This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Steven J. Biars Shawnee State University
Dedication This book is dedicated to Roger and Henry Tackett, to those who fight to protect our freedom and sovereignty, and to the Republic, for which we stand. Without them, the freedoms that have allowed me to write and publish my academic research may have been extinguished forever. Thank you for your sacrifices in the name of freedom and all that is good and right in the world.
Consilio et animis, audaces fortuna iuvat. (By wisdom and courage, fortune favors the brave.)
Abstract Current U.S. policies and laws created since 9/11 have created a fascist state that infringes upon the rights of its citizens. The intent of the researcher is to expose flaws within the U.S. legislative and judicial systems that have allowed willful abuse of the USA Patriot Act to occur. The gross abuse of power on behalf of the Bush Administration is unconstitutional and should be used as further grounds to repeal the USA Patriot Act. Without change, the United States will continue to drift from a democracy to a more Fascist state, endangering the rights and freedoms of the citizens of this nation.
Outline for The Dawn of Fascism
What is Fascism? i. Definition of Fascism ii. Ideological differences
Research Statement i. Intents of the researcher ii. Non-partisan disclosure
Inner workings of Fascism i. Italian Fascism and U.S. similarities ii. Signs of Fascism
Democratic Corruption i. Scandals and corruption involving elected officials ii. Gross abuse of the USA Patriot Act
Combating Fascism in the United States i. An analysis of what lies ahead ii. Using the past to save the future
The Dawn of Fascism in the United States Fascism is a modern political ideology that seeks to regenerate the social, economic, and cultural life of a country by basing it on a heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity. Fascism rejects liberal ideas such as freedom and individual rights, and often presses for the destruction of elections, legislatures, and other elements of democracy. Despite the idealistic goals of Fascism, attempts to build fascist societies have led to wars and persecutions that caused millions of deaths. As a result, Fascism is strongly associated with right-wing fanaticism, racism, totalitarianism, and violence (Encarta). In regards to this research paper, we will be dealing with Italian Fascism. Many times Italian Fascism is referred to as “big f fascism” and is strictly denoted by the capital “F” spelling. While Nazi Germany employed its own form of Fascism, this is typically referred to as “little f fascism” and is denoted by the use of a lowercase “f” spelling (Mirabello). It is the belief of the researcher, Steven J. Biars, that the United States is entering the embryonic stages of generic Fascism. Essentially, current U.S. laws and polices have shaped the American society in such a way that various aspects resemble Italian Fascism when examined through academic research. My research paper, entitled The Dawn of Fascism in the United States, will explore how legislation and corruption on behalf of the Bush Administration has hindered the ability of the people to govern themselves through democratic elections. Subject content is explored on a non-partisan basis, without subjection to opinion, but rather fully based on facts cited within the bibliography. For nearly a century, the United States of America has drifted from a democratic society, based on capitalism to a corporate fueled police state on the verge of Fascism. In order to understand the series of events that has enabled the dawn of U.S. Fascism, we must understand what Fascism really is. As an academic, due diligence is critical. Fascism has taken many forms over the years. For example, the political ideology of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy are strikingly similar, less a few obvious exceptions such as the Holocaust. With this in mind, we can progress to definitions related to the
subject at hand. The words and phrases to be defined are Fascism and police state. The definition of “Fascism” has become somewhat skewed over the years. For the sake of accuracy, I compared numerous past and present editions of popular dictionaries and encyclopedia with the intent of comparing definitions. On the grounds of consistency, I selected Microsoft Encarta as the source of the definition of Fascism. I made this decision because Encarta is based on the widely respected Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia. Encarta defines Fascism as a “modern political ideology that seeks to regenerate the social, economic, and cultural life of a country by basing it on a heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity. Fascism rejects liberal ideas such as freedom and individual rights, and often presses for the destruction of elections, legislatures, and other elements of democracy“("Fascism"). Similarly, to garner an adequate understanding of Fascism, it is generally accepted that fascist states most often become police states. Once again, we find ourselves in need of a definition. MerriamWebster Online Dictionary defines police state as “a political unit characterized by repressive governmental control of political, economic, and social life usually by an arbitrary exercise of power by police and especially secret police in place of regular operation of administrative and judicial organs of the government according to publicly known legal procedures” ("Police state"). The researcher, Steven J. Biars, wishes to dispel any notions of party affiliation. While some aspects of this investigation may be considered controversial, special care was taken to prevent the inclusion of any biased opinion. Resources have been checked and cross-referenced to prevent the inclusion of false or potentially misleading or misconstrued information. The analysis conducted within this document is based largely on political theory and conjecture based on easily attainable source information provided within the annals of the attached bibliography. Fascism spreads through false propaganda and misinformation. Presentation of anything less than unadulterated fact would fail to bring my research and presentation goals into fruition. One of the best explanations of how Fascism could conceivably sweep over America was
