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Crude Oil Properties

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Process File Reference: AGE10501

For additional information on this subject, contact R.A. Al-Husseini on 874-2792

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CONTENTS

PAGES

CRUDE OIL PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................1 Density...............................................................................................................................3 Viscosity ............................................................................................................................3 Pour point ..........................................................................................................................3 Reid vapor pressure (RVP) ................................................................................................3 Carbon residue ...................................................................................................................3 Sulfur .................................................................................................................................3 Nitrogen .............................................................................................................................3 Metals ................................................................................................................................4 Salt content ........................................................................................................................4 Hydrogen sulfide ...............................................................................................................4 CRUDE OIL CHARACTERIZATION, Comparisons, and Contaminants ......................................5 Characterization .................................................................................................................5 Crude Oil Comparisons .....................................................................................................6 Crude Oil Contaminants ..................................................................................................13 GLOSSARY ..................................................................................................................................15

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CRUDE OIL PROPERTIES


Crude oils from various production fields are not the same, not even from neighboring fields in Saudi Arabia, and certainly not from the many fields worldwide. The properties of the various crudes that may be available must be understood, and the implications of these properties to storage, transportation, and processing requirements is vital to ensure safety, optimum operations, and minimum loss of hydrocarbons to the environment. In addition to recognizing that crudes are different, we must also realize that fields change as they become old. Also, any new discovery is quickly analyzed to evaluate its potential as well as any concerns that may be associated with the crude.

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Figure 1 shows the major oil and gas fields in Saudi Arabia.

FIGURE 1. Map of Saudi Arabian Oil Fields

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Many properties are routinely measured for crudes. The following list includes the most common factors affecting crude oil handling, processing, and value.

Density Density is the weight of a substance for a given unit of volume. Density of crude or crude products is measured as specific gravity comparing the density of the crude or product to the density of water (usually expressed as gm/cc) or API gravity (API or degrees API).

Viscosity
Viscosity is the measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow, thereby indicating the pumpability of the oil. (Kinematic viscosity is the viscosity of the material divided by the density specific gravity of the material at the temperature of viscosity measurement).

Pour point
Pour point is the temperature, to the next 5 F increment, above that temperature at which an oil becomes solid. The pour point is also the lowest temperature, in 5 F increments, at which the oil will flow.

Reid vapor pressure (RVP)


RVP is the measure of the vapor pressure exerted by an oil at 100 F (38 C).

Carbon residue
Carbon residue is the percentage of carbon by weight for coke, asphalt, and heavy fuels found by evaporating an oil to dryness under standard laboratory conditions. Carbon residue is generally termed Conradson Carbon Residue, or CCR.

Sulfur
Sulfur is the percentage by weight, or in parts per million by weight, of total sulfur contained in a liquid hydrocarbon sample. Sulfur must be removed from refined product to prevent corrosion, protect catalysts, and prevent environmental pollution.

Nitrogen
Nitrogen is the weight, in parts per million, of total nitrogen contained in a liquid hydrocarbon sample. Nitrogen compounds are also catalyst poisons.

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Metals Various metals (arsenic, lead, nickel, vanadium, etc.) in a liquid hydrocarbon are potential process catalyst poisons. They are measure in ppm.

Salt content
Salt measurement is expressed as pounds of salt (NaCl) per 1000 barrels of crude. Salts are removed prior to crude oil distillation to prevent corrosion and catalyst poisoning.

Hydrogen sulfide
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas that can be evolved from crude or products in storage or in the processing of crude. Hydrogen sulfide dissolved in a crude or product stream is measured in ppm.
These properties affect the transportation and storage requirements for crudes, define the products that can be extracted under various processing schemes, and alert us to safety and environmental concerns. Each property can also affect the price that the refiner is willing to pay for the crude. In general, light, low sulfur crudes are worth more than heavy, high sulfur crudes because of the increased volume of premium products (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel) that are available with minimum processing.

