Ostroumov S.A., Kotelevtsev S.V., Toderas I.K., Gorshkova O.M. (Eds.) Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions, vol.

18, 2013

A comment from the organizing committee of the conference
The international scientific conference (Ecosystems, Organisms, Innovations -14, Amherst, U.S.A., 2011) was dedicated to three anniversaries: 25 years since publishing the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986) [1], 25 years since publishing the book ‘Levels of Conservation of Living Nature’ (1985) [2], and 20 years since publishing the book Conservation of Living Nature and Resources (1991) [7]. Some comments about these books. In 1986, the book 'Introduction to Biochemical Ecology' [1] was published by Moscow University Press in Moscow, Russian Federation. Later, the same author published a second book [2] (with a co-author), and some papers on the same topic (e.g., [5]). In these publications he laid the conceptual foundations of new scientific disciplines — biochemical ecology and biochemical hydrobiology, and formulated some trends in interdisciplinary research in ecology. According to the author of those publications, these trends in research include the studies of the role of chemical substances in interorganismal interactions, in communication and regulation of supraorganismal systems. Another part of biochemical ecology deals with the studies of the fate and transformation of external chemical substances when they interact with the organisms. Both natural and man-made compounds are interesting for biochemical ecology. The basic concepts of biochemical ecology include ecological chemomediators and ecological chemoregulators. They were suggested by Dr. S.A. Ostroumov (Moscow State University) and since then, they have already been included in the body of modern concepts and are used in modern ecological literature. Application of biochemical ecology to aquatic ecosystems creates the basis for development of biochemical hydrobiology. Additional consideration of the subject see at: http://scipeople.com/users/2943391/ ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH: S.A. Ostroumov. Introduction to Biochemical Ecology. 1986. Moscow. Moscow University Press. 176 p. Figures, tables. Bibliogr.: pp. 168-174. [Analyzed: Ecological roles of natural and man-made chemicals. Inter alia, some problems of chemical communication and regulation in natural populations and ecosystems, environmental toxicology and chemistry and QSAR. Ecological functions of secondary metabolites of bacteria, fungi, algae, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. There are no other books on biochemical ecology in the international literature that analyzes so broad diversity of data on metabolites of various taxa. Published reviews indicated that the book broke a fresh ground and extended the frontiers of ecology. New concepts suggested: ecological chemomediators and ecological chemoregulators in ecosystems]. Published reviews of the book: Priroda (Nature). 1987. No. 1. p.125; Professor Telitchenko M.M. Review of the book 'Introduction to Biochemical Ecology'. – Bulletin of Moscow University. Ser. 16. Biology. 1986. No. 4. P. 58; Prof. Stavskaya S.S. // Physiology and biochemistry of cultivated plants. 1988. v. 20, No. 1. p. 99 - 100.

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- Review of the book: 'Introduction to Bio-Chemical Ecology'; Prof. Pokarzhevsky А.D., Semenova N.L. // Ecology. 1988, No. 2, p. 89 - 90. Review; Prof. Sokolov М.S. // Аgrochemistry. 1987, No. 7, p. 135-136. Review; Prof. Gusev М.V. (Dean, School of Biology, Moscow Univ) // Plant Physiology. V. 35. No. 2, p.412 - 413. - Review of the book: 'Introduction to BioChemical Ecology'; Prof. Dubinin N.P. (Full Member, Acad.Sci.) // Izvestia Acad. Sci. Ser. Biol. (Bulletin of Acad. Sci. Biological series). 1988, No. 1. p. 799 - 800. - Review; Prof. B. Stugren. Introduction to Biochemical Ecology by S.A. Ostroumov (a review) // Studia Univ. Babes-Bolyai. Biologia. 1987. No. 2. P. 96 – 97 (in English); Dr. E. Symonides // Wiadomosci Ecologiczne, V. 33. No. 2. P. 199-201. - Review (in Polish); Review // J. General Biology. 1989. V. 50. No. 3, p. 429. This book was used in university education and in environmental education in general. The book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986) was translated into Polish language [3], and also into Bulgarian language [4]. In the book, the new concepts and terms ‘ecological chemomediators’ and ‘ecological chemoregulators’ were proposed and illustrated. Those concepts help analyze the ecological role of many chemicals produced by organisms. Later, the presentation of those concepts was repeated in another book, ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ [2], which was an expanded version of the book of 1986. The innovative components in the books were useful in university education. The books provided the first generalization on ecological functions of secondary metabolites. These were the first books where a very broad data on chemical interactions among organisms were put in system. The features of the books were as following: the data covered bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, higher plants, animals; the first list of biospheric functions of natural chemicals, with their role as regulators of interactions among organisms. In the book of 1986, for the first time the useful terms were coined and suggested for further scientific analysis of issues of ecology: ecological chemomediators and ecological chemoregulators [1]; also, the broad data on transformation of chemicals (xenobiotics, pollutants) in organisms were put into a clear system; the broad data on chemical pollutants were also put into a clear system. The list of universities and courses where these books are being used is given below. The following universities and educational institutions included the books on biochemical ecology [1, 2] into the programs of their lecture courses and lists of scientific literature that was recommended to students and graduate students: 1. Moscow State University; Faculty of Soil Science. 2. Grodno State University named after Yanka Kupala – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); Grodno State University, Belarus; Grodno State University named after Yanka Kupala– cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (Telitchenko, Ostroumov, 1990); 3. Irkutsk State University – cited in their

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educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); Irkutsk State University, Faculty of Biology and Soil Science; 4. Irkutsk State University – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); Irkutsk State University, Chemical Faculty; www.chem.isu.ru/.../programs/pr_nature.html; http://www.chem.isu.ru/faculty/programs/pr_nature.html; 5. The Mendeleyev Russian Chemical and Technological University– cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); Russian ChemicoTechnological University, Moscow; 6. Moscow City Pedagogical University – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); Moscow City Pedagogical University;...... ; www.mgpu.ru/download.php?id=6264; 7. Far Eastern State University – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); Far East State University, Vladivostok, Russia; 8. Vyatka State Humanitarian University; 9. Samara State University – This book is cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); 10. Samara State Pedagogical University – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (Telitchenko, Ostroumov, 1990); Samara State University 11. Ussurijsk State Pedagogical Institute – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); another variant of the name of the institution: Ussuriysk State Pedagogical University; 12. Lutsk University, Lutsk, Ukraine; 13. Peoples Friendship University of Russia (PFUR) – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); 14. University of Georgia – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986); 15. Belarusian State University, Belarus – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); Belarusian State University – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 16. Krivorozhsky State Pedagogical University, Ukraine – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); 17. Moscow Fizico-Technical Institute – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986); 18. The Technical University of Lodz (Politechnika Łódzka); Poland – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov,

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1986); 19. The Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences in Kielce; Poland – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986); 20. University of Wrocław; Poland – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); 21. University in Bialymstok; Poland – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986); 22. University in Opole; Poland – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); 23. The Jan Dlugosz University/Akademia im Jana Dlugosza (AJD) in Czestochowa; Poland – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986); 24. Jana Długosz Academy; Poland – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); 25. Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University; Poland – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986); 26. University of Zielona Gora, Department of Biological Sciences, Poland. Cited the Polish translation of the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986); 27. Ural State University – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 28. St.Petersburg State University (SPSU), St.Petersburg – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 29. Vilnius University, Lithuania – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 30. Kuban State University– cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 31. Voronezh, Lyceum number 4; courses «Biochemical ecology» – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums): the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Ostroumov, 1986), and the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 32. "Mary Institute of Education" integrated cross-course "Chemical Ecology" (author A.E. Pchelintsev) – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums): the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 33. Vyatka State Humanitarian University – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 34. Tyumen State University– cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of

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Biochemical Ecology’ (1990); 35. South-Russian State Technical University (Novocherkassk Polytechnic Institute) – cited in their educational materials (including course curriculums), the book ‘Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology’ (1990). In 1985, the book ‘Levels of Conservation of Living Nature’ [6] was published. This book provided a unique system that organized a broad range of facts and ideas on nature conservation. The book became a substantial contribution to scientific basis of nature conservation. The book is well cited in international literature including excellent citation in many dissertations. The book is used in university education. It is included into educational programs of many universities and the lists of literature that is recommended to students. The same authors published on nature conservation and biodiversity protection in other languages [7-10]. In 1991, the book ‘Conservation of Living Nature and Resources’ [7] was published. This book was the continuation of the work of the same authors on scientific basis of nature conservation and biodiversity protection. The books [610] used an innovative productive approach to analyze issues of biodiversity protection and environmental conservation. This approach used the concept of levels of life systems. Using this approach helped in putting many facts and ideas into a scientific system. The book was favorably commented in published reviews and acquired by the universities libraries and national libraries in many countries of Europe, America, Asia, Australia and Africa, including the U.S.A., U.K., France, Germany, South Africa and many others [11]. References. 1. Ostroumov S.A. Introduction to Biochemical Ecology. 1986. Moscow. Moscow University Press. 176 p. Figures, tables. Bibliography: pp. 168-174. In Russian. Information on the book is available online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63793979/; http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9735970; [The reference in Russian: Остроумов С. А. Введение в биохимическую экологию. -Москва: Издательство Московского университета, 1986.-175 c.] 2. Telitchenko M.M., S.A.Ostroumov. Introduction to Problems of Biochemical Ecology: Biotechnology, Agriculture, Environment. 1990. Nauka Press, Moscow. 288 p., fig., tab. Bibliography: pp. 256-282. In Russian. ISBN 5-02004062-2. http://scipeople.com/publication/67987/ ; 3. Polish language edition: Ostroumow S. A. Wprowadzenie do ekologii biochemicznej. [=Introduction to Biochemical Ecology] Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN [= PWN Press], 1992. 205 pages [translated from Russian by J. Kurylowicz = tł. z jęz. ros. Jerzy Kuryłowicz] ISBN-13: 9788301104542. ISBN-10: 8301104546. 4. Bulgarian language edition: Ostroumov, Sergei. Uvod v Biokhimichnata Ekologia (=Introduction to Biochemical Ecology). Nauka i Izkusstvo (Science and Art) Press. Sofia. 1990. 155 p., fig., tab. Bibliogr.: pp.146-152 (in Bulgarian).

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5. Ostroumov S. A. On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, Volume: 1, Issue: 2, Pages: 238-244, DOI: 10.1134/S1995425508020100; Full English text online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/41634664; http://www.econf.rae.ru/article/6961; http://www.academia.edu/1892577/ 6. Yablokov A.V., Ostroumov S.A. Levels of Conservation of Living Nature 1985. Nauka Press. Moscow. 176 p., figures, tables. In Russian [The reference in Russian: А. В. Яблоков, С. А. Остроумов Уровни охраны живой природы : научное издание / ; АН СССР. - Москва : Наука, 1985. - 175 с.] 7. Yablokov A.V., Ostroumov S.A. Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, Prospects. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Barcelona, Budapest. Springer. 1991. XII. 272 p., tab. Bibliography: p. 227-248. Index of Authors: p. 249-251. Subject Index: p. 253-271. ISBN 3-540-52096-1; ISBN 0-387-52096-1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/63176028/; 8. [book, Spanish edition ] Yablokov A.V., Ostroumov S.A. Conservacion de la Naturaleza Viva. 1989. Vneshtorgizdat Press. Editorial Científico-Técnica. 238 p., fig., tab. Bibliography: p. 234-235. [ill.; 22 cm]. (in Spanish). 9. [book, Bulgarian edition] Yablokov A., Ostroumov S.A. Opazvane na Zhivata Priroda (= Conservation of Living Nature). Zemizdat Press. Sofia. 1989. 192 p., fig., tables. [ill.; 21 cm] (in Bulgarian). [The reference in Bulgarian language: А. Яблоков, С.Остроумов. Опазване на живата природа. Земиздат. София. 1989. 192 с. Предисловие акад. М.С.Гилярова. Справка об авторах – на с. 189. Пер. с русск. языка Байко Байков. / Ред. коллегия Симеон Недялков и др. На болгарск. яз.]. 10. [book, Czech edition] Jablokov A.V., Ostroumov S.A. Ochrana živé přírody: problémy a perspektivy (Conservation of Living Nature: Problems and Prospects). Praha. Academia Press. 1991. 345 p. 35 figures, 35 tables, 29 photographs. Bibliography on pages 229-307. Preface by Dr. Jaromir Pospisil (p. 5-8); ISBN 80-200-0021-6. Translated by Dr. Rudolf Orct. In Czech; the book was recommended as a textbook for universities of Czech Republic and Slovakia. 11. Libraries worldwide acquired the books, including the book [7]: http://www.scribd.com/doc/77617474; http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/libraries-of-usa-acquired-books-of-dr.html; http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/libraries-acquired-books-on.html

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A review of some achievements in environmental sciences, general ecology and aquatic ecology: functioning of ecosystems and environmental toxicology V.A.Abakumov
Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Roshydromet, Russian Academy of Sciences Институт глобального климата и экологии Росгидромета и РАН
Key words: environmental safety, ecology, ecosystems, water quality, pollution, purification, Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Synechococcus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa, NAA, ecological chemomediators, ecological chemoregulators, Biochemical Ecology, filter-feeders, oysters, TDTMA, SDS, surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, marine mussels, Triton X-100;

The goal of this review is to provide a short summary of a series of innovative publications on environmental science and ecology [1-25]. The papers were authored by scientists of Moscow State University and their co-authors. The review is not a comprehensive analysis of this broad area but a summary of some selected examples which are useful both in advancing further research and in modernization of environmental education. The review is structured and the text is divided into short sections that are easy to read. 1. Biomachinery of ecosystems. In the insightful review paper [1], an innovative concept of ecosystem’s biomachinery (a new scientific term that was proposed and explained in detail by the author. According to the author of this paper [1], biomachinery means ecological mechanisms that include biological communities and biodiversity) which improves water quality. The innovative experimental data analysis, concepts, and generalizations in this article provide the fundamental elements of the new qualitative theory of biocontrol of water quality in a systematized form. The theory covers water self-purification in freshwater and marine ecosystems [1]. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/biocontrol-of-water-quality.html 2. Rare earth elements in biodetritus in an aquatic system. In 2010, a paper on using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to measure the concentrations of some chemical elements in the samples of detritus was published [2]. This paper is the first publication that reported the concentrations of a number of rare earth elements in biodetritus in an aquatic system [2]. Full text: http://ru.scribd.com/doc/114001532/ Abstract: http://www.scribd.com/doc/75098592 3. Innovative scientific terms (ecological chemomediators, ecological chemoregulators). A paper on new concepts in ecology was published [3]. The paper explained the innovative scientific terms (ecological chemomediators, ecological chemoregulators) that were coined in 1986 in the book: S.A.Ostroumov ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ [3]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/63711272/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/73795942 4. New qualitative theory of biotic control of water quality . New fundamental theoretical issues of water sustainability, water safety and aquatic ecology were covered in a paper published in 2008. This article provides the fundamental elements of a new qualitative theory of biotic control (biocontrol)

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of water quality in a systematized form. The theory covers water self-purification in freshwater and marine ecosystems [4]. 5. Filtration of water by invertebrate organisms, filter-feeders . In 2006, an important series of experiments on ecotoxicology of detergents was published in the journal HYDROBIOLOGIA, (2006, Volume: 556, Pages: 381386) by an international team of researchers. This was the first paper that reported the experiments that showed that all three main kinds of synthetic surfactants (detergent chemicals) slow down the filtration of water by marine organisms, filter-feeders (the bivalve mussels of Atlantic Ocean, Mytilus edulis) [5]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156 6. New theory of ecological self-purification of water. A paper that formulated an important ecological theory was published. This paper contains a detailed well-structured presentation of the author’s innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms work together toward making water clear and clean. This paper [On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. - RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, 2005, 36 (6): 414-420] formulated a new theory of ecological self-purification of water [6]. 7. New concepts and terminology: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality. New concepts and terminology were introduced in this paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality [Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. HYDROBIOLOGIA, 2005, Volume: 542, Pages: 275286] [7]. This is an interesting innovative opinion paper, and simultaneously, a helpful review paper. http://www.scribd.com/doc/44105992; 8. A new key aspect of the ecosystem function . An interesting opinion paper was published. The article presented a detailed analysis of the discovery and innovation: a new aspect of the essence of ecosystem was discovered and analyzed. The paper showed that ecosystem has attributes of a bioreactor. It is considered as a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function [8]. 9. New facts on detergents as pollutants. New facts on how detergents slow down the filtration of water by aquatic organisms (bivalve mussels, oysters and others) were presented in this publication. These facts included a discovery of new inhibitory effects of surfactants (TDTMA and SDS) on water filtering activity of the marine mollusks oysters Crassostrea gigas [9]. 10. A short list of research priorities in ecology and environmental sciences for future. A useful article was published: a first and unique paper in which an international team of experts, scientists of three countries formulated a short list of research priorities in ecology and environmental sciences for the current century [10]. 11. Modernized definition of the term 'pheromones', comments on some new concepts. An innovative paper was published [11]. This article formulated a new modernized definition of the term 'pheromones', p.232-233; comments on the new concepts that were proposed by the author,

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S.A.Ostroumov (Moscow University), namely, ecological chemomediators (p.232), ecological chemoregulators (p.232), ecological chemoeffectors (p.234) [11]. 12. Criteria for identification and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants. New criteria were formulated in this paper in order to answer the question: is a given chemical substance hazardous to the environment or not? This paper provided a fundamentally new solution to the problem of selecting criteria for identification and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants, toxicants [12]. 13. Ecological mechanisms of eutrophication and abnormal increase in phytoplankton. In 2002, a first article was published that discovered common ecological mechanisms that are involved in phenomena as diverse as eutrophication and water self-purification. In this paper new important experimental results of the author were analyzed to give a new fresh insight into ecological mechanisms of eutrophication and abnormal increase in phytoplankton. Also, this article presented a new insight into how ecosystem runs water self-purification [13]. http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springerjournals/inhibitory-analysis-of-top-down-control-new-keys-to-studyingcDrLImLx31 14. A short list of the most important physical, chemical, and biological processes of water self-purification . The first publication in which a concise outline was made of the author’s innovative theory of water selfpurification. A short list of the most important physical, chemical, and biological processes of water self-purification is given [14]. 15. New facts on a chemical of an important class of substances as aquatic pollutant. It is the first paper in which it was clearly proved that the synthetic chemical (exemplified by the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS), when it pollutes water, produces a dangerous effect on both marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) and phytoplankton [15]. 16. New ideas on criteria for identification and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants. This paper formulated a fundamentally new solution to the problem of selecting criteria for identification and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants, toxicants. The paper explains why the currently accepted set of criteria is non-efficient and leads to mistakes [16]. 17. Fundamental role of biological filtering in self-purification (and self-bioremediation, self-organization, as well as stability) of aquatic ecosystems: New facts and ideas. It is the first paper in which a synthesis of both authors new experimental data and international literature was made, which led to a new broad picture of the fundamental role of biological filtering in selfpurification (and self-bioremediation, self-organization, as well as stability) of aquatic ecosystems [17]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/42830557 18. Hazardous effect of a synthetic non-ionic surfactant (exemplified by Triton X-100) on diatom algae. The first paper to report hazardous effects

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of a widely-used chemical on diatom algae, important component of phytoplankton. This is a first publication to report a hazardous effect of a synthetic non-ionic surfactant (exemplified by Triton X-100) on diatom algae, a marine species, Thalassiosira pseudonana. [18]. 19. Discovery of inhibitory and stimulation effects of a synthetic surfactant on the two unique strains of the ocean species of cyanobacteria. This is a first publication to report both inhibitory and stimulation effects of a synthetic surfactant on the two unique strains of the ocean species of cyanobacteria Synechococcus from the collection of WHOI (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, U.S.A.). These data demonstrated a new hazard of an imbalance of species composition of marine phytoplankton under the effect of pollution by synthetic chemical pollutants [19]. 20. Discovery of phytotoxicity of a synthetic polymeric surfactant . What is new: a polymeric chemical inhibited growth rate of plant seedlings. This is a first publication to report phytotoxicity of a synthetic polymeric surfactant. An innovative bioassay with the higher plant Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat) was carried out. A negative reaction of buckwheat seedlings to pollution of the aqueous medium with a polymeric surfactant was discovered [20]. 21. Discovery of new phytotoxic effects of a liquid detergent . The first paper to report new phytotoxic effects of a liquid detergent. Before this paper, no phytotoxic effects of liquid detergents were known. New phytotoxic effects of the liquid detergent "Vilva" on the seedlings of the higher plants, buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and rice Oryza sativa, were discovered [21]. 22. Unique experience in using non-traditional non-animal methods to bioassay toxicity. This publication reported the author's unique experience in using non-traditional non-animal methods to bioassay the toxicity of chemicals. His experiments discovered new facts on toxicity of synthetic surfactants and detergents to a number of species, e.g. to some higher plant species and algae [22]. 23. New method to bioassay chemicals. A discovery of a new method to do the bioassay of chemicals. This method is especially useful to find and characterize toxicity of chemicals. This method proved to be also useful to find new facts on environmental hazards of chemicals and chemical pollution of environment. Using this method a discovery was made of new important examples of phytotoxicity of synthetic chemicals, exemplified by some synthetic surfactants [23]. 24. A review on two classes of chemicals of ecological importance: (1) the natural chemicals in the biosphere; (2) man-made chemicals . A review of the two classes of chemicals of ecological importance: (1) the natural chemicals that are involved in regulating and mediating natural interspecies and inter-organismal interactions in the biosphere; (2) man-made chemicals that are involved in chemical pollution of the environment [24].

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25. First and unique juxtaposition of results of the three methods of assessment of toxicity of a new pollutant: the methods that use (1) plant seedlings; (2) aquatic algae; (3) soil algae . This is a first publication to report a unique bioassay of synthetic surfactants using soil algae. Also, this is a first publication to report a juxtaposition of results of the three methods of assessment of toxicity of a surfactant: the methods that use (1) plant seedlings; (2) aquatic algae cultures; (3) soil algal cultures [25]. About citation of some of the papers mentioned above. Ref. 20 was cited at [26]: Cited at: http://www.worldpharmacy.info/fagopyrum Ref. 21 was cited: it was сited as: Ostroumov S.A., Khoroshilov V.S. (1992) Biological activity of waters polluted with a liquid surfactant-containing detergent. Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya 0, 452458. At [27]: http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/species_pages_F/Fagopyrum_escu lentum_1992.htm Also, Ref. 21 was cited as: Ostroumov, S. A., and V. S. Khoroshilov (1992). Biological activity of waters polluted with a liquid surfactant-containing detergent. Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya(3): 452-458. In Australia [28]: http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/fagopyrumesculentum.htm Ref. 23 was cited in Australia [29] as: Ostroumov, S. A., and V. N. Maksimov (1991). A bioassay of surfactant solutions based on the disturbance of seedling adhesion to the substrate and the development of root hairs by the rhizodermis. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Sssr Seriya Biologicheskaya (4): 571-575: http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/fagopyrumesculentum.htm Cited at: http://eurekamag.com/research/006/931/bioassay-surfactant-solutions-baseddisturbance-seedling-adhesion-substrate-progress-root-hairsrhizodermis.php#.UEJkp9bN-M4; Some other relevant sites see in the Addendum. Additional analysis of valuable innovations of the publications [125] was given in refs [30-34].
BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Ostroumov S. A. Biocontrol of water quality: Multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification. - Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2010, 80 (13): 2754-2761. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/biocontrol-of-water-quality.html 2. Ostroumov S. A., Kolesov G. M. The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2010; 3 (4): 369-373. Full text: http://ru.scribd.com/doc/114001532/ http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/40349852 Abstract: http://www.scribd.com/doc/75098592 3. Ostroumov S. A. On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2008, 1 (2): 238-244. http://www.scribd.com/doc/63711272/ http://www.scribd.com/doc/73795942 4. Ostroumov S. A. Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. - Contemporary Problems of

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Ecology, 2008, 1 (1): 147-152. http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/79286149  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/basics-of-molecular-ecological.html https://sites.google.com/site/ostroumovsergei/basics-of-the-molecular-ecologicalmechanism-of-water-quality-formation-and-water-self-purification--contemporary-problems-of-ecology-2008-vol-1-no-1-p-147-152 5. Ostroumov S.A., Widdows J. Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Hydrobiologia, 2006, Volume: 556, Pages: 381386. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156 6. Ostroumov S.A. On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 2005, 36 (6): 414-420. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45572968 http://www.scribd.com/doc/45572968 http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/on-multifunctional-role-of-biota-in.html 7. Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Hydrobiologia, 2005, Volume: 542, Pages: 275-286. http://www.scribd.com/doc/44105992 8. S.A. Ostroumov. Aquatic ecosystem as a bioreactor: water purification and some other functions. - Rivista di Biologia - Biology Forum, 97(1):67–78, 2004. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/aquatic-ecosystem-as-bioreactor-water.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/52656760 9. S.A. Ostroumov. Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filterfeeding bivalves. Hydrobiologia, 500: 341–344, 2003. http://www.scribd.com/doc/63898669 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k05884h730t228w4/ 10. S.A. Ostroumov, S.I. Dodson, D. Hamilton, S.A. Peterson, R.G. Wetzel. Medium-term and long-term priorities in ecological studies. - Rivista di Biologia, 96(2):327–332, 2003. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48100827 http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/medium-term-and-long-term-prioritiesin.html 11. Ostroumov S.A. The Functions of Living Substances in the Biosphere. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2003, 73 (2): 164-169, http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/the-functions-of-living-substances-in.html 12. Ostroumov S.A. Anthropogenic effects on the biota: Towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. - Rivista di Biologia Biology Forum, 2003, Volume: 96, Issue: 1, Pages: 159-169. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/ostroumov-sa-anthropogenic-effects-on.html 13. Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. Hydrobiologia, 2002, Vol. 469, Issue: 1-3, Pages: 117-129. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579 http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springerjournals/inhibitory-analysis-of-top-down-control-new-keys-to-studyingcDrLImLx31 http://www.scribd.com/doc/50363310 www.moip.msu.ru/?p=154 http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/inhibitory-analysis-of-top-down-control.html 14. Ostroumov S.A. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. -

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Hydrobiologia, 2002, Volume: 469; Issue: 1-3; Pages: 203-204. http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer-journals/polyfunctional-role-ofbiodiversity-in-processes-leading-to-water-6hc0hSENAj 15. Ostroumov S.A. An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter out phytoplankton cells from water. - Biology Bulletin, 2001, Volume 28, No. 1, p. 95-102. http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377 16. Ostroumov S.A. Criteria for assessing ecological hazards of man-made impact on biota: Searching for a system. - Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2000, Volume: 371, Issue: 6, Pages: 844-846. (in Russian); Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. - Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371: 204-206. (in English); English paper online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234 http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/ 17. Ostroumov S.A. Biological filtering and ecological machinery for selfpurification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: Towards a holistic view. Rivista di Biologia - Biology Forum, 1998, Volume: 91, Issue: 2, Pages: 221232. http://www.scribd.com/doc/42830557 18. Fisher N.; Maertz-Wernte M.; Ostroumov S.A. Effects of aquatic pollution by a non-ionogenic surfactant on the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya, 1996, No. 1, P. 91-95. English abstract of this paper on the web-site of the publishers: http://www.maik.ru/cgi-perl/search.pl? type=abstract&name=biobull&number=1&year=96&page=76 19. Waterbury J., Ostroumov S.A. Effect of nonionogenic surfactant on cyanobacteria. - Microbiology, 1994, 63 (2): 140-142. Cited, mentioned at British Library Direct as: http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do? UIN=023773570&ETOC=EN&from=searchengine At the site of the U.S. library (Woods Hole, MBL): http://bibapp.mbl.edu/works/416 20. Ostroumov, S. A.; Semykina, N. A. Reaction of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench to Pollution of Aqueous Medium with Polymeric Surfactants. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 1993, 24 (6): 386-390. Availability via the site: http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do? UIN=019540005&ETOC=EN&from=searchengine; Cited at British Library Direct; see: http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do? UIN=019540005&ETOC=EN&from=searchengine Cited at: http://www.worldpharmacy.info/fagopyrum; 21. Ostroumov S.A.; Khoroshilov V.S. Biological activity of waters polluted with a liquid surfactant-containing detergent. - Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Biologicheskaya, 1992, No. 3, P. 452-458, See the sites: http://moscowstate.academia.edu/SergeiOstroumov/Papers/1906576 http://moscowstate.academia.edu/SergeiOstroumov/Papers/1906576/Biological_ activity_of_waters_polluted_with_a_liquid_surfactant-containing_detergent Citation, e.g., in Australia: cited as Ostroumov SA, Khoroshilov VS (1992)

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Biological activity of waters polluted with a liquid surfactant-containing detergent. - Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya 0, 452458. At: http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/species_pages_F/Fagopyrum_esculentum _1992.htm Also, cited as: Ostroumov, S. A., and V. S. Khoroshilov (1992). Biological activity of waters polluted with a liquid surfactant-containing detergent. - Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya(3): 452458. In Australia: http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/fagopyrumesculentum.htm 22. Ostroumov S.A. Nontraditional nonanimal approaches to the ecotoxicology of xenobiotics. - Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 1992, Vol. 203 (1), P. 302-ENVR. 23. Ostroumov S.A.; Maximov V.N. A bioassay of surfactant solutions based on the disturbance of seedling adhesion to the substrate and the development of root hairs by rhizodermis. - Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Biologicheskaya, 1991, No. 4, P. 571-575. Cited as: Ostroumov, S. A., and V. N. Maksimov (1991). A bioassay of surfactant solutions based on the disturbance of seedling adhesion to the substrate and the dev elopment of root hairs by the rhizodermis.Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Sssr Seriya Biologicheskaya (4): 571-575. Cited in Australia: http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/fagopyrumesculentum.htm Cited at: http://eurekamag.com/research/006/931/bioassay-surfactant-solutionsbased-disturbance-seedling-adhesion-substrate-progress-root-hairsrhizodermis.php#.UEJkp9bN-M4 24. Ostroumov S. A. Biologically active substances of ecological importance and methodological aspects of the estimation of the biological activity of pollutants. RUSS. CHEM. REV., 1991, 60 (3), 265–265. DOI: 10.1070/RC1991v060n03ABEH001051; http://moscowstate.academia.edu/SergeiOstroumov/Papers/1908804 http://moscowstate.academia.edu/SergeiOstroumov/Papers/1908804/Biologically _active_substances_of_ecological_importance_and_methodological_aspects_of_ the_estimation_of_the_biological_activity_of_pollutants 25. Ostroumov, S. A.; Tret'yakova, A. N. Effect of environmental pollution with a cationic surface active substance on algae and Fagopyrum esculentum sprouts. Soviet Journal of Ecology, 1990, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 79-81. Available at: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19911959003.html; jsessionid=A94FF8C3946B30B7F886D2BCF88204FC; 26. http://www.world-pharmacy.info/fagopyrum [here, Ref. 20 was cited] 27. http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/species_pages_F/Fagopyrum_esculentum _1992.htm 28. http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/fagopyrumesculentum.htm [here, see a citation of the paper: Ostroumov, S. A., and V. S. Khoroshilov (1992). Biological activity of waters polluted with a liquid surfactant-containing

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detergent.- Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya(3): 452458; In Australia]; 29. http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/fagopyrumesculentum.htm [here, Ref 23 was cited, i.e. this paper was cited in Austrlia: Ostroumov, S. A. and V. N. Maksimov (1991). A bioassay of surfactant solutions based on the disturbance of seedling adhesion to the substrate and the dev elopment of root hairs by the rhizodermis. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Sssr Seriya Biologicheskaya (4): 571575]; 30. Abakumov V.A. Development of some concepts and issues of ecology and hydrobiology. — Ecol. Studies, Haz., Sol., 2006, v. 11, p. 34-38. 31. Abakumov V.A. Innovative approaches to remediation and restoration of polluted aquatic systems. – Water: Technology and Ecology. 2007. No. 4. p. 6973. 32. Abakumov V.A. New achievements in the studies of aquatic ecosystems and organisms: the concept of ecological repair. - Water: Technology and Ecology. 2007. No. 2. p.70-71. 33. Abakumov V.A. New advances in remediation and restoration of polluted aquatic systems. – Problems of Biogeochemistry and Geochemical Ecology. 2007, No. 2 (4), 98-100. 34. Abakumov V.A. New concept in the development of the theory of water selfpurification: ecological repair. – Problems of Biogeochemistry and Geochemical Ecology. 2007, No. 2 (4), 45-46.
ADDENDUM. Relevant web-sites: The references and comments on these publications see here: http://www.scribd.com/doc/104689498/ http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/indexedwith-abstracts-web-of-science.html ** Citation of these and related publications: Citation (USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium...) environmental sciences: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/citation-of-scientific-research-at.html ** Selected examples of citing Moscow University, Russian Academy of Sciences scientists. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/citation-of-moscow-ecologistsselected.html ** Lithuania. Citation of the book of Moscow ecologists. Cited the book: Yablokov, Ostroumov: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/lithuania-citation-of-book-ofmoscow.html ** Cited: 9 selected papers on environmental science from Moscow University. Citation at the site: http://www.biomedsearch.com;  http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/cited-9-papers-on-environmental-science.html ** Italy: new citation of scientific research on environmental science, ecology at Moscow University: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/italy-new-citation-ofscientific.html ** Brazil: new citation of the research at Moscow University. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/brazil-new-citation-of-research-at.html ** Цитирование публикаций (экология, науки об окружающей среде, биология) сотрудника МГУ д.б.н. С.А.О. в диссертациях и других научных работах – примеры: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/blog-post_18.html

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VALUATION TESTS OF THE SPLIT ROOTS NUTRITION SYSTEM AND FINDING OPTIMIZING MODEL OF PLANT NUTRITION. AN EXAMPLE OF OCIMUM BASILICUM L. Abbasov G. D.
Laboratory Medicinal plant, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, U.S.A.

