦ masi ends in i (Asta ¯ dhy¯ a y¯ ı 7. According to the Vi´ sva (ViPra r¯ antavarga 8).1. [The Vedic first person plural suffix] . ‘s ´ara means “the top of the cream” and “arrow”’.1. 1. (mrd ıvase) = ‘to live’ (j¯ ıvitum). O “giritra” = ‘mountain- protector’. has happiness. if it is meant to describe .138. with] the personal ending tip augmented with at [hence: (let ) . As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı 5. mam” = ‘disease-free’.. the inser◦ tion of the taddhita affix] ya (yat) [with this meaning] (cf. That “mountain-sharpening (giri´ santam)”.

tv¯ ˚ yourself manifest out of grace. The Bibliotheca Indica edition (Ed1 . It expresses the prayer ‘let it shine forth fully’. . avah .a is recognized. who remains imperceptible even to those with the supernatural siddhis obtained from the practice of yoga. O “Lord” (bhagavah ah avapa) = .) = ‘those who have become foe and counterfoe [to each other]’. shining forth like the sun. perhaps under the impression that one of the two occurrences ˚ of the word adrs ´an in the commentary indicated that this was N¯ ar¯ ayan . ) = ‘the shafts’ “which are in your hand” (y¯ as te haste). “ha”. 275–276) prints the correct form adrs ´an in p¯ ada a. 81 The words adrs ´yam tv¯ am (“you who are invisible”) are cited from p¯ ada a. “the arrows” (is . 82 The word satv¯ anah . . The verb is ava .] unstretch [the string]. “babhru” = ‘brown’. is explained here by making it the subject of the ostensibly cognate verb s¯ ıdanti. ave) = ‘willful’. a’s padap¯ .e. . “O Thousand-Eyed” (sahasr¯ aks . When kings clash. manifests himself out of grace to his devotees. from the verbal root sad. “vi´ (vi´ s˚ v¯ ani) “beings” (bhut¯ ¯ ani) saw. the people suffer. (discussed in the ˚ annotations to the text of the stanza).n . [i. 2. HIT A . The meaning is: I made .12. Protect the world by means of [your] Indra-form: this is what he prays for. u = “gop¯ . “es ¯ m”. Having made “acts of homage” (nam¯ am . . [His] “warriors” (satv¯ anah . 2. . The meaning of this is: Even the lowliest have seen “you. pp. ¯ ımahe ‘we appease’. ˚ N¯ ar¯ ayan s ´yam . when you make . whereas the wording of the first p¯ ada is elucidated . . who are invisible” (adrs ´yam am) even to yogis. “To the impetuous one” (v¯ ajine) = ‘to him who possesses food’ or ‘to him who is like an arrow’. ” = ‘water-bearing women’. which gives the purport of the stanza as a whole: that Rudra. . . and is cited from p¯ plural subjects udah¯ aryah sv¯ a bhut¯ ¯ ani. tha shows that he has misunderstood the last p¯ ada: only the word es ¯m . Therefore. showing that . 1. May you too not get angry at the people: this is the sentiment. hed as ‘wrath’ is the object.81 2. “Having unstrung” (avatatya) means ‘having strung up [the bow]’ (!). This is a typical statement of the superiority of bhakti to the path of asceticism. a had before him (or perhaps introduced) the corrupt form adr . bodhana) of him who has a hundred arrow-holders = quivers in the form of sacrifices.a 80 “¯ ıd ımahe” = ‘we desire’. the context shows that the first adrs ´an in the commentary goes ˚ with the subject gop¯ ah ada b.14. [and] “to your arms” (b¯ ˚ homage to [your] “bow” (dhanvane). however humble they may be. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 131 c¯ aka´ s-a-t]. and vi´ in the last sentence. . ) = ‘hosts’ sit down 82 (s¯ ıdanti).13. r¯ ajnoh ˜ . 80 N¯ ar¯ ayan a. The Abh¯ ıras (herdsmen) among the partisans of Vis a” = ‘cowherds’. while the second is supplied for the other . and all manuscripts of the D¯ ıpik¯ a cite the word under discussion in this form.10. si) = ‘expressions of homage’ [to your weapon] which is ‘not strung’ = “unstrung” (an¯ atat¯ aya) [but] “bold” (dhrs ahubhy¯ am). “¯ ¯ 2. “Unfasten the string of the bow of both kings” (ubhayor . 2. a) = ‘O [you] who have the form of Indra’! This is a vocative address (sam . [The separate words here are:] “v¯ a”.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . quell that [dispute]: this is the sentiment. “Having cut” (ni´ s¯ ırya) = ‘having sharpD¯ ıpik¯ a in H has c¯ aka´ sat. However. e” = ‘for praise’. a’s reading of the first ˚ word of the stanza. )! “Lay those aside” (t¯ .n “adrs ´an” = ‘(they) saw’. par¯ ‘release them in another direction’. “udah¯ aryah sv¯ a” = ‘all’ .11.9.

