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# ME2151

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

3 1 0 100

V.Ramakrishnan
OBJECTIVE At the end of this course the student should be able to understand the vectorial and scalar representation of forces and moments, static equilibrium of particles and rigid bodies both in two dimensions and also in three dimensions. Further, he should understand the principle of work and energy. He should be able to comprehend the effect of friction on equilibrium. He should be able to understand the laws of motion, the kinematics of motion and the interrelationship. He should also be able to write the dynamic equilibrium equation. All these should be achieved both conceptually and through solved examples. UNIT I BASICS & STATICS OF PARTICLES 12 Introduction Units and Dimensions Laws of Mechanics Lames theorem, Parallelogram and triangular Law of forces Vectors Vectorial representation of forces and moments Vector operations: additions, subtraction, dot product, cross product Coplanar Forces Resolution and Composition of forces Equilibrium of a particle Forces in space Equilibrium of a particle in space Equivalent systems of forces Principle of transmissibility Single equivalent force. UNIT II EQUILIBRIUM OF RIGID BODIES 12 Free body diagram Types of supports and their reactions requirements of stable equilibrium Moments and Couples Moment of a force about a point and about an axis Vectorial representation of moments and couples Scalar components of a moment Varignons theorem Equilibrium of Rigid bodies in two dimensions Equilibrium of Rigid bodies in three dimensions Examples UNIT III PROPERTIES OF SURFACES AND SOLIDS 12 Determination of Areas and Volumes First moment of area and the Centroid of sections Rectangle, circle, triangle from integration T section, i section, - Angle section, Hollow section by using standard formula second and product moments of plane area Rectangle, triangle, circle from integration T section, i section, Angle section, Hollow section by using standard formula Parallel axis theorem and perpendicular axis theorem Polar moment of inertia Principal moments of inertia of plane areas Principal axes of inertia Mass moment of inertia Derivation of mass moment of inertia for rectangular section, prism, sphere from first principle Relation to area moments of inertia. UNIT IV DYNAMICS OF PARTICLES 12 Displacements, Velocity and acceleration, their relationship Relative motion Curvilinear motion Newtons law Work Energy Equation of particles impulse and Momentum impact of elastic bodies. UNIT V FRICTION AND ELEMENTS OF RIGID BODY DYNAMICS 12 Frictional force Laws of Coloumb friction simple contact friction Rolling resistance Belt friction. Translation and Rotation of Rigid Bodies Velocity and acceleration General Plane motion. TOTAL: 60 PERIODS TEXT BOOK: Beer, F.P and Johnson Jr. E.R. Vector Mechanics for Engineers, Vol. 1 Statics and Vol. 2 Dynamics, McGraw-Hill international Edition, (1997).

ME2151

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

3 1 0 100

UNIT I BASICS & STATICS OF PARTICLES Introduction 1. Define particles. A particle denotes a body in which all the materials are concentrated at a point. The dimensions of the body are negligible compared to the distances involved in the study. Ex: Sun and Earth are particles in planetary motion. 2. Define mechanics. Mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the conditions of rest or motion of bodies under the action of forces. it predicts the effect of forces on objects either at rest or in motion. it includes transmission of forces and the motion they produce. Mechanics can be divided into Mechanics of solids and mechanics of fluid Mechanics of solid includes Statics and Dynamics Dynamics includes Kinematics and Kinetics 3. Define statics. Statics is the study of distribution and effect of forces on rigid bodies which are at rest and remain at rest. 4. Define dynamics. Dynamics is the study of motion of rigid bodies and their correlation with the forces causing them. 5. Define Kinematics. Kinematics is the study of motion of bodies without any reference to the forces causing the motion or forces produced as a result of the motion. 6. Define kinetics. Kinetics is the study of relationship between the forces and the resulting motion. 7. Define rigid body. Rigid body is a definite amount of matter, parts of which are fixed in position relative to one another. in the case of beams, and trusses acted upon by forces, the reactions are determined by assuming the structure to be rigid. 8. What are the characteristics of force? The characteristics of force are magnitude, direction, and point of application (line of action) Force tends to change the state of rest or uniform motion of body. 9. What are the different force systems when a number of forces act? Force System Coplanar (Plane) Non-coplanar (Space) Collinear Concurrent Concurrent Parallel Parallel Non-concurrent, non-parallel Non-concurrent, non-parallel 10. S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 What are the characteristics of different force systems? Force System Characteristics Coplanar (Plane) Line of action of all forces lie on the same plane. Non-coplanar (Space) Lines of action of all forces do not lie on the same plane. Collinear Line of action of all forces act along the same line. Concurrent Line of action of all forces pass through the same point. Parallel Lines of action of all forces are parallel to each other.