Note. The preliminary draft of the text of the abstract was changed, transformed substancially by Dr. S.A.Ostroumov (Moscow State University, and Visiting Professor at University of Massachusetts), who corrected, removed and/or added significant parts of the text. However, the initial draft of the text had some language attributes and specific characteristics which were hard to change or edit. Therefore not all necessary changes were made in this text. Plant-nutrient-water interactions always have been one of the problematic issues; this work investigated it using the Split root nutrition system. Traditionally Split root nutrition system was used for experiments, with the purpose to find out answers to some specific questions, but never was used for optimizing plant, nutrient and water interaction, which is main purpose of this work. Since Knop and Sachs have introduced hydroponics it was used for almost hundred years but it did not change fundamentally. This work using Split root nutrition system investigates some changes in traditional hydroponics. A series of experiments was run. Results of this work suggest that there is no difference between control treatment with weekly applying nutrients and using all nutrients necessary for all vegetation period one time using Split root nutrition system. Solutions were kept in plastic container with 2L volume installed into squire plastic pots with size L 25cm, W 25cm and H 25cm. Top of solution containers covered with plastic net which had cotton bolls on it. Each container filled with sands, seedling Basil seeds and kept in optimum temperature and light conditions with air ventilation. Growing period was 2 month and recorded plant development, media and plant nutrient analysis and measured yield as a fresh weight. Productivity was significantly increased where Split root nutrition system wasused with experimental solution. Under some conditions, the productivity was 113.7% more than the control, and essential oil increased 104.3 % more than control. It is known that there are problems with traditional growing systems such as optimizing pH of media, increasing productivity, improving quality of product by increasing phytochemicals. Where used Split root nutrition system with experimental nutrient solution specifically for Basil pH kept in optimum level during all vegetation period-6.7-7.2, significantly increased productivity due to increasing water potential in one half of the root zone and increased quality of Basil due to using increased amount of enzyme activators, which is impossible by traditional growing system due to toxicity. Basil grow and development increased by using Split root system. Under some conditions, growing rate (speed) increased up to 5-7cm a day, when the growing rate in the control treatment without Split root system had only 1-2 cm . Using Split root nutrition system increased mineral nutrient uptake, especially N and K uptake increased two times more than control treatment-5.5 and 8.7g/pot respectively. Moreover using

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Split root nutrition system significantly increased essential oil of the Basil more than 4 times than control treatment. Increasing light, temperature and CO2 has own limitation depending on nutrient uptake and results of this work suggests that when used Split root nutrition system, can be increased light, temperature and CO2 toward to increasing productivity and shortening vegetation period of Basil. According to the results obtained, the conclusion is as following. The Split root nutrition system with our experimental solution, which was prepared based on Basil plant chemical composition, significantly increases growth rate and development, yield, nutrient uptake and essential oil in Basil plant. This nutrition system can be used any other plants. REFERENCES 1. Abbasov (1992). The change of barley’s and wheat’s nitrogen nutrition via nitrification inhibitors. Physiological-genetic mechanisms of regulating the plant nitrogen nutrition, P. 38. Kiev, Ukraine. 2. Abbasov G.D. (2006). High osmotic potential solutions of hydroponics and medicinal plant productivity. Poster in Department of Plant and Soil Science, UMass Amherst, USA. 3. Abbasov G. D. (2007) Predictive Modeling Secondary Metabolism in Medicinal Plants using Hydroponic Nutrition Systems. 2007 International Annual Meetings November 48, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. 4. Abbasov G. D. (2009) Modeling secondary metabolism using hydroponic nutrition system. Materials of the International conference “Prospects of application of the biological methods of protection of agricultural plants from pest organisms”, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

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PHYSICAL HABITAT PATTERNS OF THE "OF SPECIAL CONCERN" BRIDLE SHINER, NOTROPIS BIFRENATUS, AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL SCALES WITH CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS Carmignani J.
Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA 01610, U.S.A.; jcarmignani@clarku.edu

The freshwater fish minnow species Notropis bifrenatus, Bridle Shiner, is threatened throughout most of its range along the Atlantic coast in North America. Population fragmentation and declines are possibly attributed to sedimentation, hydrologic alteration (International Joint Commission 2006), and invasive predatory species (Micropterus salmoides). Bridle Shiner habitat has been previously described qualitatively at microhabitat to reach levels, but other than depth and velocity, habitat preferences have not been quantified (Finger 2001). A multiple spatial-scale habitat and distributional study was conducted for the Massachusetts state-listed minnow in the Housatonic River Watershed in the fall of 2010 to determine physical habitat requirements and identify possible factors that limit distributions. Based on historical distributional records, 67 sites were sampled in 6 sub-basins (tributaries and open water) resulting in 46 presence locations. Thorough snorkeling allowed the collection of rank abundances and presence-absence data. Fish presence and abundance were regressed against rank-based reach-scale variables, and landscape compositional percentages calculated by using GIS software. At the reach/site-scale, abundance was positively correlated with wetland cover, backwater cover, submerged vegetation (SV) cover, and amphibious plant cover. However, fish presence was unrelated to measured forms of instream cover suggesting a facultative relationship with SV for at least one life-stage. Landscape analysis revealed significant Bridle Shiner declines with increased forested wetlands. This study infers potential Bridle Shiner sources of meta-populations in non-forested wetlands with extensive backwaters and abundant SV in the Housatonic River Basin. Conservation efforts should steer their focus to these areas for protection from major threats, such as hydrologic alteration. Funding: Geller Research Award from the George Marsh Perkins Institute at Clark University. References. Finger BL. 2001. M.S. Thesis. Life history and range of Pennslyvania’s endangered bridle shiner, Notropis bifrenatus (Cope). Pennsylvania State University, College of Agricultural Science. International Joint Commission. International Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River Study. Bridle Shiner (Notropis bifrenatus)-reproductive habitat surface area (Lake St. Louis to Trois-Rivieres). Ottawa, Washington D.C.: 2006.

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COMPARITIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN Azadirachta indica AND Ocimum sanctum S. Chadha, Swati, A. Tiwari (Dr. Sonia Chadha, Swati, Anoop Tiwari) Amity University, India
Amity University, 5-VirajKhand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, India (Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus), schdha@lko.amity.edu

The abstract focuses on assessing the levels of various enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in medicinal plants - Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum).The basic aim of the study was to do comparative study between the Neem and tulsi on the basis of the presence of various antioxidant levels in these two medicinal plants. This study has revealed that Neem possess predominant quantities of enzymatic antioxidants namely SOD, catalase and peroxidase respectively than Tulsi and good antioxidant activity was observed with neem leaf aqueous extract. The levels of antioxidants analyzed namely reduced glutathione and Ascorbate were maximal in Tulsi than in neem. The results were analyzed statistically which showed that Azadirachta indica had more antioxidants namely SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase than Ocimum sanctum. The present study clearly points out the antioxidant potential of these medicinal plants emphasizing the importance of these two plants in day to day life. Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against reactive oxygen cells – or free radicals - in the body. Although they are created as part of the body’s normal metabolic functions, free radicals react with other cells and may interfere with their ability to function. Free radicals are believed to play a role in many health conditions, ranging from cancer and atherosclerosis to wrinkles caused by too much sun. Note from the Editorial board: the phytochemistry of Neem was also considered in the book, Introduction to Biochemical Ecology, (Moscow Univesity Press, Moscow)

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CONCOMITANT PRODUCTION OF SPORELESS FRUITING BODIES AND LACCASE RELEASE ON THE SUBMERGED FERMENTATION PRACTICE OF PLEUROTUS FOSSULATUS Nirmalendu Das, Dipan Adhikari
Department of Botany, A.B.N. Seal College, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India, 736101 e-mail: nirmalendus@yahoo.co.uk

Pleurotus fossulatus is a member of oyster mushroom though not so widely cultivated, proved itself to be an excellent storehouse of active biomolecules. The mushroom produces laccase in extracellular medium both in solid state and submerged fermentations. The lacase production was found to be optimum during the 26th days in potato-dextrose (PD) or potato-dextrose-yeast extract (PDY) medium. The number of laccase isozyme was four in both PD/PDY media. The liquid media also facilitate the initiation and development of a proper gill-less sporophore (fruiting body) in P. fossultatus in both PD and PDY medium. This is the very first report for production of fruiting body in liquid submerged culture and elucidation of the sporophore development in relation to production of extracellular laccase in this very species. Key words: Pleurotus fossulatus, laccase, submerged fermentation, fruiting body, sporeless Note from the Editorial Board: Some relevant issues of how fungi and other organisms produce active biomolecules were considered, analyzed and organized in well-structured form in the book: ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’, Moscow University Press, Moscow, 1986, 176 p. (Authored: S.A. Ostroumov)

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PREVENTION ACTIVITIES TO KYZYLKUM N. Davranova (Davranova Nodira)

HALT

DESERTIFICATION

IN

Institute of Water Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Land degradation is a serious economic, social and environmental problem in Uzbekistan and poses real threat to the country, most especially in the Regions of Aral Sea basin and Kyzylkum deserts. The natural conditions are worsening year by year such as soil erosion, sand damage and desertification has become the biggest problem to the sustainable development of the regions. The causes and expansion of desertification mainly result from natural factors, but irrational human activities also play an important role. These include the inappropriate use of land, increasing pressure on the presently productive land brought about by population growth and undue expansion of urbanization, faulty government policies and poverty [1]. These regions are priority regions for emergency actions to combat desertification and land degradation in the ‘National Plan for the Fight Against Desertification in Uzbekistan” [2]. Kyzylkum is the geopolitically and strategically important part of Uzbekistan, which takes almost a half of its area. The total area of Kyzylkum reaches 300 thousand km 2 and the desertification has become a serious problem for the ecological environment of the region. It also directly affects the livelihoods of rural inhabitants by reducing the productivity of land resources and adversely affecting the stability, functions of, and services derived from natural systems [3]. The principal threats of desertification and land degradation in Kyzylkum are: drying off of fresh water sources, soil erosion and loss of vegetation cover, pollution of surface and ground water, salination of the soils and soil fertility lost. The territory of Kyzylkum is covered with sand-dunes, takirs, oases and consists mainly of an extensive plain at an altitude up to 300 m above sea level, with a number of the depressions and highlands. The summer air temperatures in July in average exceed 30°C, and winter temperatures in January are in average -8 to - 10°C. During cold-air outbreak, air temperature reduces to 33 to - 35°C, and in summer it increases to 40 to 48°C. Atmospheric precipitation in Kyzylkum in average doesn't exceed 150 mm per annum and from north to south it increases from 100 to 200 mm per annum. The species such as Haloxyleta persici, Mixtohaloxyleta persici aphylligne, Salsolete richterii, Ammodendreta conollyi, Caligoneta varia, Haloxyleta aphylly, Halimochemeta strobilacei and Holostachydeta belangeri-anae are common in Kyzylkum desert. Density of the population to the north of Bukhara oasis in Kyzylkum towards mid XX century was estimated to less than 1 person per 1 km 2, but today - almost 5 people per 1 km2. The new concept of preventing desertification is to pursue sustainable development. Thus a comprehensive plan must be drawn up to ensure harmonious co-existence between man and nature and the following principles should be adhered to: 1. The new policy "returning land to grassland" should be taken in power and should be aimed at correcting the situation and re-establishing the natural balance. The vegetation will strengthen the cohesion of the soil and weakening the force of the wind, thus it effectively protects crops, reduce sand harm,

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guarantees people's livelihoods and improves the environment. Those approaches and policies will begin to improve the productivity of pasture lands. To achieve continuity in sustainable development, planning must be done in a way guaranteed by legislation. It is also important the involvement of scientific organisations and supporting research with consideration of farming land, animal husbandry pasture. 2. The wasting of the limited water resources and inappropriate use of land, which might lead to irreversible degeneration of the ecological system, should be avoided. It is important because water is the fundamental guarantee for the sustainable development of the deserted regions. The vegetation depends greatly on the water balance. If such basic knowledge is ignored, people will see only failure. The species which are drought tolerant and adapted to such conditions should be selected. The density of trees, types of mixed species and width of forest band must be determined rationally. 3. It is important also to involve industry in Kyzylkum regions where the local people should enhance the use and development of natural resources in sandy areas and develop plantation, animal husbandry and related high-tech industry. Those approaches will help to increase economical condition and improve people’s life. 4. Furthermore, desertification reduced and negatively affected the Kyzylkum biodiversity. Therefore it is important to develop measurements to protect and cultivate endangered species and introducing salt tolerant legumes which will also improve soil biodiversity, introduce fine tree, grass, grain and fruit varieties. It is also necessary to create of specialized seed growing facilities and plot. Kyzylkum is facing several problems with regard to their biodiversity, land, social, economical, technical management. Efforts to improve deserted areas targeting deferment grazing, reseeding, and shrub planting appear to be inefficient in such a harsh environment, and appropriate management tools involving users, communities and organizations remain probably the most promising solution. Recommended measurements include: conservation of biodiversity of the specific vegetation; setting up an optimized pattern for ecological recovery; improvement the living conditions in the villages in region; build capacity through working with local people, sharing responsibility for projects, providing ecological training and education, and increasing public awareness of the problems of desertification; creating intensive agricultural oasis systems, rehabilitate salinized agricultural land using modern technology.
References 1. Atlas of Uzbekistan USSR. Part one / Moscow - Tashkent: ГУГК, 1982. – 124 p. 2 National plan of activity on against desertification in Republic of Uzbekistan / Tashkent: UNEP / Main meteorology centre, 1999. – 130 p. 3. Davranova N.G., Sherfedinova L.Z. Prevention of desertification / Tashkent: TXTI, 2006. – 88 p.

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PHYTOREMEDIATION - AN INNOVATIVE TOOL TREATMENT OF POLLUTED WATER AND SOIL H. Desai, H. Desai (Dr. Hitesh Desai, and Dr. Hemangi Desai)

FOR

THE

Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, Dr. R. K. Desai Marg, Athwalines, Surat – 395001, Gujarat, India. E- mail: hemangal4@yahoo.co.in
Key words: Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Indian Mustard (Brassica junceae), Phytoremediation, Heavy metals

The presence of heavy metals in the environment is of great concern because of their increased discharge, toxicity and threat to human life and environment. The majority of toxic metal pollutants are waste products of industrial and metallurgical processes. Their concentrations have to be reduced to meet ever increasing legislative standards. Toxic heavy metal pollution of water and soil is a major environmental problem and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. Soil microorganisms can degrade organic contaminants, while metals need immobilization or physical removal. Phytoremediation is the use of green plants and their associated micro biota for the in-situ treatment to remove organic and inorganic pollutants present in soil and water. Wetland plants are being used successfully for the phytoremediation of trace elements in nature and constructed wetlands. Concern about the environmental fate of explosives, metals and organic solvents in soil and ground water has compelled a nationwide focus on cost effective remediation technologies. Phytoremediation is an innovative technology that utilizes the natural properties of plants i.e. unique genetic, biochemical and physiological properties in engineered systems to remediate hazardous waste sites. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to extract, sequester and/or detoxify pollutants and is a potent, inexpensive and eco-friendly technique for environmental clean-up. Phytoremediation is gifted to mitigate contaminated soils, water and air with plants able to accumulate, degrade or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants, from the mediums that contain them. Phytoremediation consists of five main processes: (1) Rhizofiltration: Rhizosphere –accumulation of organics/inorganics. (2) Phytostabilization: Complexation of inorganics. (3) Phytoextraction: Hyper accumulation of inorganics. (4) Phytovolatilization: Volatilization by leaves of organics/inorganics. (5) Phytotransformation: Degradation of organics. Heavy metals get accumulated in time in soils and plants and could have a negative influence on physiological activities of plants (e.g. photosynthesis, gaseous exchange, and nutrient absorption), determining the reductions in plant growth, dry matter accumulation and yield in small concentrations, the traces of the heavy metals in plants or animals are not toxic. Lead, cadmium and mercury are exceptions; they are toxic even in very low concentrations. The results of our experiments and studies reflect that Brassica

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junceae has efficiency to remove iron is 57%, chromium is 61%, and copper is 98% from the soil after 28 days time of treatment. Indian mustard accumulated the greatest amount of copper in its, and that plant was having least growth as compared to plant growth with other two metals. Treatment of synthetic waste water with Eichhornia crassipes resulted in 100% reduction in iron, copper, chromium just within 72 hours. 50 % of the desired heavy metals (Fe, Cu, and Cr) were removed from the waste water just after 24 hour’s treatment with water hyacinth. Iron was fully removed from the water; where as 83.33% of copper and 91.67% of chromium were removed just after 48 hours treatment. Some plants destroy organic pollutants by degrading them directly. The removal rate of COD is 73%, BOD is 52% and TDS is 67% from textile waste water after 96 hours treatment. Phytoremediation of heavy metals (Fe, Cr and Cu) from soil was studied by using Brassica junceae (Linn) Czernjajev (Indian / Brown mustard) plant (Table 1): Three sets of heavy metals were conducted to study phytoremediation. The concentration selected of heavy metals i.e. iron, chromium and copper of 5ppm, 10ppm, 15ppm for the study purpose along with blank for each. Experiments were done repeatedly at the time interval of 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. From the experiments, it has been observed that metal concentration is decreasing gradually from soil from their initial concentration which has been added to the soil. Brassica junceae has efficiency to remove iron is 57%, chromium is 61%, and copper is 98% from the soil. Results from this study demonstrate, that Brassica junceae can efficiently accumulate metals iron, chromium and copper from soil. But Brassica junceae exhibited differential ability to take up iron, chromium and copper from solid media. Indian mustard accumulated the greatest amount of copper in its, and that plant was having least growth as compared to plant growth with other two metals. This means that plant growth has affected by the accumulation of high level of copper in it. The success of phytoremediation is an environmental cleanup effort depends to a large degree on the identification of suitable plants that not only concentrate metals to levels that would inhibit growth of most species, but demonstrate prolific growth in response to an established agronomic or horticultural practice. Such prolific growth produces the necessary biomass to extract large amounts of metals per hectare that are commonly encountered in most contaminated sites. This makes the Indian mustard plant to be a promising candidate for the absorption of the heavy metals from the soil and hence can help to a greater extent in reducing the soil pollution. This plant is used to remove heavy metals from the soil in hazardous waste sites because it has a higher tolerance for these metals and stores the heavy metals in its cells. The plant is then harvested and disposed off properly. This method is easier and less expensive than traditional methods for the removal of heavy metals. It also prevents erosion of soil from these sites preventing further contamination. [1]

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Table 1. Effect of time period on the concentration profile of absorption of heavy metals by Indian mustard (Brassica junceae) during course of experiments. Synthetic Metal Dose 5 .0 10 .0 15 .0 Initial Soil+SMD 10.4 15.4 Week1 7.5 12.0 18.5 Week2 5.0 10.0 15.0 Week3 3.5 7.5 12.0 week4 1.5 5.0 10.0 Iron (ppm) Chromium (ppm) Copper (ppm) 5 .0 10 .0 15 .0 5 .0 10 .0 15 .0 20.4 5.5 4.9 3.6 2.4 5.75 10.4 8.1 5.75 3.85 10.75 15.5 14.0 9.5 6.05 15.75 5.5 0.45 0.1 0.05 5.64 10.5 1.0 0.4 0.35 10.64 15.64 14.5 1.4 0.45 0.25

The phytoremediation rate of (Eichhornia crassipes) from textile waste water and synthetic waste water with reference to oxygen demand and heavy metal was studied. (Table 2): Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a floating macrophyte whose appetite for materials & explosive growth rate has been used in cleaning up municipal and industrial waste water as an efficient, economical & ecological alternative to remove pollution load from waste water and soil. The experiments were done repeatedly at the time interval of 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours. Experiment of synthetic waste water with Eichhornia crassipes resulted in 100% reduction in iron, copper, chromium just within 72 hours. 50 % of the desired heavy metals (Fe, Cu, and Cr) were removed from the waste water just after 24 hour’s treatment with Eichhornia crassipes. Iron was fully removed from the water; where as 83.33% of copper and 91.67% of chromium were removed just after 48 hours treatment. The absorption rate of the three heavy metals was same almost throughout the study period. The extensive removal of heavy metals by water hyacinth may be due to extensive adventitious root system, which absorbs these toxic substances from wastewaters. The removal rate of COD is 73%, BOD is 52% and TDS is 67% from textile waste water after 96 hours treatment. The presence of plants in wastewater can deplete dissolved CO 2 during the period of high photosynthetic activity. This photo-synthetic activity increases the dissolved oxygen of water, thus creating aerobic conditions in wastewater which favor the aerobic bacterial activity to reduce the BOD and COD. This plant might be utilized to accelerate the removal and degradation of industrial and domestic pollution loads in textile/ industrial and municipal waste water. The resulting water can be used for irrigation and aquaculture.[2]
Table 2. Effect of time period on the absorption by Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes): pollutants from textile wastewater heavy metals from synthetic wastewater Time (hrs) pH COD

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(mg/L) BOD (mg/L) TDS (mg/L) Iron (ppb) Copper (ppb) Chromium (ppb) 0 7.3 1600 755 24 7.28 1133.33 48 7.19 1066.66 72 7.13 966.66 223 96 7.1 766.66 198

1550 448 252 1198 1013

300 1436 1367 0 0

300 152 0 0 0

300 127 50 0 0

145 25

References : 1. Phytoremediation of heavy metals by Brassica junceae from soil. Priti Raval et al., and Dr. Hemangi Desai. International Congress on Environmental Research, Journal of Environmental Research and Development, BITS–Pilani, Goa Campus, Zuari Nagar, Goa, 1820 December 2008. 2. Phytoremediation of waste water using Eichhornia crassipes with reference to oxygen demand and heavy metal removal. Vansia Shivraj et al., and Dr. Hemangi Desai., International Congress on Environmental Research, Journal of Environmental Research and Development, BITS–Pilani, Goa Campus, Zuari Nagar, Goa, 18-20 December 2008.

CHANGES IN LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY DUE TO COMMUNITY LAW BY ITS MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT A.I. Dusca (Anca Ileana Dusca, Ph.D.)
University of Craiova, Romania; Faculty of Law and Administrative Sciences

The Principle of supremacy of Community law over national law, although it doesn’t have a legal basis in primary treaties and in the previous ones, was recognized, established and developed by the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, so today it has the value of a well-known and general truth. Therefore, one of the underlined rules by the European Court of the European Communities in the development of this principle is that primary Community law has direct effect in national law and the rights born for the citizens must be protected and respected by the national courts. In order to sustain this idea the Court from Luxembourg reminded that the aim of Economic European Community Treaty is to create a common market and its functioning can directly affect all the citizens who belong to the community; this means that the treaty is more than just a convention that foresees mutual obligations for the Member States (Decision of ECEC from 5th February 1963, cause C-26/1962 Van Gend Laos c. Financial Administration from Holland). Priority of Community Law over national law has in Court’s view different grounds in time: so, firstly in the previous reminded decision is said “Community represents a new legal order of the public international law ( for its benefits the

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states have limited their sovereign rights, even if in a limited way, an order of whose subjects of law are not only the states but also the citizens )” and then (in the decision of ECEC from 15th July 1964, cause C-6/1964, Flominio Costa c. E.N.E.L ) it is shown: in comparison with international treaties, EEC Treaty established its own legal order, integrated in the legal system of the Member States in the moment entry into force of the Treaty applied by the Judicial Courts of the Member States. Another rule underlined by the ECEC in the development of the principle of priority is the direct effect of the Community Law that implies homogenous effects in all Member States from their entry into force and during their application. This is what the Court states in another well-known decision (Decision ECEC from 9th March 1978, cause C-106/1977, Financial Administration of the State c. Simmenthal Spa) where are also specified: these dispositions represents a source of rights and obligations for all subjects of law no matter if it is about Member States or about private citizens who are parties in legal relations of Community law. This effect extends over every National Court informed among its competence which as authority of a Member State has the role to protect the rights offered to the citizens by Community law. As a result the national judge has to apply, among his competence, the dispositions of Community law, has the obligation to ensure that the total effect of such norms is achieved, letting unapplied at need on his own initiative any disposition that is contrary to the national legislation, even after through his own power of judgment without requesting or waiting for his previous elimination through legislative way or through another constitutional method. Community norms regarding the environment represent 40% of Community law and they refer to the protection of the fundamental right to a healthy environment; the recognition and practical confirmation of the principles of environment law; development and recognition of different forms of responsibility. The fundamental right to a healthy environment is acknowledged in the Chart of Fundamental Rights in article 37-Protection of Environment was ratified at Nice at 7th December 2000 and it became compulsory at the moment when the Lisbon Treaty became compulsory- 1st December 2009. The Principle of the European environmental law, establishing their significances represent an important matter for each branch of law because they render continuity and homogeneousness to its content. Concerning Community law, constitutive texts are clearly established, but the secondary texts develop their content and organize their enforcement and for the judicial Community practice they create a major plan for every decision of the European Court of Justice of European Community. The principles of protection of the fundamental human rights - and also of the right to a healthy environment – the principle of nondiscrimination, the principle of the European Union citizenship, the proportionality, the subsidiarity, certainty of legal issues respect of the right to defense and also specific principles from environment field: precaution,

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preventive action, the polluter pays are to be found in every decision of the Court of Luxembourg. Legal responsibility in case of pollution is reflected at community level by several norms each of them establishing a special form of responsibility. We can tackle : 1). In the field of civil responsibility for the damages resulted from dangerous activities for the environment: Directive no. 2004/35/EC on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (with the modifications made by Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15th March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC and of the Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on the geological storage of carbon dioxide and amending Council Directive 35/337/EEC and Directives 2000/60/EC, 2001/80/EC, 2004/35/EC, 2006/12/EC, 2008/1/EC and Regulation EC no. 1310/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council ) 2). In the field of administrative sanction for infringement of the environment laws of Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 th October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading modified by Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community; 3). In the field of criminal law by Directive 2008/99/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19th November 2008 on the protection of the environment through criminal law. The sources of documentation are: - Rosalyne Nerac – Croisier, Sauvegarde de lenvironnement et droit penal, L’Harmattan Kinshase 2005 ; - Chanal Cous, La responsabilite environnmentale prevention, imputation, reparation, Dalloz, 2009; - Ivone Lambert-Foivre, Droit du dommage corporel, Systemes d'indemnisation 5e edition, Editura Dalloz, 2004; - Marie-Odile Berttella-Geffroy, Un an de droit penal de l'enviroinnement, Revue Mensuelle Lexisnexis Jurisclasseur, Fevrier 2008; - Mathilde Boutouvet, La reconnaissance du prejudice environnemental, Revue Mensuelle Lexisnexis Jurisclasseur, Fevrier 2008.