ah . means “demonic” [or] “black”. For Mahis . after protecting (us)’. ˚ “The arrows” “of the sorcerers” = ‘of the demons’ and “of the trees” (vanaspat¯ ın¯ am) are ‘serpents’ (sarp¯ ah . . . Or else. tha 4. In this way the oneness in form of Hari and Hara . ´ “He who” (yah .a “black and white”’. which is “your quiver” (taves udhih ). ) = ‘having reddish-brown-colored ears’. a). . “[Your arrows] have disappeared” (ane´ san) = ‘they have ceased to be seen’.22–23. . ah . [Whose] “seat is made” (sadas krtam) = [whose] ‘home is made’. and as “Hari” = ‘the Green-Colored’ before “his people” (svajan¯ an) = ‘devotees’. 2. ) = ‘having the color reddish-brown on some part of the body’. which he does not find satisfactory (yukta) as it 84 See 83 Not . “become present toward us” (no . which means: ‘bountiful-est’. “put” (nidhehi) = ‘place’ “that missile” (tam .17. O “plant Arundhat¯ ı” = ‘O [plant] devoid of obstruction’. The form “pit¯ traced. . ) = ‘taking an auspicious form’. with armor.73–137. ). angatih .21. kalm¯ . am here. According to a V¯ arttika. a proposes here to emend the text. na´ s is listed at 4. .87 Because the Lord of Ked¯ ara has the form of a buffalo. angah 2. According to the Vi´ sva ¯ ntavarga 19): ‘kalm¯ (ViPra s as as . “On every side” (vi´ svatah ) = ‘on all sides’ “let [your missile] avoid us” = .132 TIMOTHY LUBIN ened’ the “mukh¯ a” = ‘tips’ (mukh¯ ani). hetim) = ‘arrow’ “in this” (asmin) quiver. a ¯ bhava) = ‘support us’ or ‘make us prosper’. 2. ) = ‘Siva who’ appears (?) with affection as “the Blue-Necked” before “his people” (svajan¯ an) = ‘devotees’.18–20. . on account of the capacity of plants to give strength to cattle. u. ) = ‘being the cause of happiness’. who is Siva’ (n¯ ılagr¯ ıva´ s ca yah ´ivah a” is a nominative . “benevolent” (s ´ambhuh .85: na´ sa ´a ´ dar´ sane. O “Most Bountiful One” (m¯ ıd hus t ama ). 88 N¯ ar¯ ayan . 86 N¯ ar¯ ayan ¯ r´ e ‘afar. [being] “benign” (s ´ivah . [The sage] praises the Lord of Ked¯ ara in the form of a buffalo (Mahis . ‘who rains down most [blessings]’! With diseaselessness. to a distant place’. Dh¯ atup¯ a. [i.15. “embrace us” (paribhuja) = ‘protect us round about’.16. ” in this stanza is: ‘And 88 ´ N¯ ılagr¯ ıva.e. “Brown” (babhruh . 3. he comes to have a tail. 85 I have not been able to identify the source or sources of these rules. 2. av¯ = ‘let it become devoid of arrows’ because. a does not recognize here the vedic adverb a 87 R ATNA G OP ALA ˆ B HATTA (1911: 172) reads the neuter form kalm¯ as . . which makes better sense. ” = ‘quiver’ (nis . . means . ah . for they bite people.s .83 ‘[The root vowel] is substituted by e [also] in tenses other than the reduplicated perfect forms of the verbs na´ s and man’. . “In holes in the ground” (avat es u ) = ‘in hollows’. [the root 85 vowel becomes] e with the aorist endings’. 84 ‘In the case of the a-aorist of verbs of the class beginning with pus . it has no use. “Then” (atho) = ‘afterward. The proper reading of the words “n¯ ıl¯ agala´ s¯ ıl¯ as ´ivah . “O” (are) signifies the vocative. a takes such a form. 3.n is expressed. “Brown-eared” (babhrukarn . apuccham) = ‘black-and-white-tailed’ [buffalo]. “Let his arrow-holder” (b¯ an an) = ‘quiver’ “be arrowless” (vi´ salyo ’stu) .. “Nis ˙ ˙ .] “with that” (tay¯ a) missile. ). ). . 86 ‘let [it] enclose and protect us’. “N¯ ılagr¯ ıva” is Rudra and “Hari” is Vis . when the enemies have been killed. “Quickly” (a ¯s ´u) = ‘speedily’ “devour” (jambhaya) = ‘empower with [your] own power’ that “speckled-tailed” (kalm¯ as .

