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Math 112 Spring, 2013

**List of Theorems and Themes
**

For each theorem, you should be able to: 1. State the theorem precisely. 2. Explain what the theorem says in concise non-technical language. 3. Outline a proof (including any deﬁnitions and other theorems that must be used). 4. State where/how each assumption in the statement of the theorem is used in the proof. 5. Explain the motivation of proving such a theorem (where do the theorems ﬁt in in terms of the development of the class). 6. Explain the implications and applications of the theorem (what does the theorem allow you to do? Why should I care about it? What are some speciﬁc applications of the theorem?) The theorem are: I. Galois theorem regarding the insolubility of general polynomial equations and groups of permutations. (No proof is necessary) II. The Orbit-Stabilizer Theorem III. The Class Formula IV. Sylow’s Theorems (1-3) (Proofs for 2 and 3 are not expected) V. Theorem giving the construction of fractional ﬁelds. VI. Theorem showing that elements of R[x] are R-linear combinations of powers of x. (please also give the deﬁnition of R[x] and x)

List of Exercises

Group Actions & Burnside’s Lemma

1. Let H be a subgroup of index n of a group G such that no non-trivial normal subgroup of G is contained in H . Prove that G is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn . 2. Given a group action of G on a set X . I. The action is called faithful if given g ∈ G, the property g · x = x for all x ∈ X necessarily implies that g = eG , the identity element of G. II. The action is called transitive if for any x, y ∈ X , there exist g ∈ G with g · x = y . 1

so that the necklace has no front or back. Is the action of D4 faithful? (e) Show that G acts faithfully on X if and only if no two distinct elements of G have the same action on each element of X . The action is called free if given g ∈ G and x ∈ X with g · x = x. two diagonals and two axes (horizontal and vertical) X = {v1 . Let |G| = pn and suppose that |Z (G)| = pn−1 for p prime. Answer the following: (a) State a condition regarding the homomorphism φ : G → SX that is equivalent to the action of G on X being faithful in the sense of I. That is. Show that any group of order 351 is not simple. d2 . Prove that any group of order 1500 = 22 353 is not simple. v2 . If the product of any pair of nonzero elements of R is nonzero. (c) If G acts transitively on X . 2. 3. (b) Assume that G acts faithfully and transitively on X and let N be a normal subgroup of G with N = {e}. Prove that the two deﬁnition of a faithful action are equivalent. Prove that every nonzero element of R is either a zero-divisor or a unit. (a) Show that if G is a group of order pn for some prime p and positive integer n. ah . (a) Show that every nonzero element of Zn is a unit of a zero-divisor. 2 . Each bead is featureless. show that there exist g ∈ G such that g has no ﬁxed point. show that g StabG (x)g −1 = StabG (y ). Let R be a ring with unity. Rings. 3. Prove that the two deﬁnitions of a transitive action are equivalent. y ∈ X . 5. In how many rotationally distinct ways can the vertices of a cube be labeled if each vertex is labeled with either a 0 or a 1? 6. What happens if we drop the “ﬁnite” condition on R. Prove that there is no element of X which is ﬁxed by every element of N. then G is Abelian. then G has a nontrivial center Z (G). Let X be a ﬁnite set and assume G is a ﬁnite group acting on X . it necessarily follows that g = eG . Domains & Fields 1.III. (d) Consider the natural action of D4 on a square represented as a set consisting of four vertices. 2. (b) State a condition regarding the number of distinct orbits of X that is equivalent to the action of G on X being transitive in the sense of II. Probe that G is Abelian. (a) If y = g · x for some g ∈ G and x. How many diﬀerent necklaces can be constructed from three white beads and six red beads? Class Equation & Sylow Theorems 1. 4. and we may ﬂip the necklace over. v3 . av }. for every x ∈ X . v4 . g · x = x. A circular necklace contains nine beads. (b) Show that if R is a ﬁnite commutative ring with unity. d1 . (c) Describe all the zero-divisors and units of Z ⊕ Q ⊕ Z. prove that ab = 1 implies ba = 1. (b) Show that if G is a group of order p2 for some prime p.

Let R = a b b |a. Ring Homomorphisms 1. (b) Determine the kernel of φ. ∈ Z] a and let φ be the mapping that takes a b b to a − b. b. Show that either a or b is a zero-divisor. Are R and C isomorphic as rings? 3. (d) Determine all the ring homomorphisms from Z20 to Z30 . F = F rac(D)).3. (f) Determin all the ring homomorphisms from R to R. (Thus. 4. 5. 3 . the ﬁeld of quotients of an integral domain D is the smallest ﬁeld containing D).e. Let D be an integral domain and F be the ﬁeld of quotients of D (i. 2. Suppose that a and b belong to a commutative ring and ab is a zero-divisor. Show that if E is any ﬁeld that contains D then contains a subﬁeld isomorphic to F . 4. Show that any ﬁnite ﬁeld has order pn where p is prime (Hint: use the FTFAG). a (a) Show that φ is a homomorphism. (e) Determine all the ring homomorphisms from Z to Z. Show that a commutative ring with no zero-divisors has a unity. (a) Is the ring 2Z isomorphic to 3Z? (b) Is the ring 2Z isomorphic to 2Z? (c) Determine all the ring homomorphisms from Z6 to Z6 .

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