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Towards a new ecology and environmental science. (Review, bibliography of selected papers and books). Ermakov V.V., Gorshkova O.M.
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow State University
Key words: landmark publications, new steps, innovations, discoveries, new concepts, new terminology, environmental science, ecology.

In recent decades in ecology and environmental sciences, a significant progress was made. New concepts on functioning of ecosystems, especially aquatic ecosystems, were developed. New facts on interactions between chemical pollutants and organisms were discovered. New classes of chemical pollutants were actively studied, and new methods for bioassay of environmental hazards were applied. The relevant literature is so broad that it is impossible to review the entire broad range of papers and books. It is always necessary to identify the most important publications and to prepare a short list of the most valuable contributions. This is a short review and summary of selected bibliography of ca. 60 carefully selected publications. Some of these publications are mentioned here together with comments on what is new, and what is done for the first time, with information on availability online or in international libraries, including U.S. libraries. If no author is indicated, it means that the only author of the article is Dr. S.A.Ostroumov (M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University). 1. Innovative conceptualization of ecosystem’s biomachinery (a new scientific term that was proposed by the author of the paper published in ‘Russian Journal of General Chemistry’. Biomachinery means ecological mechanisms that include biological communities and biodiversity) which improves water quality. The innovative experimental data analysis, concepts, and generalizations in this article provide the fundamental elements of the new qualitative theory of biocontrol of water quality in a systematized form. The theory covers water selfpurification in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The theory is supported by the results of the author’s experimental studies of the effects exerted by some chemical pollutants including synthetic surfactants, detergents, and other xenobiotics on aquatic organisms. The new fundamental conceptualization provides a basis for remediation of polluted aquatic ecosystems including purification of water bodies and streams, and briefly present the qualitative theory of the self-purification mechanism of aquatic ecosystems, phytoremediation and other types of technologies. Reference: Biocontrol of Water Quality: Multifunctional Role of Biota in Water Self-Purification. – Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 80, No. 13, pp. 2754–2761; Abstract: http://www.chemeurope.com/en/publications/211554/biocontrol-of-waterquality-multifunctional-role-of-biota-in-water-self-purification.html; Abstract: http://www.scribd.com/doc/75101299/ Full text: http://www.scribd.com/doc/49131150/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/73175163/; DOI: 10.1134/S1070363210130086;

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** 2. A review of ecotoxicology of nanomaterials including nanoparticles containing metals and other nanoparticles was presented in the paper: Ostroumov S.A., Kotelevtsev S.V. Toxicology of nanomaterials and environment. Ecologica. 2011, vol. 18, issue 61, pp. 3-10. http://www.scribd.com/doc/104801060; www.scribd.com/doc/58103094/; http://scipeople.ru/publication/102825/ 3. In this publication, a new concept was formulated: a new conceptualization which is based on his suggestion to identify a new type of matter in the biosphere. The author called it «ex-living matter» (ELM). The author discusses his experiments (together with his co-authors) which provide the factual foundation to this conceptualization; Reference: Ostroumov S.A. Some issues of chemico-biotic interactions and the new in the teaching on the biosphere / series: Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions. Volume 17. Moscow, MAX Press, 2011. – 20 p. ISBN 978-5-317-03710-9; http://scipeople.ru/publication/102875/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/57818520/ ** 4. A review of the author’s studies of aquatic organisms, mainly some marine and freshwater invertebrates that are filter-feeders - biological filters - as an important part of the biosphere and hydrosphere. The studies were conducted in laboratories of four countries. Reference: Biological filters are an important part of the biosphere // Science in Russia. 2009. № 2. P. 30-36. [The journal ‘Science in Russia’ is published by the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences, both in English and in Russian; Nauka Publishers, Moscow; ISSN 0869-7078. www.ras.ru, ©Russian Academy of Sciences Presidium.] http://www.scribd.com/doc/104805990 https://sites.google.com/site/ostroumovsa/ostroumov-sa-biological-filters-are-animportant-part-of-the-biosphere--science-in-russia-2009--2-p-30-36; ** 5. This paper formulated a fundamentally new solution to the problem of selecting criteria for identification and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants, toxicants; the paper explains why the currently accepted set of criteria is non-efficient and leads to mistakes; Reference: Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. – Dokl. Biol. Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371: 204-206. Doklady Biological Sciences: ISSN PRINT: 0012-4966. ISSN ONLINE: 1608-3105. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/; www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; Why this paper is useful: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549/; Blog post: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/fundamentally-new-solution-toproblem.html Blog post on a closely related paper in Rivista di Biologia: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/a-new-concept-of-system-of-approaches.html

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A closely related paper: A new set of criteria in order to answer the question was formulated in this paper: is a given chemical substance hazardous to environment or not? Reference: Ostroumov S.A. Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. - Riv. Biol. (Rivista di Biologia) 2003, 96(1):159-169. Review. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/ PMID: 12852181 [PubMed – indexed; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/3-System-of-Criteria;
key words: innovation, new solution, criteria, assessment, environmental, ecological, hazards, danger, chemical, pollutants, toxicants,

6. This paper is the first publication that considered an aquatic ecosystem as an analog of a bioreactor, with some specific features that were described in the paper.This paper gave a revolutionary new insight into the core functions and identity of ecosystem as a bioreactor to maintain water quality. Reference: An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water selfpurification function. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516. www.scribd.com/doc/49065542; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069997; ** 7. This paper was the first that discovered the multi-faceted role of the entire broad range of aquatic organisms of all main groups of biodiversity in water self-purification. The conclusion was made that the complex of all the organisms, the entire biota is a unique (both changeable and fragile) part of the mechanism of ecosystem service to improve water quality; Reference: The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991; 8. It is the first paper that reported two new experimental results. First, the new author’s experiments measured the biota-driven fluxes of the matter and chemical elements in a model ecosystem. Second, the authors got another innovative result: a discovery of effects of chemical pollutants. Namely, these biota-driven flows of the chemical elements were decreased by a chemical pollutant exemplified by a synthetic surfactant: Reference: S. A. Ostroumov, and M. P. Kolesnikov. Biocatalysis of Matter Transfer in a Microcosm Is Inhibited by a Contaminant: Effects of a Surfactant on Limnea stagnalis. [Lymnaea stagnalis] - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 373, 2000, pp. 397–399. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 373, No. 2, 2000, pp. 278–280. www.scribd.com/doc/49069985; 9. The paper discovered new mechanisms triggering eutrophication and as a result, a new solution to the problem of eutrophication: Reference: The Synecological Approach to the Problem of Eutrophication. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 381, No. 1-6; pp. 559-562. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065550/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1013378505630; ** 10. First measurements, first publication: New quantitative data on how aquatic mollusks drive fluxes of the chemical elements. The reference is:

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Ostroumov S. A., M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 379, p. 378-381. www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730; PMID: 12918380; DOI: 10.1023/A:1011620817764 11. Modernization and refreshing of the most fundamental concepts, notions, and terminology of ecology. Reference: New Definitions of the Concepts and Terms Ecosystem and Biogeocenosis; Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002, v. 383, No. 1-6; pp. 141-143. www.scribd.com/doc/49065580; DOI: 10.1023/A:1015393924967; 12. New conceptualization of how all biodiversity of the aquatic organisms functions together toward up-grading water quality: On the Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems: Elements of the Theory. Doklady Biological Sciences, 2004, v. 396, No.1-6; pp. 206-211. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48099028/ www.scribd.com/doc/48099028/4DBSOn-the-Biotic-Self-Purification-fulltext; DOI: 10.1023/B:DOBS.0000033278.12858.12 13. New approach and innovative methodology to experimentally analyze interactions of organisms: Reference: Inhibitory Analysis of Regulatory Interactions in Trophic Webs. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 377, No. 1-6; pp. 139-141. www.scribd.com/doc/49065567; DOI: 10.1023/A:1019218026198; 14. Discovery of a new type of negative effects of chemical pollutants on aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Reference: Effect of Amphiphilic Chemicals on Filter-Feeding Marine Organisms. Doklady Biological Sciences; 2001, v. 378, No. 1-6; pp. 248-250. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593; http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067 15. The first publication that used the new terminology: two-level synergism; synecological summation. As a result, a new fundamental concept and terminology were introduced into environmental science, and ecology: TwoLevel Synergism, Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects: Ostroumov S. A. The Hazard of a Two-Level Synergism of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 380, No. 1-6; pp. 499-501. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1012348127085 16. It is the first time that some negative effect of chemical pollutant (synthetic surfactant) on feeding activity of rotifers was discovered: Ostroumov S.A., N. Walz; R. Rusche. Effect of a Cationic Amphiphilic Compound on Rotifers - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2003, v. 390, No. 1-6; pp. 252-255; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/; www.scribd.com/doc/52634169/3Effect-of-a-cationic-amphiphilic-compound-on-rotifersDBN; DOI: 10.1023/A:1024417903077;

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17. It is the first discovery of the new aspect of fundamental causeeffect link between the conservation of biodiversity and protection of water quality. This paper is the first that stresses that this is a two-way link: Biodiversity Protection and Quality of Water: The Role of Feedbacks in Ecosystems. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002, v. 382, No. 1-6; pp. 18-21 ; http://www.scribd.com/doc/42558469/; www.scribd.com/doc/42558469/Danbio1-02v382n1-E-water-Quality; DOI: 10.1023/A:1014465220673; 18. The first identification of a new type of negative effect of chemical pollutants: Reference: A New Type of Effect of Potentially Hazardous Substances: Uncouplers of Pelagial–Benthal Coupling. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002. v.383, No. 16; pp. 127-130. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45913695/; www.scribd.com/doc/45913695/A-newType-of-Effect-2DBS-fulltext; DOI: 10.1023/A:1015385723150; 19. Modernization of the system of principles for conservation of biodiversity; Formulation of a new relevant principle: conservation and protection of a key aspect of ecosystem’s service in up-grading water quality; an innovative suggestion to establish a special type of protected aquatoria to protect organisms that filter and purify water: Reference: System of Principles for Conservation of the Biogeocenotic Function and the Biodiversity of Filter-Feeders. - Doklady Biological Sciences 2002, v.383, No.1-6; pp.147-150. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911862; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065586; DOI: 10.1023/A:1015398125876; 20. Innovative analysis of the factors that create environmental balance as related to plankton, which in turn is relevant to proper management of water resources, and water quality sustainability: Imbalance of Factors Providing Control of Unicellular Plankton Populations Exposed to Anthropogenic Impact. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, No.1-6; pp.341-343. Full text: https://sites.google.com/site/1dbs379p341imbalance/; www.scribd.com/doc/49065596; DOI: 10.1023/A:1011600213221; 21. New fundamental concept: a new type of joint man-made effects on biological community and ecosystems was identified. The author of this article in the journal ‘Doklady Biological Sciences’, Dr. S.A.Ostroumov, proposed to name this concept as: Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects: Responses of Unio tumidus to Mixed Chemical Preparations and the Hazard of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.380, No.1-6; pp.492-495; www.scribd.com/doc/49065621/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1012344026176; 22. A new contribution to the scientific basis of phytoremediation and phytotechnology for water treatment: Reference:

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Lazareva E. V.; Ostroumov S.A. Accelerated decrease in surfactant concentration in the water of a microcosm in the presence of plants: Innovations for phytotechnology. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009, v.425, No.1; pp.180182. http://www.scribd.com/doc/60795487/; in Russian: www.scribd.com/doc/61655262/; in English: DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609020276; 23. The first discovery of the negative effect of the synthetic chemical pollutant (surfactant) on filter- feeding of zooplankton, and negative effects of the chemical of water filtering: Vorozhun I. M., S. A. Ostroumov. On studying the hazards of pollution of the biosphere: effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) on planktonic filter-feeders. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009, Vol. 425, pp. 133–134. The journal: ISSN 0012-4966. Full text: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45914806/; DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609020136; http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7754h672w814m30/; 24. It is the first paper in which a discovery of a new type of environmental hazards from chemical pollutants was made: namely, the hazards of a decrease in vital function of healthy aquatic ecosystems which maintain the proper level of cleanness (purity) of water, and improve water quality: Identification of a new type of ecological hazard of chemicals: inhibition of processes of ecological remediation. - Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. 385: 377-379. In Eng.; ISSN 0012-4966. DOI 10.1023/A:1019929305267; http://scipeople.ru/users/2943391/; Full text: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911150; 25. It is the first paper in which it was clearly proved that the synthetic chemical, when it pollutes water, produces a dangerous effect on both marine mussels and phytoplankton: it decreases water filtration rate by the mussels, and the normal control of abundance of phytoplankton by the marine mussels, the control which is associated with the filtration of water. Reference: An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. - Biology Bulletin, 2001, v.28, No.1; pp.95-102. www.springerlink.com/index/l665628020163255.pdf; Abstract, in detail: The effect of synthetic anionic surface active substance (SAS) sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 4 mg/l) on the kinetics of water filtration by mussel Mytilus edulis was studied. A suspension of algae Isochrysis galbana was added to the vessel with the mussels, and their filtration activity was measured by counting the concentration of the algae cells in the experimental vessels. Algae concentration was measured every 30 min for an hour and a half. The inhibiting effect on the mollusk filtration rate (FR) was qualitatively described. After the first 30 min filtration at 4 mg/l initial SDS concentration, the cell density was 322% of the control. The inhibiting effect was observed later as well. Due to FR inhibition in the vessels with the above specified initial SDS concentration, the algae cell density was 6.4 and 14.7 times that of the control after 1 and 1.5 h, respectively. Thus, SAS SDS can decrease the natural capacity of aquatic

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ecosystems for self-purification and disturb other aspects of ecosystem functioning through inhibiting the filtration activity of mussels. The obtained data are discussed in the context of environment and hydrosphere protection from pollution. www.springerlink.com/index/l665628020163255.pdf; http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1026671024000 26. It is a first paper in which a new solution to the eternal and painful problem of need for proper objective criteria for identification of and assessing environmental hazards of chemical pollutants: Reference: Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. – Dokl. Biol. Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371: 204-206. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/; 27. It is a first paper in which a new aspect and facet of the essence and identity of ecosystem was discovered and analyzed. In this paper, it was shown that ecosystem has attributes of a bioreactor: Reference: An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water selfpurification function. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516. www.scribd.com/doc/49065542; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069997; 28. A more detailed analysis of the discovery and innovation that was made in the paper above (An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. 374: 514-516); A new aspect of the identity of ecosystem was discovered and analyzed: the paper showed that ecosystem has attributes of a bioreactor: Reference: Aquatic ecosystem as a bioreactor: water purification and some other functions. – Riv. Biol. 2004, 97(1): 67-78. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52656760/4Rivista-Biologia97p39AquaticBioreactor-w-Add; PMID: 15648211 [PubMed - indexed]; 29. A first and unique paper in which an international team of experts, scientists of three countries formulated a short list of research priorities in ecology and environmental sciences for the current century: Reference: Ostroumov S.A., Dodson S.I., Hamilton D., Peterson S.A., Wetzel R.G. Mediumterm and long-term priorities in ecological studies. – Riv. Biol. 2003, 96(2): 327332. PMID: 14595906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]; http://www.scribd.com/doc/48100827/3Rivista-Bio-96-Priorities-2; http://scipeople.com/uploads/materials/4389/3RivistaBio96Priorities2.rtf; www.scribd.com/doc/57124875/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52655707/ ; 30. A new set of criteria in order to answer the question was formulated in this paper: is a given chemical substance hazardous to environment or not? Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. - Riv. Biol. (Rivista di Biologia) 2003, 96(1): 159-169. Review. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/ PMID: 12852181 [PubMed – indexed; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/3-System-of-Criteria;

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31. More new data on how an anionic surfactant (detergent) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) decreases the removal of algal cells from aquatic medium by marine bivalve Mytilus edulis: Reference: [An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter phytoplankton cells from water]. – Izv. Akad. Nauk Ser. Biol. 2001. (1):108-116. Russian. PMID: 11236572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]; http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377; http://www.scribd.com/doc/63444377/BiolBul2001-1p95-E-an-AmphiphilicBB95-An-amphiphilic-substance-inhibits; in Eng, in the form: An Amphiphilic Substance Inhibits the Mollusk Capacity to Filter out Phytoplankton Cells from Water. BIOLOGY BULLETIN, Volume 28, Number 1 (2001), 95-102, DOI: 10.1023/A:1026671024000; 32. It is a first paper in which a synthesis of both authors new experimental data and international literature was made, which led to a new broad picture of the role of biological filtering in self-purification and selfbioremediation of aquatic ecosystems. Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view. – Riv. Biol. 1998; 91(2):221-232. http://www.scribd.com/doc/42830557; http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9750710; PMID: 9857844; PubMed – indexed; 33. It is the first article in which the new experimental data of the author were analyzed to give new fresh insight into ecological mechanisms of eutrophication and abnormal increase in phytoplankton. Also, new insight in how ecosystem runs water self-purification. A fundamentally new approach and methodology to study top-down control in ecosystems: the first introduction of what the author calls ‘inhibitory analysis’; the paper presented a new insight in understanding that a decrease in activity of filter-feeders are part of the causes and mechanisms of eutrophication and algal blooms. The paper shows how to identify and measure this new factor which stimulates those negative phenomena; More comment, and about citation of this paper, see: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61179989 Reference: Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002, vol. 469, p. 117-129; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1015559123646 34. The first publication in which a concise presentation is given of the author’s theory of water self-purification. A short list of physical, chemical, and biological processes of water self-purification is given. One of the conclusions is: ‘living organisms are the core component of the multitude of processes of the ecological machinery working towards improving water quality’. Innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms (biological community) work together toward making water clear and clean:

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Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. - Hydrobiologia. 2002. V. 469 (1-3): 203-204. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52627327/2H469p203Polyfunctional-role-w-Addendum; DOI: 10.1023/A:1015555022737 35. New facts on how detergents slow down the filtration of water by aquatic organisms (bivalve mussels, oysters and others): Reference: Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. Hydrobiologia. 2003. Vol. 500. P.341-344 [including effects of synthetic surfactants TDTMA and SDS on marine bivalves, oysters Crassostrea gigas]. Extended abstract and some info on citation of this paper: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63898669/; Full text: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k05884h730t228w4/; www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9737871 DOI: 10.1023/A:1024604904065 [From the issue entitled "Aquatic Biodiversity"] 36. The first paper that reports experiments that showed that all three main kinds of synthetic surfactants (detergent chemicals) slow down the filtration of water by marine organisms, filter-feeders (bivalve mussels of the Atlantic Ocean, Mytilus edulis). The 3 main types of surfactants that were studied were representatives of the 3 classes: anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants. Ostroumov S.A., Widdows J. Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. - Hydrobiologia. 2006. Vol. 556, No.1. P. 381 – 386 . http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156/; www.scribd.com/doc/59544597/; DOI: 10.1007/s10750-005-1200-7; Indexed in Web of science. 37. A first book that summarizes the author’s 20-year-long studies of new environmental hazards from synthetic detergents, and innovative methods for measuring environmental toxicity and phytotoxicity of chemicals: Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9744280; http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1527248.Biolo_Eff_of_Surf; http://www.scribd.com/doc/46637373/; DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.fmatt
Key words: Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Unio, Hirudo medicinalis, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Synechococcus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa , seedlings, filter-feeders, oysters, TDTMA, SDS, surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, detergents, marine mussels, Triton X-100, bioassay,

Chapter 1. Anthropogenic Impacts and Synthetic Surfactants as Pollutants of Aquatic Ecosystems: DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch1 Chapter 2. Organisms and Methods [that were studied and used in the book to perform bioassay and assessment of environmental hazards and toxicity of surfactants and detergents]: DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch2; Chapter 7: DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.ch7 ** 38. New ecological terminology was introduced in the paper: ecological tax; ecological repair of water quality: Reference:

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Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. - Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286. www.scribd.com/doc/44105992/; DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1; Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders, From the issue entitled "Aquatic Biodiversity II"; Indexed, Web of Science. 39. A detailed well-structured presentation of the author’s innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms work together toward making water clear and clean: On the Multifunctional Role of the Biota in the Self-Purification of Aquatic Ecosystems. - Russian Journal of Ecology, 2005. Vol. 36, No. 6, P. 414-420 . http://www.scribd.com/doc/45572968; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49131150; DOI: 10.1007/s11184-005-0095-x; Indexed, Web of Science. 40. It is the first opinion and review paper in which a multi-aspect innovative analysis of the ecological role of organisms that filter water was given. It discovered a set of functions and mechanisms which form and improve water quality: Reference: Suspension-feeders as factors influencing water quality in aquatic ecosystems. In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems, R.F. Dame, S. Olenin (Eds), Springer, Dordrecht, 2004. pp. 147-164. http://books.google.ru/books/about/The_comparative_roles_of_suspension_feed. html?id=A7k_xTx3VFYC&redir_esc=y; http://www.springerlink.com/content/q871733861050601/; DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-3030-4_9 41. A detailed well-structured presentation of the author’s innovative and multifaceted conceptualization of how almost all aquatic organisms work together toward making marine and estuarine water clear and clean. It is the first time, a new concept and the term ‘biomachinery’ is formulated; in these publication, it is the first timethat the new term 'biomachinery' was introduced; It is the first time that the new concept and term ‘biomachinery’ was applied to ecosystem. It is the first time that water self- purification in aquatic ecosystems was considered as an example of functioning of biomachinery. More comment: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/ Reference: Ostroumov S.A. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory. - International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography. 2006. Volume 1, No.1. p.111-118. [ISSN 0973-2667]. www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/100141.pdf; 42. Long-term studies of the biological effect of surfactants, including the effect surfactants exert on filter feeders, are reviewed. The role of filter feeders in the functioning of freshwater and marine ecosystems is analyzed. New aspects in the assessment of environmental hazard due to the impact of chemical pollutants, including surfactants and detergents, are established. Reference:

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The effect of synthetic surfactants on the hydrobiological mechanisms of water self-purification. - Water Resources. 2004. Volume 31, Number 5, p. 502-510 . (in Eng). http://www.scribd.com/doc/41169530/WR502; DOI 10.1023/B:WARE.0000041919.77628.8d. In Russian: http://www.scribd.com/doc/57648905/4VodnResursy-R; In English: www.springerlink.com/index/wj7qx8550w1048u6.pdf; English paper DOI: 10.1023/B:WARE.0000041919.77628.8d; 43. Generalizations presented in this paper represent, in systematized form, the basic elements of the qualitative theory of water self-purification in freshwater and marine ecosystems. Recommendations are given for maintaining water quality and sustainable development of water resources. Results of experimental studies of the effect exerted by the surfactant Triton X-100 and the OMO synthetic detergent on freshwater bivalve mollusks Unio tumidus. On some issues of maintaining water quality and self-purification.- Water Resources, 2005. Volume 32, Number 3, p. 305-313 . ISSN 0097-8078 (Print) 1608-344X (Online). http://www.scribd.com/doc/57511892/0305; DOI: 10.1007/s11268-005-0039-7; 44. One of the authors of published reviews of the book called it ‘Russian Silent Spring’. The reviewed book is one of the first books which created the fundamentals of conservation biology. This work examines the problems arising from the deterioration of the environment and covers the issues of conservation and biodiversity protection at the molecular-genetic, the ontogenetic, the species-population and the ecosystem levels. The book offers suggestions concerning changes in practice in agriculture, industry, recreation etc. – in all sectors of society life and functioning. Reference: Yablokov A.V., S.A.Ostroumov. Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects. Berlin, New York et al. Springer. 1991. 272 p. Index of Authors: p. 249-251. Subject Index: p. 253-271. ISBN 3-540-52096-1; On the book: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59415099/; ** 45. It is the first paper in which it was clearly shown that aquatic biota (the sum of organisms) is the core part of the ecological mechanism of water selfpurification in healthy aquatic ecosystems. The important attributes of this core part of the mechanism are: 1) lability; 2) vulnerability to anthropogenic impact. The author formulated a new fundamental concept of the complex of organisms of aquatic ecosystem. According to the concept, the biota is a central, labile and vulnerable (to pollutants) part of the ecological mechanism of water selfpurification and upgrade of water quality.
Key words: Geoscience, water quality, assessment of biological activity of surfactants, chemical pollution, self-purification of water, aquatic organisms, contaminants, aquatic ecosystems:

The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs372p286biotalabil/; Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 372, No. 2, 2000, pp. 279–282. Original Russian Text Copyright © 2000 by Ostroumov.