meaning. = ‘to him who is not overcome by time’. you who are “struck down” (hatah . stands. O “hero in deed upon deed”. so N¯ ılarudra (Blue Rudra) presides over Ked¯ ara-Ks ara . The repetition [of the last p¯ ada] signifies completion. HIT A . a. who contracts [the universe at the end of the eon]. ) by the Lord (who is) “the father of him who will raise his voice” = ‘Brahman’. 117). “Strike down” (jahi) that “question” = ‘words of query’. the meaning is ‘by the father’ (pitr¯ a). The construction is: Now. which we have emended to hatam (above. Just as the N¯ ılam¯ adhava (Blue Vis . this means ‘to him who belongs to the council’. “Running on either side”: “the (two) donkeys” are moving on either side. the begetter of the soul alone. 89 This convoluted paraphrase has the defect of requiring the form pit¯ a to be construed simultaneously as an instrumental and as a nominative.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . That means: Remove doubt about what acts are ordained and what acts are forbidden by the Veda. “Two mules”: mules. which are slightly deficient in horse-nature.. . “To Kum¯ ara (the Youth)”. etra (the Ked¯ domain in the Him¯ alaya).89 3. etra (‘Domain of the Highest of Men’ = Puri in Orissa). are begotten by a donkey on a mare. [This] D¯ ıpik¯ a (‘elucidation’) of unclear words and sentences in the N¯ ılarudra was composed by N¯ ar¯ ayan .25–26. The subject of the imperative verb pa´ sya is identified with the referent of the corrupt form hatah . who lives on the Veda alone.n . u) presides over Purus . 3. . whether [that deed be] ordained or forbidden! [Strike down] “this question (pr¯ as ´am) of this” man. “look” at him [i.24. “To him who goes to the council-hall”: the council-goer goes to the council. ´ or ‘to Skanda’. having the habit of doing so. “to Satru (the Foe)”. they run on two sides [of the council-goer]. p.e. “pr¯ as ´” means ‘he asks’. we create our share [in the world] in the form of realms of action and realms of enjoying [the fruits of that action]. “By means of which” act “we have a share in” (vibhaj¯ amahe) “this” (idam) world — [that is]. ottama-Ks . AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 133 used in the sense of an instrumental. the Lord].