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CRUDE OIL CHARACTERIZATION, COMPARISONS, AND CONTAMINANTS Characterization


Crude assays are the systematic compilation of data defining properties of the whole crude along with yields and properties of various boiling fractions. Or, simply, a crude assay is a set of data that defines

Crude properties Yields Properties of fractions

This systematic compilation of data provides a common basis for comparison of crudes. As stated earlier, crudes are different, old fields change, and new fields are discovered. The consistent presentation of data allows us to make informed decisions as to storage and transportation needs, processing requirements, product expectations, crude relative values, and safety and environmental concerns. It also allows us to monitor crude quality from individual sources over a period of time. In order to perform a crude assay, a representative, non-contaminated sample of the current production is required. Several types of assays are available:

Class A: Whole Crude Properties (WCP) by analytical testing only. No distillation is performed. Class C: WCP plus detailed yield structure and product properties. This is the most common assay and is performed to fully evaluate new discoveries. Class E: 1000 F. Class F: 700 F. Class G: WCP, yield structure through 1000 F, properties of fractions

crude

through

WCP, yield structure through 700 F, properties of fractions

through

WCP, yield structure to 1000 F, limited product properties.

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Crude Oil Comparisons


For a thorough understanding of the variability of crudes, the properties of five foreign crudes are compared to those for Arabian Light and Arabian Heavy. The five crudes were chosen for their distinct characteristics and because each is well known worldwide. All data for this discussion are from Class C assays of the crudes.

Arun

Arun is an Indonesian condensate consisting almost entirely of naphtha, kerosene, and light gas oil.
Beryl

Beryl is a well-known North Sea crude, very similar to Brent crude, which is a benchmark for establishing world crude oil prices.
Minas

Minas is a highly paraffinic, high pour point crude from Indonesia.


Nigerian Light

High yields of naphtha and kerosene come from this light, sweet crude, which commands a premium price.
San Joaquin Valley (SJV)

SJV is a heavy, naphthenic crude from Central California.

Some significant properties of the whole crudes are shown in Table 1. Some items to note from Table 1 include:

The high gravity and vapor pressure of Arun, which is composed entirely of naphtha, kerosene, and light gas oil. The high pour point of Minas, which is a warning signal about this otherwise normal-appearing crude. The low gravity and high CCR of SJV crude, indicating that this is a satisfactory crude for coking. However, this crude may have other, undesirable characteristics as indicated by its high salt content, high metal contents, and an extremely high nitrogen content.

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The absence of warning signals for Beryl and Nigerian Light. They appear, and are, desirable crudes. Note the difference between the Arabian crudes: CCR, sulfur, metals, salt. TABLE 1. Properties of Whole Crudes Property Arabian Light 33.9 -45 3.6 1.8 660 3 19 9.8 <10 300-500 Arabian Heavy 28.0 -30 7.3 2.8 660 17 55 8.2 5 Arun Indonesia 54.1 -55 0.01 <.1 50 0.65 0.15 10.0 3 Beryl North Sea 36.5 20 1.3 .42 880 0.8 3.7 5.2 7.4 0 Minas Indonesia 35.3 95 2.2 .07 900 10 0.3 2.6 N/A Nigerian Light 37.6 5 1.1 .13 .06 3.6 0.3 6.0 5 0.0 SJV California 15.2 -5 7.0 1.05 6200 63 60 1.6 14

Gravity (API) Pour Point (F) CCR (wt %) Sulfur (wt %) Nitrogen (ppm) Nickel (ppm) Vanadium RVP (psi) Salt Content H2S (ppm)

Table 2 summarizes key crude properties for four recent Saudi Aramco discoveries. TABLE 2. Recent Crude Discoveries Crude Al Hawtah #1 Dilam #1 An Naim #1 Al Hazmieh #1 API Gravity 49 44 42.4 48 Sulfur (wt %) .06 .06 --Free Depth (ft) 6,300 --8,800 6,000 Found June 89 October 89 April 90 July 90

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The whole crude distillation data (Table 3) supplements the information gained from reviewing Table 1. TABLE 3. Whole Crude Distillations Distillation Point C4 LTR 180 330 380 550 650 950 1000 1050 1050+, % Arabian Light 1.4 7.9 23.2 28.8 45.9 55.9 79.5 82.5 85.1 14.9 Arabian Heavy 2.4 8.3 19.8 23.5 37.4 46.1 70.3 73.9 77.1 22.9 Arun Indonesia 2.6 24.9 63.2 70.9 88.7 95.2 100.0 ------Beryl North Sea 2.0 8.0 26.2 31.5 50.6 61.6 85.1 87.5 90.0 10.0 Minas Indonesia 0.7 3.0 12.0 15.9 31.1 41.3 71.4 75.6 79.3 20.7 Nigerian Light 2.5 10.3 28.8 34.6 56.1 68.5 91.2 92.9 94.3 5.7 SJV California 0.7 2.3 5.5 7.0 19.1 30.1 63.6 68.1 73.0 27.0

Very little remains of Arun past the nominal 650 F cut off for light gas oil. In fact, this crude is shown to be 71% naphtha and lighter, 18% kerosene, and 8% light gas oil. Beryl and Nigerian Light are very normal and slightly lighter than the Arabian crudes. Minas is fairly similar in distillation to Arabian Heavy. SJV is shown to be an extremely high boiling crude with low yields of naphtha and kerosene, but with over 30% residual, or material boiling above 1000 F. Note that the two Arabian crudes shown are not the same.

