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Biology A

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Table of Contents
Chapter One Basic Biology Skills .page 3 Your Chapter One Grade: ______________ Chapter Two Homeostasis& Microscopespage 51 Your Chapter Two Grade: ______________ Chapter Three Cells and Cell Organelles page 93 Your Chapter Three Grade: ______________ Chapter Four Organic Molecules page 135 Your Chapter Four Grade: ______________

Final Class Grade: ________________________________


(Chapter 1 + Chapter 2 + Chapter 3 + Chapter 4 /4)

Only the Educated are Free. Epictetus, Philosopher and Former Roman Slave.

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Chapter One: Basic Biology Skills


20% of your grade: Class participation
WEEK Week One Week Two Week Three Week Four Your Total Participation Grade POINTS EARNED POINTS POSSIBLE PERCENTAGE

20% of your grade: Class Work


Page#s 4-8 9 10-14 17-20 21-24 31-34 35-38 39-44 AIM Introduction to the Class Chapter One Word Wall How can we become familiar with scientific language? Why are all scientific experiments set up in the same way? How do we represent scientific data? How can we separate living from non-living things? What characteristics do all living things share? Are living things and non-living things always easy to distinguish? Your Total Classwork Grade
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 90

20% of your grade: Lab Activities


Page#s 15-16 25-27 28-30 Lab Number and Name Lab One: Lab Safety Lab Two: Measuring and Making Graphs Lab Three: Making Connections Your Total Lab Grade
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 30

Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

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20% of your grade: Homework


Date Assignment
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Your Total Homework Grade

20% of your grade: Test


Page #s 45-49 --Task Chapter 1 Test Review Chapter 1 Test Your Total Test Grade
Earned Possible %

10 90 100

Your Total Grade This ChapterMessage from Me:


Task Participation Classwork Lab Activities Homework Test Your Total Chapter One Grade PERCENTAGE

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WELCOME TO MY CLASS!!
Class Rules
Rule #1: Be Respectful
RESPECT YOURSELF. Dont ever say that you are stupid or that you cant do it. RESPECT YOUR TEACHER. Dont be rude. Follow my directions the first time they are given. RESPECT YOUR CLASSMATES. Encourage and help your classmates. Dont be rude or mean. Words like stupid, dumb, retarded, etc. are not acceptable and will not be tolerated. RESPECT YOUR SCHOOL. Dont damage property. Take pride in your community.

Rule #2: Be Responsible


Do all of your work and homework on time, and to the best of your ability. If you dont understand a concept, ASK! You can ask a friend, or me. Dont forget that tutoring is always available.

Rule #3: Be Positive


Work hard and dont doubt yourself. YOU ARE SMART AND I KNOW YOU CAN DO IT!!

Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

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How Can I Earn a Good Grade in Biology?


I do NOT GIVE you a grade. You EARN a grade. 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% of of of of of your your your your your grade grade grade grade grade = = = = = Class Participation Class Work Homework Labs Tests, Quizzes and Projects

Class Participation: 20% of your grade


You can earn 5 class participation points or more each class day. (1 for being on time, 1 for doing the Do Now, and 3 for behaving correctly and working to the best of your ability.) If you are absent, you receive a zero for the day, which will hurt your grade. It is very important that you are in class every day. The ONLY WAY the zero doesnt count is if your absence is excused by a therapist or another staff adult. If you cut class, your grade will be significantly lowered!

Class Work: 20 % of your grade


Work that you complete in class will be checked every day. Even if you are absent, you are responsible for completing the class work. It is very important that you try your best in class EVERY DAY.

Homework: 20 % of your grade


Homework will be assigned every class day except for Fridays. Each days homework assignment is given at the beginning of class along with the Aim and the Do Now. It is your responsibility to write the homework assignment down BOTH in the current chapters table of contents AND in your planner! Completing your homework and thinking about biology outside of the classroom is an important part of this class. Copying another students homework is unacceptable and will result in a zero for both parties.

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Labs: 20% of your grade


Very often, we will be doing labs and lab activities in this class. You must participate in these activities and complete all the associated questions.

Tests, Quizzes and Projects: 20% of your grade


Tests and Quizzes: I will NEVER give you a test without letting you know about it in advance. There wont be any pop-quizzes in Biology class. THIS MEANS THAT YOU SHOULD BE PREPARED FOR EACH AND EVERY TEST. I know that sometimes, even if you have studied, you might be nervous or sick while you take a test and not do your best. I GIVE YOU TESTS SO THAT WE BOTH KNOW THAT YOU ARE LEARNING, NOT TO PUNISH YOU. Therefore, YOU CAN ALWAYS RE-TAKE A TEST. Projects: I will occasionally assign projects to help you learn a concept. A project will always come with a grading rubric, so that you know exactly how many points the project is worth- and exactly how to get an A on the project!!

Student Agreement
Class Rules Agreement I have read the class rules and I understand them. I agree to always be respectful, responsible, and positive. I will try my best and encourage those around me to try their best as well. Your Name: ____________________________________________ Your Signature: _______________________________________ Grading Procedure Agreement I have read the grading procedures and I understand them. I agree to always try to the best of my ability in science class, so that I can earn a very good grade. Your Name: ____________________________________________ Your Signature: _________________________________________

Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

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Our Class Motto


Our class motto is: Only the Educated are Free.
Epictetus was born in the year 55 C.E. We dont know what his mother and father named him when he was born. The name Epictetus means Acquired or Something that was bought. Epictetus was a slave. He belonged to a secretary of the Ancient Roman Emperor. Epictetus had a crippled leg- some people think that he was that way from birth, or from a childhood accident, but it is also possible that Epictetus master hurt him on purpose. While he was a slave, Epictetus began studying philosophy. As he became more and more educated, he began receiving more and more respect. Eventually, Epictetus obtained his freedom and became a teacher. He lived until the age of 79 or 80. By the time he died, he was a free and very admired man. 1. Describe Epictetus life. ______________________________ ___________ 2. Describe one way that Epictetus may have hurt his leg. ___________________________________________________________ 3. How did becoming educated help Epictetus? __________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4. In history class, you may have learned that when slavery was legal in the American South, it was NOT legal to teach your slaves how to read. Think about the phrase Only the Educated are Free. How is that phrase LITERALLY true? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5. Now think about the phrase a little bit more deeply. Epictetus didnt say, The educated and other people who arent enslaved are free. He said, ONLY the EDUCATED are FREE. What are some freedoms, opportunities, privileges, or dreams that can only open up for a person who is educated? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Get Familiar with your Book & Neighbors


Take some time now to become familiar with your workbook. Flip through this book and answer the following questions. 1. What is something that youve seen before? Write the page number or the concept. ___________________________________________ 2. What is something that looks really fun? Write the page number or the concept. ______________________________________________ 3. What is something that looks really challenging? Write the page number or the concept. _________________________________________ 4. What are you most excited to learn? Write the page number or the concept. ________________________________________________ Take some time now to become familiar with your classmates. Turn to the people around you and answer the following questions. Person to your LEFT: 1. What is one thing you have in COMMON? ________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2. What is one thing DIFFERENCE you have? _______________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. What is your neighbor most excited about in this class? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. What is your neighbor most apprehensive about in this class? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Person to your RIGHT: 5. What is one thing you have in COMMON? ________________________ _______________________________________________________ 6. What is one thing DIFFERENCE you have? _______________________ _______________________________________________________ 7. What is your neighbor most excited about in this class? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 8. What is your neighbor most apprehensive about in this class? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

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Aim: How Can We Become Familiar with Scientific Language? Do Now: Answer the following questions about your learning preferences. 1. What is your favorite subject in school? ____________________ 2. On a scale of 1 to 10, how much do you like science? ____________ 3. On a scale of 1 to 10, how excited are you to be taking this class? ___________________________________________________ 4. What is the most fun thing you have ever done in a science class? ___________________________________________________ 5. What is your favorite type of music? _______________________ 6. Is music helpful when youre studying, or is it distracting? ___________________________________________________ 7. Would you rather work with a partner, or alone? ______________ 8. Do you learn best by listening, seeing, or doing? _______________

Why is Science so HARD??


I Cant Do Science. (YES YOU CAN!)
If you think that science is hard, there is a reason! And that reason is NOT BECAUSE YOU ARE BAD AT SCIENCE. Instead, you should know that when you are learning science, you are learning two things at once: you are learning new ideas, AND you are learning a new language.

The Scientific Language.


Scientists speak differently from the average person in two ways. First, they use science words- words that most people wouldnt use in everyday talking. What are some reasons you can think of that scientists might use these unusual words?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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In addition to using words we might not usually use, scientists also sometimes write in a way we dont usually write- using the passive voice. Normally, we would write in the active voice. So if you wanted to write a sentence, youd probably say, I put the test tube into the water. But if a scientist were writing that same idea in a paper for a scientific journal, she would probably say, The test tube was put into the water. Can you think of some reasons that scientists might write their ideas in this unusual way?
1. 2. 3.

Great! Once you understand WHY it is important for scientists to speak the way that they do, you are halfway to becoming a scientist yourself. Now you just need some practice. See if you can translate these scientific sentences into everyday English. One rule- DONT GET INTIMIDATED.

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Scientific Prefixes & suffixes


Element aabadaeroalveus arthronautobacteriobibiobotancarnis-,carnchlorochroma-cide -cyte, cytodermis-, dermdieco ectoembryendoepieuexofetogastro-gen geogymnohalohematohemiherbheterohistohomohydrohyperhypointerintraisokaryoDefinition without away from near air cavity joint self bacteria two life plants, plant life meat green color killer of cell skin two environment on the outside embryo inner, inside on top true outside of fetus stomach producing earth naked salt blood half plant other tissue same, like water over under between within equal nucleus Element leucolocus -logy lysis macromicromonomorphmultimutology omnioo, ovum osteopaleoped, pod periphagephoto-phyll physio-phyte, phytopinoplanktopolypseudoprosacchrum -scopy somasonussperma-stasis -synthesis taxis telothermtranstritrichotrophunizoo-, zoazygoDefinition white place study of to loosen, break large small one form many to change the study of all egg bone old foot around to eat light leaf nature plant to drink drifting many false before sugar observation body sound seed position -to make arrangement far away heat across three hair feed one animal yoke

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P a g e | 14 Use the prefixes & suffixes on the previous page to to figure out the meaning of the scientific words. 1. Biology: _____________________________________________________ 2. Leukocyte: ___________________________________________________ 3. Heterotroph: _________________________________________________ 4. Eukaryote: ___________________________________________________ 5. Herbicide: ___________________________________________________ 6. Mutagen: ____________________________________________________ 7. Epidermis: ___________________________________________________ 8. Abiotic: _____________________________________________________ 9. Photosynthesis: _______________________________________________

Class Activity
Translate these sentences from scientific lexicon to everyday English. 1. The Felis domesticus in the pileus. _______________________________________________________ HINTS: There used to be a cartoon character called Felix the Cat. Scientists call a mushroom cap a pileus. 2. Mary possessed a diminutive juvenile Ovis aries. _______________________________________________________ HINTS: How old are juvenile delinquents? An oviary is a flock of sheep. 3. The microscopic arachnid gained altitude in the dihydrogen monoxide conduit. _______________________________________________________ HINTS: Arachniphobia was a horror movie about killer spiders. Di means 2, Mono means 1. When you look through a microscope, are you trying to see big things, or teeny-tiny things?

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4. Formerly there existed an elderly female Homo sapiens who resided in a calceolate-shaped structure. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ HINTS: Scientists describe some flowers as calceolate because they look like something youd put on your feet. What do people mean when they tell you to Mind your elders? 5. The Simiiform pursued the Mustelid circumlinearly around the Morus alba shrub. _______________________________________________________ HINTS: Simiiform is Latin for Semi-formed. What animal might you describe as a semi-formed human? In math class, you have probably learned that the outside of a circle is called a circumference. A shrub is a small tree, or a bush. 6. Propel, propel, propel your craft carefully through the aqueous solution. _______________________________________________________ HINTS: Any vehicle can be called a craft. For example, a spacecraft. Agua is Spanish for Water, in English, aqua is the name of a bright blue color, like the color of water. Propel fitness water has the name that it does because it supposedly makes you go! 7. Pilo-Aurum and the triad of Ursus. HINTS: A tricycle has three wheels. Ursa Major is another name for the constellation that has thebig dipper in it, which is called The Great Bear in English. Aurigraphy means to write with gold.

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Questions: 1. List 3 unsafe activities shown in the illustration & explain why each is unsafe. i._______________________________________________________ ii.______________________________________________________ iii.______________________________________________________

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2. List 3 correct lab procedures depicted in the illustration. i._______________________________________________________ ii.______________________________________________________ iii.______________________________________________________ 3. What should Bob do after the accident?

4. What should Sue have done to avoid an accident?

5. Compare Luke and Duke's lab techniques. Who is following the rules?

6. What are three things shown in the lab that should not be there? i.________________________________________________________ ii._______________________________________________________ iii._______________________________________________________ 7. Compare Joe and Carl's lab techniques. Who is doing it the correct way?

8. What will happen to Ray and Tim when the teacher catches them?

9. List three items in the illustration that are there for the safety of the students in the lab. i.________________________________________ ii.________________________________________ iii.________________________________________ 10. What is Betty doing wrong?

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P a g e | 18 AIM: How are all scientific experiments set up in the same way? DO NOW: Use the vocabulary anchor diagrams to become more familiar with the new vocab words.

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The Scientific Method: To help you understand the SIMPSON WORKSHEET,


remember the following things: 1) Hypothesis: Your IF-Then statement. 2) Independent Variable: This is the variable that the scientist controls or changes WHAT THE SCIENTIST DOES. Ask yourself, What are you (the scientist) doing or changing in this experiment? 3) Dependent Variable: This is the variable that is RESPONDING to what the scientist did (the independent variable). Ask yourself, What are you trying to record or measure? This is the THEN in the if-then statement 4) Control Group This is the group that we use to compare our experimental group with. It is the group we DO NOTHING TO. We might use a placebo (fake drug, substance, or material) as the control group. 5) Experimental Group This is the group that we do the experiment on. 6) Constant Something thatstays the same between the control and experimental group. Smithers thinks that a special juice will increase the productivity of workers. He creates two groups of 50 workers each and assigns each group the same task (in this case, they're supposed to staple a set of papers). Group A is given the special juice to drink while they work. Group B is not given the special juice. After an hour, Smithers counts how many stacks of papers each group has made. Group A made 1,587 stacks, Group B made 2,113 stacks. Identify the: 1. Hypothesis ____________________________________________ 2. Independent Variable ____________________________________ 3. Dependent Variable ______________________________________ 4. Control Group __________________________________________ 5. Name at least two Constants _______________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. What should Smithers conclusion be?

Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

P a g e | 20 Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days of "treatment" there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower. Identify the: 1. Hypothesis ____________________________________________ 2. Independent Variable ____________________________________ 3. Dependent Variable ______________________________________ 4. Control Group __________________________________________ 5. Name at least two Constants _______________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. What should Homer's conclusion be? Bart believes that mice exposed to radiowaves will become extra strong (maybe he's been reading too much Radioactive Man). He decides to perform this experiment by placing 10 mice near a radio for 5 hours. He compared these 10 mice to another 10 mice that had not been exposed. His test consisted of a heavy block of wood that blocked the mouse food. he found that 8 out of 10 of the radiowaved mice were able to push the block away. 7 out of 10 of the other mice were able to do the same. Identify the1. Hypothesis ____________________________________________ 2. Independent Variable ____________________________________ 3. Dependent Variable ______________________________________ 4. Control Group __________________________________________ 5. Name at least two Constants _______________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. What should Barts conclusion be?

Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

P a g e | 21 Krusty was told that a certain itching powder was the newest best thing on the market, it even claims to cause 50% longer lasting itches. Interested in this product, he buys the itching powder and compares it to his usual product. One test subject (A) is sprinkled with the original itching powder, and another test subject (B) was sprinkled with the Experimental itching powder. Subject A reported having itches for 30 minutes. Subject B reported itches for 45 minutes. Identify the1. Hypothesis ____________________________________________ 2. Independent Variable ____________________________________ 3. Dependent Variable ______________________________________ 4. Control Group __________________________________________ 5. Name at least two Constants _______________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. What should Krustys conclusion be?

Wrap-up 1. Why is it necessary to only test ONE variable at a time in a scientific experiment? ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why do we need a control group in an experiment? ____________ _______________________________________________________ 3. Describe the difference between the dependent and the independent variable. ______________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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AIM: How do we represent scientific data? DO NOW: Answer the following questions using the graph below.

1. On what day was the temperature 50 degrees? _______________ 2. What was the temperature on the hottest day? ______________ 3. In what month were these temperatures probably taken? a. August b. December c. April 4. How do you know? _____________________________________ CLASS ACTIVITY: Scientific Graphs: Most scientific graphs are made as line graphs. There may be times when other types would be appropriate, but they are rare. The lines on scientific graphs are usually drawn either straight or curved. These "smoothed" lines do not have to touch all the data points, but they should at least get close to most of them. They are called best-fit lines. In general, scientific graphs are not drawn in connect-the-dot fashion.

Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

P a g e | 23 Practice Interpreting Data: In addition to drawing graphs, it is also important that you be able to interpret data that is represented in graph form. The following examples are provided to help you develop the ability to read information shown on a graph. 1. Identify the graph that matches each story: I had just left home when I realized I had forgotten my books so I went back to pick them up. Graph _________ Things went fine until I had a flat tire. Graph ____________ I started out calmly, but sped up when I realized I was going to be late. Graph _______________ 2. The graph at the right represents the typical teenage day. Answer the ?s: a. What percent of the day is spent watching TV?____ b. How many hours are spent sleeping? ____________ c. What activity takes up the least amount of time? _______________ d. What activity takes up a quarter of the day? _____________________

3. Answer these questions about the graph at the right: a. How much rain fell in Mar of 1989? _____________________ b. How much more rain fell in Feb of 1990 than in Feb of 1989? ______________ c. Which year had the most rainfall? ________________________ d. What is the wettest month on the graph? __________________

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P a g e | 24 Graphing Practice Problem


pH of water 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 Number of tadpoles 45 69 78 88 43 23

A. B. C. D. E.

Make a line graph of the data. What is the dependent variable? _______________________________ What is the independent variable? ______________________________ What is the optimum water pH for tadpole development? ___________ Between what two pH readings is there the greatest change in tadpole number? __________________________________________________ Graph Title: ____________________ vs. _______________________
Independent Variable Dependent Variable

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P a g e | 25 Dont always trust what you read! Graphs can be very misleading. The following graphs are two representations of the exact same thing!

Why are these graphs misleading? ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ If you were a politician in office, which graph would you want to use and why? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ If you were a politician trying to overthrow someone in office, which graph would you want to use and why? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Why do scientists need to be especially careful when reading graphs? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ WRAP-UP: Why do scientists use graphs to represent information? ________ ___________________________________________________________

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Lab 2: Measuring and Making Graphs

Background In science, it is not enough for you to describe your observations in words. Whenever possible, it is better for you to measure your observations in numbers. This allows your observations to be objectivethat means that everyone can agree on them and that they are not opinions. In this lab, you will practice being scientists by carefully measuring pennies. Directions 1. Measure the Diameter of your Pennies Place the centimeter side of your ruler against one edge of your penny. Record the diameter of the penny in the chart. Next lay two pennies in a line, and do the same thing. Keep doing this until you have measured the diameter of six pennies.

1 2

3 4 5

6 7 8

9 10

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2. Measure the Volume of your Pennies Fill your graduated cylinder up about halfway. Record how much water you have in your graduated cylinder right here: Note: Have you ever noticed that when you look at the side of a glass, the water dips down a little bit? This dip is called the meniscus. When you measure the volume of water, always record your number from the bottom of the meniscus. _____________ Milliliters Next, add one penny to your graduated cylinder. Record how much water there is in your graduated cylinder. _____________ Milliliters Repeat this for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 pennies. Two pennies: _____________ Milliliters Three pennies: ____________ Milliliters Four pennies: _____________ Milliliters Five pennies: _____________ Milliliters Six pennies: ______________ Milliliters

Subtract your original volume (the circled one) from each of the new volumes in order to get the values you need to complete the volume table.

Data Number of Coins 1 2 3 4 5 6

Diameter in Centimeters

Volume in Milliliters

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Make a Graph

Conclusions 1. What errors could have occurred in your measurement of the diameter of the pennies? Name at least two. ________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. What errors could have occurred in your measurement of the volume of the pennies? Name at least two. _____________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Could you use the diameter or volume of one penny to determine the diameter or volume of seven, eight, nine, or ten pennies? ___________________________________________________ Why or why not? ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. Did your classmates obtain similar results to yours? ____________ 5. Why or why not? _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________
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Lab 3: Making Connections How Does Fatigue Affect Muscle Performance?

Introduction A condition known as muscle fatigue occurs when certain waste products of muscle activity (lactic acid) build up in the cells. Until these waste chemicals are removed, the fatigue will continue. Do the Following Activity: Hold a spring-type clothespin between your thumb and index finger. Pinch the ends together completely (until the two ends touch) and release them. Do this as rapidly as possible for one minute. Record the number of times you could squeeze the clothespin: Trial # 1 2 3 4 Average # of Squeezes in 1 minute

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Graphing: Please graph the above data as a LINE GRAPH. The independent variable is the trial number and the dependent variable is the number of squeezes in 1 minute. Graph Title: ________________________________________________ HINT: A really good graph title is: (Independent Variable) vs. (Dependent Variable)

Response Questions: Variable: _______________________________________


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Response Questions: 1. Could you do as many in a minute the fourth time as you could do the first time? Provide a biological explanation for these results. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2. What does an increased pulse rate indicate about the heart rate and flow of blood in someones body? It increases as the pulse rate increases It decreases as the pulse rate increases 3. When muscles are active, cells use nutrients and oxygen at a higher rate and produce chemicals (lactic acid) more rapidly. Describe how the interaction of two body systems helps to maintain homeostasis during periods of high muscle activity. (Be sure to have TWO systems in your answer.) ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 4. If you want to increase your clothespin-squeezing rate, would you suggest exercising or resting before you did it? Explain why you think your choice is correct. ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5. What do you think would happen to the number of squeezes if you were asked to do a 5th trial for clothespin squeezing? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 6. What effect did muscle fatigue have on the action of your hand muscles? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________
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P a g e | 32 AIM: How can we separate living from non-living things? DO NOW: The picture on the left is a coral. It is a living thing. The picture on the right is a rock. It is a non-living thing.

What can coral do that rocks cannot do? _________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ What makes coral a living thing, while a rock is a non-living thing? _______________ ________________________________________________________________ CLASS ACTIVITY: Directions: 1. Get into your groups. 2. You will spend 5 minutes at each station making observations and notes. 3. When the 5 minutes is up, you will rotate clockwise to the next station. 4. When you are finished answer the questions at the end of these data sheets.

OBJECT #1____________________________________________________: Living or Non-Living (circle one)

Explanation (give at least two factors that caused you to circle what you did): ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Inference: All living things __________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

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OBJECT #2__________________________________________________: Living or Non-Living (circle one)

Explanation (give at least two factors that caused you to circle what you did): ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Inference: All living things __________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

OBJECT #3____________________________________________________: Living or Non-Living (circle one)

Explanation (give at least two factors that caused you to circle what you did): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Inference: All living things ___________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

OBJECT #4_____________________________________________________: Living or Non-Living (circle one)

Explanation (give at least two factors that caused you to circle what you did): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Inference: All living things ___________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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OBJECT #5____________________________________________________: Living or Non-Living (circle one)

Explanation (give at least two factors that caused you to circle what you did): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Inference: All living things ___________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

OBJECT #6_____________________________________________________: Living or Non-Living (circle one)

Explanation (give at least two factors that caused you to circle what you did): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Inference: All living things ___________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ As a group answer these questions: 1. Come to a consensus (as a group) on at least five or more necessary characteristics of living things.

2. What problems did your group have in coming up with these criteria?

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Comparing Living and Non-Living Things


Answer the following questions. 1) List 10 organisms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

2) What are some similarities between the 10 organisms?

3) What are some differences between the 10 organisms?

4) What are some things the organisms all do?

5) List 10 things that are not alive. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

6) What are some things they all these non-living things have in common?

7) What are some things all 10 organisms do that all 10 non-living things do not do?

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AIM: Please copy the AIM from the PowerPoint slide on the board. _______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ DO NOW:

The Martian and the Car


Marty Martian was sent to Earth by the Martian government to find life. While on Earth, Marty captured a car and brought it back to Mars. He thought he'd found a good example of life on Earth. The Martian government does not believe that the car Marty brought back is alive. Marty must stand trial for failing to perform his Martian duties. At the trial, Marty spoke in his defense. "I first saw these life forms rolling along roads in great numbers. They were giving off thick clouds of poisonous waste as they moved. They seemed to exhibit herding behavior, as many of the cars moved in the same direction. They appeared to have a great deal of energy, some of them moved faster than 60 kilometers per hour. When one of these life forms stopped or slow down, the others behind it responded. They slowed down and gave off a reddish light from the back, and sometimes they would make honking noises. I observed that they would stop to feed on a liquid substance." Take the part of Marty's defense attorney and make a good case for the car's being alive. Then be the prosecutor and show that the car is a nonliving thing. List as many reasons as you can. Defense Attorney 1. ______________________________ 2. _____________________________ 3. _____________________________ 4. _____________________________ 5. _____________________________ Prosecutor 1. ______________________________ 2. _____________________________ 3. _____________________________ 4. _____________________________ 5. ____________________________

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Mini-Lesson: MRS. GONER All living things must do certain things in order to maintain ______________________________________________________ Which means: ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ All the life processes and chemical reactions living things do are called _________________________________________________ Although all living things look different from each other, they all have eight things in common. These eight things are called life processes. Something is only alive if it does __________________ processes. The Eight Life Processes 1. All living things have ___________________________________ Explain: _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. All living things undergo __________________________________ Explain: ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 3. All living things are _____________________________________ Explain: ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 4. All living things ________________________________________ Explain: ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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5. All living things have ____________________________________ Explain: ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 6. All living things need ____________________________________ Explain: ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 7. All living things ________________________________________ Explain: _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 8. All living things ________________________________________ Explain: ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The eight life processes spell ______. __________

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Explain how the living organisms demonstrate all eight MRS. GONER criteria. Then, explain how fire does NOT.
Dog Movement: ___________________________________ Respiration: __________________________________ Sensitivity: __________________________________ Growth: _____________________________________ Organization: _________________________________ Nutrition: ___________________________________ Excretion: ___________________________________ Reproduction: _________________________________ Oak Tree Movement: ___________________________________ Respiration: __________________________________ Sensitivity: __________________________________ Growth: _____________________________________ Organization: _________________________________ Nutrition: ___________________________________ Excretion: ___________________________________ Reproduction: _________________________________ Fire Movement: ____________________________________ Respiration: ___________________________________ Sensitivity: ___________________________________ Growth: ______________________________________ Organization: __________________________________ Nutrition: ____________________________________ Excretion: ____________________________________ Reproduction: __________________________________

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P a g e | 40 AIM: Please copy the AIM from the PowerPoint slide on the board. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Do Now: Europa is a moon surrounding the planet Jupiter. It is just a little smaller than

Earths moon, and it is covered with ice. However, the ice covers oceans of liquid water - so scientists think that Europa might be the home to living things. You are an astro-biologist working for the NASA space agency. Some American astronauts just returned from a trip to Europa, and they brought back this object from Europas liquid oceans.

1. What 8 things have to be true about this object in order for it to be alive? i. ________________________________ ii. ________________________________ iii. ________________________________ iv. ________________________________ v. ________________________________ vi. ________________________________ vii. ________________________________ viii. ________________________________ 2. Choose two of the above 8 criteria. Design an experiment you could perform to test for those things in the object. i. Criterion:___________________________________ Experiment:__________________________________________ ii. Criterion:___________________________________ Experiment:__________________________________________ 3. Do you think that the thing is alive? If so, name it! In science, each species has two words in its name. The first is the name of its genus, and the second is the name of its species. For example, our species name is Homo sapiens. In Latin, this means, Man, thinking. An earthworms name is Lumbricus terrestris. In Latin, this means, Crawler, earth. Name this species from Europa! Since you dont speak Latin, you may name it in English. The species is named: ______________________ ___________________________ Genus Species

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Class Activity: Poor Sammy 1. Sammy was a normal, healthy boy. There was nothing in his life to indicate that he was anything different from anyone else. When he completed high school, he obtained a job in a factory, operating a machine press. On this job he had an accident and lost his hand. It was replaced with an artificial hand that looked and operated almost like a real one.

Is Sammy Alive? Why?

2. Soon afterward, Sammy developed a severe intestinal difficulty, and a large portion of his lower intestine had to be removed. It was replaced with an elastic silicon tube.

Is Sammy Alive? Why?

3. Everything looked good for Sammy until he was involved in a serious car accident. Both of his legs and his good arm were crushed and had to be amputated. He also lost an ear. Artificial legs enabled Sammy to walk again, and an artificial arm replaced the real arm. Plastic surgery enabled doctors to rebuild the ear.

Is Sammy Alive? Why?

4. Over the next several years, Sammy was plagued with internal disorders. First, he had to have an operation to remove his aorta and replace it with a synthetic vessel. Next, he developed a kidney malfunction, and the only way he could survive was to use a kidney dialysis machine (no donor was found for a kidney transplant). Later, his digestive system became cancerous and was removed. He received nourishment intravenously. Finally, his heart failed. Luckily for Sammy, a donor heart was available, and he had a heart transplant.

Is Sammy Alive? Why?

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5. It was now obvious that Sammy had become a medical phenomenon. He had artificial limbs, nourishment was supplied to him through his veins; therefore he had no solid wastes. The kidney dialysis machine removed all waste material. The heart that pumped his blood to carry oxygen and food to his cells was not his original heart. But Sammy's transplanted heart began to fail. He was immediately placed on a heart-lung machine. This supplied oxygen and removed carbon dioxide from his blood, and it circulated blood through his body.

Is Sammy Alive? Why?

6. The doctors consulted bioengineers about Sammy. Because almost all of his life-sustaining functions were being carried on by machine, it might be possible to compress all of these machines into one mobile unit, which would be controlled by electrical impulses from Sammy's brain. This unit would be equipped with mechanical arms to enable him to perform manipulative tasks. A mechanism to create a flow of air over his vocal cords might enable him to speak. To do all this, they would have to amputate at the neck and attach his head to the machine, which would then supply all nutrients to his brain. Sammy consented, and the operation was successfully performed.

Is Sammy Alive? Why?