written by Chris Floyd, a political analyst for the Moscow Times. The article in question was published just two months after the terrorists attacks of September 11th, has an almost unbelievable sense of validity. Floyd writes; “Fascism in America won’t come with jackboots, book burnings, mass rallies, and fevered harangues, nor will it come with black helicopters or tanks on the street. It won’t come like a storm—but as a break in the weather, that sudden change of season you might feel when the wind shifts on an October evening: Everything is the same, but everything has changed. Something has gone, departed from the world, and a new reality will have taken its place. All the old forms will still be there: legislatures, elections, campaigns—plenty of bread and circuses. But “consent of the governed” will no longer apply; actual control of the state will have passed to a small and privileged group who rule for the benefit of their wealthy peers and corporate patrons. To be sure, there will be factional conflicts among the elite, and a degree of debate will be permitted; but no one outside the privileged circle will be allowed to influence state policy. Dissidents will be marginalized—usually by “the people” themselves. Deprived of historical knowledge by a thoroughly impoverished educational system designed to produce complacent consumers, left ignorant of current events by a corporate media devoted solely to profit, many will internalize the force-fed values of the ruling elite, and act accordingly. There will be little need for overt methods of control. The rulers will act in secret, for reasons of “national security,” and the people will not be permitted to know what goes on in their name. Actions once unthinkable will be accepted as routine: government by executive fiat, state murder of “enemies” selected by the leader, undeclared wars, torture, mass detentions without charge, the looting of the national treasury, the creation of huge new “security structures” targeted at the populace. In time, this will be seen as “normal,” as the chill of autumn feels normal when summer is gone. It will all seem normal.” (Floyd) Looking back at the events surrounding post 9/11 legislation, Americans have unwitting conceded the entirety of their rights in less than eight years. A prime example of the USA Patriot Act’s widespread abuse of power revolves around the First Amendment of the United States Bill of Rights. The first amendment states that: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” (United States Bill of Rights, Amendment I). As you can see, it is clearly stated within the Amendment I that the Government is forbidden from prohibiting these freedoms. Meanwhile, the U.S. Government has seized web-servers from over
20 independent media organizations in 17 countries, closing many of them for good (Shabi). These actions represent a clear and present danger to sovereignty of other nations. These actions essentially grant the U.S. Government the power to be an autonomous international judiciary, capable of arresting, trying, and convicting individuals at large without the need for international consultation. In this aspect, the powers that be have eliminated any chance of seeking refuge or asylum from political persecution. Further abuses against journalists have been carried out as well. The FBI openly admits that journalist phone records are “fair game” (Ross and Esposito). While many might overlook the usage, the phrase “fair game” was coined by Lafayette Ronald Hubbard, the founder of Scientology to describe various aggressive policies and practices carried out by the Church of Scientology towards people and groups it perceives as its enemies ("Fair Game (Scientology)"). As shocking as this may seem, it shouldn’t surprise us. Much of the foundation of U.S. Fascism was laid during the Great Depression and the reign of terror of Joseph McCarthy during the Red Scare. Thousands were prosecuted and forced to testify to judiciary committees in direct violation of the rights guaranteed by the first amendment to the Constitution. The lessons of the past have stigmatized generations of Americans into believing they are nothing more than “pinko commie scum” unless they turn a blind eye to Government actions around them. The term “pinko” has its origins in the notion that pink is a lighter shade of red, the color associated with Communism, Fascism, and National Socialism. While National Socialism is more frequently know as Naziism, it is essentially a generic form of Fascism. In all cases of Fascism, an increased sense of nationalism is often encouraged by ruling class. It has been said that “You must glorify war in order to get the public to accept the fact that your going to send their sons and daughters to die.” (Operation Hollywood). Another aspect of the military influence of fascist regimes is the glorification of soldiers and military service. The United States has participated in the production of numerous mainstream Hollywood movies and television shows, provided producers and directors are willing to concede to
government demands (Operation Hollywood). The U.S. Army even has a video game, designed to recruit its virtual players to real-life service by use of team-oriented combat (White). The game, appropriately called “America’s Army” is distributed for free. It also includes multiple designations to denote online players currently serving in the armed forces. As of the writing of this paper, a message left at the Portsmouth recruiting office regarding the use of “America’s Army” as a recruiting tool remains unreturned. With the media and Hollywood under control and fierce nationalism being manifested from within, the cards begin to fall into place a little easier. Just before the opening air strikes of the Gulf War, the White House issued the following statement on live television: “We have before us the opportunity to forge for ourselves and for future generations a new world order -- a world where the rule of law, not the law of the