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Self-purification of water is a complex process including physical, chemical, and biological components [1–3]. The vulnerability of different components of the water self-purification system to anthropogenic factors is as yet insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to review the literature and our own unpublished experimental findings concerning potential vulnerability of the biotic component of the water self-purification system to chemical pollutants. A new role of biota as a core, labile, vulnerable part of ecosystem and upgrade of water quality. www.scribd.com/doc/49069991; ** 46. It is the first study in which it was shown that the vital function of aquatic organisms (catalysis of matter transfer, and biogeochemical flows of chemical elements through the water column in the normal ecosystem) is decreased by the chemical pollutant as represented by a synthetic surfactant: S. A. Ostroumov and M. P. Kolesnikov. Biocatalysis of Matter Transfer in a Microcosm Is Inhibited by a Contaminant: Effects of a Surfactant on Limnea [Lymnaea] stagnalis. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 373, 2000, pp. 397– 399. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 373, No. 2, 2000, pp. 278– 280. www.scribd.com/doc/49069985; 47. New fundamental concepts were formulated in the concept: 1) a two-level synergism (a new scientific term); 2) synecological summation (a new scientific term) of man-made effects. The Hazard of a Two-Level Synergism of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects // Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol.380, p.499-501; (Rus. P. 847); two-level synergism; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/Danbio52-2001v380p847-E-2levelsynergism; it was above; DOI: 10.1023/A:1012348127085; 48. The first data on discovery that chemical pollutants (detergents and surfactants) decreased the filtration rate by the mass freshwater mollusks, freshwater mussels Unio tumidus. A new type of complex anthropogenic effects on ecosystem was found which the author proposed to name ‘synecological summation’. Reference: Ostroumov S.A. Responses of Unio tumidus to Mixed Chemical Preparations and the Hazard of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol. 380, p. 492-495; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065621/; it was above; ** 49. The first measurements of the contribution of the pellets of aquatic mollusks to the biogeochemical flows of the chemical elements C, N, P, Si, and Al: Reference: S. A. Ostroumov, M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381; see item 10; www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;

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50. The first data on the new negative effects of organic pollutants detergents and surfactants – on functioning of marine bivalve mollusks. The first data on how the detergents and surfactants slow down (inhibit) water filtration by those bivalve mollusks, mussels and oysters which are of huge importance to aquaculture: Reference: Effect of Amphiphilic Chemicals on Filter-Feeding Marine Organisms. Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.378, No.1-6; pp.248-250 . www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065593; http://www.scribd.com/doc/59417067/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1019270825775; 51. A discovery of a new method to do bioassay of chemicals; discovery of a new form of phytotoxicity, the reference is: Ostroumov S.A., Maksimov V.N. Bioassay of surfactants based on the disruption of seedling attachment to the substrate and rhizoderm root hair formation // Biology Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (May 1992); Vol. 18(4), p. 383-386; in English (ISSN 0098-2164); Translated from: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriia Biologicheskaia , (4), 1991, p. 571-575. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS %2FUS92232.xml%3BUS9180902; AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. (United States of America), 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml; Email: access@nal.usda.gov; URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;
KEY WORDS: bioassay, plant seedlings, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology; AGRIS Categories: Pollution; Plant ecology; AGROVOC English terms: Fagopyrum esculentum; Brassica alba; Triticum aestivum; Indicator plants; Root hairs; Seedlings; Surface active agents; Bioassays; Pollution; AGROVOC French terms: Plante indicatrice; Poil absorbant; Plantule; Surfactant; Dosage biologique; Pollution; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plantas indicadoras; Pelos radicales; Plantulas; Surfactantes; Ensayo biologico; Polucion;

52. The first discovery of negative effects of a laundry detergent on flagellates, euglens. The reference: Ostroumov, S.A.; Wasternack, K. Response of photo-organotrophously growing green flagellates to water pollution by the detergent preparation "Kristall" // Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin (1991) Vol. 46(2), p. 66-67 . [ISSN 0096-3925], in English; Translated from: Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Biologiia, v. 46 (2), 1991, p. 67-68. http://agris.fao.org/agrissearch/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS%2FUS92239.xml%3BUS9180000; AVAILABLE in the U.S.A. AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. (United States of America), 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml; Email: access@nal.usda.gov; URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;
KEY WORDS: bioassay, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, Protista, ecotoxicology, euglens, Euglena; AGRIS Categories: Pollution; Plant ecology; AGROVOC English terms: Indicator plants; Mastigophora; Water pollution; Surface

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active agents; AGROVOC French terms: Plante indicatrice; Pollution de l'eau; Surfactant; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plantas indicadoras; Polucion del agua; Surfactantes; **

53. A first discovery of the negative effects of a cationic surfactant on the growth and elongation of plant seedlings (Fagopyrum esculentum) and on behavior of leeches (Hirudo medicinalis); Reference: Response of test-organisms to water pollution with quaternary ammonia compounds. - Water resources (1992) [ISSN 0097-8078] Vol. 18(2), p. 171-175 ; Translated from the Russian original articles: Vodnye Resursy, v.18 (2), 1991, p.112-116. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992%2FUS %2FUS92235.xml%3BUS9176736; AVAILABLE in the U.S.A. AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml; Email: access@nal.usda.gov; URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;
KEY WORDS: water quality, bioassay, plant seedlings, cationic, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology, leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, behavior, sublethal; AGRIS Categories: Miscellaneous plant disorders; Pollution; AGROVOC English terms: Water pollution; Quaternary ammonium compounds; Testing; Fagopyrum esculentum; Phytotoxicity; AGROVOC French terms: Pollution de l'eau; Compose d'ammonium quaternaire; Testage; Phytotoxicite; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Polucion del agua; Compuestos amonicos cuaternarios; Ensayo; Fitotoxicidad; **

54. A series of innovative variants and modifications of the methods for bioassaying phytotoxicity using plants, especially plant seedlings: Problems of assessment of biological activity of xenobiotics.- Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin (1990) Vol. 45(2), p. 26-32 ; (ISSN 00963925) in English; Translated from: Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta Biologiia, v. 45 (2), 1990, p. 27-34. AVAILABLE in the U.S.A. at: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Md. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml; Email: access@nal.usda.gov; URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;
KEY WORDS: Plant seedlings, surfactants, detergents, pollutants, hazard assessment, new methods, bioassay, phytotoxicity, ecotoxicology; AGRIS Categories: Plant physiology and biochemistry; Protection of plants - General aspects; Pollution; AGROVOC English terms: Pesticides; Pollutants; Water pollution; Bioassays; Indicator plants; Germination; AGROVOC French terms: Pesticide; Polluant; Pollution de l'eau; Dosage biologique; Plante indicatrice; Germination; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Plaguicidas; Contaminantes; Polucion del agua; Ensayo biologico; Plantas indicadoras; Germinacion;

55. This is the first time it was shown that the nanoparticles of gold (Au) in substantial amount bind to the living biomass of the aquatic plant (macrophyte), Ceratophyllum demersum. The concentrations of gold were measured in the samples of the phytomass using neutron activation analysis (NAA). As a result of the binding and/or immobilization of the nanoparticles, the amount of gold in the samples of the phytomass increased manifold above the

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background level of gold in the plant tissues. The increase was by two orders of magnitude. The new data added some new information to the modern vision of the multifunctional role of the biota in the migration of elements in aquatic ecosystems. Also, the result added new information to the studies of interactions of gold with organisms that may contribute to new biotechnologies: Ostroumov, S.A., Kolesov, G.M., Interaction of nanoparticles of gold with aquatic plant: Binding to Ceratophyllum demersum. - Ecologica (2010) Vol. 17 (57) p. 3-6. In English; [ISSN 0354-3285];
Affiliation: Ostroumov, S.A., [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Biology]; Kolesov, G.M., [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry];

AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml; Email: access@nal.usda.gov; URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;
Key words: nanoparticles, nanomaterials, fate in environment, aquatic systems, aquatic plants, macrophytes; neutron activation analysis (NAA); environmental chemistry; AGRIS Categories Plant physiology and biochemistry; Aquatic ecology AGROVOC English terms Ceratophyllaceae; Aquatic plants; Gold; Biomass; Plant tissues; Tissue analysis; Chemical composition; Aquatic communities; Aquatic environment; AGROVOC French terms Ceratophyllaceae; Plante aquatique; Or; Biomasse; Tissu vagatal; Analyse de tissus; Composition chimique; Communauta aquatique; Milieu aquatique; AGROVOC Spanish terms Ceratophyllaceae; Plantas acuaiticas; Oro; Biomasa; Tejidos vegetales; Anailisis de tejidos; Composician quimica; Comunidades acuaiticas; Ambiente acuaitico; **

56. New data on how detergents and surfactants slow down the filtration rate and suspension feeding of bivalve mollusks that are being cultivated in aquaculture. The title in Russian: Воздействие синтетических поверхностно-активных веществ и смесевых препаратов на моллюсков, используемых в аквакультуре // Рыбное хозяйство, 2009, No. 3; 92-94. (in Russian); (ISSN 0131-6184); Translation of the title of the paper into English: Effects of the synthetic surfactants and chemical mixtures on marine mollusks used in aquaculture; AVAILABLE AT: National Agricultural Library, USDA, U.S.A. 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD. 20705; U.S.A. Contact: http://www.nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml; Email: access@nal.usda.gov; URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov;
KEY WORDS: TDTMA, SDS, molluscs, oysters, Crassostrea gigas, effects, detergents, surfactants, C. gigas, mussels, Mytilus, galloprovicialis, edulis, bivalves, water quality, bioassay, aquaculture, aquafarming; AGRIS Categories: Aquaculture production and management; AGROVOC English terms: Oysters; Mussels; Aquaculture; Surfactants; Environmental impact; Filtration; Russian federation; AGROVOC French terms: Huitre; Moule; Aquaculture; Surfactant; Impact sur l'environnement; Filtration; Federation de russie; AGROVOC Spanish terms: Ostra; Mejillon; Acuicultura; Surfactantes; Impacto ambiental; Filtracion; Federacion de rusia;

57. This is the first paper that demonstrated that this species of aquatic plants (macrophytes) is instrumental in decreasing the levels of 4 heavy metals in water

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in case of multi-metal pollution. It is a significant contribution to creating an innovative green technology of water treatment: Reference: S. A. Ostroumov, and T. V. Shestakova. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The phytoremediation potential. DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Volume 428, Number 1 (2009), 444-447 ; DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609050159; Full text online free: https://sites.google.com/site/9dbs444/decreasing-the-measurable-concentrationsof-cu-zn-cd-and-pb-in-the-water 58. This is the first paper that discovered that in aquatic medium, nanoparticles of metal can be immobilized by aquatic plants (macrophytes). This is a very innovative contribution to our knowledge on nanomaterials. Until this paper next to nothing was known what happens with nanomaterials when they enter the aquatic environment with aquatic organisms: Reference: S.A. Ostroumov, G.M. Kolesov. The Aquatic Macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum Immobilizes Au Nanoparticles after Their Addition to Water. Doklady Biological Sciences, 2010, Vol. 431, pp. 124–127 . Full text: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45579375; The article is indexed by PubMed. It is on SpringerLink. www.springerlink.com/index/J487667871W02H28.pdf; http://www.springerlink.com/content/j487667871w02h28/; DOI: 10.1134/S0012496610020158; ISSN 0012-4966, © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010. Translated from: Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2010, Vol. 431, No. 4, pp. 566–569. See: https://docs.google.com/fileview? id=0B589QnrA6gkoNGU3ZTJiM2ItYjBmMy00MmRkLThkMTYtYmVkMWJi NGVlMmJl&hl=en; http://www.scribd.com/doc/41165833; 59. This is an innovative paper that contributed to the scientific basis of technology of phytoremediation of aquatic system and new promising energy-saving technology of water treatment (water purification). Reference: E. A. Solomonova, and S. A. Ostroumov. Tolerance of an Aquatic Macrophyte Potamogeton crispus L. to Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate. - Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin, 2007, Vol. 62, No. 4, p. 176–179. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/6643_ToleranceMac rophytes; DOI: 10.3103/S0096392507040074; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45556848; This is the first paper that reports quantitative information on the concentrations of this important chemical xenobiotic which are within the tolerance of the species of aquatic plants. This paper proposed innovative methodology of how to find this information, and the methodology is applicable in case of other chemical pollutants and other species of plants. This is a very innovative step toward developing new green technology to treat polluted water.

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60. This paper is the first publication that reported the concentrations of a number of rare earth elements in biodetritus. The rare earth elements are a key component of modern hi-technology products and they are a new component in the modern solid wastes and waste waters. This paper is an innovative and significant contribution to the database for modern environmental monitoring. Reference: Ostroumov, S. A.; Kolesov, G. M. The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, Vol. 3, No. 4. (2010), pp. 369-373. In English. This is the first study to determine concentrations of gold, uranium and some other elements (including some rare earth elements) in biodetritus. Biodetritus that formed over a 7-month period in aquatic microcosms with mollusks Viviparus viviparus, Unio pictorum, and aquatic plants Ceratophyllum demersum contained a number of elements. Neutron activation analysis showed that the elements’ concentrations decrease in the following order: Ca > Zn > Ba > Br > Ce > Se > Nd > La > U > Hf > Sb > Th > Sm > S > Cs > Au. The data obtained contribute to understanding of the multi-functional (polyfunctional) role of aquatic organisms in aquatic ecosystems.
Key words: gold, uranium, rare earth elements, Zn, viviparus, unio, U, Th, Sm, Se, Sb, pictorum, Nd, La, Hf, elements, ecosystems, detritus, demersum, Cs, ceratophyllum, Ce, Ca, Br, Ba, Au, aquatic, biogeochemistry,

doi: 10.1134/S1995425510040016; Key: citeulike:7868320; Full text: http://ru.scribd.com/doc/114001532/ Abstract: http://www.scribd.com/doc/75098592 Full Text article see: SpringerLink: http://www.springerlink.com/content/430423n1v5g4q818/ 61. Study of the interactions between Elodea canadensis and CuO nanoparticles. This is the first paper that reported that a nanomaterial that contains oxide of heavy metal (exemplified by copper) after entering aquatic environment can be immobilized by aquatic plant biomass. This is an absolutely innovative and extremely important contribution to environmental toxicology and chemistry of toxic nanomaterials. Toxic nanoparticles are a new type of hazards from environmental pollution. Reference: Johnson M. E., Ostroumov S. A., Tyson J. F., Xing B. Study of the interactions between Elodea canadensis and CuO nanoparticles. - Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 81, No. 13, pp. 2688-2693 , doi:10.1134/S107036321113010X; 62. This paper explained the new terms (ecological chemomediators, ecological chemoregulators) that were coined in 1986 in the book: S.A.Ostroumov ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’. Since 1986, the book and the new terminology became a part of educational content of a number of courses in universities of at least five countries. Reference:

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On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators. CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, Volume: 1, Issue: 2, Pages: 238-244; Published: APR 2008; DOI: 10.1134/S1995425508020100; Full English text online free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/41634664; Abstract, additional sites: http://www.scribd.com/doc/75100692; Comments on the connection of this paper with the book, ‘ Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’: http://www.scribd.com/doc/63711272; Indexed in Web of
Science.

63. Innovative and coherent theory of ecological mechanisms of water selfpurification and improvement of water quality in freshwater and marine ecosystems was formulated in the paper: Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, Volume: 1, Issue: 1, Pages: 147-152 ; DOI: 10.1134/S1995425508010177; Published: FEB 2008; Full text free: https://docs.google.com/viewer? a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxvc3Ryb3Vtb3ZzZXJnZWl8 Z3g6MjE4MWFkMTc4NTZhZTY2Zg;
Indexed in Web of Science.

**ADDENDUM. Citation of some of these publications in Italy, France, China and some other countries: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/citation-of-papers-and-books-on-env.html More on the citations of these publications: Citation (the U.S.A., Russia, Canada, U.K., France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium, Spain, Austria, China, Japan, India, Australia, Poland, Turkey, Pakistan, and other countries): environmental sciences, ecology, bioology: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/citation-of-scientific-research-at.html ** Selected examples of citing Moscow University, Russian Academy of Sciences scientists. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/citation-of-moscow-ecologistsselected.html ** On 25 of these publications, which were indexed by Web of Science: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/mytilus-edulis-crassostrea-gigas.html ** List of 25 publications: http://www.scribd.com/doc/101736541/56-Innovations http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/56-steps-to-new-ecology-56-publications.html
**KEY WORDS: environmental science, ecology, Unio tumidus Limnea [Lymnaea] stagnalis, laundry detergent, flagellates, euglens, Euglena; Hirudo medicinalis, xenobiotics, nanoparticles, gold, aquatic, plant, macrophyte, Ceratophyllum demersum, aquaculture, aqua-farming, phytoremediation, Potamogeton crispus, rare earth elements, Viviparus viviparus, nanomaterial, Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Synechococcus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa, neutron activation analysis, NAA, ecological chemomediators, ecological chemoregulators, Biochemical Ecology, hydrobiology, biogeochemistry, filterfeeders, oysters, TDTMA, SDS, surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, invertebrates, marine mussels, Triton X-100

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ULTRASTRUCTURE EVALUATION OF THE MYOCARDIUM UNDER EFFECT OF STRESS (FEAR) S.H.A. Ewis, A. Shatoor (Sobhy H.A. Ewis*, and Abdullah Shatoor **)

RAT

Anatomy Department* College of Medicine AI-Azhar University (Cairo), Egypt; King Khaled University Departments of Anatomy * and Cardiovascular of Internal Medicine** Abha King Khalid University, College of Medicine, Anatomy Department; Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia; Telephone: 0096672417820 - 0557643127, Fax: 0096672418194, E-mail: sobhyewis@yahoo.com

In fact the environmental stressor increased in the last time of life which includes the environmental disasters as volcanoes, earthquakes and uncontrolled infectious diseases but the artificial disasters are the most dangerous on the world life which includes the wars, fires and progressive elevation of the earth temperature and so on. In the medical schools the previous factors affecting on the humans as a beams of stress, the highest of this beams is the fear. All the living beings affected by the fear, the cardiovascular system, considered to be the most affected apparatus, it has received much attention in both animals and humans. The present study was designed to investigate the myocardial structure under the effect of fear. Thirty young male albino rats were used in this study, the animals were divided into two groups, the control group (10 rats) admitted in normal environment for 10 days, the second group (20 rats) were subjected to the fear (two hours daily) for 10 days. The fear stress was induced by allowing a cat to catch one rat from the second group and eats it under the others vision. The myocardial specimens were took from the right atrium and left ventricle and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. The results showed that the atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes affected by the fear where the intra cellular spaces increased, disorganization of the micro filaments with areas of degeneration and z lines interruption or lost. The indentation in the nuclear membrane was demonstrated with heterogeneous distribution of the nucleoplasm. The mitochondrial vacuolation and degeneration were clarified; also the atrial granules in atrial cardiomyocytes were decreased. Recommendations: The myocardial structure of the rates affected by the fear, where the intracellular spaces increased and the cardiomyocytes includes disorganization of the micro filaments with areas of degeneration also the mitochondrial and nuclear alteration were clarified. So we invite the world organization united to one of noble aims (No fear on the living body) by health education programs and activation of the human right programs, also we suggest regularly evaluation of the cardiac function tests for the people working under the fear.

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ANATOMY OF THE HUMAN BRAIN: WHY DO MEN AND WOMEN DIFFER? Dr Tabinda Hasan1 (MD; anatomy); Dr Mahmood Fauzi2 (MS; ophthalmology), Credentials- 1- Ast. prof. medical anatomy; 2- Eye surgeon; Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia; 2 - Dept. of Ophthalmology, Jazan General Hospital, Jazan; Saudi Arabia; Corresponding author - Dr Tabinda Hasan; Postal address - Dept. of Anatomy ; Faculty of Medicine; Jazan university; Saudi Arabia; e-mail - drtabindahasan@gmail.com; Mobile - 0532315920; Anatomy of the human brain: why do men and women differ? Introduction. Skeptics often wonder why men and women think differently. This difference is obvious even in children; boys tend to like cars and guns while girls prefer to play with dolls. The difference of genders can be observed in the way they behave, the way they react in different stressful or emotional situations and even in the way they interact and communicate. Indeed, in men and women of similar aptitudes and intelligence, a variation can be observed in their performance application. It appears that their brains go about in different directions, as if nature had designed different sets of blue prints for them. Post natal cultural socialization has a prominent role in the apparently differential cognitive orientation of the two sexes, but the difference goes deeper than mere psychology. It lies in the anatomy, embryology, physiology and biochemical pharmacology as well. Discussion. The human brain is a highly complex organ. Biomedical studies indicate apparent gender differences in cognition, perception, memory and neural functions of the male and female brain. Scientists have attributed this dimorphism to various genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. These differences are obvious in the morphological anatomy of the human brain as well. Post mortem and structural neuroimaging studies reveal difference in size, weight, cerebellum, cerebrum, hypothalamus, amygdale, commisures, gray and white matter content etc. (Cahill L; 2004). This difference results from variations during the intra-embryonic development phase. Physiology observes sex differences in neuro-behavior functions in terms of emotional processing, visuospatial skills, language processing, cognition, perceptions, experience and expression (Clements AM, 2006; Gorbet DJ, 2007) The difference is attributed to the role of dominant hemisphere activation, which is different in both sexes and the unique ability of females to use both hemispheres simultaneously; which enables female multi-tasking. The biochemical heterogeneity has mainly been observed in the sensorimotor cortex and the orbital frontal cortex; which has a major role in sensori-motor processing, motor execution, planning and sequencing of behavior. Functional imaging techniques through PET (tomography) indicate sex differences in metabolism, particularly global and

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regional blood flow and glucose consumption. Pharmacological studies show the differential ability to detect some neurotransmitters and receptors. Serotonergic behavior mechanisms are gender related. Sex differences in disease epidemiology and clinical features of medical conditions; particularly some psychiatric, neurophysiologic and genetic diseases is well recognized. Even brain aging signs show neuro-anatomical dimorphism; with earlier maturation in females and more prominent age induced decrease in gray matter in males (Pakkenberg B; 2008). Conclusion. Sex differences play an important role in learning, communication, perception, knowledge application and natural disease progression. These differences do not convey any overall superiority in intelligence or advantage to either sex. But sex differences need to be considered in brain structure and function studies and may raise the possibility of sex specific treatment of certain medical conditions and educational theory implications. References: Pakkenberg B, Gundersen HJ. Neocortical neuron number in humans: Effect of sex and age. J Comp Neurol 1997; 384: 312-320. Hsu J, Leemans A, Bai C, et al. Gender differences and age-relatedwhite matter changes of the human brain: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuroimage 2008; 39(2): 566-577. Cahill L, Uncapher M, Kilpatrick L, Alkire MT, Turner J. Sex related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala function in emotionally influenced memory: an fMRI investigation. Learn Mem, 2004; 11: 26-26. Clements AM, Rimrodt SL, Abel JR, et al. Sex differences in cerebral laterality of language and visuospatial processing. Brain Lang, 2006; 98(2): 150-158. Gorbet DJ, Sergio LE. Preliminary sex differences in human cortical BOLD fMRI activity during the preparation of increasingly complex visually guided movements. Eur J Neurosci, 2007; 25 (4): 1228-1239.

EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION-INDUCED SALINITY ON ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN COTTON SOILS
D. Jabborova a*, D.Egamberdieva a, S. Wirth b, and G. Renella c [Dilfuza Jabborova a*, Dilfuza Egamberdieva a, Stephan Wirth b, and Giancarlo Renella c] a National University of Uzbekistan, Faculty of Biology and Soil Science, department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, 100174 Tashkent, Uzbekistan; b Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, University of Florence, Italy, c ZALF , Centre of Agricultural Landscape Research, Muncheberg, Germany;

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Introduction. Salinity is a major concern for irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions of the world (Tripathi et al. 2006). In particular, secondary salinity developed from irrigation is widely responsible for reducing soil and water quality, limiting crop growth, and leading to the abandonment of agricultural lands. A massive expansion of irrigated agriculture occured during the 1960s made Uzbekistan one of the largest cotton producing countries in the world. The success was made possible through massive construction of thousands of kilometers of canals to divert river water for irrigating cotton. However, land suffering from various degrees of soil salinity is increased from about 48% of the total irrigated lands in 1990 to 64% in 2000. While the effects of salinity on soil properties and plant growth are well known (Garcia and Hernandez, 1996), information related to irrigation-induced secondary salinity effects on soil biological properties are limited (Tripathi et al., 2006). Hydrolase activities in the soil can be quantitatively important in processes related to plant nutrition; for example the hydrolysis of organic phosphate monoesters by phosphomonoesterases may account up to 80% of P assimilated by plants in agricultural soils (Gilbert at al., 1999). Measures of enzyme activities in saline soils can be also used for evaluating the degree of degradation of salinated soils and the possibilities of soil restoration. Although information is available on the impact of secondary soil salinization due to crop irrigation with saline waters (Szabolcs, 1998), no information on the effect of agricultural soil salinisation derived from the drying of the Aral Sea, one of the major natural disasters in the World, is available. In this paper we report the effects of increasing soil salinity on enzyme activities of soils under cotton crop located in Syrdarya province. Material and Methods. Twelve conventionally tilled (0 - 40 cm depth) irrigated cotton fields affected by various degrees of salinity were selected to collect soil samples at Sayhunobod district (41000’N, 64000’E) of the Syr-Darya province of north-east Uzbekistan. The soils have been cropped with cotton monoculture for the last 50 to 60 years under flood irrigation without proper drainage facilities using natural flow system. On average, the soil contained 43+9 g sand kg-1, 708+12 g silt kg-1, and 250+13 g clay kg-1 and had a cation exchange capacity of 23.6+1 cmol kg-1 with an exchangeable Na percentage of 4.41, and a Na absorption ratio of 0.32. For soil sampling, the selected fields (3.5 ha each) were categorized into three different salinilty levels based on electrical conductivity (EC): (1) weakly saline (2.3+0.3 dS m-1), (2) moderately saline (5.6+0.6 dS m1), and (3) strongly saline (7.1+0.6 dS m-1) soils. In each soil salinity category, four relatively uniform fields were selected as replicates followed by random demarcation of three subplots (1-m x 1-m) in each replicated field. From each subplot three soil cores (3.5 cm internal diameter) were sampled at 0 - 30 cm soil depth before harvesting cotton in September 2005 between plant rows (80 cm apart), and another three core samples between plants (40 cm apart) within rows. The soil cores were pooled and mixed to obtain six composite samples for each replicated field, and 24 replicated composite samples for each salinity level. The

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soil samples were gently sieved through a 2- mm mesh (visible pieces of crop residues and roots were removed), and a portion of the field-moist soil was analyzed for enzyme activities. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolase was determined according to Schnurer and Rosswall (1982), adapted to micro plates by using 50?l sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer (0.2 m, pH 5.0), 50?l of FDA as substrate (100?g ml-1) and 100?l of soil extract, and determined spectrophotometrically at 492 nm. The ?-glucosidase activity was determined using 0.1M maleate buffer, pH 6.5 at 37°C for 90min. The reaction was stopped with tris-hydroxymethl aminomethane (THAM). The ?-galactosidase activity was assayed using MUB buffer at pH 6. Acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities were assayed according to Tabatabai and Bremner (1969) and phosphodiesterase activity as reported by Browman and Tabatabai (1978). Urease activity was measured using 0.1 phosphate buffer at pH 7 and protease activity was determined by hydrolysis of N-benzoylargininamide (N-BAA) according to Ladd and Butler (1972). All results were the means of 3 replicates. The LSD values (Tukey-Kramer test, P < 0.05) were calculated to assess the significance of differences of the means (n = 3). Results. In Table 1 we report rhizosphere soil enzyme activities in cotton grown at various levels of soil salinity. We observed that salinity inhibited urease, protease, alkaline phosphomonoesterases, acidic phosphomonoesterases and phosphodiesterase activities of rhizosphere soil. Non-saline soil showed highest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, glucosidase, protease, urease and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolase.
Table 1. Acid (AcP), alkaline phosphomonoesterases (AlP), phosphodiesterase (PD), galactosidase (GA), glucosidase (GL), urease (UR), protease (PR) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolase activities in non saline (NS), mid saline (MS) and strong saline (SS) soils. Treatments AcP AlP PD GA GL UR PR FDA EC (mg p-nitrophenol kg-1 soil*h-1) (mg NH4+-N kg-1soil*h-1) NS (1.3 dS m-1) 821.3 2811.5 914.8 442.7 256.9 7.9 23.9 23.9 MS (5.6 dS m-1) 952.2 2367.8 761.2* 482.0 200.1 6.5* 22.2 12.0* SS (7.1 dS m-1) 456.1* 1884.0* 796.2 491.6 127.6* 5.8* 17.0* 6.1*

Garcia and Hernandez (1996) reported that the decrease of enzyme activities can be due to lower contents of microbial biomass releasing less amounts of enzymes, but also by the fact that in semi-arid soils the enzyme activity is mainly extracellular, stabilized by forming complexes with organic and mineral colloids. The increase of salinity as measured by increased conductivity disperses clay minerals and stable enzymes thus remain unprotected and more susceptible to denaturation (Frankenberger and Bingham 1982). In addition, high salt concentrations tend to reduce the solubility of enzymes and denature enzyme proteins through disruption of the tertiary protein structure which is critical for enzymatic activity.

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Moreover, the reduction of organic matter content accumulated in salinized soils could also be a cause of reduced soil enzyme activity as the soil organic matter plays an important role in providing substrates, and also protecting enzymes through immobilization in organo-mineral complexes (Tabatabai and Bremner (1969). However, galactosidase activities in our study were not affected by increased soil salinity, and did not correlate with soil electrical conductivity. Alkaline phosphatase was higher in all variants than other enzymes under study. Generally, alkaline phosphatase predominates other phosphatases in soils with neutral or slightly alkaline pH (Tripathi et al., 2006), as in our study. Since, higher plants are devoid of alkaline phosphatase, the alkaline phosphatase of soils originates totally from microorganisms and thus provides a sensitive indicator for microbial activity. Conclusion In conclusion, our study showed that salinization of soils due to prolonged irrigation and continuous use of high amount of fertilizers in cotton monoculture reduced several hydrolase and esterase activities, indicating a progressive degradation of the agricultural lands of Uzbekistan and a need of urgent remediation actions to be taken. References Browman MG, Tabatabai MA (1978) Phosphodiesterase activity of soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42, 284–290. Frankenberger WTJ, Bingham FT (1982) Influence of salinity on soil enzyme activities. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 46, 1173–1177. Garcia C, Hernandez T (1996) Influence of salinity on the biological and biochemical activity of a calciorthird soil. Plant Soil. 178, 255–263. Gilbert GA, Knight JD, Vance CP, Allan DL (1999) Acid phosphatase activity in phosphorus-deficient white lupin roots. Plant Cell Environ. 22, 801-810. Ladd JN, Butler JHA (1972) Short-term assays of soil proteolytic enzyme activities using proteins and dipeptide derivatives as substrates. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 4, 19-30. Schnurer J, Rosswall T (1982) Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis as a measure of total microbial activity in soil and litter. Appl. Env. Microb. 6, 1256–1261. Szabolcs I (1998) Concepts, assessment and control of soils affected by salinization. Adv. Geoecol. 31, 469–476. Tabatabai M. A., Bremner JM (1969) Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatise activity. Soil Biol. Biochem. 1, 301-307. Tripathi S, Kumari S, Chakraborty A, Gupta A, Chakrabarti A, Bandyapadhyay KB (2006) Microbial biomass and its activtiies in salt-affected coastal soils. Biol Fert Soils. 42, 273-277.

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Mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals in environmental samples of some agricultural areas in Africa Kotelevtsev S.V., Poklonov V.A., Sergeev V.A., Traore B.*, Glazer V.M., Ostroumov S.A. Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Biomembranes, Biological Department, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russian Federation; * Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Bomako, Mali; Environmental pollution is often considered as a problem that is connected with industrial pollution in heavily industrialized nations and urbanized territories. The goal of this study was to investigate issues of environmental pollution in some agricultural regions of Africa. Methodology for identification of environmental hazards includes the determination and measurement of concentrations of pollutants and xenobiotics in components of ecosystems, as well as the use of biological test systems. The analysis of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds with test systems involves some specially designed strains of microorganisms. The Ames test with Salmonella/microsomes determines not only the presence of mutagens and carcinogens properties but also some specific type of gene mutations induced by the environmental pollutants. The modern laboratory techniques measure the activity of the enzymes which are involved in detoxification and metabolic of xenobiotics in the cells of various species of living organisms. This approach provides some valuable opportunities to study environmental toxicants in the food chain. In this study, we have used the Ames test with Salmonella/microsomes. The strains used were S. typhimurium ТА98 и ТА100. Rat microsomes (rat liver, fraction S9) were used for metabolic activation. Mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds in the water, sediments and extracts of the tissues of fish and birds in an agricultural region (mainly rice, cotton) next to the Niger River (Mali, Africa) were studied. Moreover, a study was carried out of the extracts of 3 samples of soils in various regions of Mali. The methods were analogous to the methods of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the methods ЕРА 8040, 8061, 8080, 8081. The instrumental analysis was made at the laboratory of Prof. A.T. Lebedev, Faculty of Chemistry, Moscow State University. In the majority of the extracts of the tissues of the birds (especially fish-eating), mutagenic compounds were discovered. In all of the soil samples, mutagenic toxicants were found. The mutagenic effect was observed usually after metabolic activation. Analysis of soil samples by GC-MS showed the presence in the soil samples of phenols, nitrobenzene, anisole (a lot in all of the samples), 3 isomers of dichlorobenzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). All of these soil substances were mutagenic and carcinogenic in the test system. In the soil samples, alkylbenzenes (especially hexylbenzenes, in all of the samples), alkanes, PAHs, biphenyls, thiophene derivatives, phthalates, and parabens were found. The authors thank Prof. A.T. Lebedev and his co-workers for help in determining the concentrations of the organic xenobiotics in the samples. The collection of the samples in Mali was supported by a UNESCO program.

