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4028/www.,scientific. net/MSF. 688.228
Preparation and characterization of Graphene oxide-ZnO nanocomposites Wenbin Zou a, Junwu Zhub and Xin Wang0
Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com,com.cn, Gwxin@publicS.ptt.js.cn
Key words: Graphene oxide; ZnO; nanocomposites. Abstract. A composite of graphene oxide supported by ZnO nanoparticles (GO-ZnO nanocomposites) was prepared through a simple chemical approach. The lamellar graphite oxide sheets in this composite were exfoliated and decorated randomly by ZnO nanoparticles with a mean size of 20 nm. In addition, the photocatalytic experiments exhibit that the GO-ZnO nanocomposites have a good photocatalytic activity on degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. This method provides a facile and straightforward approach to deposit ZnO nanoparticles onto the graphene oxide sheets and may be readily extended to the preparation of other classes of hybrids based on GO sheets for technological applications. Introduction Graphene, a flat monolayer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, exhibits excellent electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties [1-7]. Graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most important derivatives of graphene, it is a layered material with oxygen functional groups bearing on the basal planes and edges [8-10], Therefore, GO can be considered as promising nanoscale building blocks for new materials due to its special surface properties and layered structure. Zinc oxide (ZnO), a semicondoctor with a direct wide band gap (3.37eV at room temperature) and large exciton binding energy (60meV), has received tremendous attention because of its excellent performance in electronics, optics, and photonics systems. In addition to the intense research of various nanostructural ZnO, the deposition of ZnO particles on carbon nanotubes has also been frequently reported, which can obtain enhanced properities, such as photocatalytic activity, optical switching behavior [11-14], It is well known that graphene oxide is receiving increased attention due to its special surface properties, large specific surface area and layered structure for synthesis of GO-based nanocomposites [15,16]. Consequently, the combination of graphene oxide and ZnO may display some efficient properties. Herein, we developed a facile approach in an ethylene glycol-water system, which is capable of in situ depositing ZnO nanoparticles on GO sheets without the need for any chemical additives. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic property of the GO-ZnO nanocomposites was also investigated by degradation of methylene blue. Experimental Section Preparation of GO-ZnO nanocomposites. Graphite oxide was prepared from purified natural graphite bought from Qingdao Zhongtian Company with a mean particle size of 44 fim according to modified Hummer's method [17, 18]. The typical route is as follows: GO (0.050g) and ZnC4H604'2H 2 0 (0.287 g) were dissolved in 40 mL of ethylene glycol, with ultrasonication for 1 h. Subsequently, the mixture was heated to approximately 120 °C with vigorous stirring, and NaOH (0.102g) dissolved in 5 mL of distilled water was added to the above mixture. After stirring for 2 h, the mixture began to cool to room temperature. The obtained composite was then centrifuged, washed by absolute ethanol and deionized water for several times. Finally, the resulting product was dried in a vacuum oven at 60 °C for 24h.
The photocatalytic property of the as-synthesized nanocomposites on methylene blue (MB) degradation was investigated. It can be observed that the graphene oxide sheets are decorated by uniform ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm.03% to determine the structure.Materials Science Forum Vol. HRTEM (Fig. respectively.6°.6° corresponds to the (001) crystalline plane of GO. the characteristic peak at around scattering angles of 10. 1). (103). Results and Discussion XRD analysis measurements were employed to investigate the composition of the synthesized nanocomposites (Fig.5°. the solution was magnetically stirred in the dark for 30 min to reach the adsorption equilibrium of MB on the GO-ZnO catalyst. 34. As Fig.la shows. (200). (112). The diffraction angles at 20 = 31.83 nm.) Fig. The UV-vis absorption spectra were recorded on a Beijing Eraic UV-1100 spectrometer.1° can be assigned to the (100). 56. The reaction solution was prepared by adding 30 mg as-synthesized nanocomposites into 300 mL of methylene blue (MB. no characteristic peaks due to graphite oxide or graphite were found in the GO-ZnO nanocomposites. 21]. 1 XRD patterns of (a) GO. which was used to analyze the MB concentration in the solution.7°. However. indicating the exfoliation of the layered graphite oxide in the composites [20. lb) correspond well with the reported values of ZnO (JCPDs No. (b) the GO-ZnO nanocomposites. 5 mL solution was taken out from the reaction every 15 min and centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 min to remove GO-ZnO catalyst. The UV light was surrounded by a quartz double tube and cooling water was inleted to avoid temperature increasing of the solution by UV light irradiation. The direct evidence of the formation of ZnO nanoparticles on the planes and edges of graphene oxide sheets is given by TEM and HRTEM in Fig.9°. 2. 66. 36.2°. (201) crystalline planes of ZnO. (102). 26(deg. 47. (110). 688 229 Characterization.4°. 67. 20 mg/L) solution. (101).3°.36-1451). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were taken with a JEOL JEM-2100 microscope. Before irradiation. Then the UV light irradiation was started. and 69. UV-vis spectrometer was used to record the UV-vis spectra of the samples. The ZnO nanoparticles are distributed randomly on the graphene oxide sheets due to these randomly distributed functional groups on the graphene oxide sheets which can act as anchor sites and consequently make the in site formed ZnO nanoparticles on the surfaces and edges of graphene oxide sheets. The XRD peaks of the GO-ZnO nanocomposites (Fig. The solution was irradiated using a high-pressure mercury lamp (500 W) under continuous stirring at room temperature. 2b) . which is consistent with the values reported in the literature . (002). and the interlayer spacing of GO is 0.8°. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of the samples were performed on a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer with Cu Ka radiation at a slow scan rate of 0. 62.
and the corresponding photodegradation curves (b) with the GO-ZnO nanocomposites.28 nm corresponding to the (100) crystal plane of ZnO. . The lattice spacing of planes is 0. this structure of the composites of exfoliated GO and ZnO nanocrystals is consistent with the XRD results. When Zinc acetate was mixed with GO. which can act as nuclei for the particle growth via the Oswald ripening process in the subsequent heat treatment . The absorbance of the solution at 658 nm was chosen as the measurement of the MB concentration. The results are shown in Fig. the photodecomposition rate of MB was about 93%. the final GO-ZnO product was obtained.36-1451. which is consistent with the d spacing values reported in the JCPDs No. The ratios of the absorbance of the samples after various reaction time to that in the beginning of the reaction correspond to relative concentration C/Co. indicating that the MB was almost decomposed. 2 TEM (a) and HRTEM (b) image of GO-ZnO nanocomposites On the basis of our experimental results. after 180 min irradiation. Therefore. 3.230 Nano-Scale and Amorphous Materials shows further that the surface of graphene sheets was composed of ZnO nanoparticles. GO was negatively charged due to the functional groups attached to the surface of carbon sheets [22-23]. these positive Zn2+ ions would adsorbed onto the surface of GO sheets owing to the electrostatic attration. Fig. The photocatalysis properties of the GO-ZnO nanocomposites were investigated on degradation of the methylene blue (MB). As illustrated in Fig. and then in site react with NaOH to form small ZnO clusters. the fabrication of GO-ZnO nanocomposites was proposed by electrostatic interaction mechanism. Therefore. 3b. Wavelength (nm) Time(win} Fig. 3 UV-vis spectra of methyl blue solution at different irradiation time (a).
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