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Term 1, II English A Lecturer Dr Daniela Davidescu Brown
COURSE ON VICTORIANISM UNITS 3-4 NEO-CLASSICAL AND ROMANTIC INFLUENCES
I. NEO-CLASSICAL INHERITANCE A. In the Novel The epistolary novel: In Pamela (1740) and Clarissa (1747-1748), written in the form of letters exchanged between lovers, friends, and kinsmen, Samuel Richardson ---- highly personal, confessional tone, 1st person narrative, the reader‟s empathetic response
Example from Victorian novels 1. First person narrative was often used by Victorian authors 2.epistolary echoes in mid 19c Charles Dickens Bleak House 3.(confetional tone of Thackery)“I know that the tune I am piping is a very mild one (although there are some terrific chapters coming presently), and must beg the good-natured READER to remember that we are only discoursing at present about a stockbroker's family in Russell Square, who are taking walks, or luncheon, or dinner, or talking and making love as people do in common life, and without a single passionate and wonderful incident to mark the progress of their loves.”
The picaresque novel: followed a picaresque hero —Henry Fielding, in Joseph Andrews (1742), Tom Jonesagainst (1749) a vivid panorama of lower-class society — Tobias Smollett's Roderick Random (1748) —Between 1759 and 1767, Laurence Sterne wrote his comic masterpiece The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, in which the hero, who is the narrator, is not born until halfway through the book
getting him a new identity 3. by the political philosopher William Godwin ---- didactic tone of the author 1.They evolve from inexperience through suffering. In some Victorian novels the stress falls on town life . dungeons. A Victorian reminiscence of the 18th c didactic novel is to be found the didactic tone of the author The comedy of manners: —it deals with the clash between characters formed by particular cultural and social conditions. the Victorian hero of picaresque influence has a tendency to keep his moral status intact. —Most famous was the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Émile. The competence of reason to make the right choice. the great example was Jane Austen (Pride and Prejudice. In Perspective 1.he is despite all odds in the end rewarded with1.social classes and the responsabilty of the individual. II.Victorian understanding of the picaresque hero He is an orphan(in 18c orphan meant to have no identy. tombs. chains. Emma. 1813.getting him married to the woman of his dreams The didactic novel: theories of education and politics were expressed. 2. therefore to no longer belong to society) 2 He is very generous and loving but very careless with regulations He is cast out from his family He goes in the world embaring on a quest of of identity and having an adventurous life He is a victim of circumstances. . ROMANTIC A. Traité de l'éducation (1762). 2. 1816).getting him married to the woman of his dreams Most of Victorian heroes or heroins are also orphans but their adventures are not so very much in space.getting him richly married . ou.Society seen as a mechanism in which human beings are mechanichal parts for the whole device to run well. supernatural manifestations. The Gothic novel: —the element of horror is created by the use of apparitions. and nature in its more terrifying aspects. Unlike the 18c picaresque hero who was a trixter . ---- comic typology B. —A British didactic novel was Caleb Williams (1794).getting him a new identity 3.
history and culture The Middle Ages The Renaissance MEDIEVAL INFLUENCES A.---- dark characters. moral serious . a very rich material: They adopted both the medieval quest for self sublimation (the Holy Grail) and the attraction of sin 1. the Knights of the Round Table theme of love: Marital love between Arthur and Gwenevere . The medieval way of thinking and expressing itself offered the 19th c. the power to suffer for a promised afterlife and the historical biblical past brought into the present.Sinfull love between Lancelot and unaccomplished love between Shalot and Lancelot the spiritual quest. deep religious background Renunciation of wordly things. Thematic influences: Medieval and Renaissance The Victorians manipulated [ SPACE] .the Imperial expansion developed the need for exoticism & for civilising “savageness” [ TIME ] .the past. simple life. sublimation the rise & fall of social harmony: Camelot. the king. glorious historical events 2. —Later examples are Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) and Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's Frankenstein (1818). . legendary cultural background : the Arthurian cycle the model of the knight: loyalty to God. his lady. mysterious settings and situations. the search for the Holy Grail 3. bravery./ Rich medieval material.3 —The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto (1764). unexplained manifestations B.
an attempt at defining the present.4 4. George Eliot (Silas Marner)./ Painting./ Literature: The Neo-Gothic influences coming from Romanticism: violent./ Victorian use of medieval elements. sculpture. Victorian literature & art made use of medievalism I. to the origins (pre-Christian. dark atmosphere. religious buildings like churches and chatedrals and secular buildings( the house of Parliament echoed medieval gothic architecture) A return to the past through architecture by medieval gothic. ESSAY: John Ruskin (The Stones of Venice: The Savageness of Gothic Architecture ) . The Beguiling of Merlin by Edward Burne-Jones—1874) — religious themes (Christ in the House of his Parents by John Everett Millais—1850. Christian). The Neo Gothic elements become fashionable and are meant to build an atmosphere of the past./Neo gothic architecture. The religious looses its divine element in secular buildings yet trying to preserve some of it. tapestries . a return to the roots. David Copperfield ).Raphaelite movement & William Morris ( Arts and Crafts movement ) Characteristics: sentimentality. The Annunciation by Dante Gabriel Rossetti—1850 and 1855) III. The visible stress is on the materialization and spiritualization. The Brontes. Thomas Hardy. The Pre. II. lost essence Examples: —the theme of guilt and forgiveness ( Arthur and Guenevere ) —the change of roles (King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid by Edward Burne-Jones— 1884) — the unaccomplished love ( The Lady of Shalott by William Holman Hunt—1886. thrilling feelings. NOVEL: Dickens (Great Expectations. sweetness. the identity of a nation B.
