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# HAL

AUTOSTABILIZATION SYSTEM

## AUTOSTABILIZATION SYSTEM IN AIRCRAFT

Aircraft

Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of rotation in three dimensionsabout the vehicle's center of mass, known as roll, pitch and yaw (quite different from their use as Tait-Bryan angles).

Aircraft engineers develop control systems for a vehicle's orientation (attitude) about itscenter of mass. The control systems include actuators, which exert forces in various directions, and
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generate rotational forces or moments about the center of gravity of the aircraft, and thus rotate the aircraft in pitch, roll, or yaw. For example, a pitching moment is a vertical force applied at a distance forward or aft from the center of gravity of the aircraft, causing the aircraft to pitch up or down.

Roll, pitch and yaw refer, in this context, to rotations about the respective axes starting from a defined equilibrium state. The equilibrium roll angle is known as wings level or zero bank angle, equivalent to a level heeling angle on a ship. Yaw is known as "heading". The equilibrium pitch angle in submarine and airship parlance is known as "trim", but in aircraft, this usually refers to angle of attack, rather than orientation. However, common usage ignores this distinction between equilibrium and dynamic cases.

A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA). The roll angle is also known as bank angle on a fixed wing aircraft, which usually "banks" to change the horizontal direction of flight. An aircraft is usually streamlined from nose to tail to reduce drag making it typically advantageous to keep the sideslip angle near zero, though there are instances when an aircraft may be deliberately "sideslipped" for example a slip in a fixed wing aircraft.

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AUTOSTABILIZATION SYSTEM

Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle's center of mass, known aspitch, roll and yaw (quite different from their use as Tait-Bryan angles). Aerospace engineers develop control systems for a vehicle's orientation (attitude) about its center of mass. The control systems include actuators, which exert forces in various directions, and generate rotational forces ormoments about the aerodynamic center of the aircraft, and thus rotate the aircraft in pitch, roll, or yaw. For example, a pitching moment is a vertical force applied at a distance forward or aft from the aerodynamic center of theaircraft, causing the aircraft to pitch up or down.

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AUTOSTABILIZATION SYSTEM

Roll, pitch and yaw refer to rotations about the respective axes starting from a defined equilibrium state. The equilibrium roll angle is known as wings level or zero bank angle, equivalent to a level heeling angle on a ship. Yaw is known as "heading". The equilibrium pitch angle in submarine and airship parlance is known as "trim", but in aircraft, this usually refers to angle of attack, rather than orientation. However, common usage ignores this distinction between equilibrium and dynamic cases. The most common aeronautical convention defines the roll as acting about the longitudinal axis, positive with the starboard (right) wing down. The yaw is about the vertical body axis, positive with the nose to starboard. Pitch is about an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of symmetry, positive nose up. A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA). The roll angle is also known as bank angle on a fixed wing aircraft, which usually "banks" to change the horizontal direction of flight. An aircraft is usually streamlined from nose to tail to reduce drag making it typically advantageous to keep the sideslip angle near zero, though there are instances when an aircraft may be deliberately "sideslipped" for example a slip in a fixed wing aircraft. The position (and hence motion) of an aircraft is generally defined relative to one of 3 sets of co-ordinate systems: Wind axes X axis - positive in the direction of the oncoming air (relative wind) Y axis - positive to right of X axis, perpendicular to X axis Z axis - positive downwards, perpendicular to X-Y plane Inertial axes (or body axes) - based about aircraft CG
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X axis - positive forward, through nose of aircraft Y axis - positive to right of X axis, perpendicular to X axis Z axis - positive downwards, perpendicular to X-Y plane Earth Axes X axis - positive in the direction of north Y axis - positive in the direction of east (perpendicular to X axis) Z axis - positive towards the center of Earth (perpendicular to X-Y plane) For flight dynamics applications the earth axes are generally of minimal use, and hence will be ignored. The motions relevant to dynamic stability are usually too short in duration for the motion of the Earth itself to be considered relevant for aircraft. In flight dynamics, pitch, roll and yaw angles measure both the absolute attitude angles (relative to the horizon/North) and changes in attitude angles, relative to the equilibrium orientation of the vehicle. These are defined as:

Pitch - angle of X body axis (nose) relative to horizon. Also a positive (nose up) rotation about Y body axis

Roll - angle of Y body axis (wing) relative to horizon. Also a positive (right wing down) rotation about X body axis

Yaw - angle of X body axis (nose) relative to North. Also a positive (nose right) rotation about Z body axis

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AUTOSTABILIZATION SYSTEM

In analyzing the dynamics, we are concerned both with rotation and translation of this axis set with respect to a fixed inertial frame. For all practical purposes a local Earth axis set is used, this has X and Y axis in the local horizontal plane, usually with the x-axis coinciding with the projection of the velocity vector at the start of the motion, on to this plane. The z axis is vertical, pointing generally towards the Earth's center, completing an orthogonal set.