jungle, governs the conduct of nations. When we are successful -- and we will be -- we have a real chance at this new world order, an order in which a credible United Nations can use its peacekeeping role to fulfill the promise and vision of the U.N.'s founders.” (George H.W. Bush, as qtd. in New York Times) To the unsuspecting eye, this quote may seem invalid. However, when we begin to dig into the inner workings of Washington, the illusion of a free society begins to disappear. During the Reagan Administration, for which George H.W. Bush held the position of Vice President, military spending went through the roof. Under the Reagan Administration, the national debt doubled with trillions of dollars being spent on “Star Wars” and the embryonic precursor for our “Missile Defense System”. The increase in Government spending was supposedly geared toward defending the United States from the United Soviet Socialist Republic, herein referred to as the Soviet Union, as well as possible threat from China. Russia, our highest spending potential enemy, spends 70 billion per year on defense. With the threat of more than enough nuclear weapons to wipe Russia from the map, they were virtually neutralized. The military budget of China, the next highest spender, is around 50 billion. However, China is a major trading partner (Cohen). Similarly, the Russian and Chinese governments hold over half a trillion dollars of US debt combined, creating a mutual dependency in what amounts to
a symbiotic relationship between the triplex of superpowers. With most major threats eliminated, the United States still spends over 400 billion dollars for defense every year (Cohen). In Fascism, even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. When adjusted for inflation, we spend nearly as much for defense today as we did during the height of World War II. This does take the ongoing wars in Iraq or Afghanistan into consideration. War spending is requested separately from traditional defense spending and projections are not considered part of the defense budget ("U.S. Military Spending"). Religion plays a huge factor in the spread of Fascism and is often used as a tool to retain control of the masses. Through simple observation, it is easy to see just how secular the United States has become. In numerous presidential elections, the results have been hugely influenced by religious groups and organizations put forth by leading televangelists. Controversial topics such as birth control, abortion, gay marriage, and evolution have posed significant stumbling blocks for political candidates time after time. Franklin Delano Roosevelt once issued a staunch warning in one of his weekly radio chats. His understanding of Fascism and how easily it could occur within a capitalist society sends a haunting message over a half century since it was spoken. Roosevelt said: “The liberty of a democracy is not safe if the people tolerate the growth of private power to a point where it comes stronger than their democratic state itself. That, in its essence, is Fascism - ownership of government by an individual, by a group.” (Roosevelt) While F.D.R. was warning citizens, Benito Mussolini was encouraging religion as a means to exert his power through Fascism. Mussolini believed that Fascism was form of religion and should be treated as such. In the Doctrine of Fascism, published in 1932, Mussolini stated: “Fascism is a religious conception in which man is seen in his immanent relationship with a superior law and with an objective Will that transcends the particular individual.” (Mussolini) With religion, any aspect of life that wasn’t already controlled or influenced by Fascism can now fall into place. Throughout this paper, I have explained the many faces of Fascism, how it works, how it
spreads, and how it manages to maintain control. In the following pages, I will address hypothetical situations based on my own research as well as content and information that I have learned from Dr. Mark Mirabello and one of his geo-political classes entitled “Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy”. It is my sincerest hope that the intimate details of this presentation will not fall on deaf ears as Fascism spreads through misinformation and propaganda with little regard for what is truth, and what is fiction. After all, when you control the media, you can discredit truth to the point of fiction, or bolster fiction until it becomes a pseudo-truth. Fascism embodies the democratic process in such a way that it usually isn’t detected until the acting regime has fully implanted itself. In early 1918, Mussolini called for the emergence of a man "ruthless and energetic enough to make a clean sweep" to revive the Italian nation (The Rise of Benito Mussolini). During its most embryonic stages, Fascism opposes discrimination based on social class and is opposed to all forms of class conflict. While this is contrary to Capitalism, in which success and ascension to a higher class are paramount, the United States has a mix of both. Over the past few years, President George W. Bush has battled with Congress and the Senate in an attempt to nullify the collective bargaining power of trade unions ("Bush to Veto"). President Bush has also launched attempts to eliminate overtime pay as well as the standardized 40 hour work week ("Bush Proposal"). Fascism tends to attack labor unions because of the immense political power these organizations can attain. Whether or not these actions were intended to exert control of the masses is unknown. What we can ascertain is that the actions of the President are remarkably similar to Fascism, under open scrutiny and academic comparison. However, the story goes deeper than just labor laws and attempts to abolish overtime. After all, George W. Bush is a member of the Republican Party. For over a century, the Republican National Committee has enjoyed a rich voter base consisting of business interests as well as upper-crust Americans. This in itself does not deem the Republican Party a fascist organization, it just lends to the idea that at least some fascist ideas have infiltrated U.S. politics in the decades since the World War II era.