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DECOLOURIZATION STUDIES ON TEXTILE WASTEWATER BY THE HELP OF FUNGI Phanerochaete chrysosporium – AN ECO SAVING STUDY A. Kumar, A. Singh [Amrendar Kumar, Abhilasha Singh]
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow, India; Presenting Author: Amrendar Kumar; Address: 4/24, Virat khand, Gomtinagar, Lucknow-226010, U.P; amrendar2290@gmail.com; mobile no.: 09532395556;

In textile production, opportunities exist for the release into the ecosystem of potentially hazardous compounds at various stages of the operation. These pollutants are produced in an effort to improve human standard of living and fashion but ironically, their unplanned intrusion into the environment can reverse the same standard of living by impacting negatively on the environment. Enormous volumes of effluent are generated at different stages of textile manufacturing, as a result of the use of copious amounts of chemicals and dyes. Effluent derived from the textile and dyestuff activities can provoke serious environmental impact in the neighboring receptor water bodies because of the presence of toxic reactive dyes, chlorolignin residues and dark coloration. The discharge of these waste residues into the environment eventually poison, damage or affect one or more species in the environment, with resultant changes in the ecological balance. The biological breakdown of the chlorolignin residues and the chromophoric groups responsible for the dark coloration of the textile effluent can be accomplished by the use of enzymes from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The siderophores detected from the culture of the organism have been found useful in the decolourization and remediation of the effluent. P. chrysosporium RP78 can efficiently decolorize a wide range of textile azo dyes under optimized conditions; further studies on scaling up and using this fungus for treatment of textile waste water are suggested. This fungus can effectively solve the problem of the pollution of some important rivers in India such as Ganges, Yamuna etc. Nowadays, the textile effluents are dispatched into the rivers directly without treatment. We can change this situation in large scale by treating the waste water with the above mentioned fungi. We can all contribute towards making our country and this world pollution free and make it a better place to live. Keywords: Textile, Environment, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, azo dyes;

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INCREASED YIELD AND DNA POLYMORPHISM IN TREATED Brassica juncea (MUSTARD) CROPS T. M. Kumar, P. Shrikant [Trivedi Mahendra Kumar, Patil Shrikant*]
Affiliations: Trivedi Foundation, 4158 Cardinal Court, Northbrook, Illinois 60062, U.S.A.; *Corresponding author: shrikant@trivedifoundation.org

Liberal use of pesticides has led to development of resistance in many pest species. Further, the use of fertilizers and pesticides has caused concerns of environmental contamination. Increasing attention, therefore, is being given to means of reducing the reliance on chemicals in agriculture as these affect, the ecology and human health. To produce high yields, protect soil productivity, and maintain environmental ecology, farming must be based on an understanding of how the plants/seeds adapt/respond to external stimuli. In the present studies exposure of mustard ( Brassica juncea) seeds to an external energy (1--6)/ biofield. Treatment has successfully eradicated all the above-mentioned problems. The results indicated increase in yield up to 500% (in field trials) even when the plants were irrigated with water only and no pesticides, fungicides and fertilizers were used throughout the lifecycle of the crops. In lab, very significant increase noted in germination, seedling growth associated with increased level of auxin (IAA) in both root and shoot of seedlings of treated group was 13% and 16.60% respectively which suggested an early establishment of healthy plant. Absence of any type of disease (i.e. viral, fungal and insect) was noticed in treated group, which is supported by 206.71% increased level of glutathione in them. This treatment / findings are supported by DNA polymorphism observed in treated crops up to 26% as obtained from DNA fingerprinting by RAPD analysis. Similar results were also obtained for 38 other crops showing DNA polymorphism up to 69%.
References: 1. Materials Research Innovations, Volume 13, No.4, 2009, pp.473-480. 2. Metal Powder Report, Volume 63, Issue 9, 2008, Pages 22-28, 31. 3. Bulletin Of Materials Science, Volume 32, No. 5, 2009, pp. 471-479. 4. Journal of Accord Integrative Medicine, 2009, Volume 5, Number 2: 119-130. 5. Journal of Accord Integrative Medicine, Nov. 2008, Volume 4, Number 4: 230-235. 6. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine, Volume 6, Number 2.

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A RIVER-WIDE DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF AN IMPERILED BIVALVE, MARGARITIFERA MARGARITIFERA, IN THE EAST BRANCH SWIFT RIVER (MAY 2011) B. B. Laginhas [Brittany Borges Laginhas, B.A.] Clark University, U.S.A.; Brittany Laginhas blaginhas@clarku.edu; Chairperson: Dr. John Baker Unionids play a pivotal role in maintaining the health of freshwater ecosystems that is often overlooked. Benefits of freshwater mussels include improving water quality, strengthening the stability and functioning of ecosystems, enhancing habitat heterogeneity, and accelerating the migration of chemical elements (Ostroumov, 2005). In North American, 60% of unionids are endangered or declining, making this diverse fauna one of the most endangered groups in the world (Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1999). For most unionid populations, basic demographic information is either insufficient or nonexistent, yet it is critical for the creation of successful conservation and management strategies (Crabtree and Smith, 2009; Payne and Miller, 1989). I investigated a robust Margaritifera margaritifera population with regards to its demography and habitat preferences. Site-specific densities ranged from 0.33-97.2 m2. The presence of individuals in all age classes provided evidence for sustained recruitment over time. Recent recruits (<5 years) comprised 6% of all individuals sampled. However, a large proportion of the individuals sampled consisted of older individuals (>20 years), thereby indicating a potential lack in reproduction. Stable water chemistry values and a surrounding pristine riparian habitat suggest that the lack of reproduction might be due to other intrinsic factors, such as an inadequate abundance of host fish (Englund et al., 2008). Situated at the southern end of its geographic range, this population is characterized by short life spans reaching a maximum age of 43 years and high growth rates. Habitat preference occurred on multiple scales. Site-level surveys indicated that M. margaritifera preferred pebble substrate, but had no preference for flow type. At a patch scale, excavations revealed substratum selection by M. margaritifera based on an individual’s size. Small individuals avoided cobble substrate and medium and large individuals avoided cobble and pebble substrate. All size classes preferred sandy substrates. Knowledge of the demography and habitat preferences of M. margaritifera in the East Branch Swift River is important for developing management plans, as well as for measuring the success of threatened M. margaritifera populations in biogeographically similar stream systems. Grant Support: 2010-2011 Albert, Norma, and Howard Geller ’77 Endowed Research Awards for Projects Relating to Sustainability Literature Cited: 1. Crabtree, D. L. and T.A. Smith. 2009. Population attributes of an endangered mussel, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana (Northern Riffleshell), in French Creek and implications for its recovery. Northeastern Naturalist, 16(3): 339 - 354. 2. Englund, D., Brunberg, A. and G. Jacks. 2008. A case study of a freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) population in central Sweden. Geogr. Ann., 90 A (4): 251-258. 3. Payne, B.S. and A.C. Miller. 1989. Growth and survival of recent recruits to a population of Fusconaia ebena (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Lower Ohio River. American Midland Naturalist, 121: 99-104. 4. Ricciardi, A., and J.B. Rasmussen. 1999. Extinction rates of North American freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology (13): 1220-1222.

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5. Ostroumov, S.A. 2005. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. Hydrobiologia, 542: 275-286.

INNOVATION AND INTERDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION: THE DOCTOR OF NURSING PRACTICE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST N. Lipkin [Noelle Lipkin Lavesque]
University of Miami, U.S.A.; nclipkin@gmail.com

Abstract: The purpose of this poster is to propose a collaborative model of practice for healthcare utilizing the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) as the executive care coordinator. To date, nursing has not asserted an integrative leadership role in environmental health concerns. The DNP must coordinate efforts with environmental scientists, including public health professionals and epidemiologists, while also opening channels of communication with those in field studies and academia. Issues such as veterinary antibiotic use, fertilizer runoff, and air and water quality affect the health of our patients and the community, and nurses should have access to specific information regarding their own patient populations. In the role of Environmental Specialist, the DNP can collaborate with other members of the healthcare team to improve patient outcomes. To truly create an integrative model for healthcare, professionals must begin to view other members of the scientific community as potential contributors to patient care. Nurses are the “sentinels of surveillance”, and we can create symbiosis by more direct communication regarding health and illness trends in our communities. This poster also serves to introduce the role of the DNP to colleagues in the environmental sciences. The DNP is an advanced practice nurse with education in global health systems, healthcare financing and reimbursement, policy, research and statistics, ethics, public health, and health disparities. Many DNP graduates serve as clinical liaisons for corporations, C-suite executives, educators, and consultants in governmental and private sector positions. The DNP possesses skills to translate evidence to practice for healthcare organizations and communities. Noelle Lipkin, FNP, APRN-BC Gulf Coast Practitioner Services, LLC 779 Medical Drive, Ste 1 Englewood Fl 34223 941.266.7773

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NONINVASIVE IMAGING OF THE SKELETON UNDER ORAL INGESTION OF Q-DOTS T. K. Mandal, N. Parvin, and M. Saha [Tapas K. Mandal, Nargish Parvin, and Mitali Saha]
Department of Chemistry, NIT, Agartala, Tripura - 799055 India; Corresponding address: Tapas Kumar Mandal; Department of Chemistry; NIT Agartala -799055; E-mail: tps.mndl@gmail.com;

Water soluble fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are powerful multipurpose interfaces of nanotechnology providing long-term and multicolor imaging of cellular and molecular interactions. The application of QDs in living organisms is just beginning to be explored, and zebra fish embryos may be suitable vertebrate model organisms for intravital imaging with CQDs. The ability of multi color fluorescence imaging with water soluble quantum dots in organisms and biological tissues has been explored using Zebra fishes (Danio rerio). Ex vivo emission imaging has made detailed study of a biological species by optical spectroscopy. However, the organic fluorophore or fluorescent protein used in this image process normally bleached within short time. It is challenging to image the life cycle of an organism. The Zebra fishe is one of the most valuable organisms in genetic and developmental biology studies. To investigate their potential in research, we used CQDs as bioimaging contrast agents and attempted to visualize the skeleton system in zebra fish. We also attempted to find the pathway relationship between the skeleton system and the nerve network by using QDs in the wild zebra fish line. Water soluble carbon Quantum Dot (CQDs), which reveals multi color under the fluorescent microscope, was used as a micro angiography contrast agent (1). The wild zebra fish line, which expresses chest bone in multi color with CQDs. Images of CQD treated adult fishes were recorded with a digital camera. 2 Therefore we show all the in vivo images of various internal organs through out the developmental phases of zebra fishes using a new fluorescent material like water soluble carbon quantum dots (wscqdt). We successfully acquire in vivo images of the developing egg and larval stages till the adult hood by using the optimum doses of CQDs. The whole-body imaging by CQDs in real time means that the efficacy of therapeutic treatments can be seen directly without the need for any invasive procedure. Thus CQDs could easily be used as a bright bio imaging agent in living animals.
Reference: 1. Son S.W., Kim J.H, Kim S.H, Kim H, Chung A.Y., Choo J.B., Oh C.H, Park H.C. Intravital imaging in zebra fish using quantum dots. Skin Res Technol. (2009); 5(2):157-60.

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SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SURFACE WATER, SEDIMENT AND BIOTA IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY, SOUTH EAST COAST OF INDIA P. Mini a, V. V. Giridhar b, and N. Munuswamyc
a Newark Public Schools, South Region, Office of Science Education, Newark, NJ, U.S.A.; [email: mini_jayaprakash@hotmail.com]; b Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, India; c Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai – 600 025, India;

Seasonal distribution of trace metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and Ni) in surface water, sediments and biota (Mugil cephalus, Crassostrea madrasensis, Scylla serrata, Penaeus indicus) were investigated in different stations in a tropical estuary, southeast coast of India from December 1998 to November 1999. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and Ni in surface water were 1.12 ?g/L, 3.15 ?g/L, 53.79 ?g/L, 3.2 ?g/L, 96.07 ?g/L and 1.96 ?g/L respectively. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and Ni in sediments were 3.6 ?g/g, 60.88 ?g/g, 109.83 ?g/g, 30.44 ?g/g, 35381 ?g/g, and 50.13?g/g respectively. Cadmium concentrations in the M. cephalus, C. madrasensis, S. serrata, P. indicus, varied from 0.02 to 1.17 ?g/g, 0.68 to 7.1 ?g/g , 0.18 to 1.62 ? g/g, 0.05 to 4.49 ?g/g respectively, while copper concentrations varied from 0.27 to 52.6 ?g/g, 24.98 to 284.9 ?g/g, 7.03 to 288.4 ?g/g. Zinc concentrations in the M. cephalus, C. madrasensis, S. serrata, P. indicus , varied from 28.96 to 269.55 ?g/g, 2339. 6 to 31242.5 7.1 ?g/g, 0.18 to 1.62 ?g/g, 0.68 to 5311.2 ?g/g, while the Pb concentrations varied from BDL to 58.8 ?g/g, BDL to 24.7 ?g/g, BDL to 74.7 ?g/g, and BDL to 175.7 ?g/g respectively. Iron concentrations in the M. cephalus, C. madrasensis, S. serrata, P. indicus, varied from 48.12 to 1314.2 ?g/g, 138.2 to 2009.9 ?g/g, 334.09 to 5742.37 ?g/g, 18.7 to 2593.9 ?g/g, while the Ni concentrations varied from BDL to 31.4 ?g/g, 1.06 to 11.7 ?g/g, BDL to 30.9 ?g/g, and BDL to 99.2 ?g/g respectively. Seasonally, the maximum values of Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe and Zn in surface waters were measured in monsoon season (October – December), while the minimum values were observed in summer (Ni and Fe), post monsoon (Zn, Pb), premonsoon (Zn, Pb). Over the entire study area, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Ni in water clearly indicated that levels recorded were below the hazardous limits, while Cd, Zn and Fe were above the hazardous limits. Significant correlations exists between sediment concentrations of copper and zinc (r=+0.91, p<0.01); Pb and Ni (r=+0.72, p<0.01) and total organic carbon (r=+0.73, p<0.01) indicating the enrichment of these metals and adsorption and precipitation in the sediment. On comparison of the ratios obtained for the trace metals Cu, Cd and Ni at the four stations in Ennore estuary, it is clear that the stations were all contaminated and indicate levels hazardous to aquatic life. However, Zn showed ratios (> 1.00) only in the stations 2 and 3, while Pb ratios were (< 1.0) at all stations. The concentration of metals in P.indicus were in the order of Cu > Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd; in S.

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serrata were in the order of Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni>Pb>Cd; in C.madrasensis were in the order of Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cd; in M.cephalus were in the order of Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd. The measured trace metal concentrations in surface water, sediments and biota were compared with the certified values of metals and it clearly indicate that the concentration of these trace metals were showed increasing trend when compared to earlier studies. Therefore, the present study points out the need of continuous monitoring programme to minimize the pollution levels in the estuarine system. Key Words: Estuary, seasonal variations, trace metal, surface water, sediments, biota, pollution
References Mini, P. (2001). Studies on hydrobiological characteristics of Ennore estuary, Chennai India with reference to trace metals and plankton population. A Ph.D. thesis, University of Madras, 148 p. Grant Support The authors sincerely acknowledges the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi for the financial assistance part of the CSIR-SRF program and to Coastal Ocean Monitoring And Prediction Systems (COMAPS) Program of Department of Ocean Development (DOD) for providing the necessary facilities through CECRI Madras unit.

EFFECT OF Tricoderma viride ON ROOT ESTABLISHMENT AND GROWTH OF TISSUE CULTURED PAPAYA PLANTS IN DIFFERENT CARRIER SUBSTRATES M. Mishra, N. Shukla, S. Hasan, A. Tiwari, S. Srivastava, S. Gupta, Swati, and V. B. Singh [Dr. Manish Mishra, Dr. Neelam Shukla, Dr. Saba Hasan, Anoop Tiwari, Srishti Srivastava, Supriya Gupta, Swati, and Veer Bahadur Singh] Trichoderma viride (Phylum Ascomycota, Class Sordariomycetes), is a potent Bio-fungicide. It is used for root enhancement, seed and soil treatment for suppression of various diseases caused by fungal pathogens. Papaya (Carica papaya) is grown commercially in many tropical and subtropical regions. Papaya holds a lot of medicinal importance. Tricoderma viride colonize the root epidermis and outer cortical layers and release bioactive molecules that cause walling off of the Trichoderma thallus. At the same time, the transcriptome and the proteome of plants are substantially altered which results in increased plant growth and nutrient uptake. The carrier substrate vermiculite was tried for acclimatization of tissue cultured papaya plantlets. All substrate were autoclaved and then mixed with fresh culture of Tricoderma viride under aseptic condition. This mixture was further supplemented with MS salt nutrient. Rooted plantlets

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of similar height (3 cm) were shifted on all the three substrates and kept in shade. Data was recorded periodically. The maximum length of roots was observed in cocopeat (33.6 cm) followed by vermiculite (29.13 cm). It is also clear from the data that maximum number of primary roots (mean 4.3), length of primary roots (21.1 cm) and width of primary roots (diameter 0.5 cm) was found in this treatment. Fresh weight (2.85 g) and dry weight (0.30 g) of root was also highest in this treatment.

FLORISTIC DIVERSITY AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHY ON THE CORALLINE ISLANDS OF THE FARSAN ARCHIPELAGO, RED SEA, SAUDI ARABIA K. Al Mutairi , M. El-Bana, M.Mansour [Khalid Al Mutairi , Magdy El-Bana, Mashhor Mansour]
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia

Astract: The coral islands of the Red Sea are regarded as having a high national and international conservation value because of the diversity of marine and terrestrial habitats. However, urban development, pollution and increasing pressures of commercial and recreational use of resources pose serious threats to the biodiversity of these habitats. In the present study, the flora of twenty two coral islands of Farsan was surveyed and classified in terms of life form spectrum and phytogeography. A total of 191 flowering plants that belong to 53 families and 129 genera. The most species-rich families were Poaceae (14.4%), followed by Convolvulaceae (6.9%), Fabaceae (6.3%), and Capparaceae (5.9%). The life forms ranged from climbers to phanerophytes with the dominance of therophytes (36.7%). Geophytes and chamaephytes dominate the saline habitats, while climbers, therophytes and hemicryptophytes dominated the sandy formations and rocky plains. The results of this study indicated that the flora of the study area has a transitional character where the Saharo-Arabian Desert, Sudanian and Tropical vegetation exchange. References 1 Alfarhan, A.; Al Turki, T.A.; Thomas, J.; and Basahy, R.A. (2002). Annotated list of Farasan Archipelago, Southern Red Sea. - Taeckholmia 22: 1-33. 2 Chaudary, S. A. (1999-2001). Flora of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh, Vol.1-2. 3 Collenette, S. 1999. Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh: National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development. xxxii, 799 p.

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ROLE OF WATER IN FREE RADICAL PROCESSES IN AN ORGANISM Cyril N. Novikov1*, Vladimir L.Voeikov2, Svetlana I. Malyshenko2, Natalia D. Vilenskaya2, Ekaterina V. Buravleva2
1 Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Biomembranes, 2 Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, h.1, b.12, 119991, Moscow, Russian Federation;

The role of water in production, transformation and use of energy for realization of processes of vital activity is considered. Recently it has been established, that water serves one of the main sources of the most valuable energy - energy of electronic excitation which is produced in reactions with participation of reactive oxygen species and other free radicals. Water associations, formed, mainly, on interface of liquid and other phases (solid, gaseous), transform energy of low density to energy of the high density equivalent to energy of photons. Besides it, in the organized water singlet oxygen can directly oxidize water that is accompanied by generation of energy of high density. This energy can be directly used for performance of various kinds of chemical and physical work, serve as "fuse" for initiation of other processes delivering energy, and also may be accumulated, "develop" in water systems and migrate on them without dissipation on macroscopical distances. Processes of slow (low-intensive) combustion of water and combustion in water are characteristic of ability to selforganizing in time and the space, expressed in development of oscillatorywave modes. Owing to it they can act as in a role of pacemakers for other biochemical processes interfaced to them, and serve as sensitive aerials for external stimuluses of the oscillatory-wave nature. These properties are inherent in artesian waters and essential to their biological activity. We used methods of single photons detection for the analysis of properties of artesian and other kinds of waters, and also model carbonate solutions in which oxidizing processes develop. It is established, that in many artesian waters at contact to oxygen of air process of autooxidation of water spontaneously develops at which, at least, the part of released energy does not dissipate, and can accumulate in water and be released in the form of radiation or be used for performance of chemical work. It is obtained, that oxidation-reduction processes with participation of the oxygen dissolved in water are catalyzed by components of many buffer solutions widely widespread in a biochemical practice - carbonates, phosphates and others. The possible role of such processes for an estimation of quality of spring natural water and in its participation in processes of vital activity is considered. * Corresponding author: e-mail: kirniknov@yandex.ru; phone, fax: +7 (495) 939 12 68

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INNOVATIVE APPROACH AND TECHNOLOGY FOR RAPID ABIOTIC REMEDIATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES CONTAMINATED SOILS. TOPIC: ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION V. Nzengung [Valentine Nzengung, Ph.D.]
PLANTECO Environmental Consultants, LLC; 337 South Milledge Avenue, Suite 202; Athens, GA 30602; U.S.A. Main Office: (706) 316-3525, Mobile: (706) 202-4296; vnzengun@planteco.com; E-mail:

PLANTECO and the University of Georgia have developed MuniRem®, a rapid in-situ and ex-situ approach for rapid neutralization and complete degradation of explosives in soils and groundwater. MuniRem® consists of selected bulk reductants that, when mixed with water in the presence of mineral surfaces generate free radicals that react very rapidly to completely degrade oxidized organic compounds, such as nitroaromatics and chlorinated solvents. Sulfide species generated during the reaction precipitate metals as the metal sulfides. Thus, degradation of oxidized organics is coupled with the precipitation/immobilization of metals. Initially, site soils and site geochemistry are evaluated, and the chemical reagent mixture is formulated to match the site conditions. For in situ applications, chemical reagents are either tilled into shallow soils or injected to depth using a Geoprobe?. The very short cleanup time and closeout associated with this technology eliminates the O&M costs associated with other remediation technologies. MuniRem® was applied at the Ravenna Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP) in Ohio to remediate high concentrations (>20%) of explosives in soil. The primary explosives of concern (and associated baseline levels of contamination) were TNT, RDX and HMX. Multi-increment sampling (MIS) was adopted to monitor site cleanup. Discrete sampling was utilized at target hot spots with visible evidence of explosive compounds on the soil surface; the average concentrations of primary explosive compounds were TNT (3,347 mg/kg), RDX (5,977 mg/kg), and HMX (640 mg/kg). Other explosive compounds (1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene) were detected in the soils at much lower concentrations. Following installation of MuniRem® MIS and discrete samples were collected after 24 h and two weeks to assess the effectiveness of rapid in-situ remediation of explosives in the soils. Although MIS and discrete sampling confirmed the efficacy of MuniRem® to achieve response complete in 24 hours, the effectiveness of MuniRem® to instantly neutralize 10 – 20 percent explosives in the soils could only be inferred from the discrete soil samples collected from visible hot spots. We will discuss this and other applications of MuniRem to neutralize explosives instantly, improve explosives safety and achieve rapid soil and water remediation.

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THE ECOLOGICAL ORTHODONTIC OFFICE: DIGITAL VERSUS PAPER A. Ogodescu, I. Zetu, E. Ogodescu [Alexandru Ogodescu*, Irina Zetu**, Emilia Ogodescu*]
* Department of Paedodontics-Orthodontics; ** Department of Orthodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr.T.Popa” Iasi, ROMANIA; University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes” Timisoara; Bd. Revolutiei din 1989 nr.9 et.I, Timisoara; ROMANIA; ogodescu@yahoo.com; http://www.umft.ro;

Every day we are reminded to ‘recycle, reduce and reuse’, to focus on the conservation of the environment for preserving our planet and all of its resources for our children’s sake. This is not only an idealistic standard but one that should and can be applied in all professions. In orthodontics we recognize the importance and the impact of thinking to the environment. Recycling, saving water pollution and operating a paperless orthodontic office are things that we can do to minimize our ecological footprint. Orthodontics is a complex science that assumes a lot of analyses to be done to each patient before, during and after the treatment. All this models, radiographs, photographs and files occupy a huge space that grows each year and requires new storage spaces while the digital format is more easily archived and accessed. The biggest step toward a green orthodontic office was the introduction of the digital technology. We use today digital photographs, digital 3D radiographs, digital 3D models, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), digital diagnostic tools. Most of our communication with the referring doctors, the specialist that work with us in interdisciplinary teams, patients or parents is done by email. We speak today about digital orthodontic office. Today more and more orthodontists are aiming toward a paperless practice. We think that this paperless technology has a good impact on the environment. But are we able to use and apply all the developments of computer science in the everyday orthodontic practice, teaching or research? How safe are all this digital records? The protection of this data is very important so in parallel with the development of digital orthodontic tools and environment we must develop and apply good backup protocols for this crucial data. We always backup our data on NAS (Network-Attached Storage) devices. More and more of us in the interdisciplinary orthodontic treatment of adults and generally in orthodontics are using digital imaging technology and computerized treatment planning tools to help for better care and communication. The digital radiography with no need for chemical processing, for films, for up keeping the processor and without the heavy metal waste stream the results from chemical processing has a significant positive influence on the environment. There is also an industry of reconditioning the brackets and the stainless steel orthodontic attachments and many orthodontists are using this. This new digital, ecological paradigm will propel well the orthodontic treatment and office in the future. Each specialist in orthodontics and in other specialties from dental medicine should have good knowledge in bioinformatics and should be trained to

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use these new digital devices in order to provide better medical care for complex cases and to have constantly an ecological responsibility.
References: [1] Alexandru Ogodescu, Cosmin Sinescu, Emilia Ogodescu, Meda Negrutiu, Elisabeta Bratu, The Digital Decade in Interdisciplinary Orthodontics, Selected Topics in Applied Computing, WSEAS Press, 2010, pp.115-118 [2] Alexandru Ogodescu, Cosmin Sinescu, Emilia Ogodescu, Meda Negrutiu, Roxana Rominu, Elisabeta Bratu, Computer Science in the Orthodontic Treatment of Adult Patients, Advances in Communications, Systems, Circuits and Devices, WSEAS Press, 2010, pp.15-19 [3] Alexandru Ogodescu, Cosmin Sinescu, Emilia Ogodescu, Meda Negrutiu, Elisabeta Bratu, Digital Tools in the Interdisciplinary Treatment of Adult Patients, International Journal of Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Issue 4, Volume 4, 2010, pp.97-105 [4] Emilia Ogodescu, Alexandru Ogodescu, Cosmin Sinescu, Kinga Szabo, Elisabeta Bratu, Biology of Dentofacial Growth and Development: Updating Standards using Digital Imaging Technologies, Advances in Biology, Bioengineering and Environment, WSEAS Press, 2010, pp.245-250.

NONINVASIVE TECHNIQUES IN THE ASSESSMENT DENTOFACIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT E. Ogodescu, A. Ogodescu [Emilia Ogodescu, Alexandru Ogodescu]

OF

Department of Paedodontics-Orthodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes” Timisoara, Bd. Revolutiei din 1989 nr.9 et.I, Timisoara, ROMANIA; emi1aug@yahoo.com; http://www.umft.ro;

Having implications in medical fields as pediatric medicine and dentistry, orthodontics, maxillofacial surgery, forensic medicine and anthropology, the assessment of dentofacial growth is of great importance in the daily practice and in the large surveys which help us to understand it and to have up-to-date standard values for its evaluation. Taking in account the bioethical considerations, we can assess growth at every age without paying the prize of exposure to radiation of young patients. It is usually important to investigate the timing and sequence of primary and permanent teeth eruption, dental age, the dimensions of human teeth, the development of dental occlusion, parameters that characterize dental arch development and dimensional changes of the face that occur during growth, on present population. The noninvasive techniques that can be used are: clinical examination, sequential intraoral photography, anthropometry, sequential digital models and standardized digital photography. Actual computer science and modern imaging technologies facilitates the understanding and characterization of the dentofacial growth and creation of databases for educational and research purposes. Anthropometry is threedimensional and soft-tissues are included in the evaluation, but it is time consuming and we have not the possibility to control later the acquired data. Digital facial photography is bi-dimensional, less-time consuming and can be reevaluated later each time it is needed. In order to have precise photographic measurements the photographic technique has to be standardized. Facial changes as a result of growth can be demonstrated by comparing photographs taken at

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different stages. In our study we used a digital camera (Nikon D80) and dedicated software for analyze (OnixCeph3TM). Frontal and lateral photographs were taken by the same examiner, in natural head position. The distance to the subject and the focal length of the camera was standardized. We used a cartoon, where we draw two points at 5 cm distance from each other. We place the cartoon parallel to the wall (in the plane of the cheek, for frontal view photographs and in the midline plane, for lateral photographs). We also used the same cartoon for placing the head so that the Frankfurt horizontal plane is parallel to the floor. We could measure different facial diameters and proportions between them and we could do different analysis as Symmetry analysis and Profile analysis. Comparing photographic measurements using this technique with anthropometric measurements of the same face we obtained similar values. Standardized facial photography (from frontal and lateral view) and some simple anthropometric measurements could be used for every patient, when we want to evaluate his/her growth (natural or during orthodontic treatment) and soft tissue proportions, as well. Clinical findings are not enough in order to have the possibility to control the assessed data, to have good research proofs and a database for future research. Sequential intraoral photographs and sequential digital models in the most dynamic sub-periods are tools needed to accompany clinical findings in each eruption and dental age research or patient evaluation. The introduction of digital models has provided the orthodontist with a viable alternative to plaster models with the added advantages of electronic storage of data, minimal storage space required, simple and accurate cataloguing and a rapid transmission of records for consultation. We can use these benefits when we perform our surveys, in order to determine the dimensional mean values and standard deviations for primary and permanent teeth, elaboration of prediction equations and tables for Romanian population (useful in the mixed dentition space analysis), tooth size discrepancies among Romanian children and for determining the variation that occurs in dental arches during development. We scanned the models using a three-dimensional scanner (Activity 101, Firma Smart Optics Sensortechnik GmbH, Germany) and we did the measurements using OnyxCeph3TM software.
References: [1] Alexandru Ogodescu, Cosmin Sinescu, Emilia Ogodescu, Meda Negrutiu, Elisabeta Bratu, The Digital Decade in Interdisciplinary Orthodontics, Selected Topics in Applied Computing, WSEAS Press, 2010, pp.115-118. [2] Ogodescu Emilia, Szabo Kinga, Ogodescu Alexandru, Elisabeta Bratu, Growth of the Face: Importance and assessment methods, International Congress of dental medicine for students and young doctors, Abstract Book Den Tim 2010, p.47, ISBN 978-973-0-08325-5. [3] Ogodescu Emilia, Szabo Kinga, Ogodescu Alexandru, Elisabeta Bratu, Photographic and anthropometric facial analysis at 4 years of age, Timisoara Medical Journal, Vol. 60, Suppl. 1, 2010, p. 71, ISSN 1583-5251. [4] Emilia Ogodescu, Alexandru Ogodescu, Cosmin Sinescu, Kinga Szabo, Elisabeta Bratu, Biology of Dentofacial Growth and Development: Updating Standards using Digital Imaging Technologies, Advances in Biology, Bioengineering and Environment, WSEAS Press, 2010, pp.245-250.