In general, the body axes are not aligned with the Earth axes. The body orientation may be defined by three Euler angles, the TaitBryan rotations, a quaternion, or a direction cosine matrix (rotation matrix). A rotation matrix is particularly convenient for converting velocity, force, angular velocity, and torque vectors between body and Earth coordinate frames.

Body axes tend to be used with missile and rocket configurations. Aircraft stability uses wind axes in which the x-axis points along the velocity vector. For straight and level flight this is found from body axes by rotating nose down through the angle of attack.

Stability deals with small perturbations in angular displacements about the orientation at the start of the motion. This consists of two components; rotation about each axis, and angular displacements due change in orientation of each axis. The latter term is of second order for the purpose of stability analysis, and is ignored.

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AUTOSTABILIZATION SYSTEM

## Autostabilizer computer unit

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AUTOSTABILIZATION SYSTEM

The autostabilizer computer unit ,internal views of which are given in fig2 and 3 consists basically of two subminiature rate gyro units,a manometric module and three electronic modules that is power supply,divider and output modules. The rate gyro units,the manometric and electronic modules are mounted on a cast alloy chassis together with a toroid and tagboard assembly.These are protected by the top and bottom covers and end and side panels.A digital type elapsed time indicator is mounted at the centre front of the chassis, and on eitherside of this are two Souriau 41 way connectors.One, identified CU provides external connection to the autostabilizer unit,the othee identified test ,provides internal test connections.A 26 way connector,located on the side panel and identified RS,provides connections for supplementary inputs. Each of the electronic module consists of several component panel assemblies mounted mounted on a cover plate.In the case of output and divider module,some of the component assembiles are of the cordwood type.Pine mounted on the cover plates form the electrical connections to the module and are soldered to a cableform which provides the electrical link between components. Each of the module assemblies is dip coated to afford environment protection and housed in a plated steel can which mates with the cover plates,the module cans are sealed using a fillet for solder an iron wire.

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OPERATION
Brief description of operation
The autostabilizer computer generates pitch and yaw rate gyro signals,whish iprocesses together with signals representing static and pitot pressure inputs,inorder to provide three servo amplifier outputs suitable for driving the electro-hydraulic servo actuators(two in pitch one in yaw)included in the tailplane and rudder control systems. The pitch and the yaw rate gyro signals each provide sinusoidal output signals proportional to the aircraft pitch and yaw rates.these signals are connected into separate channels(pitch and yaw),in each of which they are initially converted to dc by demodulating circuits,and then connected via isolating buffer stages to variable gain amplifiers.in the yaw channel,the buffer stage is an operational amplifier of unit gain,which provides a facility of a summing input point for an additional yaw channel input.prior to application to the variable gain amplifiers,the dc pitch and yaw signals are connected via 10hz filters.These filters compensate for 10hz resonances in the aircraft frame,which would otherwise cause unwanted oscillations in the output signals.In each channel,the variable gain amplifiers are controlled,by processing circuits which produce control signals proportional to static pressure and pitot minus static pressure inputs. The static and pitot minus static pressure are obtained from inductive pick-offs operated by pressure sensitive capsules within the manometric module.The signals being derived from static and pitot pressure inputs.These sinusoidal pressure signals from the manometric module are applied to rectifiers,the dc outputs from which are connected to differential amplifiers.These circuits compare the two inputs and operate on the least negative as determined by the change over of control from pitot minus static to static at M=0.95.The resulting output from the comparator is then fed to the function
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generator via a limiting circuit.The circuit imposes both min and max limits on the signal applied to the integrating amplifier at the input of the function generator each function generator consists of an integrating amplifier operating in conjuction with a bistable circuit.Their action is such that the mark space ratio of the bistable output depends on the amplitude of the pressure signal input.this output is sued to control the feedback circuit of the variable gain amplifier, so that the amplifier gain becomes inversely proportional to the amplitude of the pressure signal input. The output from the variable gain amplifier in the pitch channel is applied to two washout time constant circuit,these circuits forming part of the pitch1 and pitch2 servo amplifier channels which drive the port and starboard tail plane control systems.The yaw output signals is applied to one washout time constant only,this circuit forming part of the rudder servo amplifier channels which drives the servo actuators of the rudder control system.The washout time constant circuits are incorporated to filter out steady state signals due to long term monoeuvres eg. Aircraft turns. Subcequent to the washout circuits the yaw and two pitch signals are applied to the in their particular channel together with demodulated position feedback signals from the rudder and tailplanes.The pitch channels also receive spoiler compensation signals which compensate for pitch axis variations due to the use of the spoilers.As a result each servo amplifier produces an output signal suitable for driving the servo actuators controlling the aircraft in its particular axis. The power supplies for the computer are derived from the 115v,400hz input via toroid tr1 and the power supply module.The ac requirements are obtained from the chassis mounted toroid,which also power inputs for the power supply module.This module gives the various internally required unstabilised dc voltages, as well as
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providing a circuit for delaying the energisation of the external hydraulic restrictor.An elpsed time indicator is also incorporated in the unit,which operates from the main power input and provides a record of the running time of the unit.Test facilities are made available via test socket which is connected to many of the signal and voltage paths.many of the signal and voltage paths.many of the signal and voltage paths.