G. Rossetti.the medieval scholasticism brought into focus. Lancelot and Elaine.5 POETRY: A. ./ The reasons Victorians made use of the medieval past: 1. corruption and death. Merlin and the gleam. THE IDYLLS OF THE KING (1859-1885). R. The emphasis on the religious is not at all felt: the quest for the Holy Grail is a morbid mysticism that destroys the system: Camelot and The Round Table Catholic religious reinforcement: Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889). Hopkins. 12 books (chapters) that highlight different moments from the Arthurian legends (the influence of Thomas Malory’s Morte d’Arthur). betrayal (adulterous love).The 19c worker should be a creative thinker and not a „machine‟. Morte d’Arthur. disloyalty. Morris C. Looking at the titles above. Browning. W. we notice the poet‟s stress on sin. Political reinforcement of the present and a warning: legendary past failure for present success: Alfred Tennyson. M. The Victorian builders are enslaved by machines. G. Tennyson. The Passing of Arthur. to manipulate the past & reinforce a present idea The medieval style was made use of in order to defend the Chartist movement. D. Several titles from The Idylls…:Guenevere. They simply reproduce a pattern emposed by patrons and their machines. Themes: The struggle of the elite to restore order in situation of chaos and anarchy The rise and fall of a civilization A warning for Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.In the “savageness of gothic architecture “J Ruskin defend the rude gothic architecture because those medieval buildings had the freedom of the detail even though it was imprisoned within the religious masses.
a movement of ideas initiated by a feq Oxford students led by John Newman who were of the opnion that the Anglican Protestant Church has lost its credibility and many of its believers because it has distanced himself away from the original ceremonies of the Christian Church which were Catholic./ CELESTIAL. Suitable medieval models for the Victorian themes of love a. He sustained the primacy of WILL.reality. the artist is caught between the world of illusions. In Rossetti‟s poem. 2. God is unimportant. Beatrice expresses the eternal idea of love and reunion with the beloved in an Adamic heaven before the fall. The Arthurian legendary past. The model of the medieval knight .a dialogue between Dante‟s Divina Commedia and Dante Gabriel Rossetti‟s BLESSED DAMOZEL.. ( CHILDE ROLAND TO THE DARK TOWER CAME ) 4. Oxford Movement. Through faith the soul became immortal & incorruptible. Intertexuality. of creation (the mirror) and the need to enjoy life (the window). His religious poetry shows that everything is connected with everything in the Universe because all is created by God.6 He was influenced by the medieval Duns Scotus. Hopkins underwent a religious crisis and become a Jesuit priest./ EROTIC. Hopkins was also influenced by the Oxford movement. He believed in the existence of God to whom one could reach by knowledge & revelation.Scottish theologian & philosopher.Hopkins calls Inscape things that communicate with one another and Instress the energies that help the communication realize. 3. FREEDOM over the Intellect. heaven is a sad. Understanding adulterous love: William Morris’ DEFENCE OF GUENEVERE (1858) . founder of Scotism. lonely place with weeping lovers are waiting for their pairs. Living means the death of creation.the knight‟s quest for the ultimate truth is an opportunity for Robert Browning to describe the adventure of plunging into the experience of death and the adventure of seeing life as a Wasteland. LOVE.a symbolic source for philosophising the relationship artist-world. dream. In Alfred Tennyson‟s LADY OF SHALOTT. b.
& Faulkner. Marshall. Arguing that the true basis of art lay in the crafts. the painter and critic F. 1 The Pre-Raphaelite Movement or Brotherhood was initiated in 1848 by three painters: a. his firm promoted hand-made textiles. and a nearphotographic reproduction of minute details.interested in Romantic themes based on Byron-. Stephens. wallpaper. when the English designer William Morris founded the firm of Morris. © 1993-1999 Microsoft Corporation.) 1"Arts and Crafts Movement. Morris and his followers attacked the sterility and ugliness of machine-made products./ John Everett Millais. c. Ford Madox Brown. dreamlike atmosphere. and furniture. and Edward Burnes-Jones who preferred the ancient classical and medieval themes. a clear atmosphere. They mainly referred to biblical and medieval literary themes. chiaroscuro and a hazy. Hunt and Millais used strong and brilliant lighting.7 Arts and Crafts Movement. (The painter James Collinson. art movement of the last half of the 19th century that strove to revitalize handicrafts and applied arts during an era of increasing mass production. and the critic William Michael Rossetti (Dante Gabriel's brother) joined them by invitation.G." Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. were also practitioners of the Pre-Raphaelite style./ William Holman Hunt (the oldest in the group at that time: 21 years old)./ Dante Gabriel Rossetti ( also a poet ) b. All rights reserved. books. Dante Gabriel Rossetti made use of blurred lines. . The movement coalesced in 1861. the sculptor Thomas Woolner. The painters William Dyce.
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