7. Sammy functioned well for a few years. However, a slow deterioration of his brain cells was observed and was diagnosed as terminal. So the medical team that had developed around Sammy began to program his brain. A miniature computer was developed: it could be housed in a machine that was humanlike in appearance, movement, and mannerisms. As the computer was installed, Sammy's brain cells completely deteriorated. Sammy was once again able to leave the hospital with complete assurance that he would not return with biological illness.

Is Sammy Alive? Why?

If Sammy is not alive at the story's end, exactly when did Sammy stop being alive?
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Reading/Response- Are Viruses Alive?


Are viruses alive? Anyone with a cold or the flu virus feels as if they are under attack by some organism. But in the scientific community it's still an open-ended question. This is why viruses do not belong to a kingdom of living things. Just because a virus seems alive doesn't mean it is alive. After all, it's HIV attacks the immune system's helper not even a single-celled organism. T cells. A virus is little more than a strand of DNA or RNA covered by a protein coating. Viruses are a thousand times smaller than bacteria and come in a wide range of shapes. Some look like weird, tall spiders whereas others look like prickly porcupinelike soccer balls. One thing is for sure; viruses are very much a part of life on Earth and the human experience. Viruses infect animals, plants, and even bacteria. Humans are in a constant battle with viruses. HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), the Ebola virus, and the West Nile virus continue to make headlines and take millions of lives.

1. Do you agree with the scientists? Are viruses non-living?

2. If viruses are not alive, how can they cause disease?


To determine whether a virus is alive or not, we could compare the virus's characteristics to what many biologists consider the requirements of life. All living things have several common characteristics. Some nonliving things may have one or more of the characteristics but not all of them. For a virus then to be classified as alive it must: Have Movement Perform Respiration Have Sensitivity Grow, develop, and die Be Organized Have Nutrition (it needs to eat something) Have Excretion (it needs to get rid of those wastes) Reproduce

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P a g e | 44 Viruses do have DNA or RNA, and DNA is the code for life. Having genetic material is an important step towards being classified as alive. DNA controls the evolution of the cell and the organism. Like living things, viruses evolve through time and thus can adapt to their environment. But unlike cells, viruses cannot use their genetic material by themselves. They need a living cell in order to function and reproduce; otherwise they are playing dead. Because viruses are not cells, they can't divide by it's actually a virus. The top part is the binary fission like bacteria. Yet they do reproduce capsid, the body is the sheath, and the tails at the bottom help the virus attach themselves in an extraordinary way. Their to its host. structure enables viruses to attack a plant or animal cell called a HOSTCELL. The protein shell protecting the virus's DNA is covered with spike-like protrusions. These spikes allow the virus to latch onto the cells they infect. Once hooked on, the virus injects its genetic material into the host cell. The virus's DNA takes control of the cell once it's within the cytoplasm and begins to make the cell produce virus DNA and other parts of viruses. The host cell is forced to expend all of its energy and resources to help the virus replicate and make hundreds more viruses. The poor, weak cell usually bursts like an overinflated balloon from all the viruses and is destroyed in the process. Then, the replicated virus attaches itself to a new, unaffected host cell, and the viral infection continues. Living things do more than just reproduce. They also must obtain food to fuel the cell's metabolic activity. Some organisms, such as animals, eat other living things for energy. Other organisms, such as plants, harness the Sun's energy to make their own food. Because viruses aren't cells and have no activity within it, it has no need for food. However, the virus-controlled host cell needs material and energy to reproduce the viruses. Maybe viruses can fit the requirement that life forms need to obtain and use energy.
This may look like a space capsule, but

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P a g e | 45 All other living things also grow or get bigger. A virus does nothing inside its protein coat; therefore it does not grow. But some scientists argue that a virus's growth occurs inside the host cell where parts of viruses are built during reproduction. Plants and animals react to the environment. All living things have ways of sensing the world around them and can respond to changes in their environment. Do viruses react? Viruses cannot move themselves, but there are some differences in opinion that viruses do react to changes in the environment.

3. Which of the MRS. GONER life functions are viruses capable of doing?

4. Which of the MRS. GONER life functions are viruses incapable of doing?
What's Your Final Answer?As humans, we like to classify things because it helps
us understand the physical world. Viruses must have a host cell to live and reproduce. Outside of the host cell, viruses are pieces of genetic molecules that can do nothing by themselves. Viruses are right on the border between living and nonliving. Some biologists currently see the virus as a nonliving infectious particle. Other biologists disagree and suggest they are alive because of what happens inside the host cell. Getting a definite answer if viruses are alive or not may never happen. But hey, that's life.

5. HOW SHOULD WE CLASSIFY VIRUSES??

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Exam One Review


There will be three sections in this exam. You are responsible for knowing the information about these three topics: Scientific Method Graphing Living vs. Nonliving To help you review for the exam, I have made you a review sheet. THIS REVIEW SHEET COVERS ABSOLUTELY EVERYTHING THAT WILL BE ON THE EXAM. It also counts for 10% of your exam grade. Section One- Scientific Method and Graphing Define the following words: Hypothesis: __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Experimental group: ___________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Control group: ________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Dependent variable: ___________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Independent variable: __________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Scientific method: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Variable: ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ How many variables should a correct experiment have? _________

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P a g e | 47 Ms. Pokela decides to set up an experiment to see whether pesticides on fruit cause cancer. She decides to split 400 mice into four groups- Onegroup gets fed plain fruit, on group gets fed fruit with 5 milligrams of pesticide, one group gets fed fruit with 10 milligrams of pesticide, and one group gets fed fruit with 15 milligrams of pesticide. After six months, she found that two mice in the plain food group had cancer, six mice in the 5 mg group had cancer, 10 mice in the 10 mg group had cancer, and 20 mice in 15 mg group had cancer.

Please graph the results of this experiment. Graph title: ________________________________

Name the independent variable in this experiment. ___________________________________________________ Name the dependent variable in this experiment. ___________________________________________________
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Name the control group in this experiment. ___________________________________________________ Why is it important to have a control group in any experiment? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Although none of them are specifically mentioned, think of one constant that this experiment should have had. ___________________________________________________ What conclusion would you make for the experiment on page one? Does the pesticide cause cancer? Justify your answer. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
SpongeBob loves to garden and wants to grow lots of pink flowers for his pal Sandy. He bought a special Flower Power fertilizer to see if will help plants produce more flowers. He plants two plants of the same size in separate containers with the same amount of potting soil. He places both plants in a sunny window. He waters one plant every day withfertilized water. He waters the other plant every day with plain water. After three weeks, the plants are the same size. Identify the1. Hypothesis ____________________________________________ 2. Independent Variable ____________________________________ 3. Dependent Variable ______________________________________ 4. Control Group __________________________________________ 5. Name at least two Constants _______________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. What should Spongebobs conclusion be?

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P a g e | 49 When we graph the results of an experiment, which variable should go on the X axis (the bottom)? The Independent Variable The Dependent Variable What is a hypothesis? A scientific experiment An educated guess A conclusion What you try to make your experimental results say. If an experiment proves your hypothesis to be incorrect, did your experiment fail? Yes No Why or why not? ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________

4. Answer these questions about the graph at the right: a. How much rain fell in Mar of 1989? _____________________ b. How much more rain fell in Feb of 1990 than in Feb of 1989? ______________ c. Which year had the most rainfall? ________________________ d. What is the wettest month on the graph? __________________ 5. Why do scientists use specific, specialized language? ______________________ ________________________________________________________________

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P a g e | 50 Use the partial list of Latin roots to figure out the everyday English meanings of the scientific words.

1. Paleontology: __________________________________________________ 2. Chlorophyll: ___________________________________________________ 3. Macrophage: __________________________________________________ 4. Biocide: ______________________________________________________ Section Two- Living vs. Nonliving 1. Name the 8 Mrs. Goner life processes. M: ____________________________________________ R: _____________________________________________ S: ______________________________________________ G: ______________________________________________ O: ______________________________________________ N: ______________________________________________ E: ______________________________________________ R: ______________________________________________ Why dont scientists consider viruses living things? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

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Chapter Two: Homeostasis and Microscopes


20% of your grade: Class participation
WEEK Week One Week Two Week Three Week Four Your Total Participation Grade POINTS EARNED POINTS POSSIBLE PERCENTAGE

20% of your grade: Class Work


Page#s 53 54-59 60-64 70-74 75-81 82-84 AIM Chapter 2 Word Wall What is homeostasis? How do disease and stress affect homeostasis? What is the metric system, and why do we use it? What are microscopes and how do we use them? How can we determine how big an object is when we look at it under the microscope? Your Total Classwork Grade
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 10 10 10 60

20% of your grade: Lab Activities


Page#s 65-69 85-87 Lab Number and Name Lab 4: Who Burgled the Bibermans? Lab 5: Letter e Lab Your Total Lab Grade
Earned Possible %

10 10 20

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20% of your grade: Homework


Date Assignment
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Your Total Homework Grade

20% of your grade: Test


Page #s 88-92 --Task Chapter 2 Test Review Chapter 2 Test Your Total Test Grade
Earned Possible %

10 90 100

Your Total Grade This Chapter


Task Participation Classwork Lab Activities Homework Test Your Total Chapter One Grade PERCENTAGE

Message from Me:

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the board. ___________________________________________________________ DO NOW: Fire gets bigger. It needs oxygen to burn. It sends off sparks that can start new fires, so it reproduces. It moves. And it consumes things (eats). Explain why fire is NOT a living thing. _______________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Viruses make us sick. They have DNA and RNA. With our cells help, they can make many copies of themselves. They evolve. Explain why viruses are NOT considered to be living things. ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Mini-Lesson (NOTES) Words to Know Maintain: ________________________________________________ Constant: ________________________________________________ Internal: _________________________________________________ Environment: _____________________________________________ Body cells work best if they have the correct: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Your body has mechanisms to keep the cells in a constant environment. What is homeostasis? __________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ In other words, the weather report from inside your body is ALWAYS THE SAME.

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Controlling body temperature All mammals and birds _________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Human beings have a body temperature of about __________ If your body is in a _________________________ your body temperature is __________ If your body is in a _________________________ your body temperature is still __________ What mechanisms are there to cool the body down? 1. ________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________ There are capillaries underneath your skin that expand if hot. This brings the ______________ closer to the __________________ of the skin so more heat can be lost. This is why you look red when you are hot! 3. ________________________________________________________ Similar to sweating What mechanisms are there to warm the body up? 1. ________________________________________________________ The capillaries underneath your skin get _________________ (smaller). This takes the blood away from the surface of the skin so less heat can be lost. 2. ________________________________________________________ The hairs trap a layer of _____ next to the skin which is then _______ by the __________ Does _______ work in ____________. Why? ____________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________ Shaking _________________ generate _________

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Class Activity: Negative Feedback Loops


A NEGATIVE feedback loop is how the body maintains HOMEOSTASIS. Whenever your body gets out of whack or moves AWAY from homeostasis, it needs to correct itself. Homeostasis is just like a circus performer balancing on a tight-rope.

If the tight-rope walker wobbles a little to the left, which way does he need to move his body in order to stay on the rope? ________________ If the tight-rope walker wobbles a little to the right, which way does he need to move his body in order to stay on the rope? ________________ This is the same way that negative feedback in our body works. Whenever we move away from homeostasis, our bodies move us in the OPPOSITE DIRECTION to get us back on track!

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Answer the following questions about homeostasis and negative feedback loops in the body. 1. Maintaining a steady temperature in the body (Thermoregulation) a. Lets say that the body is too hot. Is the body going to try to make you hotter, or colder? _____________________________________________ How can the body accomplish this? Name three ways. 1. _______________________________________ 2. _______________________________________ 3. _______________________________________ b. Lets say that the body is too cold. Is the body going to try to make you hotter, or colder? _____________________________________________ How can the body accomplish this? Name at three ways. 1. _______________________________________ 2. _______________________________________ 3. _______________________________________ c. State what each of these peoples bodies is doing.

What: ____________ Why:______________


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What: ___________ Why:____________

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Homeostasis and Negative Feedback


Homeostasis is one of the fundamental characteristics of living things. It refers to the maintenance of the internal environment within tolerable limits. All sorts of factors affect the suitability of our body fluids to sustain life; these include properties like temperature, salinity, acidity, and the concentrations of nutrients and wastes. Because these properties affect the chemical reactions that keep us alive, we have built-in physiological mechanisms to maintain them at desirable levels. When a change occurs in the body, there are two general ways that the body can respond. In negative feedback, the body responds in such a way as to reverse the direction of change. Because this tends to keep things constant, it allows us to maintain homeostasis. On the other hand, positive feedback is also possible. This means that if a change occurs in some variable, the response is to change that variable even more in the same direction. This has a destabilizing effect, so it does not result in homeostasis. Positive feedback is used in certain situations where rapid change is desirable. To illustrate the components involved in negative feedback, we can use the example of a driver trying to stay near the speed limit. The speed limit that we want for our car is called the set point. Here, the set point is a speed of 55 mph; in controlling body temperature, the set point would be 98.6 degrees. The control center is what monitors the variable and compares it with the set point. Here, the control center is the driver; for body temperature, it would be the hypothalamus of the brain. If the variable differs from the set point, the control center uses effectors to reverse the change. Here, the effector is the foot on the accelerator pedal; in controlling body temperature, it would include the glands that sweat and the muscles that shiver.

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Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Questions


1. Define homeostasis from the reading.

2. List some factors that homeostasis regulates in your body.

3. Define negative feedback. Explain how this relates to the concept of homeostasis?

4. Define positive feedback. Explain how this relates to the concept of homeostasis?

5. Explain how homeostasis is like driving a car.

6. Describe what the cartoon would be like if it were drawn of positive feedback.

7. Create your own cartoon of a negative feedback system.

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the board.


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

DO NOW:Fill in the following word map regarding the concept of homeostasis.

Mini-Lesson (NOTES) Controlling Glucose levels Your cells also need an exact level of ____________ in the blood. This is regulated by _____________ from the __________ called: o ___________________________________________ o ___________________________________________

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Diabetes People with ____________ do not produce enough________________. When they eat food, the ________________________ in their blood _____________________________________. Diabetics sometimes have to inject insulin into their blood. They have to be careful of their diet.

1. This graph of blood glucose levels belongs to a person who: a. Has diabetes b. Is healthy 2. Explain how you knew this. ________________________________

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3. This graph of blood glucose levels belongs to a person who: a. Has diabetes b. Is healthy 4. Explain how you knew this. ________________________________ Class Activity 1. Maintaining a steady level of glucose in the blood (NOTE: INSULIN LOWERS THE LEVEL OF GLUCOSE IN THE BLOOD. GLUCAGON RAISES THE LEVEL OF GLUCOSE IN THE BLOOD. GLYCOGEN IS THE NAME OF THE BIG MOLECULE THAT STORES GLUCOSE IN THE LIVER.) a. Lets say that the level of glucose in the blood is too high. Should your body make the glucose level higher or lower? ____________ Which hormone will the body use to do this? ____________________ b. Lets say that the level of glucose in the blood is too low. Should your body make the glucose level higher or lower? ____________ Which hormone will the body use to do this? _____________________ c. Please label the following picture correctly.