Generally speaking, in the most generic sense of Fascism, cronyism and corporatism runs rampant. In the nearly 8 years since President Bush has taken office, the United States has routinely generated record deficits after a period of record surpluses with the previous administration. Under George W. Bush, the national budget reached the 1 trillion, 2 trillion, and 3 trillion dollar milestones for the first time. Meanwhile, corporate corruption is at an all time high. Americans have witnessed the collapse of Enron. Former Enron CEO, Ken Lay, was a major supporter of President Bush. The relationship between the two was so relaxed that Bush often referred to Lay as “Kenny Boy”. After Enron collapsed, President Bush distanced himself from his former friend ("Bush Edges Away"). While the Enron incident wasn’t the fist time Bush and the RNC had received significant public scrutiny, it marked the start of a rapid decline in Bush’ approval rating. The rampant cronyism of the Bush Administration extends far past Enron. Scandals have emerged elsewhere involving Bush appointed staff. These include various scandals involving: • • • • • • • • • • Donald Rumsfeld (former Secretary of Defense) Porter Goss (former Director of the Central Intelligence) George Tenet (former Director of the Central Intelligence) Karl Rove (former Deputy White House Chief of Staff) Lewis “Scooter” Libby (former Assistant to the President) Jack Abramoff (former member of Transition Advisory Team for the Department of the Interior) Tom DeLay (former House of Representatives Majority Leader) Alberto Gonzales (former United States Attorney General) John Ashcroft (former United States Attorney General) Bernard Kerik (former Secretary of Homeland Security nominee) The list extends far past the names provided here. While the collections of names represent a large swath of fascist-like cronyism on behalf of the Bush Administration, other scandals have emerged as well. These include the events leading to the Mortgage Collapse of 2008, the fall devaluation of U.S. currency, rampant price fixing in oil and other commodities, numerous trading scandals on Wall Street, the collapse of Bear-Sterns, fraudulent contracts regarding the rebuilding of Iraq, forgery and loss of documentation pertaining to the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, human rights violations against
detainees and civilians caught in both wars, violations contrary to agreements of the Geneva Convention, irregularities in habeas corpus proceedings, and more (Allen, Beam, and Bosch). Such rampant corruption serves to galvanize the already divided citizenry of the United States by separating voters into more secular groups. Democrats and Republicans, who once shared many common views, are now radically divided. This has lead to a widespread standstill in all branches of government ranging from federal decisions to state and local governments. Bills are often vetoed based on the submitters’ party alone, without regard for the context of the bill itself. Lines are often added to bills in hopes that no one will catch it. According to Dr. Mark Mirabello, President Bush aided in his own defense by helping to pass a bill that gave the President and his entire administration retroactive immunity from being prosecuted for war crimes (Yost). Coincidence? I’ll leave that for you to decide at the conclusion of my research. In the Hollywood movie “Wall Street”, Gordon Gekko makes a rather memorable remark when he says: “The illusion has become real, and the more real it becomes, the more desperate they want it.”. The “American Dream” has become an illusion. Grandiose ideas of getting everything you’ve ever wanted just because you were born in the United States is the illusion. While many people are able to make comfortable lives for themselves, millions of Americans fall at the wayside. Consider the status of education in the United States. At the time of this writing, the estimated population of the United States stands just above 304,738,000 (U.S. Census Bureau). Out of the overall population estimates, only 19,100,000 or roughly 6.7% are under five years of age. Children older than 5 years of age are generally accepted as having been exposed to some form of reading. 42 million American adults can't read at all; 50 million are unable to read at a higher level that is expected of a fourth or fifth grader (Sweet).. The number of adults classified as functionally illiterate increases by some 2.25 million each year. Around 20 percent of all seniors graduating from high school can be classified as being functionally illiterate (Sweet). In addition, 70 percent of state and federal prisoners can be classified as illiterate (Literacy Facts & Statistics). 85 percent of all juvenile offenders may be classified as