. tha. VON S CHROEDER 1900–10. . As t a ¯ dhy¯ a y¯ ı . hit¯ ˚ Rgvedakhil¯ ani. y¯ . .a . . . . a. VARENNE 1960.t . K ATRE 1987. VON S CHROEDER 1881–86.. Mah¯ abh¯ arata. Hari N¯ Apat ar¯ ayan . E 1905. K ATRE 1987. . dv¯ . . ¯ PAT ¯ ´ rama (Ed2 ): A Anand¯ as . hit¯ PS 1–15: B HATTACHARYA 1997. kar¯ 1895 Sr¯ ı-N¯ ar¯ ayan anandaviracitad¯ ıpik¯ asamet¯ an¯ am Atharva´ sikh¯ a. ¯ ´ nirde´ sam sam s ´ odhitam . PS 6–7: G RIFFITHS 2004. A . U TVALA V E NKAT 1931. ˚ ´ Saunakasam a. Dh¯ atup¯ a. cf. E 1895: 275–279. ¯ PAT Gaud adak¯ arik¯ a. ap¯ Kau´ sikasutra ¯ .¯ . . S UKTHANKAR . V¯ ajasaneyisam hit¯ a (M¯ adhyam . . PS 13–14: L OPEZ 2000. ] Ham . ¯ PAT V¯ ayupur¯ an . tha.s . B LOOMFIELD 1890. E 1921. ARA NG ˆ R ATNA G OP ALA B HATTA 1911.t .: P HAD . W EBER 1852. ¯ Adyar Library: K UNHAN R AJA 1933: 296–302. ¯ ˆ ACH ˆ ˆ Apastamb¯ ıyamantrap¯ a. D VIVED¯ I 1988: 1–114. A ˙ ˙ AC ¯ ARYULU ¯ Vi´ svaprak¯ as ´a. Taittir¯ ıyasam hit¯ . a-Sam dy¯ an¯ a[m an¯ am atrim ´anmit¯ an¯ am upanis am . opanis . Kat hasam a. ad.a ´ ´ .. M ITRA 1870–79. B OLLING & N EGELEIN 1909–10. . W EBER 1871–72. AKE 1897–98. ad. . sopanis . PS 19–20: provisional edition of Arlo Griffiths. a. adant¯ . PS RV ˚ RVKh ˚ ´ SS ´ SvU TaPra ¯ TA TS V¯ aP ViPra VS References ¯ . O BERLIES 1996. G A NG . WACKERNAGEL & D EBRUNNER 1957. editions: ¯ Bibliotheca Indica (Ed1 ): R AMAMAYA TARKARATNA 1872: 272–280.: M AHADEVA S ASTRI & R ANGACARYA 1985. ¯ 10. S Rˆ I NIV AS ARYA 1902. . 29.N Lingapur¯ ˙ an . . TA Maitr¯ ayan ısam a. . a’s cty.. hit¯ N¯ ılarudropanis . 1927–59. . Anand¯ a s ramasam skr tagranth¯ a vali. with S¯ a yan . . U 1924. hit¯ ´ as Svet¯ ´vataropanis . ET AL . editions cited: . e. Paippal¯ adasam a. A UFRECHT 1877. . ad¯ .134 TIMOTHY LUBIN Abbreviations and Editions of Sanskrit Works AgP AiGr ¯ ApMP As . a. with Bhat . . ¯ ´ ramamudran ¯ laya. Tattvaprak¯ as ´ad¯ ıpik¯ a. Mah¯ an¯ ar¯ ayan . ¯ samuccayah : etat pustakam Anand¯ a s ´ ramasthapan d itaih sap¯ a t h¯ a ntara. R OTH & W HITNEY 1924. a. hit¯ ˙ AVIS ¯ . J IBANANDA V IDYASAGARA 1891: 206–213. S CHEFTELOWITZ 1906. Taittir¯ ıy¯ aran yaka . Poona [Pun akhyapattana]: Anand¯ as . AVPari´ s Dh¯ aP¯ a GK Kau´ sS KS LP MBh MNU MS NU Agnipur¯ an . Rgvedasam a. Atharvavedapari´ sis ta.a Bh¯ askara Mi´ sra’s cty. dina). ad.