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Ecology and biogeochemistry of detoxification of hazardous substances in the biosphere: a new concept of ‘ex-living matter’ (ELM)
S.A. Ostroumov
Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation; ar55[at]yandex.ru

Biogeochemistry of components of the biosphere and ecosystems was a subject of many publications [1-3]. In order to understand the natural processes of detoxification of toxic elements and substances, it is worthwhile to consider the main challenges to the current conceptualization of the types of matter in the biosphere. To meet and respond to the challenges, the author suggested a new conceptualization which is based on his suggestion to identify a third type of matter in the biosphere and environment. The author gave the third type of matter the name ‘ex-living matter’ (ELM). The author analyzed the relevant literature and his experiments (carried out together with his co-authors). This analysis as well as other data available in literature provided a solid factual foundation to this conceptualization. The main functions of ELM in the biosphere were also formulated and considered by the author. According to the author’s opinion, these functions include binding and immobilization of toxic chemical elements from the environment. After the immobilization they become less mobile and less active as a potential toxic hazard to living organisms. By providing sites for binding and immobilization, ELM contributes to detoxification of the chemical elements and possibly other chemical components in the biosphere and environment. A more detailed presentation of the new concepts formulated by the author was published in [4-9]. Some alternatives and variants in verbal expression to be used as a name for the new type of matter were also included in these publications [4-9].

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KEY WORDS: toxic substances, detoxification of toxic wastes, biosphere, environment, ecology, living matter, types of matter, ex-living matter, heavy metals, environmental toxicology
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1. Vernadsky V.I. Problems of biogeochemistry. The fundamental matter-energy difference between the living and inert natural bodies of the biosphere // Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci. 1944. 35: 483-517. 2. Ermakov V.V. Technogenesis and biogeochemical evolution of the biospheric taxons. - М: Наука. - 2003. - 351 p. 3. Ostroumov S. A., Kolesov G. M. The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems. // Contemporary Problems of Ecology. 2010. Vol.3 (4). P. 369373. Full text online see: http://ru.scribd.com/doc/114001532; http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/40349852 4. Ostroumov S.A. Role of organisms in the regulation of migration of chemical elements and transfer of matter in ecosystems [ Rol' organizmov v reguljacii migracii himicheskih elementov i peremeshhenij veshhestva v ekosistemah] // Ekologija promyshlennogo proizvodstva. 2010. No. 3. P. 26-31. 5. Ostroumov S.A. New typology of matter and the role of ex-living matter (ELM) [Novaja tipologija veshhestva i rol' ex-living matter (ELM) v biosphere] // Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions. 2010. Vol.16. P. 62-65. 6. Ostroumov S.A. Some issues of chemico-biotic interactions and new contribution to the science of the biosphere [Nekotorye voprosy himiko-bioticheskih vzaimodejstvij i novoe v uchenii o biosphere] // Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions. Vol. 17. M.: MAKS Press, 2011. 20 p. 7. Ostroumov S.A. Fundamental issues of ecology of detoxification of toxic elements in the biosphere and improvement of ecological monitoring [Fundamental'nye voprosy ekologii obezvrezhivanija toksichnyh elementov v biosfere i uluchshenija ekologicheskogo monitoring] // Ekologija i promyshlennost' Rossii. 2011. No. 11 (Nojabr'), p.24-27. 8. Ostroumov S.A. Detoxification of toxic elements in the biosphere and improvement of ecological monitoring [Obezvrezhivanie toksichnyh elementov v biosfere i sovershenstvovanie ekologicheskogo monitoring] // Ekologija promyshlennogo proizvodstva. 2012. No. 1. P. 26-33. 9. Ostroumov S.A. Living matter and the role of detritus in biogenic migration of microelements [Живое вещество и роль детрита в биогенной миграции микроэлементов] In: Innovative Aspects of Biogeochemistry. Moscow, GEOKHI. 2012.

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S.A. Ostroumov, Monique E.Johnson, J.F.Tyson, B.Xing Myriophyllum aquaticum mortmass immobilizes palladium, scandium, titanium, zirconium, uranium, and other chemical elements that entered aquatic medium in soluble or nanoparticulate form.
1 2

Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation; ar55 [at] yandex.ru University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, U.S.A.

The previous studies discovered new facts on interactions of chemical elements with organisms or samples of biogenic matter [1-27], which helps to get a better understanding of issues of the biosphere and environment [1-4, 7-10, 19]. The goal of the experiments that are being reported in this publication is to check the hypothesis that the mortmass of aquatic macrophytes can immobilize some chemical elements including palladium, scandium, titanium, zirconium, uranium, and others. Methods. The incubation of the samples of the mortmass of Myriophyllum aquaticum was conducted in aquatic systems of 1- liter volume. The water purification system Barnstead, Nanopure Ultrapure Water System was used to prepare water. Water characteristics : 18 MΩ ∙ cm. After the addition of the chemical elements to the aquatic medium, the following concentrations were created in the experimental systems: palladium 0.5 mg / L, scandium 0.5 mg / L, titanium, zirconium, 1 mg / l. The nanoparticles of titanium oxide (TiO2) were added at a concentration of 20 mg / l. The following reagents were used in the experiments and measurements: Standard solution of palladium: Plasma Emission Standard, Spectrum ®; 999.2 ppm (999.2 mg in 1 ml) in 20% HCl. ManufacturerSpectrum Chemical Mfg Corp., Garden, CA 90248, USA. Standard solution of scandium: Plasma Emission Standard, Spectrum ®; 1000.2 ppm (1000.2 mg in 1 ml) in 5% nitric acid. Spectrum Chemical Mfg Corp., USA.

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Standard solution of zirconium: 1000 ppm (1000 mg in 1 mL), 10% HCl. Spex Industries, Inc.; Edison, NJ 08820, USA. Similarly standard solutions of other chemicals were used. Nanoparticles TiO2: diameter 50 nm, surface area 325 m 2 / g. Manufacturer - Zhejiang Hongsheng Material Technology Co., China. Incubation period at 20 ° C was 24 h. The measurements were conducted using ICP-OES. Results. As a result of these experiments, the following data were obtained. After incubation, the concentration of the studied elements in the mortmass of Myriophyllum aquaticum increased, as it is seen from the data shown in Table 1. Таблица 1. Increase in concentration of the chemical elements in the samples of the Myriophyllum aquaticum mortmass after the incubation as a result of immobilization of chemical elements by mortmass of macrophyte M. aquaticum. Note: St. Dev. - standard deviation.
Elements In the sample of the mortmass, Control after addition of the elements to sample of the aquatic medium and mortmass, incubation, average St. Dev. average St. Dev. Ce cerium, microg/kg Eu europium, microg/kg In indium, microg/kg Pd palladium, microg/kg Ru ruthenium, microg/kg Sc Scandium Below 24.37 detection limit Below 18.95 detection limit Below 5.97 detection limit

60.00

-

51.46

-

19.59

-

9.59

1.09

1.89

1.27

5.60 18.85

Below 2.05 detection limit 2.19 0.09 0.002

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microg/kg Se Selenium, microg/kg Ti Titanium, mg/kg U uranium, microg/kg Zr, Zirconium, mg/kg

12.56 59.11

Below 7.94 detection limit 33.98 0.11

0.03

22.67 15.48

Below 6.02 detection limit 9.01 0.19

0.15

After incubation in an aqueous medium containing a palladium, the content of the element in the sample of the mortmass Myriophyllum aquaticum increased by a factor of 5 and was 9,59 ± 1,09 microg / kg. After incubation in an aqueous medium containing scandium, its content in the mortmass Myriophyllum aquaticum increased by a factor of ca. 200 and was 18,85 ± 2,19 microg / kg. Concentration of titanium increased by a factor of more than 500 and was 59,11 ± 33.98 mg/ kg. Some increase in concentrations of other elements was also found. After the incubation, the concentrations of the following elements in the Myriophyllum aquaticum mortmass increased: cerium (Ce ), europium (Eu), indium (In), ruthenium (Ru), selenium (Se) and uranium (U). The new data added substantial factual information that supported the theory of water self-purification presented in the series of publications [6-10, 18-25]. The new data on behavior of nanoparticles are of additional interest as many new facts on toxicity of the nanoparticles were discovered (e.g., [28, 30]) and nanomaterials may become another type of environmental pollutants.
The work was supported by a grant of Fulbright Foundation. References.

1.

Vernadskij V.I. Biosfera. Moscow. Publishers Izd. dom Noosfera, 2001. 244 p.

2. Dobrovol'skij G.V. K 80-letiju vyhoda v svet knigi V.I. Vernadskogo “Biosfera”. Razvitie nekotoryh vazhnyh razdelov uchenija o biosfere. // Ekologicheskaja himija. 2007. V.16(3). P. 135–143.

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3. Ermakov V.V. O knige «Gidrobionty v samoochishhenii vod i biogennoj migracii elementov» // Voda: himija i ekologija. 2009. No. 8. p. 25-29. 4. Ermakov V.V., Tjutikov S.F. Geohimicheskaja ekologija zhivotnyh. M.: Nauka Press, 2008. 315 p. 5. Moiseenko T.I. Vodnaja ekotoksikologija: teoreticheskie i prikladnye aspekty. 2009. M.: Nauka. 400 p. 6. Ostroumov S.A. O bioticheskom samoochishhenii vodnyh ekosistem. Elementy teorii // Doklady akademii nauk. 2004. V. 396. No. 1. P.136-141. 7. Ostroumov S.A. Rol' organizmov v reguljacii migracii himicheskih elementov i peremeshhenij veshhestva v ekosistemah // Ekologija promyshlennogo proizvodstva. 2010. No. 3. P. 26-31. 8. Ostroumov S.A. Novaja tipologija veshhestva i rol' ex-living matter (ELM) v biosfere [New typology of matter and the role of ex-living matter (ELM)] // Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions. 2010. Vol.16. P. 62-65. 9. Ostroumov S.A. Nekotorye voprosy himiko-bioticheskih vzaimodejstvij i novoe v uchenii o biosfere // Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions. Vol. 17. M.: MAKS Press, 2011. 20 p. 10. Ostroumov S.A. Obezvrezhivanie toksichnyh elementov v biosfere i sovershenstvovanie ekologicheskogo monitoringa // Ekologija promyshlennogo proizvodstva. 2012. No. 1. P. 26-33. 11. Ostroumov S.A., Demina L.L. Ekologicheskaja biogeohimija i elementy (mysh'jak, kobal't, zhelezo, marganec, cink, med', kadmij, hrom) v cistozire i biogennom detrite v morskoj model'noj ekosisteme: opredelenie metodom atomnoabsorbcionnoj spektrometrii // Ekologicheskie sistemy i pribory. 2009. No. 9. P. 42-45. 12. Ostroumov S.A., Demina L.L. Tjazhelye metally (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr) v biogennom detrite mikrokosmov s vodnymi organizmami // Ekologija promyshlennogo proizvodstva. 2010. No. 2. P. 53-56. 13. Ceccantini G., Figueiredo A.M.G., Sondag F., Soubies F. Rare earth elements and titanium in plants, soils and groundwaters in the alkaline-ultramafic complex of Salitre, MG, Brazil // Contaminated Soils. 3rd international Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements. Paris (France). May 15-19, 1995; http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_7/b_fdi_5152/010015618.pdf 14. Ferrand E., Benedetti M. F., Leclerc-Cessac E., and Dumat C. Study of the mechanisms involved in the rhizosphere for the absorption of zirconium by vegetables // Difpolmine Conference. 12-14 December 2006. Le Corum – Montpellier, France. http://www.ademe.fr/difpolmine/Difpolmine_RapportFinal/communication/12_13_post ers-Corum/Difpolmine_Poster13_Dumat_proceeding.pdf 15. Ha N. T. H., Sakakibara M., Sano S., Nhuan M. T. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead–zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam // Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2011. Vol. 186. P. 1384–1391. http://tintuc.vnu.edu.vn/upload/scopus/0018.pdf

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16. Johnson M. E., Ostroumov S. A., Tyson J. F., and Xing B. Study of the interactions between Elodea canadensis and CuO nanoparticles // Russian Journal of General Chemistry. 2011. Volume 81. Number 13. P. 2688-2693, DOI: 10.1134/S107036321113010X 17. Kothny E.L. Palladium in plant ash. // Plant and Soil. 1979. Vol.53. P.547-550. 18. Ostroumov S.A. The functions of living substances in the biosphere. // Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2003. Vol.73 (2). P. 164-169. 19. Ostroumov S.A., Dodson S., Hamilton D., Peterson S., Wetzel R.G. Mediumterm and long-term priorities in ecological studies // Rivista di Biologia - Biology Forum. 2003. Vol.96. P. 327-332. 20. Ostroumov. S.A. Aquatic ecosystem as a bioreactor: water purification and some other functions // Rivista di Biologia - Biology Forum. 2004. Vol. 97(1). P. 67–78. 21. Ostroumov S.A. On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. // Russian Journal of Ecology. 2005. Vol.36 (6). P. 414-420. 22. Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. 2006. 304 p. 23. Ostroumov S. A. Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. // Contemporary Problems of Ecology. 2008. Vol. 1 (1). P. 147-152. 24. Ostroumov S. A. Biocontrol of water quality: Multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification // Russian Journal of General Chemistry. 2010. Vol. 80 (13). P. 2754-2761. 25. Ostroumov S. A. Studying the fate of pollutants in the environment: binding and immobilization of nanoparticles and chemical elements // Ecologica. 2011. Vol. 18. No. 62. P. 129-132. 26. Ostroumov S. A., Kolesov G. M. The aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum immobilizes Au nanoparticles after their addition to water. // Doklady Biological Sciences. 2010. Vol. 431. P. 124–127. 27. Ostroumov S. A., Kolesov G. M. The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems. // Contemporary Problems of Ecology. 2010. Vol.3 (4). P. 369-373. http://www.scribd.com/doc/75098592; http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/40349852 28. Ostroumov S. A., Xing B. Effects of three types of metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, CuO, Al2O3) on the seedlings of the higher plant Lens culinaris. // Ecologica. 2012. Vol. 19 (65). P.10-14. 29. Scandium. Chemical properties of scandium. Health effects of scandium. Environmental effects of scandium. http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/sc.htm 30. Suetina I. A., Podchernyaeva R. Ya., Gushina E.A., Lopatina O.A., Poklonov V.A., Ostroumov S.A. Using cell technologies to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles of metal oxides. // Pharmaceutical and Medical Biotechnology. Proceedings of the International scientific conference, March 20-22, 2012. Moscow. Moscow, JSC Expo-

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Biochem-Technologies, D.I.Mendeleev University of Chemistry and Technology. P. 135-136.

Using bioassay and cell technologies to assess nanomaterial toxicity in 4 species of macrophytes and 7 cell cultures of mammals (including humans) and birds Ostroumov S.A.1, Podchernyaeva R. Ya.2, Suetina I. A.2, Gushina E.A. 2, Lopatina O.A.2, Xing B.3
1

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Moscow, Russia; ar55 [at] yandex.ru; D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology of Minsotzdravrazvitia of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia;
3 2

University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA;

Environmental toxicology of nanomaterias is rapidly developing. It is necessary to get more data on potential hazards and behavior of nanomaterials in environment [1-3]. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possible toxicity of nanoparticles (NP) of metal oxides to biological objects. Experiments were conducted using a variety of biological tests. The tests included plants and mammalian (human) cells HeLa [3-5]. In experiments with aquatic macrophytes (Myriophyllum aquaticum, Ludwigia repens, Pistia stratiotes) effects of ZnO NP on the plant organisms were studied. The experiments discovered some phytotoxic effects of ZnO NP on the plant organisms of all three species. The phytotoxic effects of ZnO nanomaterial on all of the three plant species were found at concentrations of less than 1 mg/mL. Treatment of the germinating seeds of plants Lens culinaris with the aquatic suspensions of three types of the nanoparticles (NPs) (CuO, Al 2O3, TiO2 NPs at 0.5 mg/mL) led to some decrease in the average length of the seedlings as compared to the control values [6]. The most pronounced decrease in the average length of the seedlings – as compared to the control - was observed in case of the CuO NPs, the least pronounces decrease in the average length was found in case of the TiO2 NPs. These data, as well as the analysis using the Students’s t-test, showed that the three types of the

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NPs could be arranged in the following order of a decrease in their phytotoxicity: CuO > Al2O3 > TiO2. It was found that all three types of the NPs increased the variability of the length of the individual seedlings, as reflected by an increase in the coefficient of variation [6]. In another series of experiments, the effects of NP (Fe oxides, and Cu oxide) on the human cells HeLa were investigated. The nanomaterials tested with cell cultures were as following. Sample № 1 - CuO; Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA), <50 nm; Sample № 3 - Fe2O3 (alpha); Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials Inc. (Los Alamos, NM, USA), 20-50 nm, 50 m 2 g-1; Sample № 5 - Fe2O3; Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials Inc. (Los Alamos, NM, USA), 2050nm, 30 m2 g-1. To study the toxicity of nanoparticles and their effects on the proliferative activity of HeLa cells, we used the MTT method. The samples were put into the 96-well cell culture plates from Wink. 24 - hour monolayers of the cells HeLa were in the wells. The HeLa cells were in the 96 - well plates at a concentration of 200,000 cells / ml. Into each well, 100 ml of medium 199 with 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum; HyClone; Research Grade) was added. Then, the incubation was carried out for 24 hours in an incubator with CO2 at 37 º C. Before addition of the samples to the wells, the incubation medium was changed by adding 100 ml of 199 medium with 1% FBS to the wells. Prior to dilutions, the starting concentrations of the NP in the samples were: №1 и №5 - 2 mg/ml, №3 - 1 mg/ml. The study samples of NP were titrated in a dilution of 1 / 2, 1 / 4, 1 / 8, 1 / 16, 1 / 32, 1 / 64, 1 / 128, 1 / 256, 1 / 512, 1 / 1024. The samples (100 ml) were added into the wells, in duplicates. Cells were incubated with the samples of NP for 24 hours in an incubator with CO2 at 37 º C in 199 medium with 1% FBS. After that, the medium was removed from the wells. Then added to 100 ml of medium 199 with 20 ml of MTT (from Sigma, at the initial concentration of 5 mg / ml) was added. After that the cells were incubated with MTT for 4 hours. Then the medium with MTT was removed. Then 100 ml of dimethyl

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sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to dissolve the formazan which was reduced by the HeLa cells. The cell pellet was resuspended 5 minutes using a pipette. The optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 492 nm was measured using the photometer “Stat Fax 3200”. Based on the results of testing using the MTT test, rates of proliferation were calculated. In the control, the initial titration of H2O on the HeLa cells was carried out in parallel with the preparations. All three samples caused a decrease in proliferation rate at dilutions of ½ and ¼. Samples 1 and 3 reduced the rate of proliferation also at high dilutions, including the dilution 1 / 256. With all these sample dilutions, sample 1 reduced rate of proliferation more than the sample 3. Thus, sample 1 (CuO) showed the highest toxicity. Among the three samples of nanoparticles which were tested, sample No. 1 (copper oxide nanoparticles) demonstrated the most potent inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation. Sample No. 5. - Fe2O3, - was found to be the least toxic of the three samples. Sample 3 - Fe 2O3 (alpha), - occupied an intermediate position. Electron microscopy [4, 5] demonstrated some pathology in cell structures under the effect of NP of Fe2O3 (alpha); the NP entered the cell cytoplasm and vacuoles but not the nuclei. Similar results were found using other types of cell cultures, including the following: Table 1. Cell cultures that were tested with NP, in addition to HeLa.
Major taxa organism Abbreviation, in Cyrillic or Latin letters сhicken (embryo) primary trypsinized chick ФЭК (in Cyrillic) embryo fibroblast cells, lamb primary trypsinized lamb ТЯ (in Cyrillic) testicular cells Homo sapiens human embryo diploid ФЭЧ (in Cyrillic) (embryo) fibroblast cells African green monkey African green monkey Vero (B) kidney hamster Syrian hamster kidney BHK Homo sapiens human lung carcinoma A549 Cell type

birds mammals mammals mammals mammals mammals

The media for cultivation of these cells were as follows.

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Table 2. The media used for the cell cultures. FBS –fetal bovine serum
Cell type Abbreviation, Cyrillic Media or Latin letters primary trypsinized ФЭК (in Cyrillic) Medium 199 + 10% chick embryo fibroblast cells, primary trypsinized lamb ТЯ (in Cyrillic) With albumin hydrolysate, testicular cells J.H.Hanks solution human embryo diploid ФЭЧ (in Cyrillic) Eagle medium +10%FBS fibroblast cells African green monkey Vero (B) Eagle medium-MEM kidney +10%FBS Syrian hamster kidney BHK Eagle medium +10%FBS human lung carcinoma A549 Eagle medium-MEM +10%FBS

Details on the media and solutions that were used in cultivation of these sells are given in [7]. The new data demonstrated toxicity of the nanomaterials to all of the biological objects that were used in the experiments. The level of toxicity depended on the chemical nature of the nanoparticles, the most pronounced toxicity was found when CuO nanoparticles were tested.
Acknowledgements. A part of this research (with the tests that used higher plants) was supported by a grant from Fulbright Foundation to S.A.O. References. 1. Johnson M. E., S. A. Ostroumov, J. F. Tyson, and B. Xing. // Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2011. 81 (13): 2688-2693. 2. Ostroumov S.A., Podchernyaeva R. Ya., Suetina I. A., Lopatina O. A., Johnson M.E., Tyson J. F., Xing B. // The 2nd International School "Nanomaterials and nanotechnology in living systems. Safety and nanomedicine." (September 19-24, 2011). Moscow. P. 142. 3. Podchernyaeva R. Ya., Suetina I. A., Lopatina O. A., Ostroumov S.A. // The 2nd International School "Nanomaterials and nanotechnology in living systems. Safety and nanomedicine." (September 19-24, 2011). Moscow, p.186-187. 4. Gushina E.A., Suetina I. A., Lopatina O. A., Ostroumov S.A., Klimenko S.M., Podchernyaeva R. Ya. // High Technologies. Fundamental and Applied Studies in Physiology, Pharmacology, and Medicine. S.Petersburg, 2011. P.19-21. 5. Suetina I. A., Podchernyaeva R. Ya., Gushina E.A., Lopatina O.A., Poklonov V.A., Ostroumov S.A. Using cell technologies to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles of metal oxides. // Pharmaceutical and medical biotechnology. Proceedings of the International scientific conference, March 20-22, 2012. Moscow. Moscow, JSC Expo-Biochem Technologies, D.I.Mendeleev University of Chemistry and Technology, p. 135-136.

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6. Ostroumov S. A., Xing B. Effects of three types of metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO 2, CuO, Al2O3) on the seedlings of the higher plant Lens culinaris. - Ecologica (2012), v. 19 (65), p.10-14. 7. D'jakonov L.P. (redaktor). Zhivotnaja kletka v kul'ture (metody i primenenie v biotehnologii). Moskva. Izdatel'stvo Sputnik. 2009. 656 pages. [Дьяконов Л.П. (редактор). Животная клетка в культуре (методы и применение в биотехнологии). Москва: Издательство Спутник. 2009. 656 с.]

STUDYING CHEMICO-BIOTIC INTERACTIONS IN THE BIOSPHERE: POLLUTANTS INCLUDING MEMBRANOTROPIC AND GENOTOXIC XENOBIOTICS AS WELL AS NANOMATERIALS
Ostroumov S.A.*, Kotelevtsev S.V., Ermakov V.V., Glazer V.M., Gorshkova O.M., Jovanovic L., Kamnev A.N., Kolesov G.M., Lazareva E.V., Matorin D.N., Novikov K.N., McCutcheon S., Panin M.S., Poklonov V.A., Sadchikov A.P., Sheleikovsky V.L., Shestakova T.V., Shpigun O.A., Sizov A.D., Smurov A.V., Soldatov A.A., Solomonova E.A., Toderas I.K., Tropin, Zhbanov A.E., Zoubkov E.I.
M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lengory, Moscow 119991, Russia; Main Botanical Garden, Moscow, Russia; Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine; Institute of Zoology, Kishinev, Moldova; University ALFA, Palmira Toljatija 3, Belgrade, Serbia; University of Georgia, U.S.A. *Corresponding author: e-mail: ar55[at] yandex.ru

Studying the biological effects of pollutants and xenobiotics are important to develop applied ecology as well as to extend the scientific foundation of monitoring and remediation [1-18]. The goal of this study was to characterize the biological effects which some organic and inorganic xenobiotics (surfactants, detergents, heavy metals and some others) produce on organisms. Methodologies included a variety of methods, e.g.: bioassay, microcosms, detecting elements using instrumental methods. In the experiments with plants and bivalves, microcosms were used. As a result, a series of biological effects were found and measured. In a concentration-depended way, synthetic surfactants and the mix of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) produced sublethal and lethal effects on aquatic plants (macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton sp., and other species), and terrestrial plants (seedlings). The chemicals tested included membranotropic xenobiotics (synthetic surfactants and detergents) and other chemicals (heavy metals, and nanoparticles). Surfactants and heavy metals inhibited the filtration rate of marine bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and other filter-feeders. Nanoparticles of metal oxides and Au produced some negative effects on the

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aquatic plants tested in the experiments. Genotoxic activity of several xenobiotics was found using the Ames test with the bacteria Salmonella typhymurium. The new data confirmed the theory of multi-functional (polyfunctional) role of biotic community and aquatic biodiversity in removing pollutants from water and improving water quality, which contributed to a better understanding of chemico-biotic interactions, to scientific basis of pollution control, and to the new conceptualization of how the aquatic biota controls water quality [17] [S. A. Ostroumov. Biocontrol of water quality: multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification. - Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2010, 80 (13): 27542761]. A variety of pollutants were studied. Among them are many types of contaminants including: (1) membranotropic ones; (2) genotoxic pollutants; (3) nanoparticles. Recently, a new series of experiments was conducted with aquatic plants. New facts that are relevant to prospective application of aquatic plants to water medium phytoremediation were discovered. The species of aquatic plants that were studied in these experiments are as following: Elodea canadensis Mchk., Potamogeton crispus L., Najas guadelupensis L., Fontinalis antipyretica L., Salvinia natans L., Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Ceratophyllum demersum and some others. Some of the results were reported in a number of publications including [1, 2, 4-18]. The results were actively discussed and the conclusions of these publications were supported by other experts and scientists who are actively working in environmental science, ecology and hydrobiology (e.g., [19, 20]).
References: 1.Kotelevtsev S.V., Stepanova L.I., Glaser V.M. Biomonitoring of genotoxicity in coastal water. In: Biomonitoring of Coastal Waters and Estuaries. Kramer K.J.M., Ed., CRC Press, 1993, p. 234-298. 2.Kotelevtsev S.V. Pollutants dangerous for ecosystems. - Science in Russia, 2010, No. 3, p. 21-26. 3.Inozemtsev A.N., Bokieva S.B., Karpukhina O.V., Gumargalieva K.Z. Effects of combined treatment with heavy metals and piracetam on learning and memory in rats.Doklady Biological Sciences, 2008, V.442, № 5, p. 700-703. 4.Johnson Monique E., Ostroumov S.A., Tyson J.F., Xing B. Measuring the concentrations of elements including toxic metals in phytomass after incubation of aquatic macrophytes with nanoparticles of metal oxides // Fundamental and Innovative Aspects of Biogeochemistry. Materials VII Biogeochemical School. September 12 - 15, 2011 Moscow: V.I.Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2011. P. 66-69. 5. Johnson Monique E., Ostroumov S.A., Tyson J.F., Xing B. On the biogeochemistry and geochemical ecology of nanotechnology products: interactions of metal oxide nanoparticles with macrophytes and plant-derived materials // Problems of Biogeochemistry and Geochemical Ecology (Проблемы биогеохимии и геохимической экологии). 2011. № 17. P. 136-148. 6. Johnson Monique E., Ostroumov S.A., Tyson J.F., Xing B. Study of the interactions between Elodea canadensis and CuO nanoparticles // Russian Journal of General Chemistry. 2011. Vol. 81. № 13. p. 2688-2693.