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Word Choices Liver Glucose Blood Vessel Glycogen Glucagon Insulin

d. Explain how this is a negative feedback loop. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ e. Explain how this negative feedback loop FAILS in a person with DIABETES. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________
Ben's Bad Day Go to the following website: http://ats.doit.wisc.edu/biology/ap/ho/t1.htm 8:00 am Ben feels faint because his blood pressure dropped suddenly when he jumped up. Help keep Ben from fainting by restoring his blood pressure! First body part activated: _________________Senses: ____________________ Second body part activated: ______________________________ This body part responds by: _________________________________

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P a g e | 64 8: 30 am Without a jacket to keep him warm, Bens body temperature is dropping! Help maintain his body temperature and save him from hypothermia. First body part activated: _________________Senses: ____________________ Second body part activated: ______________________________ This body part responds by: _________________________________ 11:50 am During his half-mile sprint, Bens muscles produced lactic acid, which lowered the pH of his blood. Help raise the pH of Bens blood back to normal levels. First body part activated: _________________Senses: ____________________ Second body part activated: ______________________________ This body part responds by: _________________________________ 5:00 pm Bens brain needs more glucose. Help raise Bens blood glucose so he can concentrate on the biology exam. First body part activated: _________________Senses: ____________________ Second body part activated: ______________________________ Third body part activated: _______________________________ 8:30 pm Ben is already dehydrated and this has raised the osmolarity (solute concentration) of his blood. Salty pretzels will make it worse. Help lower the osmolarity of Bens blood to prevent him from dehydrating further. First body part activated: _________________Senses: ____________________ Second body part activated: ______________________________ This body part responds by: _________________________________ Third body part activated: _______________________________ This body part responds by: _________________________________ 12:00 am Bens blood glucose is elevated after drinking the soda. Help lower his blood sugar and prevent him from any more embarrassing mishaps. First body part activated: _________________Senses: ____________________ Second body part activated: ______________________________ Third body part activated: _______________________________ Fourth body part activated: ______________________________

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Lab 4: Who Burgled the Bibermans?


Do Now: Write 1-3 complete sentences explaining how all four concepts in the concept circle relate to one another.

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The Crime The Bibermans have been burgled! Someone broke their kitchen window and stole all of Mrs. Bibermans jewelry. When the police came to investigate the crime, they found a puddle of urine next to the broken window, and a homeless person asleep next to their garage. His name is Bob, and he says that he doesnt know anything about the burglary. Despite what he says, Mrs. Biberman is certain that Bob is responsible for the crime! Its up to you to collect evidence and decide whether or not Bob might have been responsible for the burglary. The Cast of Characters Mrs. Biberman- An 83 year old heiress and philanthropist. Mrs. Biberman doesnt have any health problems. Mr. Biberman- An 88 year old retired businessman. Mr. Biberman is very sick- his kidneys are failing. His doctor says that he may only have a few months to live. Bob- A 31 year old homeless man. Bob is sick too- he has uncontrolled diabetes and he hasnt been taking care of himself!

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How do Diseases affect Urine?


In your body, urine is constantly being made by your kidneys. Your kidneys job is to filter your blood to get rid of excess water and poisons such as uric acid. In a healthy person, good things in your blood, such as glucose, blood cells, and proteins, are recycled back into your body. When a persons kidneys fail, they start to have trouble distinguishing between the bad molecules in blood and the good ones that your body needs. Consequently, a person with failing kidneys often has protein in their urine. When a person has diabetes, their bodies either dont produce or dont respond to insulin. Insulin is the hormone that is responsible for lowering the amount of glucose (SUGAR) in your blood. If a person with diabetes doesnt inject insulin and watch their diet, their blood glucose levels can climb dangerously high, leading to infections, coma, or death!!! If a person lets their blood glucose climb too high, their kidneys attempt to maintain homeostasis by getting rid of glucose in the urine. For this reason, a diabetics urine has sugar in it! In fact, hundreds of years ago, doctors would test to see if a person had diabetes by setting their urine out for a few hours to see if it attracted ants!! 1. What are your kidneys? What do they do for your body? 2. What is one thing that healthy kidneys filter out of your body? 3. What is one thing that healthy kidneys keep inside of your body? 4. Why does a person with failing kidneys have protein in their urine?

5. What is insulin? Why is it important to our bodies?

6. Why does a person with diabetes have excess glucose in their blood?

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How do We Test for Glucose and Protein in Urine?


Your job is to test four samples of urine for glucose and protein. The four samples belong to Mrs. Biberman, Mr. Biberman, Bob, and the puddle of urine found near the window. To test for glucose: 1. Put a small amount of the urine that you are testing in a test-tube. 2. Add five drops of Benedicts solution to your sample. BENEDICTS SOLUTION IS A BLUE LIQUID THAT TURNS ORANGE WHEN IT IS HEATED UP IN THE PRESENCE OF GLUCOSE! 3. Put your sample in the hot water bath for five minutes. 4. Record the results in your data table. To test for protein: 1. Put a small amount of the urine that you are testing in a test-tube. 2. Put your sample in the hot water bath for five minutes. Proteins denature, or unfold,when they are heated. (Think: an egg turns from clear to white when you cook it!) If your urine sample is positive for protein, you see solid bits of protein floating in it after it is heated. 3. Record the results in your data table.

Data Glucose Present? Sample AMrs. Biberman Sample BMr. Biberman Sample CBob Sample DPuddle from broken window Protein Present?

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Conclusions 1. Could the urine sample near the window belong to Mrs. Biberman? Why or why not?

2. Could the urine sample near the window belong to Mr. Biberman? Why or why not?

3. Could the urine sample near the window belong to Bob? Why or why not?

4. Can you be certain whose urine was near the window? Why or why not?

5. Would you arrest Bob for this burglary? Why or why not?

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the board. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ DO NOW:Bob is vacationing in Europe. He knows NOTHING about the metric system!! Help Bob decide what to do in the following situations. 1. It is 30C. Dress Bob! Circle the clothes he should put on.

30C is equal to _____F. How did you do dressing Bob? ________ 2. Bob is meeting a friend at a caf 35 kilometers away. How should he go there?

35 km is equal to _____miles. How did you do helping Bob decide how to get to the cafe? ________
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P a g e | 71 MINI-LESSON What type of measurement do we normally use in the ________? o The ______________________________________ o Why dont we use this system in science? o Too _____________________________, no __________________ How Complicated Is It? ______ inches in a foot ______ feet in a yard ______ feet in a rod ______ feet in a furlong ______ pints in a quart ______ quarts in a gallon ______ gallons in a peck ______ pecks in a bushel WTFudge? There is _____________________ so you __________________ the relationship. If you want to use the English system, you have to ____________________ the ____________________ and ____________________ or _______________ to do _______________________ Luckily, the metric system is MUCH ____________________!!! How is the Metric System Easier? In the metric system, everything is based on ______________ of _______. Every type of measurement uses the same beginning ___________________. We can do conversions __________________ doing math, just by _________________ the __________________________ right or left.

What is the ________________________ for ___________________? ___________________ abbreviated as _____ How long is a meter? A meter is about a yard. (39.37 inches - a yard is 36 inches)

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P a g e | 72 What is the ________________________ for ___________________? ___________________ abbreviated as _____ How much is a liter? A liter is about a quart. (1.06 quarts) What is the ________________________ for _________________________? ___________________ abbreviated as _____ How much is a gram? A gram is very light about the weight of a paperclip! (0.035 ounces) Using the Metric System Would a meter stick be good enough unit to measure a hair?____________________ If you wanted to measure the distance from the earth to the sun, would a meter stick be a good way to measure the distance?___________________________________ Need smaller and larger units Use Prefixes to Make Units Bigger or Smaller _________________ what does this mean? ___________ or ________ - makes unit _____________________ _________________ what does this mean? ___________ or ________ - makes unit ______________________ _________________ what does this mean? ___________ - makes unit ____________________ Conversions are EASY! Lets Practice!

A) 9.0 B) 3.0 C)

g = ______________ kg (kilograms) L = ______________ mL (milliliters) 5.0 m = _____________ cm (centimeters)

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the board.


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

DO NOW: 1. Use the ladder method to convert the metric values underneath.

6.5 mm = ___________ m 80.99 cg = __________ g

3.85 kL = __________ DL (dekaliters) 0.009 km = _________ m

2. You look through your microscope and see the following image: What steps should you take in order to see the image more clearly? ___________________________ _____________________________________ ___
Mini-Lesson (NOTES) Types of Microscopes ________________________:Uses lenses to magnify an object. ________________________: Magnifies objects that are too thick for other types. Used to look at whole organisms. ________________________:Gets much higher resolutions. Very expensive and only used at universities
In high school, the microscope that you will be using is the optical microscope. Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

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Which type of microscope?

A. ______________ ______________

B. ___________________ C. _______________ ___________________ _______________

Word Box Optical Microscope Dissecting Microscope Electron Microscope


A Very Quick History of the Microscope Robert Hooke- 1663 o Was using a primitive simple microscope consisted of a few lenses o Looked at a piece of _______________ o He saw a bunch of little boxes o Made up the word ______________ since he thought each box looked like a room in a monastery. Antony van Leeuwenhoek- 1673 o Ground Lenses together- more efficient than Hooke o Looked at pond water and saw organisms that he called animicules (tiny animals) o Now we use the word microorganisms. o Was the first person to observe ______________________, _____________________, ________________________, and blood flow in capillaries.
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Some Things to Remember ____________________________ use the course- adjustment knob when you are on the highest power. You could break the slide or the microscope! Microscopic things are measured in microns. ________ millimeter = ________________ microns In a microscope, the field of view is ______________________. If your organism moves up, it will move down in your field of view. If your organism moves left, it will move right in your field of view. Which of the following pictures is from low power, and which is from high power?

This is __________ power.

This is __________ power.

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Reading/Response
During the 1st century AD (years 0-99), glass had been invented and the Romans were looking through the glass and testing it. They experimented with different shapes of clear glass and one of their samples was thick in the middle and thin on the edges. They discovered that if you held one of these lenses over an object, the object would look larger. Someone also discovered that you can focus the rays of the sun with one of these special glasses and start a fire. These early lenses were called magnifiers or burning glasses. The word lens by the way, is derived from the latin word lentil, as they were named because they resembled the shape of a lentil bean. These lenses were not used much until the end of the 13th century when spectacle makers were producing lenses to be worn as glasses. The early simple microscopes which were really only magnifying glasses had one power, usually about 6X - 10X . One thing that was very common and interesting to look at was fleas and other tiny insects. These early magnifiers were hence called flea glasses. Sometime about the year 1590, two Dutch spectacle makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his father Hans, started experimenting with these lenses. They put several lenses in a tube and made a very important discovery. The object near the end of the tube appeared to be greatly enlarged, much larger than any simple magnifying glass could achieve by itself! They had just invented the compound microscope (which is a microscope that uses two or more lenses). Galileo heard of their experiments and started experimenting on his own. He described the principles of lenses and light rays and improved both the microscope and telescope. He added a focusing device to his microscope and of course went on to explore the heavens with his telescopes. Anthony Leeuwenhoek of Holland became very interested in lenses while working with magnifying glasses in a dry goods store. He used the magnifying glass to count threads in woven cloth. He became so interested that he learned how to make lenses. By grinding and polishing, he was able to make small lenses with great curvatures. These rounder lenses produced greater magnification, and his microscopes were able to magnify up to 270X! Anthony Leeuwenhoek became more involved in science and with his new improved microscope was able to see things that no man had ever seen before. He saw bacteria, yeast, blood cells and many tiny animals swimming Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

P a g e | 81 about in a drop of water. From his great contributions, many discoveries and research papers, Anthony Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) has since been called the "Father of Microscopy". Robert Hooke, an Englishman (who is sometimes called the English Father of Microscopy), also spent much of his life working with microscopes and improved their design and capabilities. Little was done to improve the microscope until the middle of the 19th century when great strides were made and quality instruments like todays microscope emerged. Companies in Germany like Zeiss and an American company founded by Charles Spencer began producing fine optical instruments. Today, there are no microscope manufacturers in the US and most of the microscopes come from Germany, Japan and China. Toy plastic microscopes should be avoided as they do not achieved the level of quality of the basic instruments with metal frames and glass lenses. Because of foreign production, quality microscopes have become affordable for all. Zaccharias Janssen, the inventor of the microscope would marvel at the quality of even the most basic microscopes found in schools today.

Questions What language does the word lens come from? _______________ What did it originally mean? _______________________________ What is a compound microscope? ___________________________ _______________________________________________________ Who is the father of microscopy? __________________________ How many microscopes are made in the United States every year? ____________________________________________________ How is a telescope like a microscope? _________________________ _____________________________________________________ How is a telescope different from a microscope? ________________ _____________________________________________________ Who do you think invented the microscope? Justify your answer. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the board. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ DO NOW: Figure A represents a cell as viewed by a student using the 10X ocular and the 10X objective of a compound light microscope. Figure B represents the same cell as seen with a different objective. The magnification of the objective used to observe the cell shown in figure B is most likely A. 4X C. 40X B. 60X D. 100X

MINI-LESSON
Magnification To determine your magnificationyou just multiply the _______________________ by the _________________________ Example: The ocular is 10x and the objective is 40x, so 10 x 40 = ________ Object is ____________________________________ than it is in real life. How do we determine the size of objects under a microscope? 1. _________________ _________ _______________________make sure that you can see your slide subject! 2. Take out a ___________ ruler with ___________________ on it. 3. Place the ruler on top of your slide. 4. Count how many millimeters there are in your ______________ ______ ____________________ 5. ___________________________________________________

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Converting from millimeters (mm) to micrometers (m) There are _________________ micrometers (m) in _____ millimeter (mm) State how many m wide the following objects are. A skin cell is ___________ millimeters across. _____________ X 1000 = ________________ micrometers A human hair is ________________ millimeters across. _____________ X 1000 = ________________ micrometers A pollen grain is _________________ millimeters across. _____________ X 1000 = ________________ micrometers How big is this object, in m? ___________ millimeters X 1000 = ________________ micrometers

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CLASS ACTIVITY
Go to the following website: http://virtualurchin.stanford.edu/microscope.swf

6. Click on the microscope. 7. Click on view at different magnifications. 8. Drag the ruler to the microscope stage. Objective lens magnification Measurement mm mm mm Critical thinking!! (Not on the website.) There are 1,000 m (micrometers) in a mm (millimeter.) How many micrometers are in each of your measurements? _____________________ m _____________________ m _____________________ m 9. Drag each specimen to the stage. Choose which objective lens magnification would make it easiest to estimate the size of the object. Then, estimate its size. Record your observations on this chart. Put a check Specimen Objective lens Size over here if your answer magnification 1. 2. mm 3. 4. 5. mm mm mm
was correct.

mm

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Lab 5: Letter e Lab

Introduction
"Micro" refers to tiny, "scope" refers to view or look at. Microscopes are tools used to enlarge images of small objects so as they can be studied. The compound light microscope is an instrument containing two lenses, which magnifies, and a variety of knobs to resolve (focus) the picture. Because it uses more than one lens, it is sometimes called the compound microscope in addition to being referred to as being a light microscope. In this lab, we will learn about the proper use and handling of the microscope.

Procedures I. Microscope Handling


Carry the microscope with both hands --- one on the arm and the other under the base of the microscope. One person from each group will now go over to the microscope storage area and properly transport one microscope to your working area. The other person in the group will pick up a pair of scissors, newsprint, a slide, and a cover slip. Remove the dust cover and store it properly. Plug in the scope. Do not turn it on until told to do so.

Part II. Preparing a wet mount of the letter "e.


10. With your scissors cut out the letter "e" from the newspaper. 11. Place it on the glass slide so as to look like (e). 12. Cover it with a clean cover slip. See the figure below.

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i. Using your eyedropper, place a drop of water on the edge of the cover slip where it touches the glass slide. The water should be sucked under the slide if done properly.