sam . ap¯ ¯ ¯ laya. ¯ . Maurice 1890 The K¯ au¸ cika-Sutra ¯ of the Atharva Veda. and J. 62. M.a Arbman. ´ ramamudran vali. Aufrecht. St. 10. hit¯ of the First Fifteen K¯ an . v. Reinbek: Wezler Verlag. Bisschop. hit¯ ˚ Bakker. tagranth¯ .d . Reprinted in Willem Caland. Ernst 1922 Rudra: Untersuchungen zum altindischen Glauben und Kultus. New Haven: AOS [= Journal of the American Oriental Society 14 (1889)]. 315–348. HIT A . Indo-Iranian .s ¯ ¯ laya. Anand¯ as a.. e. Bolling. 1983. V¯ . Poona [Pun akhyapattana]: Anand¯ as . 185–207. e´ ¯ ´ ramasam 1921 Gaud adak¯ arik¯ a. Publications de l’Institut de Civilisation Indienne.s dition in Seventh-Century Daks in a Kosala. 2 vols. Christian ´ 1994 Les N¯ atha-Yogin et les upanis d’histoire de la litt´ erature hin. Bloomfield. Somavam . y¯ . With Extracts from the Commentaries of D¯ arila and Ke¸ cava. fasc. Negelein 1909–10 The Pari´ sis tas of the Atharvaveda. Uppsala: Appelbergs Boktryckeri Aktiebolag. sowitz. Bhattacharya. y¯ . Hans ´ a and Somasiddh¯ ´ upata Traanta: A P¯ as 2000 ‘Soma´ sarman. ¨ Bohtlingk. Fourth Series’. dapur¯ an anandalahar¯ ı: Volume in Honour of Professor . Theodor 1877 Rgveda-Sam a. 1–19. pp. 414–443. skr . Wiener Zeitschrift fur ¨ die Kunde des Morgenlandes 18. and Arlo Griffiths ´ upata Observance (Atharvavedapari´ 2003 ‘The P¯ as sis ta 40)’. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 1905 135 ¯ Mah¯ amuni´ sr¯ ımad-Vy¯ asapran ıtam ayupur¯ an . In: Har¯ Minoru Hara on his Seventieth Birthday. Studies in the Skan.¯ . Bouy. 7 vols. Willem 1904 ‘Zur Atharvavedalitteratur’. itaih . Poona . Consisting . am: etat pustakam Anan¯ ´ ramasam d¯ as ´ramasthapan ´odhitam. 1891 ‘Contributions to the Interpretation of the Atharva-Veda. as. American Journal of Philology 12. .a Rep. ´ ramamudran [Pun akhyapattana]: Anand¯ as .. Leipzig: Otto Harras. ´ Paris: Edition-Diffusion de Boccard. G. . tagranth¯ . Petersburg..d . a III’. Vin¯ Apat ayaka Gan sa . and Rudolph Roth 1855–75 Sanskrit-W¨ orterbuch. Kleine . skr . Caland. 49. Bonn.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . edited by Ryutaro Tsuchida and Albrecht Wezler. Otto. Journal 46(4). Anand¯ as avali. Dipak 1997 The Paippal¯ ada-Sam a of the Atharvaveda: Volume One. ads: Etude doue. Peter. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.

Ghosh (ed. am. 2003 ‘The Orissa Manuscripts of the Paippal¯ ada Sam a’. 128–132. ¨ Gengnagel. Yogatantra-Grantham¯ nananda Sanskrit University. pp. Arlo 2002 ‘Aspects of the Study of the Paippal¯ ada AtharvaVedic Tradition’. In: Sanskrit and Indian Studies: Essays in Honour of Daniel H.¯ . Suniti Kumar 1960 ‘The Pronunciation of Sanskrit’. Murray 1988 Sanskrit Studies of M. Berkeley: Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies. Journal of the University of Bombay 7(2). A. hit¯ . 7. Kolkata: Sanskrit Book Depot. Gode. Leiden University. hit¯ der Deutschen Morgenl¨ andischen Gesellschaft 153. T. 2004–05 ‘Tumburu: A Deified Tree’. Indian Linguistics 21. K. Jan ´ 1979 ‘The Satarudriya’. Deussen.): Atharvan ´ (A Collection of Essays on the Athar. 61–82. am . ˙ avis Gang¯ .. a. no. Madras University Sanskrit Series. 146–172. Griffiths. Gonda. ¯ In: A. 75–91. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. Reidel. . Zeitschrift . Vrajavallabha 1988 As taprakaran al¯ a 12. 