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7. Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. // Hydrobiologia. 2002. Vol. 469. P. 117-129. 8. Ostroumov. S.A. Aquatic ecosystem as a bioreactor: water purification and some other functions. // Rivista di Biologia - Biology Forum. 2004. Vol. 97(1). P. 67–78. 9. Ostroumov S.A. On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems. // Russian Journal of Ecology. 2005. Vol.36 (6). P. 414-420. 10. Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. // Hydrobiologia. 2005. Vol.542. P. 275-286. 11. Ostroumov S.A., Widdows J. Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. // Hydrobiologia. 2006. Vol. 556. P. 381-386. 12. Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press. Taylor & Francis, 2006. 304 p. 13. Kotelevtzev S.V., Nagdaliev F.F., Sadchikov A.P. Bio-assay and bioindication at ecological analysis of the environment. Publishers: Alteks , Moscow, 2011, 174 p. 14. Kotelevtsev S.V., Matorin D.N., Sadchikov A.P. Ecological-Toxicological analysis of plant communities in aquatic ecosystems. Altex Press, Moscow. 2012. 182 p. 15. Novikov K.N., S.V. Kotelevtsev, Yu.P.Kozlov. The free-radical processes in biological systems under the influence of environmental factors. - Moscow: Publishing House of People's Friendship University, 2011. - 199 p. 16. Ostroumov S. A. Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. // Contemporary Problems of Ecology. 2008. Vol. 1 (1): 147-152. 17. Ostroumov S. A. Biocontrol of water quality: Multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification // Russian Journal of General Chemistry. 2010. Vol. 80 (13). P. 2754-2761. 18. Ostroumov S. A. Studying the fate of pollutants in the environment: binding and immobilization of nanoparticles and chemical elements // Ecologica. 2011. Vol. 18. No. 62. P. 129-132. 19. Zhirov V.K. O novyh issledovanijah vzaimodejstvija zagrjaznjajushhih veshhestv s makrofitami v svjazi s izucheniem ih fitoremediacionnogo potenciala // Voda: tehnologija i ekologija. 2009. No. 1. P. 72–74. [Жиров В.К. (член-корр. РАН) О новых исследованиях взаимодействия загрязняющих веществ с макрофитами в связи с изучением их фиторемедиационного потенциала // Вода: технология и экология. 2009. № 1. стр. 72–74]. 20. Abakumov V.A. New advances in remediation and restoration of polluted aquatic systems. – Problems of Biogeochemistry and Geochemical Ecology. 2007, No. 2 (4), 98-100.

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Results of interdisciplinary studies: ecology, environmental studies, hydrobiology: 17 elements of innovations.
Ostroumov S.A.
Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation;

In a series of publications [1-19], some new facts were discovered. As a result of critical analysis on the new facts, a better understanding of the following issues of ecology and environmental science was achieved. The innovative results are summarized in short form as follows. 1. Innovative conceptualization: how ecosystems improve water quality [3]. 2. Fundamentally new facts: hazardous biological and toxic effects of detergent [4-6]. 3. Inhibitory analysis: A new method to explore top-down control in ecosystems [7]. 4. A contribution to solution: the problem of criteria for environmental hazards [8, 9]. 5. A new contribution to solution: the problem of eutrophication [10]. 6. New measurements: a quantitative estimate: the role of pellets of mollusks [11]. 7. New facts, discovery: pollutants inhibit: fluxes (flows, transfers) of chemical elements [11]. 8. Biomachinery. A new fundamental concept. New scientific term proposed [12]. 9. Modernizing terminology. A new improved definition for the term ‘ecosystem’ [13]. 10. New key facts towards the scientific basis of innovative technology. New phytotechnology: water purification [14]. 11. Stability of the biosphere. How to prevent a destabilization of the biosphere [15]. 12. A new component of the mechanism of regulation of migration of elements and matter in the biosphere [16]. 13. A new type of serious environmental hazards: low-level (sublethal) chemical pollution [5]. 14. A new environmental hazard of pollution: damage to links between parts of ecosystems [17]. 15. How living organisms change the environment. Additional aspects [15]. 16. New fundamental concepts, terminology. Two-level synergism: man-made effects [18]. 17. A new anthropogenic factor: initiation, stimulation of algal blooms [7, 10].

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To facilitate further research, a short list of the most urgent topics in environmental science was prepared and published [19]. Some additional information on these issues is presented here [1, 2].
References. 1. 25 publications, Environmental science, with short comments, web-sites: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/25-publications-environmental-science.html 2. 63 publications. Water environmental science, ecology, comments, web-sites, links. http://5bio5.blogspot.ru/2013/01/landmark-publications-new-steps.html 3. Ostroumov S. A. Biocontrol of water quality: Multifunctional role of biota in water self-purification. - Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2010, 80 (13): 2754-2761. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/08/biocontrol-of-water-quality.html 4. Ostroumov S.A., Widdows J. Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. Hydrobiologia, 2006, Volume: 556, Pages: 381-386. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45958156 5. Ostroumov. S.A. Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves. - Hydrobiologia, 500: 341–344, 2003. http://www.scribd.com/doc/63898669 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k05884h730t228w4/ 6. Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. http://www.citeulike.org/user/ATP/article/9744280; http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1527248.Biolo_Eff_of_Surf; http://www.scribd.com/doc/46637373/; DOI: 10.1201/9781420021295.fmatt 7. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. – Hydrobiologia. 2002, vol. 469, p. 117-129; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1015559123646 8. Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. – Dokl. Biol. Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371: 204-206. ISSN PRINT: 0012-4966. ISSN ONLINE: 1608-3105. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/; www.scribd.com/doc/49088234; 9. Ostroumov S.A. Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. - Riv. Biol. (Rivista di Biologia) 2003, 96(1):159-169. http://www.scribd.com/doc/52636721/ PMID: 12852181 [PubMed – indexed; 10. The Synecological Approach to the Problem of Eutrophication. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v. 381, No. 1-6; pp. 559-562. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065550/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1013378505630; 11. Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. – Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381; Full text free: www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730; 12. Ostroumov S.A. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water selfpurification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory. -

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International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography. 2006. Volume 1, No.1. p.111-118. [ISSN 0973-2667]. http://sergostroumov.scienceblog.com/2012/05/04/80/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/44105992/; www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/100141.pdf; 13. Ostroumov S. A. New Definitions of the Concepts and Terms Ecosystem and Biogeocenosis. - Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002, Vol. 383, Issue 1-6, pp. 141-143. 14. Lazareva E. V.; Ostroumov S.A. Accelerated decrease in surfactant concentration in the water of a microcosm in the presence of plants: Innovations for phytotechnology. Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009, v.425, No.1; pp.180-182. In English: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60795487/ in Russian: www.scribd.com/doc/61655262 15. Searching approaches to solving the problem of global change: elements of the theory of the biotic-ecosystem mechanisms of the regulation and stabilization of the parameters of the biosphere, geochemical and geological environment. — Vestnik MGU (Bulletin of Moscow University). Series 16. Biology. 2005. No. 1. P. 24-33, in Russian. ISSN 0201-7385; ISSN 0137-0952; 16. Polyfunctional role of biota in migration of chemical elements and formation of the geochemical environment: towards development of the theory of the apparatus of the biosphere. - Problems of Biogeochemistry and Geochemical Ecology. 2006. V.1 (1). P. 24-31. 17. Ostroumov S.A. A New Type of Effect of Potentially Hazardous Substances: Uncouplers of Pelagial–Benthal Coupling. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002. v.383, No.1-6; p.127-130. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45913695 DOI: 10.1023/A:1015385723150; 18. Ostroumov S.A. The Hazard of a Two-Level Synergism of Synecological Summation of Anthropogenic Effects. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol.380, p.499-501; (Rus. P. 847); http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/; DOI: 10.1023/A:1012348127085 19. Ostroumov S.A., Dodson S.I., Hamilton D., Peterson S.A., Wetzel R.G. Mediumterm and long-term priorities in ecological studies. – Riv. Biol. 2003, 96(2): 327-332. PMID: 14595906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]; http://scipeople.com/uploads/materials/4389/3RivistaBio96Priorities2.rtf ; http://www.scribd.com/doc/48100827; www.scribd.com/doc/57124875/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52655707/; PMID: 14595906 [PubMed]; ** See the sites: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/10/online-free-environmental-science.html http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/18-key-innovations-innovations.html http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/18-key-innovations-discoveries-in.html

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A BRIEF NOTE ON RECENT RUSSIAN-U.S. SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES S.A.Ostroumov, G.Lanza, B.Xing
Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation; University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA;

Several international science and education collaborations involving Russian and U.S. faculty were completed in 2010-2011. During 2010-2011, Dr. Sergei Ostroumov traveled to the University of Massachusetts, Amherst to serve as a Fulbright visiting scientist. In 2010, Professor Guy Lanza visited Tyumen State University as a Fulbright Senior Specialist where he lectured in ecology and environmental microbiology and helped to organize an international conference on Natural Resources and the Environment. G.Lanza, S.Ostroumov, and other faculty of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and other U.S. schools served at the organizing committee for the 14th International Poster Session (Conference) entitled “ Ecosystems, Organisms, Innovations” held on February 12, 2011 at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. The conference was dedicated to three anniversaries: 25 years since publishing the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (1986), 25 years since publishing the book ‘Levels of Conservation of Living Nature’ (1985), and 20 years since publishing the book ‘Conservation of Living Nature and Resources’ (1991). S. Ostroumov was also involved to a joint research project with Professor Baoshan Xing to study interactions of heavy metals (in nanoparticulate and soluble forms) with selected components of ecosystems. The primary goal of the research was to identify practical applications in ecological monitoring, remediation, and environmental education. Both G. Lanza and S. Ostroumov convened research discussions with faculty and students at their respective host universities. It was found that both U.S. and Russian scientists have mutual interests in a number of scientific areas, and further scientific and educational cooperation is promising.

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RISK OF LYME BORRELIOSIS AND RICKETTSIOSIS BY COINFECTED TICKS ACROSS ONE OF THE MOST POPULATED AREA OF EUROPE: PO RIVER VALLEY, ITALY. Pajoro M.1, Pistone D.2, Vicari N.1, Epis S.2, Sassera D.2, Montagna M.2, Bandi C.2 and Fabbi M.1
1 Istituto Zooprofilattico della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna - Sezione di Pavia; 2 Universita degli Studi di Milano (DIPAV) Dipartimento di Patologia Generale, Igiene e Sanita Pubblica Veterinaria; Italy

Microorganisms belonging to the genus Borreliae and Rickettsiae are respectively parasiting free-living and obligate intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria. Arthropod vectors transmit them to vertebrates by blood-feeding. Some of them are causative agents of human or animal diseases. Lyme disease and rickettsiosis are endemic in various Alpine and Appenninic mountain areas in Italy, where one of their main vectors such as the hard tick Ixodes ricinus is widespread. On the other hand, heavily populated flat regions are not adequately considered as risk areas. The flat Italian area of the Po river valley is one of the most important industrial and services districts in Europe and it is further characterised by intensive agriculture and livestock breeding. Human population density is high: more than six million persons live in Milano and surrounding counties. Prior our recent description of emerging micro-areas endemic for Lyme Borreliosis across the Po river valley [1], I. ricinus ticks have never been reported in this area. In this study we report the results of a survey for the presence of the microorganisms belonging to the genus Rickettsiae in the same ticks previously analyzed for the presence of Borreliae. Methods. The same ticks investigated by the authors during a survey for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato [1], were further analysed for the presence of bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. A total of 234 nymphs of Ixodes ricinus collected by dragging from five rural and sub-urban micro-areas closely to the Ticino river were subjected to DNA extraction. All samples were tested for the quality of DNA with primers targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. A sub-sample of the amplified 12S rRNA were sequenced to confirm the identification of the tick specimens as I. ricinus. To detect the presence of microorganisms belonging to the genus rickettsiae, PCR targeting portion of both ompA gene and gltA genes were performed by under conditions previously described [2, 3]. Moreover, 11 adults (4 females and 7 males) and ten pools (each of ten larvae) were screened using the same procedures. Results. The presence of bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia has been detected in 77 (33%) out of 234 nymphs, in 6 (2 females and 4 males) out of 11 adults and in all pools of larvae subjected to analysis. Genospecies identification through sequences of amplified portion of ompA gene is actually running. Moreover, a comparative analysis with the detection for the presence of pathogenic borreliae in the same ticks, shows that 13 (5.5%) out of 234 nymphs analyzed, and 1 (adult male) out of 11 adults analysed, host either pathogenic microorganisms: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia spp. Conclusions. This study is the first evidence of the co-presence of two important genus of pathogenic microorganisms (Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi sensu lato) spotted in high density populated area of the Po river valley Italian flat. Moreover we highlight the potential risk of tick bite in this area, to acquire simultaneously either microorganisms pathogens. Essential bibliography

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[1] Dario Pistone, Massimo Pajoro, Massimo Fabbi, Nadia Vicari, Piero Marone, Claudio Genchi, Stefano Novati, Davide Sassera, Sara Epis, and Claudio Bandi “Lyme borreliosis, Po river valley, Italy” Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2010); 16(8):1289-1291. [2] Roux V., Fournier P.E., Raoult D. Differentiation of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae by Sequencing and Analysis of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of PCR Amplified DNA of the Gene Encoding the Protein OmpA. J.C.M. (1996); 34(9): 2058-2065. [3] R.L. Regnery, C.L. Spruill, B.D. Plikaytis et al. Genotypic identification of rickettsiae and estimation of intraspecies sequence divergence for portions of two rickettsial genes. J. Bacteriol. (1991); 173(5): 1576-1589.

Technological aspects connected with environmental issues of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Rishi Kant Pandey
B.tech (Biotech), Amity University, Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh India. We are living in an era of global warming, in which we are facing many different types of challenges like climate changeup, pH of water or changes in the genomic level in every organism. There are many types of causes of global warming in which production of green house gases and CFC production are the major one. In both of them CFC causes harm approx 200 times more than the green house gases as it degrades the ozone layer present on the outer most region of atmosphere. The major source of CFC’s are air conditioner and refrigerator which are used in every houses and is still increasing in many of the developing countries and are also responsible for increasing the power consumption. Water cooler is another option for the places which are far away from the sea shore and also consumes very less amount of power. Although they are also available in comparatively low cost but still the major drawback of these coolers are their efficiency. Hence there is a need to improve such efficacy in respect to their cooling aspect through various model modifications. In the current course of developed model system it is found that cooling efficacy is increased without CFC production. Another very major aspect of this model is related with power consumption that is defined in the terms of very low power consumption in comparison with air conditions without production of any harmful gas. Designed model of cooler has approximately double efficiency then the any model of air cooler present in the market it is assured by our experimental aspects.

EVALUATION OF THE SHELF LIFE AND ANT REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF THE PLANT Hyptis suaveolens G. Pandey1 and J.K. Srivastava2 [Gunjan Pandey1 and J.K. Srivastava2]
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow 226010 (India ), E-mail: genegunjan@gmail.com1, jkamity@gmail.com2

Hyptis suaveolens (family: Lamiaceae) commonly known as bushmint is considered as a weed plant of plains. Despite use in traditional system of therapy and exhibiting antimicrobial, antinflammatory, antifungal, antioxidative properties the plant is non palatable to animals and not being

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utilized for any potential therapeutic development and considered as complete waste plant. Having strong aromatic property it has been identified for many phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonols, flavones, flavonones, terpenoids, tannins, aldehydes and ketones. We have reported its insect repellent activity and in present study reporting its specific ant repellent property with aqueous extract along with its shelf life. In order to exploit its application we prepared the 10% aqueous extract of the mature leaves of the plant. The filtered leaf extract was tested for insect repellent efficacy using housefly and sugar syrup model, where the extract showed excellent repellent activity. In another experiment a floor area wiped with aqueous extract and some food stuff was kept there to attract ants. In comparison to normal water wipe the extract wipe restrained the aggregation of ants significantly. In a concentration dependent evaluation we performed this experiment at various concentrations like 10.0, 5.0, 2.5, 1.25 and 00 %. White A4 sheets were whipped both side with the extract . After being air dried the sheets were placed on a surface, some food material was spread on it to attract the ants. The sheets were monitored for comparative aggregation of ants on food substance. After 2 hrs it was found that no ants were attracted on any of the concentration of Hyptis execpt for the control i.e. 00%. Camera recording was done to enumerate the results. To check the shelf life of extract 60 and 30 days old extracts were used along with fresh one and was found that all stored extracts restored the similar repellent efficacy for ants.
A note of the editors : natural chemicals that are repellents were considered also in the book: Ostroumov S.A. Introduction to Biochemical Ecology. Moscow University Press, Moscow. 1986. Web-sites / links on the book, Introduction to Biochemical Ecology: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/siteslinks-book-introduction-to.html

MICRO(ASPERGILLUS SP) PERFORMING MACRO(POLLUTION CONTROL): BIOREMEDIATION OF DYE A. Parekh, and A. Naskar [Aditya Parekh (M.Sc Biochemistry), and Animesh Naskar (M.Sc Microbiology)]
University of Calcutta, India; adityaparekh101@gmail.com;

Dyes are a common natural pollutant which are used in industries for human applications, but indirectly dyes in the industrial waste effect us adversely. So dyes in waste water should be treated before discharging. Here, biosorption is a well known conventional and cost effective procedure in which fungus (Aspergillus niger) plays a very important role.

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It can remove dye from aqueous solution by biosorption which depends on pH, dye and biomass concentration, cell surface modification, which is shown here. The two well known isotherm models namely Langmuir and Freundlich model is also presented here.
Note of the Editors: Issues of sorption of pollutants on biogenic organic materials were considered also in the following publications:
A.E. Zhbanov, S.A.Ostroumov. Interaction of heavy metals (copper and cadmium) with the biomass of the bryophyte-cyanobacteria community: on the way to phytotechnology of water treatment. - Vodnoye Khozyaistvo Rossii. In press. Ostroumov S. A., Kolesov G. M. The aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum immobilizes Au nanoparticles after their addition to water. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2010 (Mar - Apr), Vol. 431, p. 124–127. [© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., ISSN 0012-4966]. Translated from Original Russian Text, published in Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2010, Vol. 431, No. 4, pp. 566–569. DOI: 10.1134/S0012496610020158. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20506851; PMID: 20506851 [PubMed]; http://www.springerlink.com/content/j487667871w02h28/ Ostroumov S. A. Studying the fate of pollutants in the environment: binding and immobilization of nanoparticles and chemical elements. - Ecologica, 2011, vol. 18, No. 62, pp. 129-132; ISSN 0354-3285; http://www.scribd.com/doc/68239141/;

RAPID FLUORESCENCE DETECTION OF BACTERIA BY USING WATER SOLUBLE QUANTUM DOTS N. Parvin*, T. K. Mandal, and M. Saha [Nragish Parvin*, Tapas K. Mandal, and Mitali Saha]
Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura - 799055 India; Corresponding address:-*Nargish Parvin; Department of Chemistry; NIT Agartala; E-mail: Nargish.parvin@gmail.com;

Rapid and sensitive detection of total bacteria count is extremely important in biotechnology, medical diagnosis, and food safety. Because of slow detection speed and complicated procedures, plate count, as a conventional method, could not ideally meet the requirements of fast and efficient microbe detection any more. Recently, several new methods like ELISA, PCR, diffraction based cell detection, and flow cytometry detection have been reported. However, most of current available methods for detecting trace amounts of bacteria need either amplification or enrichment of the target bacteria in the sample, and moreover the apparatus are expensive. Therefore, simple and sensitive methods, which do not need target amplification or enrichment, are required. Our work is to demonstrate a fluorescence measurement method for rapid detection of bacterial count by using water-soluble carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as a fluorescence marker, and fluorescence microscope and spectrophotometer acted as detection apparatus, while Escherichia coli (E. coli) was as detection target bacteria. Highly luminescent water-soluble CQDs were prepared by using waste plant materials (ref), and were then covalently coupled with target bacteria. E.coli cells in a LB media with 0.2 um of CQDs were cultured for 1.5-18h. The bacterial cell

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images were obtained by using fluorescence microscopy (Figure-1). Our results showed that CQDs prepared in water phase were highly luminescent, stable, and successfully conjugated with E. coli. The fluorescence method could detect 101.6–109/ml cells of E. coli in 1/2–1 h and the low detection limit is 101.6 cells/ml. This method can be used in numerous environments, including the air, water, clean rooms and aseptic isolators of various factories/Companies. This method can also be used to rigorous field tests by independent and government testing facilities. Further, a new fluorescence technique has been established to determine the microbial content of a sample. Reference:
1. S. C. Ray,†,* Arindam Saha, Nikhil R. Jana,* and Rupa Sarkar, Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioimaging Application; J. Phys. Chem. (2009), 113, 18546–18551. Figure-1. Fluorescence images of E.coli after 2 hours cultured with 0.22 um sized water soluble carbon quantum dots (CQDs) under fluorescence microscope. Images observed under (A) 488 nm,(B) 561nm and (C) 633 nm band passed filter. (A) Mutant genretion 700 at 40x (B) Mutant genretion 700 at 40x (C).

LOGICAL DATA MODEL DESIGNING FOR PLANNING REHABILITATION OF FOREST AND LAND IN STATE FOREST AREA U. L. Purnamasari, R. Sadono, D. B. Permadi [Umi Latifah Purnamasari, Ronggo Sadono, Dwiko Budi Permadi]
Student of Forest Management Department, Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University; Lecturer of Forest Management Department, Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University; Lecturer of Forest Management Department, Faculty of Forestry,Gadjah Mada University; The campus address: Jurusan Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia,

Potential data of the state forest area in Yogyakarta Special Province is in form of separated files and disorganized. Searching data for the purposes of rehabilitation planning is time consuming and not effective. The needs of Information which very fast is not comparable with searching data process manually. Database management system is necessary to facilitate the fulfillment of information efficiently. Structured Analysis is proposed to arrange database management system. This system is a structured method that allows do-making and development planning information system for Forest and Land Rehabilitation (RHL) in the Bagian Daerah Hutan Playen (BDH/ forest lands management under RPH). The data were collected through several steps, such as literature study, observation, and interviews which included physical land potential data, social potential, economic potential, institutional potential, and land management activities. Microsoft Access 2003 and Microsoft Visio 2007 were the software used to build this system. Logical data model was able to organize data from all entities planning for

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RHL. Redundancy and inconsistency of the potential area complex data could be minimized. Simple user interface provides easy access to information by entities such as government, farmers group, Dinas Kehutanan (District Forest Office), Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH/Forest Management Unit), BDH, Resort Polisi Hutan (RPH/ forest lands management under KPH), academics, and Badan Pemantapan Kawasan Hutan (BPKH/Division of Forest Area Stabilization).
Keywords: Logical Data Model, Forest and Land Rehabilitation (RHL), BDH Playen

Th1/Th2 CELL DEVELOPMENT DURING Leishmania INFECTION V. Ranjan [Varsha Ranjan]
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow, India

Leishmaniasis is one of the world’s most neglected diseases, affecting largely the poorest of the poor, mainly in developing countries; 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis, and some 2 million new cases occur yearly. In the past 10 years, major scientific breakthroughs have been made in the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of leishmaniasis (WHO Report, 2010). On the basis of clinical presentation and site of infection leishmaniasis is basically of three types; Visceral, Cutaneous and Muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis respectively. Among them Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of the leishmaniasis which is usually fatal if left untreated. The world’s annual burden of VL is estimated to be about 500,000, with 90% of cases caused by the transmission of Leishmania donovani in India, Sudan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The World Health Organization (WHO) established the clinical case definition of VL as persistent fever (? 2 weeks), weight loss, and splenomegaly in a person residing in a VL-endemic area (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996). A complex host-parasite interaction takes place during VL infection (Alexander J, 1992). Susceptibility or resistance to Leishmania infection in mice correlates with the dominance of an interleukin-4 (IL-4)-driven TH2 response that causes disease or an IL-12-driven, interferon-? (IFN-?)-dominated TH1 response that promotes healing and parasite clearance, respectively. For both T helper 1 (TH1)- and TH2-cell differentiation, antigens are presented to naive CD4+ T cells by dendritic cells (DCs). The interaction of co-stimulatory molecules with their respective ligands (CD40–CD40L, OX40–OX40L and/or CD80–CTLA4/CD28), together with the local cytokine environment, promotes the differentiation of naive T cells into interferon-? (IFN-?)-secreting TH1 cells or interleukin-4 (IL-4) secreting TH2 cells. In TH1- cell development, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) trigger antigen-presenting cells, through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), to secrete IL-12, which promotes the differentiation of naive T cells into IFN-?-secreting TH1 cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and STAT1 are activated by IL-12 and IFN-?, respectively. In TH2-cell development, the inability of antigen to activate DCs to produce IL-12 results in a default pathway of naive T-cell differentiation into IL-4-secreting TH2 cells. STAT6 is activated specifically by IL-4-receptor binding Bcl-6, ROG (repressor

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of GATA) and FOG1 (friend of GATA1) negatively regulate TH2 differentiation by repressing the activity of STAT6 and GATA3 (Sacks, D., et al. 2002). References.
1. Control of the Leishmaniasis, Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Technical Report Series No. 949. World Health Organisation, 2010. Geneva, Switzerland. 2. WHO. Manual on visceral leishmaniasis control [online] <http://www.paho.org/English/AD/DPC/CD/ leishmaniasis-manual.htm> (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland,1996). 3. Alexander J, Russell DG. The interaction of Leishmania species with macrophages. Adv Parasitol 1992; 31: 175-254. 4. Sacks, D. and Noben-Trauth, N. The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice. Nature Review Immunology; 2002; 2: 845-858.

VALORIZATION OF Opuntia ficus-indica IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARID AND SEMI-ARID REGIONS O.R’bia (*), I. Smida, A. Khadri, Ch. Chkioua, S. A. Smiti [Olfa R’bia (*), Imen Smida, Ayda Khadri, Chaker Chkioua, Samira Aschi Smiti]
SU: Ecology of plants, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis. Campus universitaire 2092, El Manar II, Tunisia. (*) Corresponding author: rb.olfa@gmail.com

Opuntia ficus-indica is of Mexican origin. It was introduced in Spain by the conquistadores and later at the 16th century in the North and the South of Africa and beyond that, to the Mediterranean basin. The culture of opuntia is used against the impoverishment of the soil in the arid regions, as forage and also for its fruits. It is one plant xerophytic, succulent of which cladodes have a great water holding capacity, which confers to it an adaptability to the arid areas and in the conditions as well favorable that rigorous. The cactus is the typical example of perfectly suitable species for the development of the arid and semi-arid zone. Its culture is not very demanding in investment, but it can contribute to improve the income of the farmers by its fruit and fodder production. Moreover, for environment, the cactus is of a great utility for the fight against erosion and the restoration of soils. Thus, the culture of the cactus can contribute to agricultural development in the arid and semi-arid regions in the Mediterranean, which until now was largely based on species coming from the moderate and tropical areas, and which require large quantities of inputs, and especially as regards water.
Key words: Opuntia ficus-indica, agricultural development, arid regions.

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G.S. Rozenberg
Institute of Ecology of Volga Basin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Togliatti, Russia

Environment and Bio-humanities. On the book: Oleskin, A.V., Kartashova, E.R., Botvinko, I. V., Ostroumov, S.A., Lukianov, A.S., and Shul’ga, E.N. Textbook on the Biohumanities and Environment for Secondary-school, College, and University Students / Ed. by Alexander V. Oleskin. Moscow University Press, Moscow, 2011. – 66 p., ill.
Transliteration from Russian (from Cyrillic): Oleskin A.V., Kartashova E.R., Botvinko I.V., Ostroumov S.A., Luk'janov A.S., Shul'ga E.N. Uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie GUMANITARNAJA BIOLOGIJA I JEKOLOGIJA. Dlja srednej obshheobrazovatel'noj shkoly, liceev i kolledzhej. / Pod red. A.V. Oleskina – Izdatelstvo Moskovskogo Universiteta. Moskva, 2011.