Critical properties of the distilled fractions can be considered following a review of the whole crudes.

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For naphthas, we are most concerned with yield, in volume percent, that can be desulfurized and reformed into a high octane blend stock (reformate), and with the chemical type of hydrocarbons making up the naphtha (paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics). These classes of compounds allow us to calculate the PONA factor. PONA is an indicator of naphthas performance as a reformer unit charge stock:

PONA = Vol % A + 0.85 (Vol % N) where A = aromatic content N = naphthene content of the naphtha

This factor is so important that it is calculated from the naphtha analysis and presented in the assay, in its calculated form, under the title of PONA. For PONA, 30 is considered good and 40 is exceptional. Sulfur and nitrogen, which normally occur in fairly low concentration in naphtha, are critical. They must be removed from the naphtha prior to reforming. Properties of straight run naphthas from the crudes are shown in Table 4. The high yields of naphthas from Arun, Beryl, and Nigerian Light are evident. The Arabian crudes appear to have average naphtha yields. TABLE 4. Properties of Straight Run Naphthas (180 - 380 F) Property Vol % of Crude Gravity (API) Paraffins (Vol %) Naphthenes Aromatics (Vol %) PONA Factor Sulfur (ppm) Nitrogen (ppm) Arabian Light 20.9 57.1 65.9 19.4 14.7 28.4 400 0.9 Arabian Heavy 15.2 57.7 66.0 22.1 12.0 28.8 450 0.0 Arun Indonesia 42.4 53.5 43.2 37.9 19.0 51.2 6 0.1 Beryl North Sea 23.5 53.0 44.7 35.0 20.2 50.0 35 N/A Minas Indonesia 12.9 58.4 56.9 37.6 5.4 37.4 34 0.4 Nigerian Light 25.1 51.2 34.6 55.3 10.1 57.1 264 1.3 SJV California 4.7 48.2 24.4 67.7 7.9 65.4 1275 30.9

The Arabian crudes are highly paraffinic in the naphtha fractions. They are only average in PONA. The high naphthene content of Nigerian Light and the very high aromatics content of SJV contribute to their high PONAs. For SJV, however, this high PONA is applied to only 4% of the crude. Note, also, the high sulfur and nitrogen content of the SJV naphtha. Kerosene is primarily processed into finished jet fuel or diesel. For jet fuel, critical properties are the flash point, freeze point, smoke point, and sulfur and aromatics contents.

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Critical properties of kerosenes from the Arabian and foreign crudes are presented in Table 5. The yields from the Arabian crudes are slightly lower than the average for the crudes shown. The high freeze point for kerosene from Minas is evidence of the high paraffin content of all fractions from this crude. The low freeze point for kerosene from SJV crude is due to the high naphthene content of the fraction. TABLE 5. Properties of Straight Run Kerosenes (330 - 530 F) Property Vol % of Crude Gravity (API) Flash Pt (F) Freeze Pt (F) Smoke Pt Sulfur (wt %) Aromatics (Vol %) Arabian Light 20.8 44.6 143 -40 22 0.26 20.0 Arabian Heavy 17.6 43.7 146 -34 20 0.49 22.7 Arun Indonesia 27.4 40.9 146 -40 20 0.01 N/A Beryl North Sea 23.1 41.7 144 -40 21 0.06 20.5 Minas Indonesia 18.9 45.3 146 -17 28 0.02 15.6 Nigerian Light 29.8 37.1 146 -35 17 0.07 18.5 SJV California 12.1 30.8 174 -101 17 0.39 18.0