functionally or marginally illiterate. Another 43 percent of the people with the lowest literacy skills live in poverty (Literacy Facts & Statistics). Year after year, states rebuild and retune proficiency testing. Unfortunately, the results of such proficiency testing begin to paint a grim picture. Up to 20 percent of all graduating high school students are functionally illiterate (Literacy Facts & Statistics). With the population of the United States rising at a semi-predictable rate, this data seems to suggest that literacy rates are actually going down. It would seem that by using proficiency testing to gauge where we need to be, we are actually hurting our overall test scores. The need to pass such a grueling state test forces many teachers into an unrealistic curriculum in order to prepare students for the testing ahead. By attempting to forge ahead, we have sent education in reverse. In the most generalized form of Fascism, education is trumped by party goals in such a way that class distinction begins to disappear. Taking a step back, the pieces begin to fall into place as you will start to see in the remainder of this paper. As I have mentioned previously, Fascism discourages a class system, aside from party leadership being “above” all else. In order to maintain control, Fascism digs into society via all means possible. It maintains control over the media, education, and labor. Many of us my simply write off U.S. policy changes as necessary in a post 9/11 world. Fascism has always achieved power through democracy. Followers are seduced into believing the hopes and dreams of the party with little regard for the validity or viability of these goals. Through persistent attacks on organized labor and American civil liberties, we drift ever so slightly to being Fascist. The once prominent middle class is being slowly eliminated. Those Americans who are near the top ascend higher thanks to generous and fiscally irresponsible tax cuts provided by the Bush Administration. Meanwhile, Americans in the lower middle class as well as many “stuck in the center” are forced closer to poverty thanks to attempts to abolish overtime, worker protection laws, and the ever increasing threat of a Social Security meltdown in the near future (U.S. Department of the Treasury. Office of Public Affairs).
The vanishing retirement benefits of middle class Americans will lead to further economic control. The Bush Administration has dipped into Social Security to fund the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (Mirabello). Essentially, the government is already stealing money from the people in a form of double taxation through the exhaustion of the Social Security trust fund. Thankfully, the largest two employers in the United States are the government itself followed by Wal-Mart (Grant). Walmart has over a million employees and generates almost 1/6th as much revenue as the federal government collects in taxes each year. As I mentioned previously, rampant corporatism is a critical indicator of embryonic Fascism. By every definition of the word, Wal-Mart is a monopoly (Grant). However, nothing has been done in regarding anti-trust measures. With the presentation of my findings completed, I ask you to step back from today and take a good look at the past. While remembering the past, look towards the future. The future and viability of the United States is at risk of failure. It was decadence that killed the Roman Empire and such decadence may truly kill America. As bad as it sounds, we may be witnessing the downfall of the greatest democracy the world has ever seen (Mirabello). It is our duty to ourselves and our citizenry alike to stand up against that which is unacceptable and decidedly un-American. Our failure as a people to set aside religious beliefs and secular differences in order to work for a common resolve has decayed the very foundation of the “American way”. Our once proud democracy is crumbling under our feet and we are allowing it to do so. Debt is at an all time high, employment figures follow rollercoaster patterns of unpredictability. We face increasing deficits and reductions of taxes that only make these deficits worse. Fascist nations often spend irresponsibly, sometimes “throwing a bone” to the people. I would venture to say that 90% of the people you and I come in contact with have benefited from tax breaks or stimulus checks. My stimulus check amounted to nearly three times the taxes I have paid in the last 4 years and many others around campus have reported similar incidents. Our voluntary concessions after 9/11 were meaningful and necessary to insure national security after such a heinous act, but those rights were only to be conceded on a temporary basis. Unfortunately,
what many Americans do not realize is that many of the provisions of the USA Patriot Act were set to expire beginning December 31, 2005, approximately 4 years after its passage. An independent senate committee determined the re-authorization of the USA Patriot Act caused great concern and posed a threat to the civil liberties of American citizens (United States Senate. SAFE Act Committee). While it was originally a tool to help fight the war on terror, the USA Patriot Act has morphed into its own quasi-Fascist doctrine largely due to the re-authorization and continuous editing, amending, and retroactive additions. Remembering a quote earlier in the paper, you may start to realize that “The illusion has become real, and the more real it becomes, the more desperate they want it.” (Gekko). In conclusion, the United States is at war with itself. Our greatest battle lies within ourselves and our