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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

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Units and Dimensions 11. Define unit. Unit is a standard of measure for the quantitative description of the dimension. The primary unit of base dimension is called base unit. Ex: meter, second, kg. They are arbitrarily defined. 12. Define dimension. Dimension is a qualitative description of a physical quantity. it is quantified by a certain standard of measure called unit. Basic dimensions which are independent are called base dimensions. Ex: Length (L), Mass (M), and Time (T). 13. Define meter, kilogram and second. Meter is the distance between two fine lines engraved near the ends of a platinum-iridium bar kept at the international bureau of weights and measures in Paris, France. Kilogram is the mass of platinum-iridium cylinder (39 cm dia x 30 cm height) kept at the international bureau of weights and measures in Paris, France. Second is the time taken by a certain (9192631776) number of vibrations of light emitted by a cesium- 133 atom. 14. State the dimensions and units of velocity, acceleration, area, volume, density, weight, specific weight, discharge, force, energy, impulse, moment of a force, moment of area (inertia), moment of mass (inertia), momentum. S.No. Quanitity Dimension Unit 1 Velocity LT-1 m/s -2 2 Acceleration LT m/s2 3 Area L2 m2 3 4 Volume L m3 -3 5 Density ML Kg/m3 6 Weight MLT-2 N 7 Specific weight ML-2T-2 N/m3 3 -1 8 Discharge LT m3/s -2 9 Force MLT N 10 Energy ML2 T-2 Nm (J) 11 Impulse MLT-1 Ns 12 Moment of a force ML2 T-2 Nm 4 13 Moment of inertia (area) L m4 2 14 Moment of inertia (mass) ML Kgm2 -1 15 Momentum MLT Kgm/s 2 -3 16 Power ML T J/s (W) 15. What is meant by dimensional homogeneity? Dimensional homogeneity means that the dimensions of various terms on the left and right side of an equation are identical. 16. Verify dimensional homogeneity of the following equations. (a) s = ut + a t2 ; (b) v2 + u2 = 2 a s Substituting the dimensions in the equations, we get (a) L = (LT-1)T + (LT-2)T2 = L; Hence the equation is dimensionally homogeneous. (b) (LT-1)2 + (LT-1)2 = LT-2L (c) L2T-2 + L2T-2 = L2T-2 ; Hence the equation is dimensionally homogeneous.

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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

3 1 0 100

17. What are the sign conventions of force and moment? Right hand rule in Cartesian coordinate system is followed. Forces acting from left to right are positive. Forces acting from right to left are negative. Forces acting forward are positive. Moment acting counter clock wise is positive Laws of Mechanics 18. State Newtons First law. Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by an external impressed force. 19. State Newtons Second law. The rate of change of momentum (acceleration) of a body is directly proportional to the force acting on it and takes place in the direction of force. F = m a 20. State Newtons Third law. To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The forces of action and reaction between the bodies in contact have the same magnitude and line of action, but opposite in direction. 21. State Newtons law of gravitation. F = G (m1 m2) / r2 ; where G is constant of gravitation; m 1 and m2 are masses of the bodies; r is the distance between the bodies. Lames theorem 22. State Lamis theorem or Law of sines. If three forces acting on a particle are in equilibrium, then each of the forces is proportional to the sine of the angle included between the other two forces. F / sin = F / sin = F / sin F / sin = F / sin = F / sin ; where F is the resultant of F and F. Parallelogram Law 23. State the parallelogram law. If two fores acting on a particle are represented by in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the resultant of the two forces can be obtained by drawing the diagonal of the parallelogram through the same point. Mathematically, R = [ A2 + B2 + 2 A B cos ] Triangular Law 24. State the triangular law of forces. If two forces (P and Q) acting on a particle and can be represented by two sides of a triangle (in magnitude and direction) taken in order, then the closing side represents the resultant force taken in the opposite order. 25. How would you find the resultant given the force vectors P and Q? Method: Draw OA and AB to represent P and Q to convenient scale. Complete the triangle OAB. Measure OB. Resultant R = OB x scale Angle AOB gives the direction of R with respect to force P. [Note: vector AB = OB OA] Vectors 26. Define scalar. Scalar is a quantity which has only magnitude and no direction. Ex: length, mass, power, work, energy. it may be positive or negative.