333–370. e´ ´ anukraman Steam Press. edited by Michael Witzel (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. Delhi: Nag Publishers. Emeneau. with the Sanskrit ´ Commentary Sivatos ı by Gan sa N¯ atu. Dvived¯ ı.A. 1981. van Nooten. s . Bulletin d’Etudes Indiennes 22–23 [appeared 2007].a vaVeda with Special Reference to Its Paippal¯ ada Tradition).n ´ ıvy¯ [1924] Sr¯ asamahars ´ri-Lingamah¯ ˙ apur¯ an .. 35–54. K¯ an . pp. V. the Commentator of the Upanis . 1996.D. Ingalls. tti. edited by B.u . Chintamani. . 1990). Brockhaus. 249–264. pp. . . Emeneau: Selected Papers. Varanasi: Sampur. Madras: Madras University. iproktam . . with a Slok¯ ı by . a und Siva: ´ avr Aghora´ siv¯ ac¯ aryas Tattvaprak¯ as . Leipzig: F. Purus Die dualistische Tradition des Sivaismus nach . 1989. Chatterji. P. R. University of California. thesis.¯ N¯ aga´ saran a Sim ha. 1938 ‘Date of N¯ ar¯ ayan . Paul 1897 Sechzig Upanishad’s des Veda. Rep. H.B.d . 1939 The Unadisutras in Various Recensions. 2004 The Paippal¯ adasam a of the Atharvaveda. as 6 and 7: A New Edition with Translation and Commentary.136 TIMOTHY LUBIN Schriften. Ph. Jorg ´ ´ 1996 M¯ ay¯ a.S. Bombay: Venkatesvara . Dordrecht: D. ads’. in . 2004.

1975–76 Aufs¨ atze zur Indoiranistik. Arthur Berriedale 1914 The Veda of the Black Yajus School.p. Strassburg: Trubner. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal. 2 vols. Katre. Dharm¯ adhik¯ ari. and an English Introduction by T. Karl 1956 ‘Notizen zu Wackernagel-Debrunner. ini. ads. 1933 Un-published Upanis . Entitled Taittiriya Sanhita.. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS .4. Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Al¨ tertumskunde 1. Munchener ¨ Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 8. 1–6. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Manfred 1992. opanis . Monier 1899 A Sanskrit–English Dictionary. 18–19. Jamison. Cambridge. N. Transla. Madras: Adyar Library. . Bibliotheca Indica 65(1-3). yaka with the Commentary of Bhat 1985 The Taittir¯ ıya Aran ta Bh¯ askara Mi´ sra . . Mayrhofer. C.¯ . adah . and Study of Books 13 and 14. Carlos A. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 213–239. Heidelberg: C. 5–24. Stephanie 1992 ‘Vedic “s´ a fig´ e”: An inherited sentence connective?’. 1910 Vedic Grammar. 2 vols. abhat . 2004 ‘pr akus¯ anu’. A. Ph. 3 vols. thesis. Mass. Kunhan Raja. Mitra.: Harvard University Press. Bibliotheca Sanskritica 26. 29 (1900–02). am. Sumitra M. . 2nd edition. Indo-Iranian Journal 47(1). Alexander M. Winter. A. Altindische Grammatik II. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 137 Hoffmann. 2000 The Paippal¯ ada Sam a of the Atharvaveda: A Critical Edition. A. Jibananda Vidyasagara ¯ 1891 Atharvanopanishat with the Commentary of Narayana Bhatta / Atharvan ´r¯ ın¯ ar¯ ayan takr ıpik¯ akhyat ık¯ asahit¯ ah . Harvard Oriental Series. Lopez. Keith. . Monier-Williams.. d¯ Mahadeva Sastri. Lubotsky. Macdonell. Rajendralal 1870–79 Agnipur¯ an . Reprint of Government Oriental Library Series. Harvard University.. and K. . 1996 Etymologisches W¨ orterbuch des Altindoarischen. 1987 The As ta ¯ dhy¯ ay¯ ı of P¯ an . hit¯ tion. Austin: University of Texas Press.: 1892. Historische Sprachforschung 105. s . Rangacarya ¯ .D. 27. Calcutta: Narayana Press. edited by Johanna Narten.. HIT A .2’. tad¯ . Date on Sanskrit t.