## Gyro and test magnet assemblies

The autostabiliser computer contains two identical gyro and test magnet assemblier, one gyro detects disturbances in pitch and the other disturbances in yaw. Each assembly consists of three main sections; the gyro wheel and gimbal assembly, the inductive pick-off and theself-test magnet. The gyro wheel is driven at 12,000 r.p.m by its internal 3-phase synchronous motor, which derives its power supply from the 115V, 400Hz computer input via phase shifting circuits in the divider module. The inductive pick-off consists of a rotor (attached to the gimbal) and a stator, the latter carrying both primary and secondary windings. When the primary is energised by a 26V, 400Hz single phase supply from the computer power supply module and the rotor is rotated relative to the stator, a sinusoidal output is produced whose amplitude is proportional to the rate of pitch or yaw and whose phase depends on the direction of movement. The self-test magnet enables the assembly to be checked qualitatively the simulating the application of rate when the magnet is energised, This occurs when a constant current supply is connected across pins TEST-W and TEST-t for one sense of output and across TEST-t and TEST-K for the other sense.
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Manometric module

The manometric module provides facilities for producing static pressure and pitot pressure minus sattic pressure linear function output signals from static(S) and pitot(P) pressure inputs. These inputs are applied to capsules within the module, each of which has an associated variable pich-off which is energised by a common 26V, 400Hz single phase supply. The pick-off associated with the static pressure capsule produces a linear function output signal (S) proportional to this pressure input, while the second pick-off produces a linear function output signal(P-S) proportional to the difference pressure produced by the secind capsule.