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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

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27. Define vector. Vector is a quantity having both magnitude and direction. Ex: Velocity, Force, Momentum, Moment of force, impulse. 28. State the different types of vectors. (i) Fixed vector; (ii) Free vector; (iii) Sliding vector; (iv) Negative vector; (v) Position vector; (vi) Null vector; and (vii) Unit vector. Fixed vector is a vector representing a force acting on particle. Bound vector is a vector with a well defined point of application. Free vector is a vector which can be freely moved in space. Ex: couples. Sliding vector is a vector representing a force acting on a rigid body which can be moved along its line of action. Negative vector of a given vector F is a vector having the same magnitude as F and the direction opposite to that of F. Position vector of a point is given by r = OP = x i + y j + zk.; where x, y, z are coordinates of the point P. Magnitude of r = [ x2 + y2 + z2 ] Direction cosines are x/r, y/r, and z/r. Null vector is a vector of zero magnitude. Unit vector is a vector of unit magnitude. Unit vector along x direction is i; Unit vector along y direction is j; and Unit vector along z direction is k. Vectorial representation of forces and moments 29. How would you represent a force vector F in space? The force vector in space is given by F = F 1 i + F2 j + F3 k Example: F = 3 i + 5 j + 8 k 30. How would you represent moment of a force about a point? Let F be the force acting at a point A; The force F is represented by the vector as shown. The position vector of the point A be r The moment of the force F about the point O is defined as the cross product of the two vectors r and F. Moment about point O, Mo = r x F = r F sin n; where is the angle between the two vectors and n is the unit vector perpendicular to both r and F. In terms of rectangular coordinates, i j k x y z Fx Fy Fz The magnitude of Mo measures the tendency of the force F to make the rigid body rotate about a fixed axis directed along Mo. The direction is obtained by right hand rule. Moment about x axis , Mx = y Fz z Fy Moment about y axis , My = z Fx x Fz Moment about z axis , Mz = x Fy y Fx Mo = r x F =

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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

3 1 0 100

Vector operations: Addition 31. Find A + B given A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k and B = Bx i + By j + Bz k A + B = (Ax + Bx )i + (Ay + By )j + (Az + Bz )k A + B + C = A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C 32. Find A + B given A = 3 i + 5 j + 8 k and B = 2 i + 4 j + 6 k A + B = (3 + 2 )i + (5 + 4 )j + (8 + 6 )k = 5 i + 9 j + 14 k [Note: Vector OA + AB = OB] Subtraction 33. Find A B given A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k and B = Bx i + By j + Bz k A B = (Ax Bx )i + (Ay By )j + (Az Bz )k 34. Find A B given A = 13 i + 15 j + 18 k and B = 2 i 4 j + 6 k A B = 11 i + 19 j + 12 k [Note: vector AB = OB OA] Dot product (scalar product) Scalar product of A and B = A.B = AB cos where is the angle between the two vectors. 35. What are the characteristics of scalar product? If the angle between the vectors is acute, the product is positive. if the angle between the vectors is obtuse, the product is negative. A.B = B.A If A and B are parallel, the angle between the vectors is zero, and A .B = AB If A and B are perpendicular, the angle between the vectors is 90o , and A.B = 0 If i, j, k are mutually perpendicular unit vectors, Then, i.i = j.j = k.k = 1; i.j = j.i = j.k = k.j= k.i = i.k = 0 A. (B+C) = A.B + A.C 36. Give Scalar product of unit vectors in matrix form. i j k . i j k 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Vector product (cross product) Cross product of A and B = A xB = AB sin ; where is the unit vector perpendicular to both A and B; is the angle between the two vectors. 37. What are the characteristics of cross product? If the angle between the vectors is acute or obtuse, the product is positive. AxB = BxA If A and B are parallel, the angle between the vectors is zero, and A xB = 0 If A and B are perpendicular, the angle between the vectors is 90o, and AxB = AB If i, j, k are mutually perpendicular unit vectors, Then, i.i = j.j = k.k = 1; i.j = j.i = j.k = k.j = k.i = i.k = 0 Ax (B+C) = AxB + AxC 38. Give Scalar product of unit vectors in matrix form. x i j k i 0 k j j k 0 +i k +j i 0

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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