Light gas oils (LGO) are primarily finished into diesel fuel. The critical properties in the raw light gas oil are the flash and pour point, sulfur content, and cetane number. Comparative properties of light gas oils are shown in Table 6. Note the high pour point for Minas LGO and the low pour point for SJV LGO. The sulfur content for the LGO fractions from the Arabian crudes are higher than for any of the foreign crudes shown. Cetane number of diesel increases with the paraffin content of the LGO fraction, which accounts for the high cetane for the Minas LGO and low cetane for LGO from SJV crude. TABLE 6. Properties of Straight Run Light Gas Oils (510 - 680 F) Property Vol % of Crude Gravity (API) Flash Pt (F) Pour Pt. (F) Sulfur (wt %) Viscosity (cs at 40 F) Cetane No. Diesel Index Arabian Light 16.8 33.6 277 20 1.44 4.0 50 54 Arabian Heavy 14.9 32.9 281 20 1.62 4.8 49 51 Arun Indonesia 14.1 33.7 272 20 0.07 4.3 50 56 Beryl North Sea 16.7 34.6 180 20 0.31 1.4 50 57 Minas Indonesia 16.4 37.5 270 55 0.05 5.2 57 69 Nigerian Light 23.8 32.3 265 40 0.15 7.4 48 48 SJV California 18.4 25.1 254 -80 0.66 5.8 35 31

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In many refineries, the heavy gas oil (HGO) fraction is routed to a fluid catalytic cracking unit ( FCCU) rather than to heavy fuel oil blending. While pour point and viscosity are a concern in either case, most other critical properties look at this fraction's potential performance as FCCU feed stock. The paraffinic crudes provide generally good cracking stocks as the long chain paraffinic molecules are easily halved or split to gasoline and lighter boiling fractions. Aromatics and naphthenes do not crack as readily and produce higher yields of less desirable products such as light gas (H 2, methane, ethane) and catalytic coke. Sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, and vanadium are all poisons that inhibit the FCCU catalyst performance. In addition, the sulfur and sometimes the nitrogen content of the FCCU charge stock can lead to environmental concerns arising from the SO2 and NO2 emissions from the FCCU regenerator flue gas stack. Table 7 presents a summary of properties of straight run heavy gas oils from the various crudes. Note the high yield of the HGO from SJV crude (none from Arun). The Arabian crudes are average in all the properties reviewed. TABLE 7. Properties of Straight Run Heavy Gas Oils (650 - 1000 F) Property Vol % of Crude Gravity (API) Pour Pt. (F) Viscosity (cs at Sulfur (wt %) Nitrogen (ppm) Nickel (ppm) Vanadium Paraffins (wt %) Naphthenes (wt %) Aromatics (wt %) Arabian Light 26.6 23.5 85 6.0 2.4 650 0.2 0.1 22.8 25.0 52.2 Arabian Heavy 28.2 21.7 85 7.7 3.1 523 0.0 0.1 19.3 21.8 58.9 Arun Indonesia 6.8 24.8 85 6.9 0.17 848 2.2 1.5 N/A N/A N/A Beryl North Sea 25.9 26.1 95 5.6 0.64 1240 0.0 0.0 N/A N/A N/A Minas Indonesia 34.4 32.6 120 4.2 0.08 466 0.2 0.0 N/A N/A N/A Nigerian Light 25.6 22.3 90 8.6 0.19 700 0.1 0.0 N/A N/A N/A SJV California 38.0 12.6 30 24.3 1.07 5130 95 90 1.1 29.1 69.8

The high pour point of the Minas HGO, due to the paraffin content, and the low pour point of HGO from SJV crude, due to the absence of paraffins, are noteworthy, as are the low gravity and high nitrogen and metals for the SJV fraction.

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The residual fraction of crude can be blended into fuel oil, processed to asphalt, or thermally cracked in a coker unit. Storage and transport of these materials is a concern due to the high density (may be heavier than water), high pour points, and high viscosities. Heated and insulated storage tanks are often needed. The CCR of this fraction is an indicator of coking tendencies, while the penetration test is an indicator of asphalt quality. The sulfur, nitrogen, and metals contained in the residue will become contaminants to the coke and to the liquid products from the coker that are routed to other process units. Properties of residue from the designated crudes are shown in Table 8. Note the high yield and low gravity of residual material from the SJV crude. This residual material also has higher viscosity, nitrogen, CCR, and metals than residuals from the other crudes. TABLE 8. Properties of Residua (950+ F) Property Vol % of Crude Gravity (API) Pour Pt. (F) Viscosity (cs at Sulfur (wt %) Nitrogen (ppm) CCR (wt %) Nickel (ppm) Vanadium Arabian Light 20.5 9.6 50 301 3.9 2895 14.9 14.8 72.1 Arabian Heavy 29.7 5.2 115 5061 5.6 1593 20.9 50.2 151.9 Arun Indonesia 0 ----------------Beryl North Sea 15.4 15.5 115 103 1.01 3738 7.6 4.8 20.4 Minas Indonesia 28.7 21.3 115 68 0.17 3062 7.7 34.4 0.9 Nigerian Light 7.1 9.6 120 1050 0.36 3000 10.8 43.4 4.1 SJV California 36.4 3.8 120+ 7500 1.50 12,300 19.0 150 150