legal system. Without an overhaul, America is irreparably doomed to follow a path leading to pure Fascism. Our economy is no longer controlled by the people thanks to massive government intervention in mortgage and economic affairs. A once proud and united nation is being torn apart at the seams by petty differences that force more and more secular elections and create more secular political parties in the process. The carpet has been pulled out from under our feet through the corruption of laws. While the intentions of these laws were good, the misuse of such powerful, groundbreaking legal measures has created a clear and present danger to the sovereignty of the United States as well as the civil rights guaranteed to each and every American. On July 4, 1776, the United States declared its independence. Our founding fathers went through great personal sacrifice including intensive ethical and moral debate in order to forge a lasting legacy for each and every American. In less than 100 years, and certainly within the past eight, we have nullified nearly everything our forefathers worked so hard to build. The United States is teetering on the edge of an economic meltdown caused by rising deficits and an enormous national debt. Our very existence as “Americans” has been challenged to an extent that was never before seen. We must rebuild our legal system to protect natural order and unalienable rights endowed to us by our creator and by the notions of our own humanity. I set before you, before God, and before my educators and peers as an
intellectual. I have used the tools each of you has given me over the course of my education and upbringing to seek truth through knowledge and hope through perseverance. I stand before you as a fellow American, in writing this paper. As a second generation American, I present the fruit of my academic career, for your consideration. It is my sincerest hope that this paper educates and inspires those who read it. While you may not agree with each of the points I have presented, I believe you will realize the threat of impending Fascism is real. In closing, it may be noted that such political criticism would likely result in my disappearance or death in a Fascist nation. While Americans still enjoy many freedoms that aren’t found elsewhere, we must defend that which we hold dear. I carry the dreams of my grandparents in my attempts to insure the preservation the very rights that make the United States of America the greatest beacon of freedom the world has ever seen. In fleeing Nazi Germany, my grandfather instilled in me a sense of hope and courage to stand up for what I believe in. My studies throughout college have strengthened my ability to see more clearly through reason and logic and by the experiences I have gained throughout my secondary education. I leave you with this paper as a testament to freedom and as a challenge to seek truth within yourselves. As unrealistic as it may seem, we have the ability within ourselves to demand truth in government and although our democracy is threatened, we still retain the power to change this great nation through those we elect to office. Freedom lies within each of us, not within the government we elect. The purpose of our elected government is to protect and insure our rights and freedoms and to insure national sovereignty. Through education, our nations greatest days lie ahead. However, if we deny the lessons of the past, the Dawn of Fascism, and the beginning our darkest hours await.
Works Cited Allen, Holly, Christopher Beam, and Torie Bosch. “Bushies Behaving Badly - An illustrated guide to GOP scandals.” Slate 11 May 2007. 30 July 2008 <http://www.slate.com/id/2165783/>. Bush, George H. W. “Transcript of the Comments by Bush on the Air Strikes Against the Iraqis .” Oval Office. 17 Jan. 1991. New York Times 17 Jan. 1991: 2. 21 July 2008 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE2DF1F3AF934A25752C0A967958260 &sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2>. “Bush Edges Away From ‘Kenny Boy.’” CBS News 8 July 2004, online ed. 30 July 2008 <http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/07/08/politics/main628320.shtml>. “Bush Proposal Could End Overtime Pay for Millions of Workers.” AFL-CIO Newsletter 27 Mar. 2003. 30 July 2008 <http://www.aflcio.org/issues/ns03282003a.cfm>. “Bush to veto antiterror bill if it lets airport screeners unionize.” Rocky Mountain Collegian 28 Feb. 2007. 30 July 2008 <http://media.www.collegian.com/media/storage/paper864/news/2007/02/28/News/BushTo.Veto.Antiterror.Bill.If.It.Lets.Airport.Screeners.Unionize-2747797.shtml>. Cohen, Ben. Oreo. 12 Mar. 2005. True Majority. Vers. 2. 29 July 2008 <http://www.truemajority.org/oreos/>. “Fair Game (Scientology).” Wikipedia. 28 July 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fair_Game_(Scientology)>. “Fascism.” MSN Encarta. Microsoft Network. 21 July 2008 <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568245/fascism.html>. Floyd, Chris. “The Rise of Fascism in America.” Moscow Times 10 Nov. 2001, english ed. Rpt. in Common Dreams. By Gary Alan Scott. Common Dreams. 12 Apr. 2006. 28 July 2008 <http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0412-32.htm>.
