You are on page 1of 2

A summary of passive constructions A. Basic Use Shakespeare wrote Hamlet Hamlet was written by Shakespeare B.

Passive and modals Somebody must do this job This job must be done C. Verbs with two objects Somebody handed a note to me I was handed a note A note was handed to me D. Use of gerunds She likes people driving her home She likes being driven home E. Need + gerund Your hair is too long. You need somebody to cut it. Your hair needs cutting. F. Causative have (or get). Somebody repaired my car. My car was repaired. I had my car repaired (or I got my car repaired) G. get as an alternative to be in passives Compare: He was killed in the war. (not his fault at all) He got killed in the war. (implies that he was in danger) He got himself killed in the war (implies that he put himself in danger) H. Make/let My parents made me do the housework I was made to do the housework I. Reporting verbs (believe, know, say, think, …) People think John is in England John is thought to be in England People believe John left yesterday. John is believed to have left yesterday People said John was very selfish John was said to be very selfish Everybody knows the portrait was painted by an Italian The portrait is known to have been painted by an Italian People know the robber is living in Switzerland The robber is known to be living in Switzerland

....... The airport strike is affecting thousands of holiday flights........... 4.................. (know) 3...................... Millions of commuters are believed to have avoided paying the congestion charge last year...................................... The senior manager has resigned............... (rumour) 5....................7B Exercise 7 & 8 face2face Advanced Unit 7B Exercise 7 Rewrite the sentences starting with the words in bold 1.......................(report) It is reported that house prices have fallen by 8%....... .................................. House prices have fallen by 8%................................... 3.................. ............... 1....... it + House prices passive are reported + that subject verb to have fallen by 8%.....000 people have lost their lives in a devastating earthquake.......... It seems that secret monitoring of children has become acceptable in some schools.......................................................................... ........................ We believe that millions of commuters avoided paying the congestion charge last year.............. (believe) ..... ................... Exercise 8 Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets to make two sentences as shown......... More than 3....................................................................................................... Some people have alleged that big stores are keeping detailed personal records of their customers................. It appears that most people in this country are against the introduction of ID cards......................... (say) 4................... 2..... 2...... subject + passive + to VERB.......... ...................... London is one of the most expensive cities in the world to live in. It is estimated that 75% of people have at least one store card............... It is rumoured that the government is introducing RFID tags in passports next year. The rebels have withdrawn.......................................................................................................... 6................. 5............. (fear) 6.....