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Crude Oil Contaminants


The effects of several contaminants to the straight run fractions were reviewed in the previous section. Six primary contaminants are of major concern to petroleum personnel because of their toxicity, potential for corrosion, or fouling of the refining process.

Sulfur

Sulfur commonly takes the forms of hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, sulfides, disulfides, or thiophenes. All are odorous, and to some degree, toxic. Hydrogen sulfide is particularly toxic as it quickly deadens the sense of smell and overcomes the exposed individual. Sulfur is also a catalyst poison that must be removed from naphtha prior to reforming.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen can also take many forms, all of which are odorous and many of which are corrosive. Cyanides are acute poisons. Nitrogen in the heavy gas oil fraction is an inhibitor to FCCU catalyst performance.
Oxygen

Oxygen, when it appears in the form of naphthenic acids, can be especially difficult to manage in the refinery. Above 400 F, naphthenic acids become very active, even when present in low concentrations. The naphthenic acids, when heated, attack carbon steel components of atmospheric heaters, atmospheric distillation towers, crude vacuum heaters, vacuum distillation towers, and interconnecting lines. Virtually the only solution is to replace, or line, carbon steel components with stainless steel.
Metals

Common metals in crudes include arsenic, lead, nickel, and vanadium. All are catalyst poisons in the refinery. Arsenic and lead affect reformer units. Nickel and vanadium affect FCCUs. In addition, vanadium can form alloys with some steels, leading to corrosion.

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Salts

Commonly measured as pounds of salt (NaCl) per thousand barrels of crude, salts can form deposits under which corrosion occurs. Salts are extremely corrosive in areas such as crude atmospheric distillation overhead vapor systems at the point of condensation.
Chlorides

Chlorides generally do not occur naturally in crude oils. Rather, they are sometimes present in solvents used in the oil fields and disposed of in the pumped crude. Most such solvents boil in the same range as naphtha, leading to what amounts to uncontrolled and greatly excessive chloride addition to the reformer unit. In several documented cases, such chloride addition has caused rapid degeneration of reformer performance, requiring catalyst regeneration or replacement. In other cases, major corrosion problems have occurred at the point of condensation of the reactor effluent.

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GLOSSARY
alloy ammonia aromatic arsenic assay catalyst catalyst poison CCR (Conradson Carbon Residue) cetane number A physical and chemical addition of another metal into the structure of carbon steel, thereby lending new properties to the resultant metal structure. A gaseous compound, with a strong distinctive odor, the molecules of which are composed of nitrogen and hydrogen. Any of the unsaturated, six-carbon-atom ring compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. A metal (symbol As) contaminant in crude oil. A systematic compilation of data defining properties of a whole crude along with yields and properties of various boiling fractions from that same crude. A material that promotes, enhances, or otherwise provides the surface or structure on which a chemical reaction takes place. Any agent that inhibits or lessens the desired effects of a catalyst. The coke, asphalt, and gas oil residue from evaporating an oil to dryness. A measure of the combustion quality of diesel fuels on a scale where the quality of normal heptane is rated at 100. In general, straight-chain paraffin compounds have higher cetane ratings than corresponding naphthenic or aromatic compounds. An approximation of the cetane number derived from the gravity and distillation data for the diesel sample. Any compound where the chlorine atom is tied to the base molecule without association with oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.