Technique for Adding a Stain when making a Wet Mount

Turn on the microscope and place the slide on the stage; making sure the "e" is facing the normal reading position (see the figure on the previous page). Using the course focus and low power, move the body tube down until the "e" can be seen clearly. Draw what you see in the space below.

1. Describe the relationship between what you see through the eyepiece and what you see on the stage.________________________________________ 7. Looking through the eyepiece, move the slide to the upper right area of the stage. What direction does the image move?__________________________ 8. Now, move it to the lower left side of the stage. What direction does the image move?__________________________________________________ 9. Re-center the slide and change the scope to high power. You will notice the "e" is out of focus. Do Not touch the coarse focus knob, instead use the fine focus to resolve the picture. Draw the image you see of the letter e (or part of it) on high power. Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

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Conclusion Questions:
1. State 2 procedures which should be used to properly handle a light microscope.

2.

Images observed under the light microscope are reversed and inverted. Explain what this means.

3.

Explain why the specimen must be centered in the field of view on low power before going to high power.

4.

In three steps using complete sentences, describe how to make a proper wet mount of the letter e.

5.

How does the procedure for using the microscope differ under high power as opposed to low power?

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Chapter Two Test Review


Do Now: Our exam is going to be over three topics. Next to each topic, write one question you have about the topic. 1. The Metric System: __________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Microscopes: _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Homeostasis: ________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Topic 1- Metric Conversions

Please do the following conversions. You can use the metric step ladder to help you out.
9.15 millimeters = _________________ meters 0.007 kilograms = _________________ centigrams 68.95 milliliters = ________________ liters 100.04 dekagrams = ______________ hectograms 8,456.9 centimeters = _____________ kilometers 678 kiloliters = __________________ liters 0.005 millimeters = ____________________ meters 8923.3 decigrams = ___________________ kilograms Why do scientists use the metric system to measure things, rather than the English system? ________________________________
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Topic 2: Microscopes

13. Label the microscope. Your choices are: Ocular Lens / Eyepiece, Stage clips, Base, Body tube, Fine Adjustment Knob, Arm, Diaphragm, Stage, Objective Lenses, Revolving Nosepiece, Course Adjustment Knob, and Light Source. 14. Should you ever use the coarse adjustment knob under the highest power? ___________________________________________ 15. Why or why not? _____________________________________ __________________________________________________
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Measuring Objects in a Microscope

16. How many micrometers wide is this microscope field of view? (REMEMBER: There are 1000 micrometers in every millimeter.) ___________________________________________________ 17. How many micrometers wide is this organism, including its flagellum (tail)? (REMEMBER: There are 1000 micrometers in every millimeter.) _________________________________________ 18. How many micrometers wide is this organism, NOT including its flagellum (tail)? (REMEMBER: There are 1000 micrometers in every millimeter.) __________________________________________ 19. How many micrometers wide is this organisms NUCLEUS? (REMEMBER: There are 1000 micrometers in every millimeter.) ___________________________________________________

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Exam Review: Section 3- Homeostasis Define the following words. Homeostasis: ________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Negative feedback system: ______________________________ ___________________________________________________ Positive feedback system: _______________________________ ___________________________________________________ Be familiar with this picture and be able to label it.

Word Box Liver Glucagon Insulin Blood Vessel Glycogen Glucose

Please explain what process is happening in the above picture. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ What is diabetes? How does the negative feedback system above fail during diabetes?_______________________________________ _____________________________________________________
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20. Name three ways that a mammals body responds when its cold outside. (Things that you dont have to think about) a. ___________________________________________ b. ____________________________________________ c. ____________________________________________ 21. Name three ways that a mammals body responds when its hot outside (Things that you dont have to think about.) d. ____________________________________________ e. ____________________________________________ f. ____________________________________________
What is a negative feedback loop? (HINT- THINK OF A TIGHTROPE WALKER KEEPING HIS BALANCE!!) _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Explain how a positive feedback loop is different from a negative feedback loop.______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

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Chapter Three: Cells and Cell Organelles


20% of your grade: Class participation
WEEK Week One Week Two Week Three Week Four Your Total Participation Grade POINTS EARNED POINTS POSSIBLE PERCENTAGE

20% of your grade: Class Work


Page#s 95 96-99 100-106 110-114 115-118 119-122 AIM Chapter Three Word Wall What is a cell? How does a cell function? What are the differences between plant and animal cells? How do plants obtain nutrients? How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related? Your Total Classwork Grade
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 10 10 10 60

20% of your grade: Lab Activities


Page#s 107-109 123-127 128-129 Lab Number and Name Lab 6: Examine your Cheek Cells! Lab 7: Can yeast tell the difference between sugar and artificial sweetener? Lab 8: How does light intensity affect the rate of photosynthesis? Your Total Lab Grade
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 30

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20% of your grade: Homework


Date Assignment
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Your Total Homework Grade

20% of your grade: Test


Page #s 130-134 --Task Chapter 3 Test Review Chapter 3 Test Your Total Test Grade
Earned Possible %

10 90 100

Your Total Grade This ChapterMessage from Me:


Task Participation Classwork Lab Activities Homework Test Your Total Chapter One Grade PERCENTAGE

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the board. _______________________________________________________ DO NOW:Answer the following question.
1. A plant cell in a microscopic field of view is represented in the accompanying diagram. The width (w) of this plant cell is closest to

1. 200 microns 2. 800 microns

3. 1200 microns 4. 1600 microns

MINI-LESSON COOL FACT: What is the biggest single cell on Earth? The nerve cells in a giraffes legs are the LONGEST single cells- each one is 2 meters (6 feet) long! Eggs are single cells- so an ostrich egg is one huge cell! The algae Caulerpa looks like a multicellular plant- but is actually only a single cell- and it can grow to be a meter long (3 feet)! Thiomargarita namibiensis is the largest bacteria on Earth- its 0.75 mm in diameter- so big you can see it with only your eye!! CELLS You have already learned thatall living things perform the ___________ _________ ________________ life processes. You can now add one more thing that all living things do. ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE UP OF ___________________. C___________________ T___________________________ The foundation of modern biology Credit for the theory is given to three scientists: Theodor Schwann, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, and Rudolf Virchow.
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What is Cell Theory? __________________________ are made up of ___________. The cell is the _________ and _____________ unitof organisms All cells come from ____________________________________ All cells contain ____________________________________

Today we can add:

COMMON CELL TRAITS A_________________ is the smallest unit that is capable of performing __________ ___________________ TWO TYPES OF CELLS Prokaryotic: _____ _____________________ or other membranebound organelles. Example: ___________________ Eukaryotic: __________ _____ __________________ and other membrane-bound organelles.Example: ______________ , ______________________, and _______________________. HOW MANY CELLS DO LIVING THINGS HAVE? Organisms are made of one or more cells. _______________ organisms are made of _________________. _______________ organisms are made of _________________. Prokaryotes are almost always unicellular. Eukaryotes can be eitherunicellular or multicellular. How many cells do multicellular organisms have? Multicellular organisms can have _________ or ___________ cells. Human bodies contain around ____ trillion _________________ cells. Human bodies contain around _____ trillion ________________ cells You are ____________________________ more bacteria than you inside of YOU!

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CLASS ACTIVITY: Technology Connection! Go to the following website: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm Read the paragraphs about the 3D cell models. Click on take me to the animation. Click on animal cell (on the bottom, written in green.) 1. Click on the nucleus. How is a muscle cell different from a fat cell, even though they both have the same DNA?

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click return to cell diagram. 2. Click on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Why does the rough E.R. appear pebbled?
_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click return to cell diagram. 3. Click on the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. What is the smooth E.R.s function in liver cells?
_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click return to cell diagram. 4. Click on mitochondrion. What are cristae?

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click return to cell diagram. 5. Click on microtubules/micro and intermediate filaments. What is the primary importance of the cytoskeleton?

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Click return to cell diagram.


6. Explore the rest of the animal cell on your own. Write down

one fact that you found surprising.

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click on plant cell (on the bottom, written in green.) Answer the following questions. 7. Click on chloroplasts. What chemical do these organelles contain? (Responsible for making a plant green.)
_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click return to cell diagram. 8. Click on cytosol. How are the terms cytosol and cytoplasm different from each other?

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click return to cell diagram. 9. Click on vacuole. How do cell vacuoles make a plant rigid?
_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click return to cell diagram. 10. Click on cell wall. What polysaccharide are most cell walls made of?

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Click return to cell diagram. 11. Explore the rest of the plant cell on your own. Write down one fact that you found surprising.

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the board. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ DO NOW:Describe what a prokaryote is. _______________________________________________________ _______________________ Describe what a eukaryote is._____________________________________________________ __________________________________
1. What type of cell is a bacteria? _______________________________ 2. What type of cell is a plant? _________________________________ 3. What type of cell is an animal? ______________________________ Label the following cell types as prokaryote or eukaryote.

_______________________

_______________________

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______________________

________________________

MINI-LESSON Cell Organelles Our bodies maintain ______________ through their_______________ Single cells need to maintain homeostasis too. Cells use _________________ to maintain _____________________ _________________ are _________________________________ that do _______________________________________________ A List of Cell Organelles 1. _____________ __________________________________ Outer covering, ____________________________ around _______cells For cells with cell walls,the cell membrane is ________________ the cell wall Allows food, oxygen, &water into the cell &waste products out of the cell. Analogy __________________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________ ____________________ all cell activities Contains ______________ for everything the cell does in the form of ______ Analogy ___________________________________________________ 3. Nucleolus Aka little nucleus Found in the nucleus Makes ________________________________, which make proteins. 4. _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Very small, can be floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Only the Educated are Free Epictetus, Philospher and Former Roman Slave

P a g e | 102 Analogy ___________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________ A cells _____________________________________________________ Makes _______, which is the main molecule that the cell uses for __________ Analogy ___________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________ TWO TYPES: _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Both types of E.R. _________________________________ around the cell Analogy ___________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________ Responsible for _____________________ to the ___________ of the cell! Analogy ___________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________ Tiny _____________ where molecules are __________________________ or ____________________________ Analogy ___________________________________________________ ONLY IN PLANTS: 9. ______________________________________________ Provides ___________________ and ________________ for the plant cell ONLY IN PLANTS: 10. ______________________________________________ Where __________________________________________ takes place Plants ______________________________________________ here. ONLY IN PLANTS: 11. ______________________________________________ Full of _______________ - makes plants ___________________________ When vegetables get soft, they have have lost water from their vacuoles.

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Cell City Analogy


In a far away city called Grant City, the main export and production product is the steel widget. Everyone in the town has something to do with steel widget making and the entire town is designed to build and export widgets. The town hall has the instructions for widget making, widgets come in all shapes and sizes and any citizen of Grant can get the instructions and begin making their own widgets. Widgets are generally produced in small shops around the city, these small shops can be built by the carpenter's union (whose headquarters are in town hall). After the widget is constructed, they are placed on special carts which can deliver the widget anywhere in the city. In order for a widget to be exported, the carts take the widget to the postal office, where the widgets are packaged and labeled for export. Sometimes widgets don't turn out right, and the "rejects" are sent to the scrap yard where they are broken down for parts or destroyed altogether. The town powers the widget shops and carts from a hydraulic dam that is in the city. The entire city is enclosed by a large wooden fence, only the postal trucks (and citizens with proper passports) are allowed outside the city. Match the parts of the city (underlined) with the parts of the cell. 1. Mitochondria ______________________________________________ 2. Ribosomes ______________________________________________ 3. Nucleus ______________________________________________ 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum______________________________________________ 5. Golgi Apparatus ______________________________________________ 6. Protein ______________________________________________ 7. Cell Membrane ______________________________________________ 8. Lysosomes ______________________________________________ 9. Nucleolus ______________________________________________

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Lab 6: Examine Your Cheek Cells!

Introduction
1. List the 3 parts of the Cell Theory ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Describe or define each of the following -cytoplasm ______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ --nucleus ________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ --organelles ______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
Procedure: 1. Put a drop of methylene blue on a slide. Caution: methylene blue will stain clothes and skin. 2. Gently scrape the inside of your cheek with the flat side of a toothpick. Scrape lightly. 3. Stir the end of the toothpick in the stain and throw the toothpick away. 4. Place a coverslip onto the slide 5. Use the SCANNING objective to focus. You probably will not see the cells at this power. 6. Switch to low power. Cells should be visible, but they will be small and look like nearly clear purplish blobs. If you are looking at something very dark purple, it is probably not a cell 7. Once you think you have located a cell, switch to high power and refocus. (Remember, do NOT use the coarse adjustment knob at this point)

Technique for Adding a Stain when making a Wet Mount

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P a g e | 108 Sketch the cell at low and high power. Label the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Draw your cells to scale. Low Power High Power

1. The light microscope used in the lab is not powerful enough to view other organelles in the cheek cell. What parts of the cell were visible. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. List 2 organelles that were NOT visible but should have been in the cheek cell. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. Is the cheek cell a eukaryote or prokaryote? How do you know? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. Keeping in mind that the mouth is the first site of chemical digestion in a human. Your saliva starts the process of breaking down the food you eat. What organelle do you think would be numerous inside the cells of your mouth? ________________________________________________________________

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Conclusion Questions:
Cells come in different sizes and shapes. Some cells are specialized and organized into tissues and organs. A cells shape might tell you something about its function. 1. I have a cell wall plus chloroplasts for photosynthesis. I am a ___________. 2. I have no nucleus or other organelles. I am a ______________________. 3. I attack cancer cells so you should really like me! I am a _______________. 4. I have no cell wall, but a plasma membrane. I am found everywhere in the human body. I am an ________________________. 5. I kill thousands of women in the U.S. every year. Hint: pink ribbons are worn is an international symbol for the disease I cause. I am a ________________. 6. I live in a bulb that you can eat (ex: hamburgers), but I can make people cry! I am a ________________________. 7. I live in your brain and without me you could not think! I am a ___________. 8. I am a dangerous cell that you can kill you if you smoke cigarettes. I am a ______________. 9. I am found in a vegetable that is shaped like a tube and is long and green. Hint: the vegetable starts with an A. I am an ________________________. 10. I circulate through your whole body through vessels by pumping action of the heart. Without me, your tissues could not receive oxygen! I am a ________________________. 11. I can be found in a brain tumor and am very dangerous. I am a _____________________. 12. I have a thick cell wall and live on the part of the plant that is underground. I am a ____________________.

Word Bank

plant root cell plant cell neuron cell red blood cell onion cell lung cancer cell

asparagus cell breast cancer cell T-cell animal cell brain cancer cell prokaryote

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Aim: What are the differences between plant and animal cells? DO NOW:Answer the following Regents Question.
Put each of the following organelles into one of the four columns, based on their role in metabolism.

Lysosomes

Mitochondria

Ribosomes

Chloroplast

Protein Synthesis

Digestion

Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis

Put a check in the appropriate column(s) to indicate whether the following organelles are found in plant cells, animal cells or both.

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Class Activity: Label the blank pictures using the labeled pictures.

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Organelle Nucleus Nucleolus Cell Membrane Cell Wall Mitochondria Chloroplast Vacuole Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Centrioles

Function

In Plant, Animal, or Both?

Color It

We dont know!