Divider module
The divider module contains two similar signal processing channels, one of which is provided with a pitch rate input (pin 1 and 10) while the other receives a yaw rate input (pins 23 and24). In both cases, the channels are provided with static and pitot minus static pressure signals, which are processed for use in controlling the module pitch and yaw signals outputs. The folling description is of the tailplane channel (all components prefixed 1), but applies to the rudder channel (all components prefixed 2) except where special reference is made to any differences. The 400Hz pitch rate signal from the pitch gyro is applied to the divider module across pins 1 and 10, from where it is connected to the half wave demodulator consisting of PNP transistor 1TR1 via phase advancing capacitor 1C1 and 1C20. The demodulator is
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controlled by a 26V a.c. single phase supply connected to the module at pin 2 and applied to the base of transistor 1TR1 via diode 1D8 and resistor 1R2. The reverse bias protection diode, and hence the transistor, conduct on negative half-cycles of the supply so that the pitch rate signal is applied to filter 1R1, 1C2 on every negative halfcycle. The demodulator action thus produces a positive or negative d.c. output, depending on the phase of the gyro signal. The d.c. pitch signal is then connected to the input of operational amplifier 1IC3 which acts as a buffer satge and isolates the gyro pitch rate input from succeeding stages. IC35 and IC36 act as radio suppression filter. From the buffer stage, the pitch signal is connected via a notch filter, 1C21 to 1C23, 1R56 and 1R57 (10 Hz aero structural filter), and phase advance network, 1C24, 1C26, 1R33 and 1R42 to the input of gain controlled operational amplifier 1IC2. 1C31 and 1C32 act as radio suppression filter. The notch filter is incorporated to componsate for aircraft structural resonance at about 10 Hz, while tha phase advance network provides for losses through the channel and also in the external hydraulic system. In the rudder channel, operational amplifier 2IC3 acts as a buffer stage, but also provides the facility of a summing point for the additional yaw input via pin 28 and resistor 2R52. The datum level of the d.c. pitch input to the gain controlled operational amplifier 1IC2 is set by the potential divider chain 1R10, 1R11, 1R12 and 1R13 final adjustments of this being provided by the select-in-test resistors 1R30, 1R31 and 1R32. 1C31 and 1C32 act as radio suppression filter. The gain controlled amplifier then processes the signal, the gain of the amplifier being set by the feedback network 1R68, 1R69 and 1C10, This network is controlled by the double emitter transistor 1TR11 the actions being detailed in subsequent text, which operates on inputs produced by the pressure signal processing channel to short the network to 0V.
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The output from the operational amplifier provides the pitch rate outputs from the module, these being routed via an external link capacotor 1C115 and resistor 1R100, capacitor 2C15 and resistor 2R100 pitch rate a.c. outputs, and resistor 1R for the pitch rate d.c. output (pin 12). The rudder channel output is routed direct from operational amplifier 2IC2 to capacitor 2C17 and resistor 2R for the yaw rate d.c. output (pin 5). The pitch and yaw rate d.c. outputs provide separate test facilities for the pitch and yaw signals the difficulty of checking in the a.c. path which forms part of a wash-out circuit. The static (S) and pitot minus sattic (P-S) pressure signals are applied to the module at(rudder channel, pin 14 and 4 ) respectively, from where they are connected into a rectifying circuitry via a potential divider network, In the signal applied to the tail plane channel, the potential divider comprises resistor 1R5 , 1R5 and 1R10. The rectifying network consists of PNP transistor 1TR6 and capacitor 1C6, on application of signal, the transistor conducts to produce a negative d.c. output is applied to the two differential amplifier transistors, either NPN transistor 1TR7 or NPN transistor 1TR2, then conducts, depending on which of the two signals is least negative, as a result, the least negative signal is applied to the common emitter point, and effectively biases off the other transistor. Any offset (variation of voltages around zero) in the difference amplifier is removed by bias resistors 1R36, 1R38, 1R39 and 1R40. The output signal appearing at the common emitter is then fed via resistors 1r12 and 1r13 and capacitor 1c7 in parrel with capacitor 1c17to the input of the operational amplifier.Resistors 1r12 and 1r15 together with resistor 1r11 comprise a potential divider which sets the maximum negative emitter voltage.This potential divider is connected between -14v and the virtual earth existing at the input to operational amplifier 1rc1.The result of this is that any more negative variation of the signal below the negative potential set at the
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common emitter point tends to bias of whichever transistor is conducting, and hence to limit the input signal.Capacitor 1c7 and 1c17 provide decoupling for any residual ripple in the signal voltage. The datum of the input to operational amplifier 1rc1 is shifted by bias resistors 1r17 and 1r16 to transform the input into signal possessing and negative components.Operational amplifier 1rc1 together with pnp transistor 1tr14,npn transistor 1tr13 and various resistors,capacitors and diodes,forms a variable mark space,square wave oscillator circuit which provides an output function suitable for controlling the gain of operational amplifier 1rc2. Resistors 1r18 and 1r19 form a negative feedback loop which sets the gain of operational amplifier 1rc1 whilst capacitor 1c8 together with positive feedback resistor 1r21 converts the operational amplifier into squarewave oscillator.As the operational amplifier functions as an oscillator,the relationship between the positive and negative amplitudes of the input will determine the mark space ratio of the