n¯ . ¨ Dummler. Leopold ´ akh¯ 1881–86 Maitr¯ ayan ı Sam a: Die Sam a der Maitr¯ ayan ıya-S¯ a. 1970 Upanis . ˚ Schrader. ad: Eine Studie ihrer Gotteslehre (Studien zu den ‘mittleren’ Upanis ¨ die . Calcutta: Gane´ sa Press. nagop¯ alabhat t ena sam s ´ odhitah [English title: Vishvaprakˆ asha]. as. Roth. hit¯ . R. . 160. 2 vols. at-sam . J. Chowkhambˆ a Sanskrit Series. Teil)’. 3 vols. R. 1. A. L. 1970. Wiener Zeitschrift fur ¨ die Kunde Sudasiens ¨ 40. and William Dwight Whitney 1924 Atharva Veda Sanhita. ha-S¯ haus. S. 1970. . Hanns 1926 The Syntax of Cases in the Narrative and Descriptive Prose of the Br¯ ahman .¯ . yakam.. . Brockhaus. ˚ ˚ Publications of the de Nobili Research Library. Leipzig: E. R¯ amamaya Tarkaratna ´ 1872 The Atharvan ar´ ayan . Wiener Zeitschrift fur Kunde Sudasiens ¨ 32. Oertel. Benares: Chowkhambˆ a ˆ Sanskrit Book-Depot. 1906 Die Apokryphen des Rgveda (Khil¯ ani). Heidelberg: Carl Winter’s Universit¨ atsbuchhandlung. V. B¯ a b¯ as ı . . 1897–98 Taittir¯ ıy¯ aran as .138 TIMOTHY LUBIN Oberlies. 1998 Die Religion des Rgveda. . a. Rep. Berlin: F. Erster Teil: Das religi¨ ose System des Rgveda. hit¯ . vidvadvara´ viracitah s ´ r¯ ı mad¯ a c¯ a rya´ s r¯ ı -Vallabh¯ a dh¯ ı s ´ varasam prad¯ a yavidus a ¯ Rat. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. J. ´ ´a ¯ str¯ Phad ake. by Max Lindenau. ´ akh¯ 1900–10 K¯ a. . Breslau: M. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. Madras: Adyar Library. ´ as ¨ ´ vatara-Upanis 1996 ‘Die Svet¯ . Brock. I. ah . Thomas ´ as ´ vatara-Upanis 1988 ‘Die Svet¯ . Vienna: Sammlung de Nobili. Scheftelowitz. hit¯ . ad: Einleitung—Edition und Ubersetzung von Adhy¯ aya II–III (Studien zu den ‘mittleren’ Upanis . thaka: Die Sam a der Kat a. 26. The Disjunct Use of Cases. & H. 4 vols. . ads I)’. Shastri. A. 35–62. . .¯ Leipzig: E. 123–160. 2nd rev. Rudolph. Rep. vol. ads. ads II—2. ads with the Commentary of N´ . F. . Poona: Anand¯ Ratna Gopˆ ala Bhatta 1911 Vi´ svaprak¯ as ´ah ama´ sabdakos sr¯ ı-Mahe´ svarasudh¯ ı. von Schroeder. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. a Upanis . Otto 1908 A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Adyar Library.—Upanis . Marcus. grahah . ¯ ´ rama. ed.