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Place the following eleven cell organelles on the Venn Diagram in the correct space. 1. Nucleus 2. Nucleolus 3. Cell Membrane 4. Cell Wall 5. Mitochondria 6. Lysosomes What are some differences between plant and animal cells? 1. ____________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________ 4. ____________________________________________________ 7. Chloroplast 8. Vacuole 9. Endoplasmic Reticulum 10. Golgi Apparatus 11. Centrioles

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AIM:Please copy the AIM from the powerpoint display. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ DO NOW:

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Mini-Lesson Photosynthesis Where does the ____________ that ____________________ come from? _________________! (Well, most of it, anyway...) Photosynthesis A process that uses _____________, ___________________, and _________________ to produce ___________________. Write the chemical formulafor photosynthesis (bottom of ppt) _________________________________________________ Plant Photosynthesis ________________ takes place in the __________________ Why are plants green? _________________________________________________ Plants Plants are ______________________________________: They ____________________________ their own food. To do this, plants need: - ___________________ (from the ______________) -____________________ (from their _____________) -____________________ (from their _____________) Roots Obtain Water Roots obtain water using _________________________ Water is immediately pulled up to the ________________, so the inside of the roots is contantly ________________. Stoma Obtain Carbon Dioxide A plant's stoma are like little_______- they breathe in & out! __________________ comes in using _________________ __________________ exits using ____________________ To prevent water loss, _________________ during droughts! Only the Educated are Free. Epictetus, Philosopher and Former Roman Slave

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Chloroplast __________________ where _______________ takes place. Chlorophyll molecules harvest energy by absorbing certain light wavelengths (blue-420 nm and red-660 nm are most important). Plants are green because the green wavelength is ____________________, not absorbed. In other words, plants _______________________ green light! Class Activity First, label the stoma. Underneath, explain why these openings are important for the plant.

Words to use: Stoma- the opening which lets carbon dioxide into a leaf and which lets oxygen out. Guard cells- the cells on the outside of the stoma, which open and close the opening. Why do plants need stoma? ____________________________ _________________________________________________ How are stoma like little mouths for the leaf? ______________ _________________________________________________ How are guard cells like lips? ___________________________ _________________________________________________

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P a g e | 118 Directions: In the picture below, fill in answers to the following questions about photosynthesis.

1. What does the sun give to the plant? _____________

4. What gas exits the plant from the leaves? _________

2. What enters the plant through the air? _______________ 5. What is being made (produced) inside the leaves of the plant? _________________ 3. What enters the plant through the soil? ___________

6. Now lets make this into a chemical equation. Fill in the following blanks with words that you wrote in the picture above.

(Left side: Materials going into the plant)

(Right side: Materials being produced by the plant/coming out)

Light Energy ________ + _________ (REACTANTS) _______ + __________ (PRODUCTS)

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AIM:Please copy the AIM from the powerpoint display.


_________________________________________________________

Mini-Lesson Cellular Respiration Two Types: 1. _____________________ (__________________ Oxygen) A. The Phosphagen System B. ____________________________ Fermentation C. ____________________________ Fermentation 2. ______________________ (________________ Oxygen)

Anaerobic Fermentation The Phosphagen system A compound called creatine phosphate can make ATP (energy) very rapidly. Allows muscles to work very hard, but only for a very short time. Lasts for about 8-10 seconds.

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Anaerobic Fermentation ___________________ Fermentation causes... A ______________ SENSATION IN YOUR ______________________. (What trainers mean when they say, _______________________!!) This happens when your muscles run out of oxygen. Anaerobic Fermentation _______________ Fermentation is used by ______________: happens when yeast cannot get oxygen Humans use it to make ______________ and ______________ Aerobic Cellular Respiration _______________ cellular respiration __________________ by ___________________ using ______________________. ________ + ____________ ______+ _______+ _________ Oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + energy Where does aerobic respiration take place? The _____________________________ responsible for making _______________ Nicknamed the _____________________ of the cell. _________________________________ Compare Photosynthesis and Respiration Photosynthesis: a. _______________________________ from the Sun b. ___________________________________________ Respiration: c. ___________________________________________ d. ____________________________ from Sugars (ATP) What do you notice?___________________________________ __________________________________________________

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Photosynthesis:

Carbon dioxide+ Respiration:

water

sugar

oxygen

Sugar

Oxygen

= Carbon dioxide +

water

Photosynthesis and Respiration are _____________________________________!!!


Fill in the following chart comparing photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Where does it take place? Does it release or store energy? What gas helps it go forward? What gas is a byproduct?

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Class Activity Directions: Using the picture below, fill in answers to the
following questions. 1. What gas enters the body? _________ 2. What other material enters the body here? _________

3. What do mitochondria release from these materials? __________

4. What gas leaves the cell as waste? _________

5. What is this process called? ___________________ ___________________ 6. Now lets make this into a chemical equation. Fill in the following blanks with words that you wrote in the picture above.

(Left side: Materials going into the body)

(Right side: Materials being produced by the body/coming out)

____________ + ___________ (REACTANTS)

__________ + ___________ (PRODUCTS)

What organelle does cellular respiration take place in? _______________ Which types of cells have this organelle? Plants, Animals, or both? _______ What types of organisms carry out cellular respiration? _______________ Are there any similarities in the formulas for photosynthesis and cellular respiration? Explain.___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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LAB7:Can yeast tell the difference between sugar and artificial sweetener?
DO NOW: Make a hypothesis. Do you think yeast will be able to tell the difference? ______________________________________________ Why or why not? ____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Class Activity Some organisms are capable of photosynthesis- using energy captured from sunlight to make food. Before the energy stored in that food can be used, cells must break down the food molecules. This process is called cellular respiration. Respiration occurs in a series of complex steps, but the overall process can be summarized by the following equation: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy sugar + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy Did you ever wonder how bread gets its "spongy" structure? If you've ever baked homemade bread yourself, you know that you need yeast to make the bread dough rise. Yeasts are single-celled fungi. Like the cells in your body, they can derive energy from sugar molecules. They can also break down larger carbohydrate molecules (like starches present in flour) into simple sugar molecules, which are then processed further. Only the Educated are Free. Epictetus, Philosopher and Former Roman Slave

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What process is the opposite of cellular respiration? _____________________________________________ Where does the energy extracted from cellular respiration originally come from? ____________________________ Yeast can extract more energy from sugar when oxygen is present in their environment. In the absence of oxygen, yeast switch to a process called fermentation. With fermentation, yeast can still get energy from sugar, but less energy is derived from each sugar molecule. In addition to deriving less energy with fermentation, the end products of sugar metabolism are also different. When oxygen is present, the sugar molecules are broken down into carbon dioxide and water (plus energy that the yeast uses to grow and reproduce). In the absence of oxygen, the sugar molecules are not broken down completely. The end products are alcohol, carbon dioxide, and water. Less energy is extracted from each sugar molecule. In bread dough, carbon dioxide produced by yeast forms bubbles that make the dough rise, and give bread its spongy texture. What gives bread its spongy texture? ___________________ What does YOUR body do with the carbon dioxide that it produces during cellular respiration? _________________________________________________ OK, so yeast can derive energy from simple sugars and complex starches. What about sugar substitutes? This project is designed to find out. We will prepare different yeast solutions, some "fed" with sugar, others "fed" with sugar substitutes and still others "fed" with only warm water. To measure the metabolism of the yeast under the different conditions, you will see how much carbon dioxide is collected inside of balloons. Only the Educated are Free. Epictetus, Philosopher and Former Roman Slave

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Do you think yeast grown with sugar substitutes will produce more, less, or the same amount of carbon dioxide as yeast grown with sugar? _______________________________________________ _________________________________ Materials: Empty water bottles (3), glucose, artificial sweetener, warm water (~40C), live yeast, balloon, balance, weighing dishes, tape, graduated cylinder, markers, string, ruler, beakers, paper towels Procedures: 1. Label one of your water bottles WATER, one GLUCOSE, and one SWEETENER. 2. Measure 10 grams of glucose and carefully pour that amount into the GLUCOSE bottle. 3. Measure 10 grams of artificial sweetener and carefully pour that amount into the SWEETENER bottle. 4. Measure 7 grams of yeast & carefully pour it into each bottle. 5. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 200 mL of warm water and pour into each of your water bottles. 6. Swirl the bottle to mix everything together, and then quickly stretch a balloon over the mouth of each water bottle. 7. After 15 minutes, measure the circumference of each balloon by looping the string around the widest part of the balloon and measuring the length of the string. Record these measurements in table 1 .

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Data & Observations:

Conclusions 1. What are the bubbles you observed made out of? _____________________________________________ 2. Why do the bubbles show that the yeast are getting energy? _____________________________________________ ______________________________________ 3. Why do we use yeast in making bread? _____________________________________________ Only the Educated are Free. Epictetus, Philosopher and Former Roman Slave

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_____________________________________________ 4. Where else do we use yeast? _____________________________________________ 5. If a human ate a lot of sugar, would he/she get a lot of energy? _____________________________________ 6. If a human ate a lot of Splenda/Equal/Sweet n Low, would he/she get a lot of energy? What is the difference? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 7. When you buy a hummingbird feeder, the packaging warns you to not put artificial sweetener in it. What would happen to the hummingbirds if you were to put artificial sweetener in the feeder instead of sugar? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

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Lab 8: How Does Light Intensity Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis?

Problem: Rate of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plants take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, add water, and use the energy of sunlight to produce sugar. Write the equation for photosynthesis: Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast, an organelle in plant cells that contains the molecule chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs the energy of sunlight. That light energy is converted to chemical energy through the steps of photosynthesis. The reactions of photosynthesis can be divided into two major types: light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions. The light-dependent reactions convert energy from the sun into a form that the chloroplast can then use to make sugar from carbon dioxide, in the process producing oxygen as a waste product. The light-independent reactions use that energy to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water. Materials: test tube, Elodea cuttings, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), beaker with water, lamp

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Procedure: 1. Obtain a sprig of elodea. Remove several leaves from around the cut end of the stem. Slice off a portion of the stem at an angle and lightly crush the cut end of the stem. 2. Place the sprig in a test tube, cut side up. Add water to test tube and a pinch of baking soda. 3. Place the test tube into a beaker filled with tap water. 3. Place a lamp next to the beaker. - The water in the beaker will help to absorb the heat from the light, thus reducing the variables in the experiment 4. Turn on the lamp. As soon as see small bubbles coming from the cut end of the stem, time the reaction for 10 minutes. If you do not see bubbles, cut the stem again and recrush. 5. Calculate the net photosynthesis in bubbles/min. (Divide the number of bubbles by 10 minutes.) 6. Remove your test tube from the bright light. Observe and record the rate of bubbles without direct light. Data Bright Light Bubbles/min __________ Dim Light Bubbles/min ____________

Analysis 1. What are the bubbles? Explain why bubbles happen. 2. Did the number of bubbles change when the light intensity was reduced? Explain why this would occur. 3. Why was the test tube placed in a beaker of water? What is a variable and why is it important to eliminate them? 4. What was the purpose of adding sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to the plant? Hint: look at the formula for photosynthesis

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Chapter Three Exam Review!!!


1. This cell is a/n ____________________ cell. a. Animal b. Plant 2. Please explain why you chose your answer. _______________________________________ _______________________________________

Please label the organelles in the cell. Here are some possible organelles to choose from: nucleolus, nucleus, ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, vacuole, lysosome, chloroplast, cell wall, cell membrane, and centriole.

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3. This is a/n ____________________ cell. a. Animal b. Plant 4. Please explain why you chose your answer. ______________________________________ ______________________________________

Please label the organelles in the cell. Here are some possible organelles to choose from: nucleolus, nucleus, ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, vacuole, lysosome, chloroplast, cell wall, cell membrane, and centriole.

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Organelle Name Nucleus Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Chloroplast Mitochondria Cell Membrane Cell Wall Vacuole Nucleolus

Organelle Function (Job)

Please describe the three main differences between plant and animal cells. 33. Difference One: _________________________________ _____________________________________________ 34. Difference Two: _________________________________ _____________________________________________ 35. Difference Three: ________________________________ _____________________________________________

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Words to use: Stoma- the opening which lets carbon dioxide into a leaf and which lets oxygen Guard cells- the cells on the outside of the stoma, which open and close the opening. 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Is this equation photosynthesis or cellular respiration?________________ 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O Is this equation photosynthesis or cellular respiration? _______________ What's true about the processes of photosynthesis and respiration? _________________________________________________________ Where does photosynthesis take place? ___________________________ Where does cellular respiration take place? ________________________ Draw an arrow in the correct direction to make the following picture represent cellular respiration.

Draw an arrow in the correct direction to make the following picture represent cellular respiration.

What types of organisms carry out cellular respiration? ______________ What types of organisms carry out cellular respiration? _______________

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Please describe what a prokaryote is. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Please describe what a eukaryote is. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________
What type of cell is a bacteria? _______________________________ What type of cell is a plant? _________________________________ What type of cell is an animal? ______________________________ Label the following cell types as prokaryote or eukaryote.

_______________________

_________________________

_____________________

__________________________

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Chapter Four:Organic Molecules


20% of your grade: Class participation
WEEK Week One Week Two Week Three Week Four Your Total Participation Grade POINTS EARNED POINTS POSSIBLE PERCENTAGE

20% of your grade: Class Work


Page#s 137 138-142 143-150 155-166 167-172 173-176 AIM Chapter Four Word Wall What is matter made of? How do molecules combine together to form living things? How are organic molecules formed, and how are they broken down again? Can we treat an acid burn in the same way we treat a regular burn? What is an enzyme? Your Total Classwork Grade
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 10 10 10 60

20% of your grade: Lab Activities


Page#s 151-154 177-180 181-184 Lab Number and Name Lab 9: Testing food for nutrients Lab 10: Properties of catalase Lab 11: Pineapple enzymes Your Total Lab Grade
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 30

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20% of your grade: Homework


Date Assignment
Earned Possible %

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Your Total Homework Grade

20% of your grade: Test


Page #s 185-192 --Task Chapter 4 Test Review Chapter 4 Test Your Total Test Grade
Earned Possible %

10 90 100

Your Total Grade This ChapterMessage from Me:


Task Participation Classwork Lab Activities Homework Test Your Total Chapter One Grade PERCENTAGE

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the powerpoint display. _________________________________________________ DO NOW:Answer the following Regents Question.
1. In a cell, information that controls the production of proteins must pass from the nucleus to the 1. cell membrane 2. chloroplasts 3. mitochondria 4. ribosomes

MINI-LESSON Matter Matter is any substance that has __________________________ and ________________ (Takes up space and weighs something.) _______________________________ is made of matter! Elements = One of over 100+ ___________________________________ that make up everything in the universe. Examples of Elements C = ________________________ O = ________________________ H = _________________________ N = nitrogen S = sulfur P = phosphorus Na = sodium Ca = calcium K = potassium I = iodine Cl = chlorine

Atom = the tiniest bit of an __________________The _______________ of the atom determines which __________________ it is.

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P a g e | 139 Molecules = The smallest particle of a ___________________________. It is composed of ________________________________________. CLASS ACTIVITY Elements vs. ________________________________ Elements = ______________________ type of _________________ Compounds = __________________________ type of ___________ Compounds: When two or more ________________________________, they form a _____________________ with ______________________.

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CLASS ACTIVITY Use the molecular model kit in front of you to make each of the following molecules. State whether the following molecules are elements or compounds.

1. How many different types 2. How many different types (colors) of atoms does this (colors) of atoms does this molecule contain?molecule contain? __________________ ____________________ This molecule is a This molecule is a a. Compound a. Compound b. Element b. Element

3. How many different types (colors) of atoms does this molecule contain? ____________________ This molecule is a a. Compound b. Element

4. How many different types (colors) of atoms does this molecule contain? ____________________ This molecule is a a. Compound b. Element

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5. How many different types 6. How many different types (colors) of atoms does this (colors) of atoms does this molecule contain?molecule contain? ____________________ ____________________ This molecule is a This molecule is a a. Compound a. Compound b. Element b. Element

7. How many different types 8. How many different types (colors) of atoms does this (colors) of atoms does this molecule contain? molecule contain? ____________________ ____________________ This molecule is a This molecule is a a. Compound a. Compound b. Element b. Element

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the powerpoint display. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ DO NOW:

Mini-Lesson
_____________________ Formula o Like a math problem o States how _____________________________________ ______________ to form a _________________________ o __________ + ____________ _____________________ _____________________ Formula o Shows the _______________________________________ in a ____________________________________________

Draw the picture from the Powerpoint

o Like the pictures we drew yesterday, but with letters instead of circles.

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P a g e | 144 Compounds _______________________ Versus __________________________ WHATS THE DIFFERENCE?? Inorganic Compounds usually _____________ contain __________________________ generally come from _______-_______________________ things _______________________ molecules (only a few atoms) Examples of inorganic compounds H + O = H2O = ___________________________ H + Cl = HCl = ___________________________ C + O = CO2 = __________________________________________ Na + Cl = NaCl = ________________________________________ What makes Organic Compounds different? One word: _________________________________!! Carbon is special! Carbon is the only element that can form ___________________ and ________________ _____________________ This allows it to be the backbone of very complex molecules. WITHOUT CARBON, LIFE WOULD ________________________!! Organic Compounds Come from ___________________________________________ generally ______________________ molecules Contain both _________________ and _____________________ COME IN FOUR TYPES 1. _________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________

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P a g e | 145 What elements make up organic compounds? The 6 main elements of living things . . . Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H) _____________________ present Oxygen (O) and Nitrogen (N) ______________________ present Phosphorus (P) and Sulfur (S) ______________________ present Organic Compound #1- ______________________________________ Found in foods like: _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Long ________________ of ______________________________ Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1:2:1. Living things use __________________________ as their main source of ____________________________. Organic Compound #2- _____________________________________ Found in foods like: ____________________________________ ____________________________________________________ _____________________, ________________________ molecules that have _________________________ __________ Proteins are made from the instructions in our DNA An important example that we will be talking a lot more about in biology (Living Environment) is: ____________________________. Organic Compound #3- _____________________________________ Found in foods like: _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Lipids are ______, __________, and ______________________. Lipids _____________ _____________________________ more efficiently than carbohydrates The _______________ _________________________ is also made of _____________- we will talk a lot more about this later. Fats can be _________________ Saturated fats are ______________ like butter Saturated fats are _____________ In a saturated fat, the fatty acids are _______________ Fats can be __________________ Unsaturated fats are _______________ like olive oil Unsaturated fats are ___________ In an unsaturated fat, the fatty acids are _________________

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P a g e | 146 Organic Compound #4- _____________________________________ Two types- ________________ and _____________________ DNA is the set of __________________________________ that make up you!! We will talk a LOT more about DNA when we talk about genetics. Each of the organic compounds is made from building blocks Organic Compound Building Blocks

CLASS ACTIVITY
Identifying Objects Decide which of the following things are mainly made of organic compounds, and which are mainly made of inorganic compounds. If the object is organic, decide which class of organic molecules it is mostly composed of. (Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, or Proteins)

a. A rock

2. Hair

Organic or Inorganic? __________________ If organic, which class? ________________

Organic or Inorganic? _________________ If organic, which class? ___________________

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Identifying Molecules Decide which of the following molecules are organic, and which are inorganic. If the molecule is organic, choose which class of organic molecules it belongs to. (Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, or Proteins) 1. RNA 2. Water (H2O)

Organic or Inorganic? _________________ If organic, which class? _________________ 3. Starch

Organic or Inorganic? __________________ If organic, which class? __________________ 4. DNA

Organic or Inorganic? ________________ If organic, which class? _________________

Organic or Inorganic? ___________________ If organic, which class? ___________________

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Identifying Objects Decide which of the following things are mainly made of organic compounds, and which are mainly made of inorganic compounds. If the object is organic, decide which class of organic molecules it is mostly composed of. (Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, or Proteins) 5. Bread 6. Chicken

Organic or Inorganic? _________________ If organic, which class? _________________ 7. Water

Organic or Inorganic? ____________________ If organic, which class? ____________________ 8. A DNA sample

Organic or Inorganic? ________________ If organic, which class? ________________

Organic or Inorganic? ___________________ If organic, which class? ____________________

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Identifying Molecules Decide which of the following molecules are organic, and which are inorganic. If the molecule is organic, choose which class of organic molecules it belongs to. (Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, or Proteins) 5. Cellulose 6. Saturated Fat

Organic or Inorganic? ________________ If organic, which class? _________________ 7. Hemoglobin

Organic or Inorganic? _________________ If organic, which class? __________________ 8. Carbon dioxide

Organic or Inorganic? ________________ If organic, which class? _________________

Organic or Inorganic? ____________________ If organic, which class? ____________________

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Identifying Objects Decide which of the following things are mainly made of organic compounds, and which are mainly made of inorganic compounds. If the object is organic, decide which class of organic molecules it is mostly composed of. (Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, or Proteins) 1. Fish 2. Cake

Organic or Inorganic? ________________ If organic, which class? _________________ 3. Olive oil

Organic or Inorganic? _______________________ If organic, which class? _______________________ 4. The Statue of Liberty

Organic or Inorganic? __________________ If organic, which class? ________________

Organic or Inorganic? ____________________ If organic, which class? _______________________

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Lab 9: Testing Food for Nutrients!

Introduction
Nutrients are the substances in food that an organism needs and uses for its life functions. Some examples of nutrients include carbohydrates (simple sugars and starches), lipids (also known as fats), proteins, (folded molecules made of amino acids), water, minerals, and vitamins. Nutrients help organisms maintain homeostasis(a balance in the body) by providing energy for cellular activities, materials needed for the growth and repair of cells, and chemicals that help our enzymes,which are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. Please define the following words. You can use context clues from the paragraphs above to do this. 1. Nutrients: ____________________________________ _____________________________________________ 2. Carbohydrates: _________________________________ _____________________________________________ 3. Lipids: _______________________________________ _____________________________________________ 4. Proteins: ______________________________________ _____________________________________________ 5. Homeostasis: __________________________________ ____________________________________________ 6. Enzymes: _____________________________________ _____________________________________________

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Procedures Today we are going to test different foods for the following four nutrients: 1) starch, 2) simple sugars, 3) lipids (fats), and 4) proteins. Each table is responsible for determining the nutrient content of one food. Afterwards, we will share all our data so we get a good sense of which foods contain what nutrients! We are going to use four different indicators to determine if the nutrients are present in our samples. Please read over the instructions for each test, and then fill in the chart at the bottom of the page to prove that you know what to do next. What food is your table testing today? _________________ 1. How to Test for Starch Your indicator for starch is going to be iodine. Iodine is a brown liquid. To test your food sample, put a tiny bit of it in a miniature beaker. Then, using a pipette, put a few drops of iodine on top of your food. If there are no starches in your food sample, the iodine will stay brown. If there ARE starches in your food sample, the iodine will turn a dark blue color. 2. How to Test for Simple Sugars Your indicator for starch is going to be Benedicts solution. Benedicts solution is a blue liquid. To test your food sample, put a tiny bit of it in a test-tube. Then, using a pipette, put a few drops of Benedicts solution in the test-tube. Next, put your test tube in a hot water bath for one minute. Make sure you use a test tube holder to do this, so you dont burn yourself. If there are no simple sugars in your food sample, the Benedicts solution will stay blue. If there ARE simple sugars in your food sample, the Benedicts solution will turn orange, and look almost like orange juice. Only the Educated are Free. Epictetus, Philosopher and Former Roman Slave

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3. How to Test for Lipids Your indicator for lipids is going to be Sudan III. Use a pipette to put a small amount of the food you are testing to a test tube. If your food is not liquid, add a small amount of water and shake your test tub to mix it. Next, add three drops of Sudan III solution. If your food contains fats, a red oil will separate from the mixture. 4. How to Test for Proteins Your indicator for proteins is going to be Biuret solution. Biuret solution is blue in color. Use a pipette to put a small amount of the food you are testing to a test tube. If your food is not liquid, add a small amount of water and shake your test tub to mix it. Next, add three drops of Biuret solution. If your food contains proteins, the Biuret solution will turn from blue to pink or purple. NUTRIENT 1. INDICATOR Iodine POSITIVE TEST Turns from ________ to _________ Turns from _________ to _________ ______________ separates from the mixture Turns from _________ to _________

2. Simple Sugars

3. Lipids (Fats)

4.

Biuret solution

Did Did Did Did

your food sample contain starches? __________________ your food sample contain simple sugars? ________________ your food sample contain lipids? _____________________ your food contain proteins? _________________________

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Class Data Once your group has done all four tests, write your results on the white-board. When every group has done this, record the class data in the following table.
Table #

Food Sample

Starch Present ?

Simple Sugars Present?

Lipids Present ?

Proteins Present ?

Conclusion Questions
1. Were you surprised by the nutrients that were present in the food samples that the class tested? ____________________ 2. Why or why not? _________________________________ ________________________________________________ 3. Why do you think that it is necessary to eat a wide variety of foods? ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 4. What is a disease that you can get from eating too many simple sugars throughout your life? __________________________ 5. What is a disease that you can get from eating too many lipids throughout your life? ______________________________ 6. Why do you think that simple sugars and lipids are still considered nutrients, even though eating too many of them can cause disease? _____________________________________

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________________________________________________

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the powerpoint display. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ DO NOW:Fill in the chart..
Organic Compound Building Blocks Simple Sugars (Monosaccharides) Proteins Fatty Acids and Glycerol Nucleic Acids

Mini-Lesson Some vocabulary _________________: Any of the subunits that make up organic molecules. _________________: Any of the four organic molecules _________________: The bond that connects amino acids in a protein. Dehydration Synthesis De = __________________________________________________ Hydra = ___________________________________________________ Synthesis = ________________________________________________ Is a _____________________________ in which _____________ _____ _________________ from two molecules to ___________ __________ ___________________________ by a chemical bond. Two subunits (monomers) combine to become an organic molecule (polymer). ________________ (H2O) is the _______________________________

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Hydrolysis Hydro= ______________________________________________ Lysis = ______________________________________________ Is a_____________________ ___________________________in which a larger molecule is ______________ ________________ into two smaller molecules by the __________________________ _________ ___________________________. A complex molecule (polymer) becomes two simple molecules (monomers) WHAT DO YOU NOTICE ABOUT HYDROLYSIS & DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS? _____________________________________________

Class Activity

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Simple Sugars:

Water:

Amino acids:

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Fatty acids and Glycerols:

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the powerpoint display. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ DO NOW:State whether each reaction is an example of dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis and explain how you decided.

1.

Dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis? ___________________ How do you know? _________________________________ _______________________________________________

2. Dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis? ___________________ How do you know? _________________________________ _______________________________________________ 3. Look at the pictures of a heat burn and an acid burn.

Do you think they should get the same treatment? ___________ Why or why not? ____________________________________ _________________________________________________ Only the Educated are Free. Epictetus, Philosopher and Former Roman Slave

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MOTIVATION: ____________________________________ Acid throwing is when someone throws strong acid at another person in order to blind or disfigure them. Today, it is your job to help Chantou. A man burned her with acid in 2009 when she refused to marry him. Can we treat her burn in the same way that we would treat a standard burn?

MINI-LESSON
What do we know to treat Chantou? We need to know: 1. What ___________________ is ________________________? 2. What happens to that type of molecule in __________________? 3. What happens to that type of molecule in __________ (_______)? Question One: What Molecule is our Skin Made of? Living things are made of _______________________, which are _____ and ___________. There are __________________ of organic molecules: 1. ____________________________ 2. Lipids (______________) 3. Nucleic acids (like _________________) 4. ____________________________ Look at the pictures of the four different types of organic molecules. Which of the four types of molecules do you think our skin is?___________ Why? ____________________________________________________

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P a g e | 170 What is Special about Protein Molecules? Protein molecules are long chains of ______________________________. They are ______________ into very __________________________in order to do _____________________________________. Some proteins, like those in our skin, provide _______________________. Some proteins, called ______________, make _____________________ Question Two: What Happens to Proteins in High Heat? Any proteins can be _________________________. Denature: _________________. Proteins ___________________ if they are denatured. High heat can denature a protein. EGG WHITES are made from a protein called _________________. When albumin is ___________, it is _______________________. What does albumin look like when it is denatured? (In other words, cooked?) _____________________________________________

Egg whites that have been denatured

A person with a ________ has _____________________ the ________________ in their skin, exactly like the albumin in this egg. Question Three: What Happens to Proteins in Low pH (Acids)? To answer this, we are going to do an experiment. What will happen to albumin (egg white) if we put it in an acid?

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P a g e | 171 EXPERIMENT OBSERVATIONS Before we add acid to the albumin: Is the albumin solid or liquid? __________________________ Is the albumin clear or white? ___________________________ Is the albumin raw (folded) or cooked (denatured)? ____________ After we add acid to the albumin: Is the albumin solid or liquid? ____________________________ Is the albumin clear or white? ___________________________ Is the albumin raw (folded) or cooked (denatured)? ____________ Was the acid able to cook an egg? ______________________________ CONCLUSION: HELPING CHANTOU What happens to the proteins in your skin when you burn them? _________ _________________________________________________________ Does acid injure your skin in the same way that heat does? _____________ Can we treat Chantous injury like a standard burn? __________________ _________________________________________________________

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Class Activity: Denaturation


Denaturation describes physical changes in the three dimensional structure of proteins. These changes occur when the proteins are exposed to disruptive chemical or physical forces. These structural changes not only affect the physical form of the proteins but also in how they work. Proteins are large molecules composed of amino acids which are arranged in a variety of complex structures. The primary protein structure is the simple linear sequence of amino acids within the protein. The secondary structure is determined by the configuration of certain subgroups of amino acids within the primary structure. These subgroups can be configured in three different ways depending on the type of protein. The alpha helix form can be thought of as a spiral staircase. It is found in structural proteins, such as the keratins in hair and skin. The beta-pleated sheet form is, as the name implies, a flat sheet shape, and it is found in silk fiber proteins. The third type of secondary structure is the random coil which does not have a defined shape and which is found in proteins such as collagen. The random coil structure links together the alpha helices and beta sheets so that proteins may contain all three secondary structures. Proteins also adopt a tertiary structure which is achieved by looping and folding the chain over itself. This folded structure occurs because certain portions of the molecules have an affinity for water and other portions do not. Therefore, proteins will fold or bend into shapes so that the water loving or hydrophilic groups are on the outside of the molecule and the hydrophobic groups are buried in the internal parts of the molecule where they are shielded from the water. This folding process causes the proteins to take on complex helical patterns which result in stable structures and give the protein specific chemical and physical properties. For example, the way enzymes are folded gives rise to specific catalytic areas, causing different enzymes to have different capacities for catalyzing chemical reactions. Similarly, the structure of hemoglobin is responsible for that molecule's ability to carry oxygen. 1. Describe primary, secondary, and tertiary structure. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ When a protein is denatured, the molecule's tertiary structure is corrupted. This disruption affects the molecule's secondary (helical) structure without altering its primary structure. In other words, denaturation does not break

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P a g e | 173 any of the primary chemical bonds that link one amino acid to another but it changes the way the protein folds in upon itself. Denaturation occurs when proteins are exposed to strong acids or bases, high concentrations of inorganic salts, or organic solvents such as alcohol. In addition, heat or irradiation can cause denaturation. When the three-dimensional structure of the protein is disrupted, the molecule's biological activity is affected. Therefore, enzymes do not have the same catalytic function when they are denatured. 2. Which of the structures (primary, secondary, or tertiary) stays intact even after proteins are denatured? _________________________ 3. What are some things that cause denaturation, besides heat and pH? ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Denaturation can have many detrimental side effects. In biological systems, denatured proteins can result in illness or even death. In fact protein denaturation is linked to many diseases such as prion encephalopathies, Alzheimer's disease and dementias. Denaturation can also have negative effects certain industrial processes. For example, in dairy processing certain milk proteins are denatured as a result of separation techniques and heat treatments. These treatments change the way the proteins, minerals and ions in the milk interact and may affect the milk's nutritional content. Research has shown that whey protein denaturation can be reduced by the addition of small amounts of nonfat dry milk. Lowering the calcium ion concentration and reducing the pH of the milk protein concentrate also reduces the degree of denaturation. These findings will hopefully result in improved dairy processing techniques that enhance product stability. Not all denaturing processes are harmful. Certain denaturing processes are beneficial. For example, albumin, a protein found in eggs is easily denatured. When albumin is denatured it forms a gelatinous solid which is capable of absorbing foreign matter. This property makes denatured albumin suitable for certain important industrial applications such as sugar refining and the manufacture of adhesives, varnishes, and inks. 4. Name at least two harmful effects of denaturation. a. _______________________________________________ b. _______________________________________________ 5. Name one benefit of denaturation. ____________________________________________________

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AIM: Please write the AIM from the powerpoint display. _________________________________________________ DO NOW:Answer the following Regents questions.