oscillator output.Thus any variations in the input component will produce a variation in the mark space ratio of the output.The mean of the output from the oscillator is measured by resistor 1r28 and 1c9.When the mean approaches a negative value determined by the bias resistor 1r24,1r25 and 1r26, transistors 1tr13 and 1tr14 will conduct and produce an additional negative input to the oscillator.This limits the mark space ratio into the more negative than positive region, and prevents 1tr11 being switched on continuously and shorting out the feedback of the amplifier 1tc2 and in turn imposing a high gain limit on the amplifier.As the accuracy of the mark space ratio of the oscillator output is critical, zener diodes 1d1 and 1d2 together with resistors 1r20 and 1r21 are introduced to further stabilize the +13 and -13 power supply to the circuit. The output from from the variable mark space, squarewave oscillator is fed, via resistor 1r29,to the base of double emitter
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transistor 1tr11.When the output is negative, transistor 1tr11 conducts and the feedback around operational amplifier 1tc2 is shorted to 0v.When transistor 1tr11 is switched off,the gain of amplifier 1rc2 is determined by the resistive feedback network 1r68,1r69,1r70 and 1r71.As transistor 1tr11 is switched on and off at about 10khz by 1tc1,the feedback is provided in pulses which are integrated by 1c10.The mean feedback is a function of the mark space ratio and therefore is such that the more transistor 1vt11 is conducting the less the feedback and hence the higher the gain.Thus the gain varies inversely as the amplitude of the The module also contains phase compensation circuits consisting of capacitors 1c18 and 1c19 and resistors 1r46 and 1r47.These are connected across pitch and yaw gyro C phase supplies at pin 7 and 8 and provide the necessary phase compensation before the supplies are applied to the pitch and yaw gyro units via pins 17 and 16 respectively,pin6 being common. Internal stabilized =13v ,0 ,-13v dc power supplies are provided by the module.These being derived from +24, 0, -24 at pins 18, 19 and 9.The operation of zener diodes 1d6 and 1d7 and resistors 1r44 and 1r45 give the necessary stabilizing action and capacitors 1c33 and 1c34 gives radio suppression protection. The module contains three similar servo amplifier circuits , pitch1, pitch2 and rudder. The pitch rate a.c. output from the divider module,through capacitor 1C15 and pin 13, is connected to the output module at pin 13 applied to the base of transistor 1TRA/2 via transistor 1R9. Capacitor 1C15 (divider module) and 1R9 (output module) Form a wash-out circuit which removes steady state signals Resulting from long term manoeuvres. Diodes 1D3 and 1D4 prevent the virtual earth point of the servo Amplifier from lifting off under saturated feedback conditions. NPN transistor 1TRA/2 forms one arm of a differential amplifier, the other arm being NPN transistor
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1TRA/1. In addition to the pitch rate signal from the divider module,the base of transistor 1TRA/2 is supplied with both internal and external feedback signals, the facility for a supplementary input via pin 27 and resistor 1R32 together with an input through pin 11 and resistor 1R36 for spoiler compensation. This input via resistor 1R36 is also common to the pitch 2 servo amplifier But is not applied in the rudder servo amplifier. The base potential of transistor 1TRA/1, the second arm of the differential Amplifier, is set by the potential divider network comprising resistors 1R5, 1R24,1R12 and 1R10.Variation of this potential can be achieved by Adjustment of select in test resistors 1R5 and 1R24.Thus ,with the summed Signals applied to the base of the transistor 1TRA/2,differntial amplifier Action produces collector voltages whivh are directly coupled to the base Inputs of a second differential amplifier 1TRB.Capacitor 1C1 connected Between the collectors of transistors 1TRA/1 and 1TRA/2 provides a lag on On the signal.The second differential amplifier 1TRB,provides further gain And its transistor 1TRB/2 collector output is directly coupled into the driver Stage consisting of transistor 1TR4.Capacitor 1C3 connected between the Emitters of transistors 1TRB/1 and 1TRB/2 provides phase advancement. The driver stage ,transistor 1TR4,feeds the push-pull output stage comprising The two darlington pairs 1TR5/1TR6 and 1TR7/1TR8.The output resulting from The push-pull action is taken from the junction of the diodes 1D5 and 1D6 And connected to pin 28.The two diodes protect transistors 1TR6 and 1TR8 Against voltage spikes occuring in the external circuitry. As previously mentioned,the output signal is fed back to the input of the Differential amplifier 1TRA via the balanced limiting network of diodes 1D10 and 1D9,capacitor 1C5 and various resistors, or limting diodes D11,D12,D13,D14.Additionally a 400hz position feedback signal,either In phase or anti-phase to the main 400hz supply,is fed to
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the module across Pins 20 and 21. This is applied to the primary of transformer T1,tuning being Provided by the capacitor 1C6. The centre tapped transformer secondaryThen feeds a balanced de-modulator,comprising PNP transistors 1TR9 and 1TR10,which is controlled by 26v a.c. inphase and rev.phase supplies From pins 26 and 7 respectively.Therefore each transistor is switched on Alternately at a half cycle rate with the result that a d.c.output is produced Which is smoothed by the filter network of resistors 1R21 and 1R18 and Capacitor 1C4.Diodes 1D7 and 1D8 in the transistor bias.the d.c. output from The filter is then applied to the input of differential amplifier 1TRA. Provision is made for test voltages to be measured at the junctions of resistors 1R30/1R31 via pin 12. Internal stabilsed +16v,0v,-16v d.c. power supplies are provided by the Module,these being derived from the+24v,0v,-24v inputs at pins 23,22 and 9 Respectively.The operation of zener diodes 1D1 and 1D2 and resistors R1 And R2 give the necessary stabilising action.