This textbook deals with the bio-humanities, i.e., the area of biology that has a direct bearing on the humanities and social sciences as well as modern ecology and environmental science. The book includes seven main sections each corresponding to a school lesson/period. The bio-humanities are in the focus of attention of the Club of Biopolitics established at Moscow State University and Moscow Society of Naturalists (MOIP) in April 2010. One of the Club’s workshops has produced this textbook. Apart from information to deal with during the lessons/periods, the book also contains questions addressed to the students, their task, pictures, and recommended reading. This book will contributed to the solution of the urgent issue and need of increasing the efficiency of the educational system, which is an important challenge currently faced by Russia. Each chapter is provided with an English summary. Section 1 is entitled BIOS AND LIFE AS A COHERENT ENTITY, authored by E.R. Kartashova. The term bios (βιος, the Greek for life) denotes the totality of living beings on the Earth that is believed to include over 1.4 million species. The students should realize that bios is more than just the sum of individual organisms. It is a global coherent entity (“the body of bios” in A. VlavianosArvanitis’ usage), despite the diversity of biological species. Different species perform different functions in the interest of the whole body. Humankind forms part of this body, also representing a coherent entity in itself. Bios is based on the unity-in-diversity principle. Bios as a global system is probably capable of regulating the Earth’s characteristics including its temperature, light-reflecting power, and atmosphere composition, in the interest of biological evolution and the flourishing of the whole body of bios on the Earth. Section 2 is titled BIOSOPHY. BIOSPHERE, authored also by E.R. Kartashova. According to the author of the section, Biosophy stands for the natural “wisdom of life (bios)” that is a result of the process of biological evolution. Thanks to evolution, the structure, life-sustaining activities, and behavior of most

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living organisms are amazingly well adapted to their environment. Adaptations seem to help them “make optimum decisions” in a given situation, so as to increase the survival chances and the reproduction success. Apart from the individual and population level, biological evolution also works on the level of multispecies associations and ecosystems including the whole biosphere of the Earth. Within these complex systems, their structural parts develop in concordance with one another and in the interest of the flourishing of the whole systems. This coordinate development of a system’s parts is referred to as their coevolution. Section 3 is about PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE. EVOLUTIONARY EPISTEMOLOGY, authored by E.N. Shul’ga. Over the whole course of history, a large number of great minds took an interest in the phenomenon of life as related to humankind, human consciousness, reasoning, and cognition, as well as to the historical development of human culture (All these issues are still being actively discussed at present). However, the philosophy of life as a self-contained field took shape in the late 19th – early 20th century. Its proponents, including Wilhelm Diltey, Oswald Spengler, Georg Simmel, and Jose Ortega-y-Gaset, regarded life as intuitively comprehensible ultimate reality that differs both from matter and spirit. This field of philosophy can be subdivided into several subfields depending on whether life was considered in biological, historical, or pantheistic terms. Epistemology is the field of philosophy whose goals are to define “knowledge”, to elucidate possible strategies of human cognition, and to delineate its limits. Of relevance to the bio-humanities, the main subject of this book, is evolutionary epistemology (EE). It compares the development of scientific knowledge (including competition and cooperation among scientific concepts and theories) to that of biological species in terms of evolution driven by natural selection. EE emphasizes the relationship between the evolutionmolded behavioral predispositions and adaptations of Homo sapiens and the human capacity to study various objects around us and to generate more or less adequate knowledge about the world and about ourselves. Section 4 is dedicated to issues of BIOPOLITICS, authored by A.V. Oleskin. A pressing problem presently faced by humankind is that a majority of people around the globe are still ignorant of biology and its socially relevant subfields ranging from ecology to neurophysiology and genetics. This global bioilliteracy exerts a negative influence on important decisions made by political leaders and the political elites of various countries. In fact, ignoring the social and political implications of the present-day life sciences may result in missed opportunities and cause unwanted risks. For instance, knowledge about biobehavioral (ethological) predispositions influencing human social behavior can help us mitigate collective aggression including ethnic conflict and understand biological mechanisms of dominance-submission relationships involved in charismatic leadership and political power. Politically important issues

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concerning GM food, cloning animals and, prospectively, humans, and eugenics require sufficient knowledge of genetic engineering including its social implications. The main goal of this section is to fill this gap by familiarizing the students with new biological data and concepts that are of obvious political interest as well as political ideas and practices that deal with biological issues. In combination, these recent biological and political developments are summed up in the overarching term biopolitics. Hence biopolitics can be defined as the totality of all kinds of interactions between the life sciences and politics , including both the political impact of biology and the biological implications of politics. Biopolitics includes a large number of subfields; in this section special emphasis is placed on its genetic, neurophysiological, microbiological, and biobehavioral (ethological) subfield. Section 5 is entitled BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGICAL ETHICS, authored by S.A. Ostroumov. The conservation of the Earth’s biodiversity requires a complex system of practical measures aimed at the preservation, rational (inexhaustive) employment, and renewal of natural resources, including the conservation of the species diversity (gene pool) of the Earth’s flora and fauna, of the habitats of living organisms and ecosystems, and, accordingly, of the natural conditions required for the development of human society. Biodiversity conservation calls for practical steps taken on both the local and the global levels. In terms of biodiversity conservation, special emphasis should be placed upon promoting of the value system of ecological ethics (eco-ethics) on the global scale. Ecological ethics is based upon acknowledging the paramount importance of preserving natural communities of living beings and ecosystems, developing protective, nurturant attitudes toward them, and placing these attitudes at the core of our present-day outlook on planetary bios. Section 6 is on BIOETHICS AND LIFE CONSERVATION, authored by A.S. Lukianov. This section is aimed at familiarizing the students with the history and present-day state-of-the-art of bioethics, the field dealing with the whole gamut of moral/ethical issues related to living beings including animal experimentation, embryo rights, organ transplantation, and euthanasia, as well as the problems and concerns associated with the recent developments in the field of genetic engineering and biomedical technologies. Special attention is given to the nonviolence principle which hold much value both with respect to the above issues and to natural ecosystems including the whole biosphere, in terms of conserving life (bios) on the planet. Section 7 is concentrated on BIOAESTHETICS, authored by I.V. Botvinko.

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As the author of the section underlines it, in addition to its philosophical, social, political and ethical dimensions, life is also of interest in terms of aesthetics. We enjoy the beauty of flowers, starfish, tiny foraminifers, and other life forms. The final section starts with a discussion concerning bioaesthetics. It is emphasized that the aesthetics of life is related to its harmony, symmetry, and fractal structure. These properties of living systems convey an aesthetic message to us, which is of significant importance with respect to the educational system as well as the personal development of young people around the globe. The textbook is a valuable contribution to innovations in environmental education as well as biological education. The book will be of interest to professors and students in many areas, both in science and in the humanities. It is recommended to prepare and publish a new edition of this innovative, valuable and useful book. ECOLOGY AND PROSPECTS FOR RECOVERY AND RESTORATION OF ECOSYSTEMS INVADED BY Ludwigia spp. Smida I.(1) (3), Le Petit J.(2), R’bia O.(3), Smiti S.(3), Charpy-Roubaud C.(1)
(1) UMR 193 IRD, Faculty of sciences St-Jerome, University of Paul Cezanne AixMarseille III, Case 441, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France. smida_imen@yahoo.fr ; (2) UMR CNRS 6116, Faculty of sciences St-Jerome, University of Paul Cezanne AixMarseille III, Case 441, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France; (3) UR 0902, Faculty of sciences of Tunis, Campus El Manar Tunis, 2092 Tunis, Tunisia; Smida_imen@yahoo.fr;

The colonization of water bodies by Ludwigia spp. hydrophytes amphibious invasive causes dystrophy aquatic ecosystems, a collapse of the biodiversity of native taxa and death of macro-invertebrates and fish. Their exuberant development thus entails the destruction of habitats, causing major environmental damage, and also by socio-economic impacts on human activities, whether tourist or business (fishing, hunting, agriculture, industry). The invasion by the plant of the environment is very fast and gradually spreading throughout the French territory and neighbouring countries. The issue is of concern and various stakeholders are involved to solve the nuisance caused by the invasion of the plant Ludwigia spp.: Ministries, Administration Region, researchers, various associations, professionals, tourists. An inventory is compiled on the biogeography of Ludwigia spp., knowledge about the ecology of this plant, the impact on aquatic habitats and biodiversity, beyond, of ecosystems. The real impact of research developed and implemented in different ways now, as those surveyed, to limit the spread of this scourge and to restore invaded environments are analysed. Moreover, the prospective biotechnological value of this plant for sustainable development is also addressed, as well as the socio-economic impacts.
Keywords: Ecology- Restoration - Invasive species - Nuisances - Ludwigia spp.

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PRODUCTION OF BLUE-WHITE COLONIES OF E. coli BY CLONING OF HOUSEKEEPING GENE CODING Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase USING pUC18 PLASMID AS A VECTOR S. Srivastava1, P. Pal1, G. Md Ashraf 2 and N. Srivastava3 [Saurabh Srivastava1, Poulomi Pal1, Ghulam Md Ashraf 2 and Nidhi Srivastava3 ]
1

Amity Institute of Biotechnology (AIB), Amity University Uttar Pradesh (AUUP), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 226010; 2 Amity Institute of Biotechnology (AIB), Amity University Uttar Pradesh (AUUP), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 226010; poulomithequeen@gmail.com; 3 Amity Institute of Biotechnology (AIB), Amity University Uttar Pradesh (AUUP), Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Gene (DNA) cloning refers to the isolation of a particular gene or DNA sequence and obtaining its multiple copies of in vitro for diversified usage in significant research works. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate to 1,3-diphosphoglycerate accompanied with generation of NADP.sup that can enter the respiratory chain and generates ATP in the process of glycolysis. GAPDH gene is regarded as a housekeeping or constitutive gene. pUC18 plasmid cloning vector (2686 bp) was isolated from E. coli strain DH5α and digested using the restriction enzyme SmaI. Further it was thymidized to provide sticky ends so that desired gene can be inserted in it. The GAPDH gene was amplified using PCR and was inserted into pUC18.It was then transformed into the suitable competent cells which were freshly prepared using JM107 strain of E.coli which is devoid of plasmid. Inside the host cell the recombinant DNA had undergone replication; thus, a bacterial host gave rise to a colony of cells containing the cloned target gene, i.e. GAPDH. Various screening methods could be used to identify such colonies, enabling them to be selected and cultured. There is a need to identify the cells that contain the desired insert at the appropriate orientation and isolate these from those not successfully transformed. Modern cloning vectors include selectable markers (most frequently antibiotic resistant marker) that allow only cells in which the vector but necessarily the insert has been transfected to grow. Additionally the cloning vectors may contain color selection markers which provide blue/white screening on X- Gal and IPTG containing medium.

ROLE OF DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE ENZYME-1 (DNMT-1) IN OVA-INDUCED MOUSE MODEL OF ASTHMA M. Verma, B.D. Chattopadhyay, B.N. Paul
Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India

Asthma has long been recognized as a complex genetic disease mediated by exposures to a variety of environmental triggers. Both genetic and environmental influences are important to asthma pathogenesis, some developed asthma or wheezing illness as a result of occupational exposures, whereas others may become affected after exposure to urban air pollution. Epigenetics is the study of

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heritable changes in gene expression that occur without directly altering the DNA sequence. As such, epigenetic regulation provides an attractive mechanistic explanation, in addition to gene-by-environment interactions, for some of the molecular events linking early exposures with later disease (such as allergies, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases). One mechanism is DNA methylation, the covalent addition of a methyl group to a cytosine residue in a CpG site (i.e., where a cytosine lies next to guanine in the DNA sequence).This covalent addition of methyl group in the cytosine residues are catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase enzyme-1 (DNMT1). During the reporting period, we developed asthmatic mice by a series of sensitization and challenge with an allergen, ovalbumin. Mice were found asthmatic based on lung histopathology, lung function and Th2 cytokine profile. Using this mouse model of asthma, we studied expression profile of DNMT1 by qRT2-PCR. We observed low expression of DNMT1 in lung, trachea and BALF cells of asthmatic mice in comparison to normal. We further found that this low expression of DNMT1 in different airways tissues was due to CpG methylation of DNMT1 promoter. CpG methylation was studied by methylation specific PCR (MSP) and Bisulphite sequencing. CpG sites are generally clustered in high frequency near gene promoters and these regions are referred to as CpG islands. The methylation states of CpG islands in turn may affect gene activity and expression. Hence we conclude that low expression of DNMT1 in asthmapathogenesis is due to methylation of the CpG island in the DNMT1 promoter.
REFERENCES: Adcock IM, Ford P, Barnes PJ, Ito K. Epigenetics and airways disease. Respir. Res. 2006; 7:21. Robertson KD, Uzvolgy E, Liang G, Talmadge C, Sumegi J, Gonzales FA and Jones PA: The human DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a and 3b: coordinate mRNA expression in normal tissues and overexpression in tumors. Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (1999) 2291-2298. Paul B, Mishra V, Chaudhury B, Awasthi A, Das AB, Saxena A, Chauhan LK, Kumar P, Raisuddin S: Status of Stat3 in an Ovalbumin-Induced Mouse Model of Asthma: Analysis of the Role of Socs3 and IL-6.Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2009; 148:99-108. Busse WW, Banks-Schlegel S, Wenzel SE: Pathophysiology of severe asthma. J. Allergy Cln. Immunol 2000; 106:1033-1042.

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ABOUT BOOKS This section of the volume includes a number of concise reviews of recent books on environmental issues. These books are of interest to scientists, professors, and students who are involved in the following subjects: Ecology Environmental science Ecotoxicology Biosphere Water quality Fundamentals of biology Environmental safety Environmental pollution Interdisciplinary issues of biophysics and biochemistry related to environment Biomembranes Ecological analysis of the environment. Abakumov V.A., Gorshkova O.M., Yusupova A.I.
Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Moscow Region, Russia; Moscow State University, Russia; A book review.

Book: Kotelevtzev S.V., Nagdaliev F.F., Sadchikov A.P. Bio-assay and bioindication at ecological analysis of the environment. Publishers: Alteks, Moscow, 2011, 174 p. This book of the three scientists of Faculty of Biology of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University covers a broad range of the key issues of ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry. The book contains 25 sections. Among them, there are sections on man-made effects, chemical pollutants, mechanisms of action of ecotoxicants, biomembranes, genotoxicity, detoxification, eco-toxicants in food chains and in the tissues of the human body. In addition to these sections on fundamental scientific issues of ecotoxicology and ecology, the book includes some other sections that are useful in important in protecting the environment. There are sections on environmental law, on bioassay, on biochemical methods, on bioremediation, on some key methods of monitoring of chemical pollution. The last section, number 25, is on bibliography.

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The book includes both new data of the authors and a review of the world literature on issues of environmental science including environmental toxicology. The book is a useful and highly needed textbook. Professors and students of many universities will find this book very helpful. Those who study ecology, ecotoxicology, environmental chemistry, biochemistry, environmental safety will read this book with interest. A new edition of this book will be useful. Abakumov V.A., Gorshkova O.M., Yusupova A.I.
Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man; Moscow State University;

New aspects of studying biological systems under the effect of environmental factors.
Book review. Book:

K.N. Novikov, S.V. Kotelevtsev, Yu.P.Kozlov. The free-radical processes in biological systems under the influence of environmental factors. Moscow: Publishing House of People's Friendship University, 2011. - 199 p. ISBN 978-5-209-03659-3. This book is focused on modern innovative issues that are equally important in biophysics and environmental science. The book covers, among others, the following important aspects of biological and environmental science: Comparative evaluation of the properties and mechanisms of action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals in biological structures and processes. Diagnosis, testing and adjustment of status of living things in their response to the impact of environmental factors. Terms of initiation and course of free-radical processes at different levels of biological systems. The role of ROS and other free radicals, while maintaining the activity of organisms in the environment. Environmental factors (water, air, light, temperature, food) which help the body to maintain a certain level of free radicals. Ionizing radiation and chemical contamination significantly modify the levels of free radicals in biological systems. Radiation and contamination can lead to permanent changes in the cell, the organism, and ecosystem. Complex biological test systems based on reactions involving free radicals. Identification of pathological states and their correction.

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Eco-toxicological analysis of aquatic ecosystems. Allocation of risk groups in the population. Forecast of development of disturbances in the components of the biosphere in the regions and areas which are under anthropogenic impact. This useful, innovative and insightful book is recommended to university professors and students as well as scientists who are involved in environmental science, biochemistry and biophysics. Multi-faceted analysis of some aspects of the phenomenon of life Yusupova A.I., Krupina M.V.
Rosta Technopark Idea; Moscow State University; On the Book: V.A. Abakumov.

Space-Time of Life. Moscow: Publishing House Librocom. 2009. 384 p. ISBN 978-5-397-00288-2; Transliteration of the title: Vladimir Abakumov. Prostranstvo-Vremja Zhizni. This insightful and unique book provided an innovative in-depth analysis of the phenomenon of life on the basis of a multi-aspect, multidisciplinary approach. The author, a prominent and internationally wellknown scientist in ecology and biology, used a very broad range of both facts and concepts to fulfill an enormously difficult task of getting better insight into the enigma of life. A significant attention was given to connecting facts and ideas of modern physics to the analysis of life systems. A unique feature of the book is using a rich conceptual legacy of philosophy including the intellectual contributions of the authors of many generations starting with Ancient Greece and Rome. The author cited many wise quotations, and one of them became a subtitle of one of sections of Chapter 1, namely, ‘Continuum spatii et temporis est absolutum’. The book gave a significant attention to issues of modern ecology. The table of contents of the book includes broad terminology. The important ecological terms, biogeocenosis and bicoenosis are among the scientific terms used in the table of contents. Two final sections of the book are focused on fundamental issues of broad importance, such as philosophical understanding of mankind and human personality. The book feachures citation of many scientists, philosophers, thinkers, and poets. The cited names are as diverse as Plutarch, Aristotle, Herodotus, Homer, A.S. Griboyedov, G.R. Derzhavin, K.N.Batyushkov,

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A.S.Pushkin, K.D. Balmont, O. Mandelshtam, V.V. Dokuchaev, V.I. Vernadsky, Hegel, Newton, Einstein, Shakespeare, and many others. The book is of significant interest to all who are interested in fundamental issues of biology, natural sciences, philosophy, sociology, history and especially development of science. The book is recommended to be re-published as a new edition, and translated into other languages, including English, French, German as well as other languages
Fundamentals of the Theory of Ecology V.V.Ermakov, Institute of Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Review of the book: Ramon Margalef. Perspectives in Ecological Theory. (Russian translation of the book, the original edition was in English). Маргалеф Р. Перспективы в экологической теории. Перевод с английского. А.Г.Розенберг, Г.С.Розенберг, Г.А.Шараев. Под редакцией: член-корреспондент РАН Г.С.Розенберг. Издательство Кассандра. Тольятти. 2012. 122 с. Transliteration of the title of the Russian edition: Margalef R. Perspektivy v ekologicheskoj teorii. Perevod s anglijskogo. A.G. Rozenberg, G.S. Rozenberg, G.A. Sharaev. Pod redakciej: chlen-korrespondent RAN [Correspinding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences] G.S. Rozenberg. Izdatel'stvo Kassandra. Tol'jatti. 2012. 122 pages. Ramon Margalef (May 16, 1919; Barcelona – May 23, 2004) was one of the most prominent ecologists of the second half of 20th century, who authored 538 publications, of which 75% were in Spanish and Catalonian, and 25% in English. In 1967 he became a professor on ecology and the Chairperson of Department at University of Barcelona. This book was written by R. Margalef on the basis of his lectures in 1966 at University of Chicago. The English edition of the book was published in 1968 by the University of Chicago Press in Chicago and London. In his unique concise book, a number of the most important concepts are discussed in a creative way. Among those concepts are the following: diversity, stability, maturity of ecosystems, flows of energy, general

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principles of ecosystem organization, and their change in time: succession and evolution. As an addendum to the book, a paper is included on the life and scientific activity of Ramon Margalef. This paper (pages 97 – 122) is written by G.S. Rozenberg, Member, Russian Academy of Sciences. The paper is of significant interest as it considers many important facts of life, publications, and personality of R. Margalef, as well as many issues of ecology and scientific ethics. This short but very important book is of outstanding interest to scientists, professors, and students in the area of ecology.

Experimental Studies and Fundamental Innovations in Geochemical Ecology M.V. Krupina, Yusupova A.I.
Moscow State University; Rosta Technopark Idea;

On the Book: Kovalsky V.V. Problems of biogeochemistry of microelements and geochemical ecology. Selected publications. Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Moscow. 2009. 356 p. (Compiled by Yu.V.Kovalsky). In the book, a collection of selected publications of a prominent scientist V.V.Kovalsky is presented. Professor Viktor Vladislavovich Kovalsky (1899 - 1984) was a Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the head of Laboratory of Biogeochemistry at the V.I.Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. His research was a continuation of insightful scientific legacy of the brilliant Russian scientist, Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky [28.2 (12.3).1863, St.-Petersburg, ‒ 6.1.1945, Moscow]. In the book, the papers are collected that represent many of scientific innovations of V.V. Kovalsky in areas as diverse as geochemistry, biogeochemistry, ecology and biochemistry. A significant attention was given to microelements including heavy metals and some others. These scientific results are of great importance to our understanding of the biosphere and its biogeochemical provinces. Also, this is a contribution to practical issues of human health as well as the health of domestic animals. The book includes a carefully prepared list of bibliography.

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The book will be of interest to scientists, professors, and students in geochemistry, biogeochemistry, ecology, and environmental sciences. ** Environmental science, environmental toxicology ecosystems and plant communities. Abakumov V.A., Gorshkova O.M., Yusupova A.I.
Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man; Moscow State University; Rosta Technopark Idea;

of

aquatic

On the book: Kotelevtsev S.V., Matorin D.N., Sadchikov A.P. Ecological-Toxicological analysis of plant communities in aquatic ecosystems. Altex Press, Moscow. 2012. 182 p. In this book, a broad range of issues relevant to plants in aquatic ecosystems was considered. The list of issues includes the following. The book starts with several sections on modern methods. Among the methods considered are: chlorophyll fluorescence methods, using these methods in situ, using these methods to bioassay chemicals including nanomaterials, photosynthesis rate, natural production by algae of products of photosynthesis and their release to aquatic environment. A significant part of the book is on various negative effects of environmental pollutants. The book covered the following issues: environmental toxicants and their effects on biomembranes and on genetic material; genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teragenicity; detoxification aqnd metabolic activation with cytochrome P-450 system; environmental toxicants in food chains. The book also discussed and analyzed some important issues, such as the following: environmental regulation and environmental law; maximum admissible concentrations, bioassay and bioindication; methods of biochemistry and molecular biology that are applicable to bioassay and bioindication; bioremediation of polluted areas. The book is of significant interest to scientists, professors, and students. A new edition of the book will be very useful to many universities in Russia and other countries.

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Some web-sites with relevant bibliography and information on the books ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’, and ‘Conservation of Living Nature: Problems, Trends, Prospects’.
This conference took place in 2011, 25 years after the date of publishing the book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’ (Moscow, Moscow University Press, 1986). At the beginning of this volume, a note on the book “Introduction to Biochemical Ecology” was published. Additional information on this book is available on some web-sites /links that are mentioned below. The short list of web-sites with information on this book is as following: http://www.scribd.com/doc/47842224; http://www.scribd.com/doc/48035933; http://www.scribd.com/doc/48040968; http://www.scribd.com/doc/50880795; Modernization of environmental education. Use of book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology’, Moscow University Press. ** Paper entitled: On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators. http://www.scribd.com/doc/63711272/ ** On the book entitled: Introduction to Biochemical Ecology: On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecol... Papers/1897055/ http://moscowstate.academia.edu/SergeiOstroumov/Papers/1897055/On_the_concepts_ of_biochemical_ecology_and_hydrobiology_Ecological_chemomediators ** Ecological Chemomediators.Экологические хемомедиаторы. On the ... http://www.scribd.com/doc/63711272/; On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: ... ecology. The basic concepts of biochemical ecology include two concepts and ... Reads: 1,082 ** On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomedi... http://www.scribd.com/doc/73795942/On-the-Concepts-of-Biochemical-Ecology-andHydrobiology-contemporary-Problems-of-Ecology-S-a-ostroumov ... ; On the concepts of bioc ... Reads: 1,045 ** books on environmental science, ecology, … reviews indicated that the book broke a fresh ground and extended the frontiers of ecology. Some new concepts ...http://www.scribd.com/doc/48540824/Books-authoredand-coauthored-by-S-Ost; ... ** List.of.Most.cited.publications… http://www.scribd.com/doc... No. 13, 2010, pp. 2754–2761. ---http://www.scribd.com/doc/49131150; Biological filters are an important part of the ... #1-6; pp.378-381)]. [3] New Definitions of the Conce ... Reads: 1,374

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** Environment, ecology: list of books... Environment, ecology: list of books ... http://www.scribd.com/doc/41091215 ... ... ** Originating principles of a new science of biochemical ecology.On the book: .. http://www.scribd.com/doc/50880795/On-book-Ostroumov-Intro-to-BiochemicalEcology; On the ... book: Introduction to Biochemical Ecology. Moscow University Press, 1986. ** Innovative scientific terms. On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/modern-comments-oninnovative.html ** Vvedenie v problemy biokhimicheskoĭ ėkologii: biotekhnologii͡a, selʹskoe khozi͡aĭstvo... http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/vvedenie-v-problemy-biokhimicheskoi.html **

The book ‘Introduction to Biochemical Ecology was actively cited, some examples of the citation of this book:
Moldova. Cited: Moscow University research, publications: environmental science, biochemical ecology, water quality. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/moldova-citedmoscow-university.html ** Цитирование книг (Введение в биохимическую экологию; Введение в проблемы биохимической экологии) в диссертациях http://www.scribd.com/doc/80564027 http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/blog-post_30.html ** Citation of this book. Цитирование книги: Введение в биохимическую экологию. Москва, Изд-во Московского университета, http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/07/blogpost_09.html ** This book was acquired by many libraries. Some of the examples of the libraries that use this book are as following: ** Armenia.Library.Book: Введение в биохимическую экологию. Москва: Изд-во Московского университета, RSML: Republican scientific medical library of Armenia. Ереван. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/armenialibrarybook.html ** Тюмень. Тюменский гос. университет. Библиотека. Введение в биохимическую экологию. - Москва: Изд-во МГУ, http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/blog-post_8224.html ** Саранск. Национальная библиотека им. А.С.Пушкина Республики Мордовия. ВВЕДЕНИЕ В БИОХИМИЧЕСКУЮ ЭКОЛОГИЮ / - М. : ИЗД-ВО МГУ, http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/blog-post_2450.html **

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Ostroumov S.A., Kotelevtsev S.V., Toderas I.K., Gorshkova O.M. (Eds.) Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions, vol.18, 2013

Казахстан. Алма-Ата. Центральная научная библиотека. Министерство образования и науки. Введение в биохимическую экологию. - М.: Изд-во МГУ; Введение в проблемы биохимической экологии: Биотехнология, сельское хозяйство, охрана среды / http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/blog-post_5025.html ** Polish edition of this book and its citation: Citation of book: "Wprowadzenie do ekologii biochemicznej", PWN, Warszawa, 1992; [it is the Polish edition of the book: Introduction to Biochemical Ecology, Moscow, 1986]. Publications of Polish scientists and lecture courses at Polish universities. http://www.scribd.com/doc/51131227 ** After publishing this book, some othe relevant publications were published. Among them a paper entitled On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators. On the paper on ‘ecological chemomediators’ that followed the book, see the blog post: ** On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/newecological-chemomediatorson-concepts.html ** On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators.- CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, 2008, 1 (2): 238244. http://www.scribd.com/doc/104721100; Full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/41634664 ** Addition to facts that prove importance of the book, Introduction to Biochemical Ecology. Marine secondary metabolites: Examples of marine pharmaceuticals, http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/11/addition-to-facts-that-prove-importance.html ** On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: Ecological chemomediators. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2008, 1 (2): 238-244. Moscow University. http://www.scribd.com/doc/73795942 http://www.scribd.com/doc/63711272/ ** Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects. A. V. Yablokov, S. A. Ostroumov; Springer http://www.scribd.com/doc/63176028/Bookentitled-Conservation-of-Living-Nature-and-Resources-Problems-Trends-andProspects-A-V-Yablokov-S-A-Ostroumov-Springer-Verlag-http

Citation the #book Yablokov, Ostroumov: #Conservation of living nature and resources: problems, trends, and prospects. http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/01/cited-bookyablokov-ostroumov.html

** Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects. Springer-Verlag. http://www.scribd.com/doc/63176028 ** Book: Conservation of living nature and resources: by: A.Yablokov, S.Ostroumov: in libraries: USA, Canada, France,Germany, http://www.scribd.com/doc/82796732/BookConservation-of-living-nature-and-resources-problems-trends-and-prospects-by-A-VIAblokov-A-V-Yablokov-Sergei-A-Ostroumov-is-availa

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** Conservation of living nature and resources: Yablokov A.V.; Ostroumov S.A. Book Availability: Netherlands, Germany, U.S.A., Australia, Africa, Switzerland, France, Denmark,
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/09/conservation-of-living-nature-and_28.html

** Book: Conservation of Living Nature and Resources. A.V.Yablokov, S.A.Ostroumov. Annotation, Reviews, Citation worldwide. http://www.scribd.com/doc/92795154/
http://www.springer.com/life+sciences/ecology/book/978-3-642-75378-7

** Innovative book A.V.Yablokov, S.A.Ostroumov 'Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects'
http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2012/06/conservation-of-living-nature-and.html

** First monograph and multi-aspect review on conservation biology: Conservation of living nature and resources. http://www.scribd.com/doc/57039493/ **

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Cultural program. Page of poetry. The conferences of this series often include some cultural program that is reflected in the publications of the proceedings. As a result, in these publications both scientific and cultural activities are presented. According to this tradition, the content of this publication includes a variety of materials. Here a poem written by a U.S. poet and thinker, Dane Gordon, is published. Dane visited St.Peterburg a while ago. His impressions in Russia inspired him to write a series of poems. An example of his creativity is presented here. “Is” and “Ought” No “ought” from an “is” was an axiom not to be questioned except by careless thinkers. Now we do question because the physical “is” that surrounds us has brought into being the metaphysical “ought” of we who wonder. The axiom has vanished. How can we account for what remains? It is as profoundly difficult to understand as claims about God. We don’t see God so it is hard to understand. We do see the material of the universe. But despite that advantage it does not explain how “ought” arises from “is,” or why, or whether metaphysics is, after all, the key to unlock physics, or whether physics has no need of metaphysics and is as self-contained as it was. Or is the appearance from “is” of “ought” an epiphany of what some call God, newly understood? Dane R. Gordon

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Ecologist of Year According to the tradition of this conference series, the conference finalizes the process of nomination of individuals for the honorary title of Aquatic Ecologist or Ecologist of the Year. This year, the individual who received the honorary title of Ecologist of the Year are: Professor Alexey V. Yablokov (Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences) and Professor Jerald L. Snoor (U.S.A., The University of Iowa).

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