1871–72 Die Taittirˆ ıya-Sam a. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Studies XX. Weber. Witzel. 2 vols. Jacob. HIT A . Sukthankar.¯ ¯ strulu. Zysk. 1905 Atharva-Veda Sam a. Albrecht 1852 The Vˆ ajasaneyi-Sanhitˆ a in the Mˆ adhyandina. vol. 472–502. 256–271. 2000 ‘Medieval Veda Tradition as Reflected in Nepalese Manuscripts’. AD AND THE PAIPPAL ADASAM 139 Srˆ ınivˆ asˆ achˆ arya. fasc. S. For the First Time Critically Edited by V. William Dwight ´ 1862 The Atharva-Veda Pr¯ ati´ sa ¯ kya or Saunak¯ ıya Catur¯ adhy¯ ayik¯ a: Text. Publications de l’Institut de Civilisation Indienne. da of the Krishna-Yajur-Veda with the Commentary of Haradattami´ sra. 1902 The Ek´ agnik´ an . [In Telugu script.: Harvard University Press. translation and notes. ˙ 1985 ‘Die Atharvaveda-Tradition und die Paippal¯ ada-Samhit¯ a’. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. 1927–59 The Mah¯ abh¯ arata. Stuttgart: Teubner. . Jean 1960 La Mah¯ a N¯ ar¯ ayan . Journal of the American Oriental Society 7.. va-C ¨ with the Commentary of Mahˆ ıdhara. ˙ . Berlin & London: F. Revised and brought nearer to completion and edited by Charles Rockwell Lanman. Cennapuri [Chennai]: . hit¯ mentary.¯ ¯ THE N¯ I LARUDROPANIS . Kenneth 1985 Religious Healing in the Veda. Mass. V. L. 11 and 13. . Journal of the Nepal Research Centre 12. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl¨ andischen Gesellschaft Supplementband 6. translated with a critical and exegetical com. a Upanis . and Albert Debrunner ¨ 1957 [1896] Altindische Grammatik. Cambridge. Michael 1974 ‘On Some Unknown Systems of Marking the Vedic Accent’. et al. ad. S. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Sukthankar and Others. Vishveshvarand Indological Journal 12 [Vishva Bandhu Commemoration Volume]. Mysore: Government Branch Press. arang¯ ˙ ac¯ Utvala Venkat aryulu 1931 Mahe´ svarasuri ¯ viracita Vi´ svako´ samu sat ıkamu.and the Kˆ an ¸a ˆ khˆ a . 19 vols. Poona: BORI. 1. Indische Studien 11–12. Paris: Editions de Boccard. Whitney. 1973 Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique.] V¯ avilla R¯ amasv¯ ami´ sa Varenne. Wackernagel. 255–300. Martin L. Harvard Oriental Series 7–8. 1962. hitˆ West. 2 vols. Rep. Dummler.





. . . . . Alexis Sanderson ¯ ngirasakalpa Atharvavedins in Tantric Territory: The A ˙ Texts of the Oriya Paippal¯ adins and their Connection with the Trika and the K¯ al¯ ıkula. 195 Kei Kataoka Was Bhat adin? . .. . ... . . . . . . . . Timothy Lubin The N¯ ılarudropanis adasam a: A Critical Edition with Trans. . . . . . . 81 . . . . . . . . .Contents Arlo Griffiths Prefatory Remarks . . . . . . . . . . .. . 35 . . . . 387 . . . . .. . hit¯ Yasuhiro Tsuchiyama On the meaning of the word r¯ as tr´ a: PS 10. 141 . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Werner Knobl Zwei Studien zum Wortschatz der Paippal¯ ada-Sam a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . ..15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . .t . .. . . . . . 355 Index . hit¯ Alexander Lubotsky PS 8. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . a . . . . . . . . . . ... Arlo Griffiths The Ancillary Literature of the Paippal¯ ada School: A Preliminary Survey with an Edition of the Caran avy uhopanis ¯ ad . . . . . . . and the *Bhadrak¯ al¯ ımantravidhiprakaran . . . . . . hit¯ lation of the Upanis ad and N¯ a r¯ a yan a’s D¯ ı pik¯ a . . . . . and the Kashmirian Atharvaveda . .. . .. . .. ... . . . Offense against a Brahmin . .. . . . . .. . ad and the Paippal¯ . .. . . .. . ... . . . the Par¯ amantravidhi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . a Jayanta a Paippal¯ Walter Slaje ¯ ns. . . .. . . .. Two Sult . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . as. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . ..t ... 329 Three Bhat . .. . . . . . . . . . .. III Philipp Kubisch The Metrical and Prosodical Structures of Books I–VII of the Vulgate Atharvavedasam a . . . . . . .. . .. ... . . . .. . . . . .. . 71 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 313 . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .4 .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . With critical editions of the Par¯ ajapavidhi. . .a Annette Schmiedchen Epigraphical Evidence for the History of Atharvavedic Brahmins . .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful