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Review of Two Books on Leadership- Susheel Kandalgaonkar, Faculty. Book: 1.

The One-Minute Manager: Increase Productivity, profits, and your own prosperity by Blanchard K and Johnson S Harper Collins Publishers, 1983. Book: 2.The 59-Second Employee, How to stay one second ahead of your one minute manager by Andre R and Ward P. Panther - Granada Publishing, 1984. The One- Minute Manager or TOMM belongs to the category of popular management literature published in 1983. Though it is difficult to know how many managers have actually read it, one can definitely say that it reflects the beliefs and assumptions of popular management literature. The purpose of this review is to discover the beliefs, assumptions and values of management, as reflected in popular management literature. The One Minute Manager (TOMM) is presented, as a parable to illustrate the best way of managing, "Once there was a bright young man who was looking for an effective manager'. But unlike classical parables it has ;'0 second meaning at moral, psychological or spiritual level and hence parable remains at surface, one-dimensional level In fact, it reduces the complexity of organizational reality to simplistic conclusions in less than hundred pages and this may be one of the reasons of its popularity. The young man who listens to The One Minute Manager represents the mindset of all practicing managers who do not have the patience for either serious research-based books or radical theory that challenges the conventional wisdom of management folklore. Here, Skinner's theory 0 behavioural modification through reinforcement and ( Reddin's concept of goal setting for effectiveness reappear in a diluted formula that could be applied( in any situation successfully! TOMM represents the media-created image c successful executives who possess a kit of tool: and techniques of managing people and tasks. The hero of the parable is depicted with behavioural traits that are summarized below. 1. He is always smiling and always seems to be in charge of the situation. 2. He does a few things in short time and gets great results. 3. He is busy, no nonsense executive. "Do not ask me to repeat myself" is a refrain. 4. He is sure of himself and believes that others perceive him positively. 5. He communicates in simple and short statements. 6. He focuses on behavior and performance rather than on thinking and feeling. 7. He is tough and nice rather than nice and tough with people. Interestingly, there are some self-doubts in the mind of hero-manager about the moral basis of getting things done through others in an efficient way. These issues are addressed by recommending a policy of transparency and good intentions.

"Manipulation is getting people do something they are either not aware of or don't agree to. That is why it is important to let people know from the start what you are doing and why." "Nobody ever really works for anybody else. I just help people work better and in the process they benefit our organization. The distinguishing feature of TOMM is its unilateral advocacy of popular management thought and techniques. The format of parable is used for creating an ambience of make believe fairy tale rather than for expressing deeper truth. In fact, it reduces managerial leadership to supervisory techniques of improving personal and departmental efficiency rather than creating a passion of transformational leadership. At the same time, it assumes that those who would be managed by popular formula of TOMM would like to remain as one-dimensional as eversmiling manager ofTOMM Book 2:The 59-Second Employee (TFSE) With this background, it is significant to compare TOMM with The 59-Second Employee (TFSE), a book that was published a year later, in 1984. It takes a critical and humorous look at the consequences of applying the prescriptions of TOMM in the context of a modern factory. TFSE's subtitle mentions that it would teach employees" how to stay ahead of your one minute manager." The form and the style of TFSE tries to give the missing dimension to the context-less prescription of TOMM. The story takes place in the context of a factory, manufacturing widgets and obliquely states counter-assumptions, beliefs and values of those who are subjects and objects of management! This book is a consciously written antidote to quick-fix managers who are eager to manage others but wish to avoid the uncertainty and un predictability of those who are managed. TFSE recognizes the fact that a work organization consists of multiple, political and selfinterest groups rather than a unitary power in the hands of the management. It reveals that management policy may not always be in the interests of employees. It offers "how to do" tips on survival and growth for employees. It includes (unlike TOMM) female characters who are in the role of manager. It emphasizes the tangible investment in products and work rather than mere talk about investment in people. TFSE questions the self-righteous belief of popular management literature that managers (bosses) are not dependent on their employees for success. It views organizational politics, in a positive way Le., lower levels influencing upper levels as a way to keep organizations trim and honest. In fact, organizational politics is seen as a legitimate aspect of work place.

Another assumption of management in TFSE is that it does not believe in one best way to manage or attempt to offer permanent solutions to all situations. The 59-second employee learns some hard lessons on organization as a system that is populated by self-serving managers who legitimize their personal goals and push organizational goals towards subordinates. "The boss puts efficiency above communication and numbers above needs, I am just going to protect myself." The 59-second employee strives to stay one significant second ahead of the one-minute manager. He uses the extra time to plan his strategy, and he learns to manage upwards. "I will use the system on them. If I can't join them at their game of behaviour modification, I'll try to beat them. /'If do things differently. I would improve on the goal setting technique. I'll take advantage of the praising and avoid reprimands." The smart 59-second employee does not wish to avoid but dislikes unilateral behavioural modification and control of task by the boss. He expects human communication rather than efficient communication. He expects equal importance to his needs rather than onedimensional importance to output in quantifiable terms. He finds one-minute reprimands quite insulting and learns to be assertive and manipulative because he knows his intentions are not to avoid work but to maintain his dignity and humanness. He hates the slavery of the capitalist-bureaucratic system that gives authority to positions and jobs rather than to individual employee or to work groups. In contrast, TOMM creates an illusion of perfect world where manager is the hero who always wins. And it does not clarify the unequal relationship between the boss and the subordinate. Though this book creates an illusion that everything is fine and everybody lives happily forever with the magic formula of one-minute praise, one-minute reprimand and one-minute goal-setting, it glosses over the uneasy facts of power and control and resultant alienation of individual from others and separation of man from himself and his work. However, the 59-second employee does not expect a radical change in the work organization. He works within the system with available resources and wisdom based on past experience of working in organizations. The book offers some tips for success for those without power. "Your success at managing your boss depends on quality and currency of information that you TFSE advises employees to give mild positive and negative feedback to bosses and observe their reactions for further action.

Managing organization is as important as managing your boss. Some tips for long-term career strategy are given in TFSE: (1) Companies are made up of coalition and company goals are the goals of the strongest coalition. As an employee you can join organization, create coalitions and lead them. (2) Another way to manage your company from below is to move out of dispensable job, so that everyone gets the idea that they all have to continue to deal with you permanently. (3) 59-second employees should examine the truthfulness of the statement made by the top management that employees are important to the company. Utility of these tips depend on your political awareness that can be acquired by becoming a coalition member. Conclusion TOMM upholds the dominant values of management culture where words speak louder than action, rhetoric gets priority over authenticity, facts and numbers are more important than feelings and intuition. In contrast, TFSE creates a world where work and worker get a central position in the economic activity of wealth creation; politics of coalition and groups gain legitimacy because organizations and cultures are conceived in pluralist rather than a unitarist perspective. One can conclude that TFSE was a timely-" antidote to one-dimensional vision of managerial leadership epitomized in TOMM. Unfortunately, it stated the message in humorous understatements and could not become a part of popular management literature. Message of TFSE is subtle, oblique and deeper. Discerning readers of management literature would find the message refreshingly new. (Source The Linkpin, IMDR Quarterly Magazine, Issue 3, January 2004)