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Coplanar Forces 39. What do you mean by coplanar forces? When, a number of forces lie in a plane, it is called coplanar forces. 40. How many equations of equilibrium are defined for concurrent force system and coplanar force system? Three equations. They are Fx = 0; Fy = 0; M = 0 . Resolution and Composition of forces The force acting on a particle can be resolved into rectangular components along the x axis and y axis. Consider a force F passing through point O and inclined at an angle with the horizontal. Horizontal component of F is Fx = F cos Vertical component of F is, Fy = F sin Force vector F is given by F = F x i + Fy j ; where i and j are unit vectors in the x and y direction respectively. 41. What do you mean by composition of forces? Combination or addition of two or more forces to find a single force or resultant which gives the same effect is called composition of forces. The forces will be added according to parallelogram or triangular law. Equilibrium of a particle A particle will be in equilibrium, when the resultant of all the forces acting on the particle is zero. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the equilibrium of a particle are F x = Fy = 0 . Forces in space A force vector of magnitude F passing through points A(x 1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) is a force is space. 42. Find the rectangular components of force of magnitude F passing through points A(x 1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2). Soln: Position vector of point A = OA = x1 i + y1 j + z1 k Position vector of point B = OB = x21 i + y2 j + z2 k Vector AB = OB OA = (x2 x1 ) i + (y2 y1 ) j + (z2 z1 )k = dx i + dy j + dz k Unit vector in the direction of AB = n = AB / AB dx i + dy j + dz k n = ---------------------------- = [dx i + dy j + dz k] / d [ dx2 + dy2 + dz2 ] 0.5 ,where d = [ dx2 + dy2 + dz2 ] 0.5 Force vector F = F. n = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k ; where Fx = F dx / d; Fy = F dy / d; Fz = F dz / d; Fx, Fy, Fz are rectangular components of F, and i, j, k are unit vectors along the coordinate axes x, y and z direction respectively. Equilibrium of a particle in space A particle will be in equilibrium, when the resultant of all the forces acting on the particle is zero. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the equilibrium of a particle are F x = Fy = Fz = 0 . 43. Define space diagram. Space diagram shows the physical conditions of the problem. 44. Define free body diagram. Free body diagram shows the particle and all the forces acting on it.

ME2151

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

3 1 0 100

Equivalent systems of forces Principle of transmissibility 45. Define principle of transmissibility. The conditions of equilibrium or of motion of a rigid body will remain unchanged if a force acting at a given point of the rigid body is replaced by a force of the same magnitude and the same direction, but acting at a different point, provided that the two forces have the same line of action. Single equivalent force

46. State the polygon law of forces. If a number of coplanar forces acting at a point can be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a polygon taken in order, their resultant is represented in both magnitude and direction by the closing side of the polygon taken in the opposite order. 47. Explain the method to find the composition of forces. First resolve all the forces into horizontal and vertical components. Obtain Fx and Fy; Let Rx = Fx; Ry = Fy Resultant R = Rx i + Ry j ; Also, Resultant R = {[Rx] 2 + [Ry]} The angle made by the resultant with the horizontal is given by Tan = Ry / Rx Problem 1: If A = 2i + 3j + k and B = 2i 3j + 4k, find A + B, A B, A .B, A x B, and unit vector along A x B. Ans: A + B = 4i + 5k; A B = 6j 3k; A.B = 1 ; AxB = 15i 6j 12k; Unit vector along AxB = (15i 6j 12k) / (4050.5) = 0.745i + 0.298 j + 0.596 k Problem 2: If A = 8i 4j + 3k and B = 7i 6j + 4k, find A + B, A B, A .B, A x B, and unit vector along A x B. Ans: A + B = i 10j +7k; A B = 15i + 2j k; A.B = 20 ; AxB = 2i + 53j + 76k; Unit vector along AxB = (2i + 53j + 76k) / (85890.5) = 0.0216i + 0.572 j + 0.82 k Problem 3: A man has a mass of 72 kg is standing on a board inclined at 20 o with horizontal. Find the component of mans weight in the direction (a) perpendicular to the plane of the board and (b) parallel to the plane of the board Ans: Weight= 706.32 N; 663.7N, 241.7N Problem 4: A man has a mass of 100 kg is standing on a board inclined at 30 o with horizontal. Find the component of mans weight in the direction (a) perpendicular to the plane of the board and (b) parallel to the plane of the board Ans: Weight= 981N; 849.5N, 490.7N Problem 5: A force is represented by a vector form P = 10i 8j + 14k. Determine the projection of this force on a line which originates from (2, -5 , 3) and passes through a point (5, 2, -4) Ans: P. n = P.AB / AB = 11.99 Problem 6: Two wires are attached to a bolt in a foundation as shown. W 1 = 3600 N acts 25o towards right and W2 = 6650 N at 15o towards left. Determine the pull exerted by the bolt on the foundation. Ans: Rx = 3160.7 N ; Ry = 3242.6 N ; R = [Rx2 + Ry2]0.5 = 4528.16 N

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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

3 1 0 100

Problem 7: A force of 500 N forms an angle 60 o, 45o, and 120o respectively with x, y, and z axis. Write the force in vector form. Ans: F = Fcos x i + Fcos y j + Fcos z k = 250i + 353.6j + 250k Problem 8: A force of magnitude 750 N directed along AB where the point A is (0.8, 0, 1.2) and B is (1.4, 1.2, 0). Write the force in vector form. Ans: n = 0.33i + 0.667j 0.667k; F = F n = 250i + 500j 500k Problem 9: A force of magnitude 200 N is acting along the line joining P(2, 4, 6) and Q(4, 7, 10)m. Find the moment of the force about R(7, 10, 15)m. Ans: n = 0.37i + 0.557j + 0.743k; F = F n = 74i + 111.4j + 148.6k; i j k M= 7 10 15 = 184.8i + 70j + 39.5k 74 111.4 148.6 Problem10: A force (10i + 20j 5k) N applied at A(3, 0, 2)m is moved to a point B(6, 3, 1). Find the work done by the force. Ans: AB = OB OA = 3i + 3j k; Work = Force . Distance moved = F. AB = 95 Nm Problem 11: Determine the length of cord AC in the figure shown. The mass of lamp suspended is 8 kg. The undeformed length of spring AB is LAB = 0.4m, and spring stiffness kAB = 300 N/m. Ans: A is in equilibrium; FAC = 156.96 N; FAB = FAC cos 30 = 136.08 N; Deflection AB = F/k = 0.453 m; Horizontal component of AC = 1.147; AC = 1.147 / cos 30 = 1.324 m Problem 12: A force F = 700i + 1500j is applied to a bolt A. Determine the magnitude of he force and the angle it forms with the horizontal. Ans: F= 1655.3 N; = Tan-1(Ry/Rx) = Tan-1(1500/700) = 64.98o Problem 13: A system of four forces acting on a body is shown. Determine the resultant force and its direction. Ans: Rx = +146.17 N; Ry = + 65.33 N; R = [146.172 + 65.332]0.5 = 160.18 N ; = Tan-1(Ry/Rx) = 48.55o Problem 14: A force acts at the origin of a coordinate system in a direction defined by the angles x = 69.3o and z = 57.9o. The y component of the force is 174 N. Determine (a) angle y ; (b) other components and magnitudes of the force; (c ) Projection of this force on xz plane and its magnitude; (d) Moment of this force about the point (2, 3, 4) and is magnitude. Ans: [ cos 2 x + cos 2 y+ cos 2 z ] = 1 ; y = 39.66o or 140.33o; F = Fy / cos y is positive, hence y = 140.33o;Fx = 79.9 N; Fy = - 174 N; Fz = 120.17 N; 79.93i +120.17k; 144.32 N; M =1056.5i + 79.3j 587.7k Problem 15: Determine the tension in cables AB and AC required to hold the 40 kg crate shown. Ans: T1 = 270.5 N; T2 = 335.6 N.

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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

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UNIT II EQUILIBRIUM OF RIGID BODIES 12 Free body diagram 1. Define Free Body Diagram. Free body diagram shows the particle (rigid body) and all the forces acting on it. The rigid body is free of its supports. 2. What are the characteristics of a Free Body Diagram? The rigid body is free of its supports. The supports are replaced by support reactions. All the applied forces are shown. Weight of the body is shown at its centre of gravity. All dimensions of the rigid body are shown to enable computation of moments. Types of supports and their reactions 3. What are the different types of supports and their reactions? S.No. Type of support Reactions 1 Simple supports Vertical reactions 2 Roller supports Vertical reactions 3 Hinged or Pinned supports Vertical reactions, Horizontal reactions 4 Fixed supports Vertical reactions, Horizontal reactions, Moments 4. What do you mean by statically determinate support reactions? If the support reactions could be determined by solving the three equilibrium equations, they are called statically determinate support reactions. 5. What do you mean by statically indeterminate support reactions? If the support reactions could not be determined by solving the three equilibrium equations, they are called statically indeterminate support reactions. Requirements of stable equilibrium 6. What is the condition for a two force body to be in equilibrium? The two forces must have same magnitude, same line of action and opposite sense. 7. What is a three force body? A body subjected to forces only at three points is called a three force body. 8. What is the condition for a three force body to be in equilibrium? When a three force body is in equilibrium, the lines of action of the three forces must either be concurrent or parallel. The moment about the concurrent point is zero. Moments and Couples 9. Define moment. Moment of a force about a point is measure of the tendency of the force to rotate about that point. Moment of a force about an axis is measure of the tendency of the force to rotate about that axis. Examples: Force applied by wrench to rotate a nut, Force applied to a door to rotate on its hinge. M = Fd, where Fis magnitude of the force and d is the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the point Moment of a force about a point is actually about an axis perpendicular to the plane containing the point and the line of action of the force. In terms of vector product M = r x F 10. State the right hand rule. If we move our right hand at the origin from positive x axis to positive y axis, then the direction of thumb gives the positive z direction. 11. Explain principle of transmissibility. Two forces F1 and F2 have the same effect on a rigid body, if they have same magnitude, line of action and direction.

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12. Define couple. Two forces F and F of the same magnitude, parallel lines of action, and opposite sense form a couple. Couple Mo = F d, where F is the magnitude of the two equal forces and d is the distance between the two forces. 13. What are the characteristics of a couple? The sum of components of the two forces in any direction is zero. The couple will not translate the body on which it acts. The couple will tend to rotate the body. The couple is a free vector. It can be shifted to any position. The couple can be rotated through any angle. The couple can be replaced by another set of equal forces whose rotational effect is same on the rigid body. Vectorial representation of moments Moment of a force about a point 14. Find the moment about the origin(0, 0, 0) of a force F (Fx, Fy, Fz) passing through a point A(x, y, z) Moment about O = Mo = r x F = r F sin n, where is the angle between the two vectors (Force and Position vectors) , n is the unit vector perpendicular to r x F i Mo = r x F = x Fx j y Fy k z Fz

15. Find the moment about a point B(xb , yb , zb ) of a force F (Fx, Fy, Fz) passing through a point A(xa , ya , za ) Moment about O = Mo = r x F = r F sin n, where is the angle between the two vectors (Force and Position vectors) , n is the unit vector perpendicular to r x F i Mo = ra/b x F = j Fx = Mxi + Myj + Mzk Moment of a force about an axis 16. Find the moment about an axis OP (having a unit vector n) , of a force F (F x, Fy, Fz) passing through a point A(xa , ya , za ) If n is unit vector along OP, n = ( cos x i + cos y j + cos z k) Component of moment Mo along the axis n is cos x i cos y j cos z k Mn = n . Mo = n . r x F = xa Fx ya Fy za Fz k Fy Fz

xa xb ya yb zazb

## In vector form, F = 0; M = r x F = 0, where F is force vector, r is position vector at load point.

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Vectorial representation of couple 17. Explain vectorial representation of moment of a couple. Moment of a couple is Co = ( ra x F ) + ( rb x ( F ) = ( ra rb) x F = ra/b x F i j Fx k Fy Fz

Co = ra/b x F = xa xb ya yb zazb

= Cx i + Cy j + Cz k Scalar components of a moment 18. What do you mean by scalar components of a moment or couple? Mx, My , Mz, are Scalar components of a moment ; Cx , Cy , Cz are Scalar components of a moment Varignons theorem 19. State Varignons theorem The moment about a given point O of the resultant of several concurrent forces is equal to the sum of the moments of various forces about the same point O . This is distributive law of vector algebra. Let F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, Fn, be the concurrent force vectors acting at a point A on the rigid body. Let r be the position vector of point A with respect to O . The resultant R = F1 + F2+ F3+ F4 + F5 + Fn Mo = r x R = r x (F1 + F2+ F3+ F4 + F5 + Fn) = r x F1 + r x F2 + r x F2+ r x F3 + r x F4+.. r x Fn Equilibrium of Rigid bodies in two dimensions 20. What are the requirements for stable equilibrium of a rigid body in two dimensions? The resultant of all the forces is zero. The resultant of all the moments is zero. Fx = 0; Fy = 0; Mo = 0 Equilibrium of Rigid bodies in three dimensions 21. What are the requirements for stable equilibrium of a rigid body in three dimensions? The resultant of all the forces is zero. The resultant of all the moments is zero. Fx = 0; Fy = 0; Fz= 0; Mx = 0; My = 0; Mz = 0; Examples Problem 1: Two parallel forces F1 and F2 of opposite sense F1 = 50i + 80j + 100k ; F2 = F1 act at points A (0.7, 1.5, 1.0) and B ( 1.0, 0.9, 1) respectively. Determine the moment of couple and perpendicular distance between the line of action of the forces. Ans: Mb = 100i + 130j 54k; Mb= 172.673; = 0.579i + 0.753j 0.313k; x = 125.38o; y = 41.15o ; z = 71.76o; d = M / F = 172.63 / 137.478 = 1.255 m;

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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

3 1 0 100

Problem 2: A pole OA is supported by two cables AB and AC. The tensions in the cables are 700 N and 850 N respectively. Determine the moment about O of the resultant force exerted on the pole by the cables at A. (Ans: 4671.5i 2952k ) Nm Problem 3: Determine the components of a single couple equivalent to the two couples shown. (Ans: M = 48i + 50j + 30k ) Problem 4: Determine the horizontal and vertical components of reaction for the beam loaded as shown. Neglect the weight of the beam.(Ans: RA = 319.45 N; RBH = 424.2 N; RBV = 404.75 N) Problem 5: A three bar pendulum ABCD has three bars each 2 m in length and weighing 2.5 kN as shown. It is held in equilibrium by applying a horizontal force of 5 kN at the free end. Determine the angles 1, 2, and 3with the vertical. (Ans: 38.65o , 53.06o, 75.96o) Problem 6: A force F with a magnitude of 100 N is applied at the origin O of the axes x-y-z as shown. The line of action F passes through a poin A whose coordinates are (3, 4, 5)m. Determine (a) the x, y, and z scalar components of F; (b) the projection F xy of F on the xy plane; (c ) the projection of F along the line OB.(Ans: (a) 42.4 N, 56.6 N, 70.7 N; (b) 70.72 N, (c ) 84.472 N) Problem 7: A force of magnitude 200 N is acting along the line joining P(2, 4, 6)m and Q(4, 7, 10)m. Find the moment of the force about R(7, 10, 15)m. (Ans: M = 184.8i + 70j + 39.5k) Nm Problem 8: Three couples 16 Nm, 45 Nm and 120 Nm are acting in the xy, yz, znd zx planes respectively. Determine the magnitude of the resultant vector. (Ans: M = 129.15 Nm) Problem 9: Four forces and a couple are applied to a rectangular plate as shown. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force couple system. Also find the distance x from the origin O along x axis where the resultant intersects. (Ans: 3.6 m) Problem 10: A plate is acted upon by 3 forces and 2 couples as shown. Determine the resultant of these forces couple system and find coordinate x of the point on x axis through which the resultant passes. Also find the perpendicular distance of the resultant from O. (Ans: intersection with x axis = 0, and with y axis = 0.386; perpendicular distance of resultant from O = 0.232 m) Problem 11: Determine the components of a single couple equivalent to the two couples shown at B. (Ans: 20i + 30j + 15k) Nm Problem 12: A force (10i + 20j 5k) N applied at A(3, 0, 2)m is moved to point B(6, 3, 1)m. Find the work done by the force. (Ans: F.AB = 95 Nm) Problem 13: A tension T of magnitude 10 kN is applied to the cable attached to the top A of a rigid mast and secured to the ground at B as shown. Determine the moment of the tension T about the z axis passing though the base O. (Ans: Moment of T about the z axis = 84.6k kNm; Moment of T about the y axis = 0 kNm; Moment of T about the x axis = 63.45i kNm; Problem 14: A uniform bar AB as shown has a mass kg and supports a mass of 200 kg at A. A supporting cable is tied to the bar at C and he other end is fixed to the vertical wall at D. Calculate the tension in the supporting cable and the magnitude of the reaction force at the pin B. (Ans: T1 = 7646.13 N; RB = [3823.062 + ( 4169.24)2]0.5 = 5656.7 N) Problem 15: The lever ABC of a machine component is subjected to a force of 1000 N through a link AD attached at A as shown. Compute the reaction of the hinged support at B and the force in the link CE. (Ans: FBY = 1243.64 N; FCE = 688.95 N) Problem 16: A frame supported at A and B is subjected to a force of 500 N as shown. Compute the reactions at the support points for the cases of (a) = 0; (b) = 60 o; (c) = 90o; (Ans: (a) FAX = 0; FAY = 250 N; (b) FAX = 212.34 N; FAY = 377.4 N; (c) FAX = 416.67 N; FAY = 500 N ) Problem 17: A pole as shown is supported by a ball and socket joint at its base and by cables AB and AC. Also it is subjected to forces 300 N and 600 N and the forces act in a plane parallel to xz plane. Compute the forces in the cables and the reaction at the ball and socket joint. (Ans: F AC = 617.28 N; FAB = 539.45 N) Problem 18: A pole as shown is supported by a ball and socket joint at its base and by cables AB and AC. Also it is subjected to forces 300 N and 600 N and the forces act in a plane parallel to xy plane. Compute the forces in the cables and the reaction at the ball and socket joint. (Ans: F AC = 925.93 N; FAB = 858.2 N)

ME2151

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

## SERIES TEST 1 Part A (5 x 2 = 10 Marks)

1. 2. 3. 4. State Lamis theorem or Law of sines. State the parallelogram law. State the triangular law of forces. Define principle of transmissibility.

## 5. State the polygon law of forces. Part B (4 x 10 = 40 Marks)

6. (i) What are the characteristics of a couple? (ii) A force of magnitude 750 N is directed along AB where A is (0.8, 0, 1.2)m and B is (1.4, 1.2, 0)m. Determine the force in vector form. 7. (i) Find the moment about a point B(xb , yb , zb ) of a force F (Fx, Fy, Fz) passing through a point A (xa , ya , za ). (ii) A force ofmagnitude 200 N is acting along the line joining P(2, 4, 6) m and Q(1.4, 7, 10) m. Find the moment of the force about the point R(7, 10, 15) m. 8. (i) State Varignons theorem (ii) Two forces A and B are given. Find their cross product, unit vector along it and dot product. A = 2i + 3j +k; B = 3i -3j +4k. 9. (i) Find the moment about an axis OP (having a unit vector n) , of a force F (F x, Fy, Fz) passing through a point A(xa , ya , za ) (ii) A force of magnitude 750 N is directed along AB where A is (0.8, 0, 1.2)m and B is (1.4, 1.2, 0)m. Determine the projection of this force on a line which originates from the point (2, -5, 3) m and passes through point (5, 2, -4) m.

## All the Best V.Ramakrishnan

ME2151

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

3 1 0 100

State the laws of dry friction. Define linear momentum and angular momentum. Define coefficient of restitution.
A body of 100 N is placed on a rough horizontal plane. If a horizontal force of 55 N is acting on the body determine the coefficient of friction. A hammer of mass 15 kg strikes a wedge with a velocity of 12 m/s and rebounds with a velocity of 2 m/s. The duration of the impact is 0.01 seconds. Calculate the average force exerted on the wedge.

A point moves along a path y = x2/3 with a constant speed of 8 m/s. What are the x and y components of the velocity when x = 3? What is the acceleration of the point when x = 3? Pulley B of radius 0.4 m is turned by diesel engine and drives pulley A of radius 0.7 m connected to a generator. Distance between the centers of the pulleys is 2 m. If the torque that A must transmit to the generator is 500 Nm, what is the minimum static coefficient of friction between the belt and pulleys for the case where force F is 2000 N? Block A of mass 27kg rests on block B of mass 36 kg. Block A is restrained from moving by a horizontal rope tied to the wall at C. Coefficient of friction for all the surfaces is 0.33. What force P parallel to the plane inclined at 300 with the horizontal is necessary to start B down the plane? Two blocks and a pulley are connected by inextensible cords as shown. The pulley has an initial angular velocity of 0.8 radians per second in counterclockwise direction and a constant angular acceleration of 1.8 rad/sec2 in clock wise direction after 5 seconds of motion. Determine the velocity and position of block A and B. A disc is attached to the shaft of an electric motor of 1000 rpm rated speed. When the power is switched on the unit, it attains the rated speed in 0 seconds and when the power is switched off, the unit comes to rest in 50 seconds. Assume uniformly accelerated motion and find (i) the number of revolutions the unit turns to attain the rated speed and (ii) to come to rest.