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P a g e | 175 MINI-LESSON Enzymes ________________________that act as _______________________. Catalyst A substance that _____________ the rate of _____________________________________________________. In a Chemical Reaction, Reactants Products Reactants ____________________________________________ Products _______________________________ during the reaction. Activation Energy The _____________________________________ for a chemical reaction to happen.

Look at the graph: Initial state = ___________________________________ Final state = ____________________________________ The red line is reaction w/ an enzymeThe other line is w/out enzymes What does this mean? ______________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Substrate: ____________________________that bind to the enzyme _________________: the part of an enzyme that the reactants bind to.

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P a g e | 176 Facts about Enzymes Enzymes can be______________________________ Reactions are________________________________ The__________________________________________ ___________________________________________ EXACTLY! __________________________________ for certain substrates ____________________ and ____________ determine how well enzymes work

Any proteins, including enzymes, can be denatured. ___________________: ________ _________________________. Enzymes wont work if they are denatured.

Factors Affecting Enzyme Action 1. ________________________________________________ Enzymes work slowly at cold temperatures Enzymes ______________________ at high temperatures Work best at the ________________________- 98.6 degrees for usThis is why our body needs to maintain ________________________. 2. _____________________ (acidity). Enzymes __________________ at __________________ (acids) Enzymes ____________ _______________ at high pH (bases) Work best at the _______________________ - 7 equal to water This is why our body needs to maintain _______________________. 3. ____________________________________________________ The ___________________________, the ____________________ the reaction _____________________ reaction rate reached when ALL of the enzymes are being used at once!

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P a g e | 177 Label the structures on the following picture. Your choices are : enzyme, active site, products, and reactants(substrate).

1. 2. 3. 4.

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

Is the example above hydrolysis or dehydration synthesis?_____________ How do you know? __________________________________________ Label the structures on the following picture. Your choices are : enzyme, active site, products, and reactants(substrate).

1. 2. 3. 4.

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

Is example above hydrolysis or dehydration synthesis? ________________ How do you know? __________________________________________

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Lab 10: Properties of Catalase

Problem: What are the effects of temperature on enzyme activity? Hypothesis: Make a hypothesis as to how changing reaction temperatures will change the rate of an enzyme controlled reaction. If ______________________________________________, then ____________________________________________. Background information Potato and other living tissues contain the enzyme catalase. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide, which is a harmful byproduct of the process of cellular respiration if it builds up in concentration in the cells. If we use potato or other tissue containing this enzyme, we can use this to measure the relative influence of varying several different factors on the activity of enzymes in living tissue. Procedure:
1. Place one or two chunks of potato in the bottom of 3 test tubes. 2. Just cover the potato in the test tube with tap water. 3. Place each test tube individually in a different environment for 5 mins. Keep the first test tube at room temperature, the second in a boiling water bath, and the third in a freezer. Caution: Hot water can burn badly!!! 4. Add 5 ml of hydrogen peroxide to the potato in each tube and record the relative amount of bubbling you see in each.

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Results: Enzyme Activity at Different Temperatures Relative Amount of Test Tube Temperature Bubbling (Reaction) Freezing temperature Room temperature Boiling temperature . Conclusion: 1. Did your results support your hypothesis? Explain

3. What does the term denature mean? 4. Which of your potato samples had denatured enzymes? . 5. List and explain at least two possible sources of error in this lab activity.

6. Identify the control, independent variable, and dependent variable in this investigation. Control: Independent variable: Dependent variable:

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P a g e | 180 1. (Note: This question originally appeared on the NYS Regents exam as

questions 61 through 64.)

Base your answer on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. An investigation was carried out to measure the rate of activity of catalase, an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide. Five 40-mL solutions of the enzyme at concentrations of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% were prepared. A filter paper disk was placed in each enzyme solution. Each soaked disk from the different enzyme concentrations was then added to different cups containing 30 mL of 1% hydrogen peroxide. The rate of catalase activity was inferred from measurements of how fast the disks rose from the bottom to the top of each cup. The following data were obtained: 40%--12.1 seconds, 80%--5.8 seconds, 100%--4.1 seconds, 20%--15.8 seconds, and 60%--9.9 seconds. 1. Organize the data by completing the data table provided, according to the directions below.

Enzyme Concentration Speed of the Disks (percent) (seconds)

a. Label the second column of the data table with an appropriate heading and record that label on the y-axis of the graph. [Be sure to include units.] b. Complete the data table so that the percent enzyme increases from the top to the
bottom of the table. [1] c. Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid provided, following the directions below. Mark an appropriate scale on each axis. [1] d. Plot the data from your data table. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]

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Graph Title: ____________________________________________

2. From your graph, state one valid conclusion that relates enzyme concentration to reaction rate. [1]

3. From your investigation today, state one valid conclusion that relates temperature to reaction rate. [1]

4. What else can affect the reaction rate of enzymes? a. pH (acidity) c. the color of the solution c. sunlight d. the amount of chloroplasts in a cell 5. You just learned that the reaction rate of enzymes can change, depending on a number of factors. How does this relate to the concept of homeostasis? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

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Lab 11: Pineapple Enzymes!


Aim: How do enzymes affect our lives on a daily basis? Do Now:
1. A certain enzyme will hydrolyze egg white but not starch. Which statement best explains this observation? 1. Enzymes are specific in their actions. 2. Starch molecules are too large to be hydrolyzed. 3. Starch is composed of amino acids. 4. Egg white acts as a coenzyme for hydrolysis.

2. Enzymes have an optimum temperature at which they work best. Temperatures above and below this optimum will decrease enzyme activity. Which graph (see image) best illustrates the effect of temperature on enzyme activity?

3. A sample of food containing one type of a large molecule was treated with a specific digestive enzyme. Nutrient tests performed on the resulting products showed the presence of simple sugars, only. Based on these test results, the original large molecules contained in the sample were molecules of 1. protein 2. glucose 3. starch 4. DNA

Introduction If you have ever made Jello following the instructions on the box, you may have noticed the warning on the instructions that tells you not to add fresh or frozen pineapple to the gelatin. Have you ever wondered why? REMEMBER, CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY ARE EVERYWHERE- EVEN IN THE KITCHEN!! In this lab, you will be designing an experiment to test what happens when you add pineapple to gelatin. You will need to remember everything that you know about organic chemistry to solve this problem!

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P a g e | 183 Background on Jello First, you need to know a little bit about gelatin . . . and it may be more than you ever wanted to know. Do you know what Jello is really made out of? Are you ready? That sweet colorful treat is actually made out of hides, bones, and inedible connective tissue from animals (mostly cows) that were butchered for meat. Can you believe it? Its true. All gelatin is made out of discarded animal partsthe tough parts: bones and skin. And all these tough parts are made of proteins. In fact, gelatin is a protein. Tell me what a protein is! A protein is: _________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Background on the Process of Canning The process of canning food was first invented in 1809. France was in the middle of a Revolution, and French soldiers were starving to death. The French government offered a monetary prize to anyone who could invent a way to keep food fresh for the soldiers to eat. A French man named Nicolas Franois noticed that if you made food boiling hot and then sealed it into jars, it stayed fresh for a long time. Why did the food stay fresh after it was heated up? ____________ ___________________________________________________ What might happen to proteins after you heat them up? ________ ___________________________________________________ Enzymes? Proteins have many, many jobs. Some proteins are called ENZYMES (or CATALYSTS), and they have very special jobs. Here is the definition of enzymes: proteins that regulate or speed up chemical reactions in living organisms. We have enzymes all over in our body. Without them, our bodies couldnt perform any of the thousands of chemical reactions we need to do every day, just to stay alive. We wouldnt even be able to digest (break down) the food we eat! In words that a third grader could understand, state what an enzyme is. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

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P a g e | 184 What does Pineapple Taste Like? 1. What are the sensations of eating a piece of canned pineapple? __________________________________________________ 2. What are the sensations of eating a piece of fresh pineapple? __________________________________________________ 3. What might account for the difference? ___________________ __________________________________________________ Experiment Results First cup:

Second cup:

Third cup:

What the cup looked like originally What the cup looked like after twenty four hours Conclusions 1. Explain the results of your experiment. What accounts for the differences between the cups? _________________________ __________________________________________________ 2. Which type of pineapple in your experiment has active enzymes? How do you know? _________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 3. A substrate is the chemical that enzymes act on. What is the substrate in your experiment? _________________________ __________________________________________________

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P a g e | 185 4. The enzyme in pineapple that dissolves protein is called bromelain. Write a word equation to explain the chemical reaction that took place in one of your test tubes. Use the words: amino acids, bromelain, proteins, and hydrolysis.

5. IS THIS CHEMICAL REACTION AN EXAMPLE OF DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS OR HYDROLYSIS? __________________________ 6. What accounts for the difference between raw and fresh pineapple? (HINT- what happens to the enzyme bromelain when pineapple is canned?) _____________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 7. Knowing the results of your experiment, why does your tongue get sore when you eat too much raw pineapple? (HINT- what is your tongue made of?) _______________________________________ __________________________________________________

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CHAPTER FOUR EXAM REVIEW


What is this a picture of? a. Compound b. Molecule c. Atom 3.

2 .

4 .

Please label the subunits of this object. Then, tell me whether that subunit has a positive or a negative charge. Last, tell me if the subunit is located inside or outside of the nucleus. 2. a. subunit: ____________________________________ b. charge (positive, neutral, or negative): ______________ c. location (inside or outside nucleus): ________________ 3. a. subunit:_____________________________________ b. charge (positive, neutral, or negative): ______________ c. location (inside or outside nucleus): ________________ 4. a. subunit: ____________________________________ b. charge (positive, neutral, or negative): ______________ c. location (inside or outside nucleus): _______________ 5. Please define molecule in your own words. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

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P a g e | 187 6. Why is carbon such a unique element? Describe why carbon is so important to living things. _________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 7. How are organic and inorganic compounds different from each other? (HINT- there are a few answers that could work here. You can talk about where the molecules come from, or about the molecules themselves.) _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Are the following molecules elements or compounds?

This molecule is a a. Compound b.Element

This molecule is a a. Compound b. Element

This molecule is a a. Compound b. Element

This molecule is a a. Compound b. Element

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P a g e | 188 Please fill in the table of organic molecules with the appropriate responses. Class of Organic Subunit Example What is its Molecule function? 8. Fatty acids and 9. Used for warmth, glycerol lubrication, and to store energy Carbohydrates 10. Starch, 11. potato 12. Nucleotides 13. Used to store and send information in the cell Have many jobsprovide structure and support functionsENZYMES

14.

15.

Keratin, enzymes, beef

This picture is an example of which type of chemical reaction? e. Hydrolysis f. Dehydration Synthesis

22. How do you know? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ This picture is an example of which type of chemical reaction? a. Hydrolysis b. Dehydration Synthesis

23. How do you know? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________

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P a g e | 189 Please identify whether the following molecules or objects are organic or inorganic. If it is organic, tell me which class of organic compound it is. (Your choices are protein, carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and lipid.)

24.

Organic or Inorganic? ____________________________ If organic, which class? __________________________

25.

Butter Organic or Inorganic? ___________________________ If organic, which class? ___________________________

26.

Water Organic or Inorganic? ____________________________ If organic, which class? __________________________

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27.

Organic or Inorganic? ____________________________ If organic, which class? __________________________

State whether the following are saturated or unsaturated fats.

1. Saturated or unsaturated: ________________________________ How do you know? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________

2.

Saturated or unsaturated: ________________________________ How do you know? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________

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P a g e | 191 3. Olive oil Saturated or unsaturated: ________________________________ How do you know? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 4. Butter Saturated or unsaturated: ________________________________ How do you know? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 5. Healthy fats Saturated or unsaturated: ________________________________ How do you know? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 6. Unhealthy fats Saturated or unsaturated: ________________________________ How do you know? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ In your own words, explain how enzymes help living things. (HINT- WHAT DO ENZYMES DO TO CHEMICAL REACTIONS?) ________________ _______________________________________________________ Enzymes a. b. c. d. are a part of which group of organic compounds? Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids

26.Which of the following enzymes would digest a lipid? a. fatase b. protease c. lipase What does the word denature mean? ________________________

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P a g e | 192 CIRCLE the TWO things that can denature an enzyme. (HINT- think of the two ways that you can cook an egg.) a. High temperatures b. Water c. Sunlight d. Low pH (acids) Which one of these eggs has proteins that are denatured? a. A raw egg b. A cooked egg

28. The effect of temperature on the relative rate of action of an enzyme is represented in the graph below.

The optimum (best) temperature for the action of this enzyme is a. 15 C b. 22 C c. 37 C d. 50 C 29. What does the active site of an enzyme do? a. It is the part of the enzyme that denatures proteins. b. It is the place that the reactants bind to before they undergo a chemical reaction. c. It is the place that enzymes attach to each other. d. It is where the pH is changed.

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P a g e | 193 30. Please explain why each enzyme can only work on one substrate. (HINT- lock and key hypothesis) ___________________________ ____________________________________________________ 31. What is activation energy? ____________________________________________________ ______________________________ The picture below shows a chemical reaction.

32. Which type of chemical reaction is happening here? a. Dehydration synthesis b. Hydrolysis 33. How do you know this? __________________________________ 34. What type of molecule is the gray structure labeled X? a. Reactants c. Enzyme b. Products d. Carbohydrate How do you know this? ____________________________________ The picture below shows another chemical reaction.

35. Which type of chemical reaction is happening here? a. Dehydration synthesis b. Hydrolysis 36. How do you know this? ___________________________________ 37. What type of molecule is the structure labeled X? a. Reactants c. Enzyme b. Product d. Carbohydrate 38. How do you know this? __________________________________

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