cetane index chloride

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condensate

The liquid recovered from the compression and cooling of natural gas as it is produced from the well. This light liquid contains mostly naphtha boilingrange material. Any undesirable material that appears with the crude oil or product of interest. Contaminants may be naturally occurring or may be introduced by inadvertent or deliberate action. A thermal cracking process applied to the highest boiling fraction or residue portion of crude oil. Any process that splits the molecules of gas oil fractions to lower boiling range molecules, preferably to gasoline. Any portion of the crude oil which is produced by distillation and condensation. Examples are naphtha, kerosene, and gas oils. Any compound in which there is a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen atoms. Cyanides are highly toxic compounds. The weight of a substance for a given unit of volume. A cracking process in which a fluidized bed of a solid powder catalyst is employed to promote the cracking of gas oils to gasoline and lighter products. The temperature to which a liquid sample must be heated in order that a sufficient amount of vapor is created to sustain combustion. Having the properties of a fluid. The temperature to which a liquid sample must be cooled so that solid crystals first begin to appear in the liquid.

contaminant

coker (coking) cracking crude oil fraction cyanide density FCCU (Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit)

flash point fluidized freeze point

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gravity

A comparison of the density of a material to the density of water. Each density is measured in grams/cc where water at 60 F has a value of 1.000. In the oil industry, the common measure of gravity is API gravity where:

gravity (API) =
heavy crude heavy gas oil hydrogen sulfide kerosene lead light crude light gas oil mercaptan naphtha naphthene naphthenic acid

141.5 131.5 specific gravity

Generally, a crude oil with an API gravity lower than 20. A crude oil fraction generally defined as having a boiling range of 650 to 1000 F. A gaseous compound with a strong, distinctive odor, the molecules of which are composed of sulfur and hydrogen. A crude oil fraction generally defined as having a boiling range of 350 to 550 F. A metal (symbol Pb) contaminant in crude oil. Generally, a crude oil with an API gravity higher than 30. A crude oil fraction generally defined as having a boiling range of 500 to 700 F. Odorous sulfur compounds where one bond of the sulfur atom is to hydrogen with the other to the base molecule. A crude oil fraction generally defined as having a boiling range of 150 to 380 F. Any of the saturated, six-carbon-atom ring compounds. Organic acids, where the acid function is associated with single or double ring aromatic molecules. As such, naphthenic acids generally occur in heavy gas oil fractions.

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nickel nitrogen

A metal (symbol Ni) contaminant in crude oil, generally associated as an FCCU catalyst poison. A contaminant of crude oil. The nitrogen atom can be associated with hydrocarbon molecules in a great variety of ways. Many of the resulting compounds are odorous and toxic. Any of the straight or branched chain saturated hydrocarbons. An acronym for Paraffins, Olefins, Naphthenes, and Aromatics. The PONA factor for straight run naphtha is calculated as PONA = vol % A + 0.85 (vol % N)

paraffin PONA

pour point production

The temperature, to the next highest 5 F increment, to which a sample is cooled such that it will no longer flow. The act of pumping, compressing, or releasing crude oil or natural gas from its in-ground formation in a controlled manner such that it is collected and transported for processing. A high temperature catalytic process that converts low octane naphtha to a high octane gasoline blending component and produces hydrogen as a byproduct. An average sample of any material, non-contaminated, that is expected to exhibit all of the characteristics of the source that it represents. The highest boiling range fraction (above 1000 F) derived from the distillation of crude oil. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) is a measure of the vapor pressure exerted by a liquid sample when heated to 100 F under specified conditions. Any contaminant of crude oil where a metallic or other positively charged group of atoms is associated with a negatively charged atom or group of atoms such that a solid form can be deposited in or on the process equipment.

reformer

representative sample residue (residuals) RVP salt

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sour crude straight run sulfide sulfur

Crude oil with a sulfur content above 1.5 wt %. A term for any crude oil fraction that indicates that the fraction was produced solely from crude oil distillation and not from any chemical process. A form of hydrocarbon-sulfur compound where both of the sulfur bonds are to carbon atoms. A contaminant of crude oil and products. The sulfur atom can be associated with hydrocarbon molecules in a variety of ways. Most sulfur compounds are odorous and toxic. Crude oil with a sulfur content below 1.5 wt %. A hydrocarbon-sulfur ring compound composed of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom. TBP is the batch distillation of a large sample of distillation crude or product under laboratory conditions where the volume recovered is measured and compared at frequent intervals with the temperature at the top of the distillation column. A metal (symbol V) contaminant of crude oil, generally associated as an FCCU catalyst poison. A measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow. The percentage of a product predicted or actually experienced as the result of a processing activity.

sweet crude thiophene True Boiling Point

vanadium viscosity yield

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