## TOROID TR1 AND ELAPSED TIME INDICATOR

The power input to the autostabiliser computer is a 115v,440hz single phase Supply which is connected across the primary of toroid T1 via pins CU-M and CU-B.The elapsed time indicator is connected in parallel with the primary to Provide a reading of running
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time,while protection is given by fuse FS1. A 26v auto tapping on this winding provides both the gyro motor supplies And both gyro and manometric unit pick off supplies.Capacitors C1 and C2 Connected between chassis and pins CU-M and RS-A respectively,provide The first of three secondaries of T1,across toroid pins 2 and 20 has three Tappings at pins 13,15 and 17. This provides a 26v-20v-0v-20v-26v input To the power supply module,pins 2 and 20 however,also providing 26v a.c. Rev.phase and 26v a.c. in-phase supplies respectively for use within the Computer. Capacitors C3 and C4,connected between chasis and toroid pins 17 and 13 respectively provide R.F suppression. The second of the T1 secondaries,across toroid pins 14,18 and 23 provides. A 24v-0-24v a.c. input to the power supply module. A connection between Toroid pin 18 and CU-V provides a common return path. The remaining secondary winding,connected between toroid pins 3 and 15 Provides an 11V a.c. supply for the power supply module.

## POWER SUPPLY MODULE

The 26v-20v-0v-20v-26v input is applied to the modules across pins 1,11, 20,10 and 2 respectively and then full wave rectified by the diodes D1 to D8.Smoothing is provided by capacitors C3 C4 C5 and C6 in order to Give +32v,+24v,0,-24v,-32v d.c lines. In order to provideover-voltage protection on the +24V and 24V d.c. outputs at pins 13 and 3 respectively , transistor TR1is connected in series with the +24V line and transistors TR2 and TR3 inseries with the -24V line.

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Under normal condition, NPN transistor TR1 is hard on, due to the positive d.c. voltage connected to base via bias resistor R3, and zener diode D11 switched off since the voltage applied is insufficient for conduction. If an input transient occurs,such that the +24V d.c. output tends to rise above +30V d.c., the voltage on the +32V d.c. line will have risen in a similar manner. This will increase the voltage across zener diode D11 sufficiently to cause conduction, hence effectively clamping the base of transistor TR1 and thus restricting the transistor conduction. The result therefore, is to prevent the +24V d.c. output from rising above the +30V d.c. level. The action of transistors TR2 and TR3 and zener diode D12 is similar to the above,PNP transistor TR3 being incorporated as a result of the negative base voltages involved. Further smoothing of the +24V d.c. and -24V d.c. output is provided by capacitors C7 to C10. Capacitor C11 across the negative supply prevents high frequency instability. While capacitor C25 provides R.F. supression. The 24V-0-24V a.c. input across pins 8,4 and 9 is full-wave rectified by diodes D9 and D10 and smoothed by capacitors C12 and C13 to provide a +30V d.c. output at pin22. A test output is provided at pin 21 via resistor R1. Capacotor C26 provides R.F. suppression. The 11V a.c. input at pin 5 is rectified by diodes D20 and D21 to provide unstabilised +14V d.c. and -14v d.c. outputs at pin 7 and 6 respectively. Smoothing of this negative output to the divider module is provided by capacitor C27. The +24V supply circuit includes a time delay network for controlling relay RL1 and RL2. When power is applied to the module and the +24V supply is energised,capacitor C22 charges through resistor R7. After approximately 2 seconds, the voltage across capacitor is sufficient to bring zener diode D15 into conduction, so that current flows through the resistor chain R7, R9 and R6. The base
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voltage of NPN transistor TR4 rises positively therefore, causing the transistor to conduct. The flow of current energises relays RL1 and RL2, hence closing contacts RL1 and RL2 which make the external circuits to the hydraulic restrictors, through pins12 and 17 and pins 14 and 15 respectively. Diodes D19 provides a rapid discharge path for capacitor C22 in order that the delay ciecuit can be quickly reset. Diode D16 protects transistor TR4 against transients produced when relays RL1 and RL2 de-emergise. The relay contacts RL1 and RL2 are protected by diodes D17 and D18 against inductive voltages transients generated by the de-emergisation of the hydraulic restrictors at switch-off.

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