Grant, Lorrie. “Retail giant Wal-Mart faces challenges on many fronts.” USA Today 10 Nov. 2003, online ed. USA Today. 2008. Gannet Co. Inc. 31 July 2008 <http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2003-11-10-walmart_x.htm>. Literacy Facts & Statistics. National Institute for Literacy. National Institute for Literacy. 29 May 2008. 30 July 2008 <http://www.nifl.gov/nifl/facts/facts_overview.html>. Mirabello, Mark. “Nazi Germany and Fascist Europe.” Fascism. Shawnee State University. Summer 2008. Mussolini, Benito. “The Doctrine of Fascism.” Rome, Italy. Summer 1932. The Doctrine of Fascism. By Benito Mussolini. N.p.: n.p., 1932. Operation Hollywood. The Passionate Eye. Information Clearing House. 23 Feb. 2005. 29 July 2008 <http://informationclearinghouse.info/article8163.htm>. “Police state.” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008 ed. 28 July 2008 <http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/policestate>. The Rise of Benito Mussolini. Dept. home page. 1 Mar. 2006. U of San Diego. 30 July 2008 <http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/ww2timeline/Prelude05.html>. Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. “Fireside Chats - War.” Speech, 1944. ThinkExist. Library of Congress. 29 July 2008 <http://thinkexist.com/quotes/with/keyword/fascism/>. Ross, Brian, and Richard Esposito. “FBI Acknowledges: Journalists’ Phone Records are Fair Game.” The Blotter (ABC News) 16 May 2006. 28 July 2008 <http://blogs.abcnews.com/theblotter/2006/05/fbi_acknowledge.html>. Shabi, Rachel. “US seizes webservers from independent media sites.” Guardian 11 Oct. 2004. 28 July 2008 <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2004/oct/11/usnews.internationalnews>. Sweet, Robert W., Jr. Illiteracy: An Incurable Disease or Education Malpractice? National Right to Read Foundation, 1996. National Right to Read Foundation. 1996. 30 July 2008 <http://www.nrrf.org/essay_Illiteracy.html>.
United States Bill of Rights, Amendment I. 15 Dec. 1791. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 28 July 2008 <http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.billofrights.html#amendmenti>. United States Senate. SAFE Act Committee. SAFE ACT CO-SPONSORS SAY PATRIOT ACT CONFERENCE REPORT UNACCEPTABLE . By Joe Shoemaker, et al. Washington: Patriot Act Re-Authorization Committee, 2005. Office of U.S. Senator John Sununu. 16 Nov. 2005. 31 July 2008 <http://www.sununu.senate.gov/pressapp/record.cfm?id=248936&&year=2005&>. U.S. Census Bureau Population Estimates. 30 July 2008 <http://www.census.gov/popest/>. U.S. Department of the Treasury. Office of Public Affairs. Strengthening Social Security. By Social Security Trustees. FirstGov. 2008. 31 July 2008 <http://www.strengtheningsocialsecurity.gov/need_for_action.shtml>. “U.S. Military Spending, 1946–2009.” Chart. InfoPlease. Pearson Education, Inc. 29 July 2008 <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0904490.html>. White, Josh. “It’s a Video Game, and an Army Recruiter.” Washington Post 27 May 2005: A25. Washington Post. 27 May 2005. 29 July 2008 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/05/26/AR2005052601505.html>. Yost, Pete. “White House proposes retroactive war crimes protection.” Boston Globe 10 Aug. 2006. 30 July 2008 <http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2006/08/10/white_house_proposes_r etroactive_war_crimes_protection/>.