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RMIT Engineering

Part A: Course Outline

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Introduction

Course Renewable Energy Systems


Welcome to the course Renewable Energy Systems. In this course, you will learn how to harness solar and wind energy for electricity generation and heating applications. In the past, we have made very little use of solar and wind energy especially for electricity generation. But today, the use of solar and wind energy is increasing at a very high rate in many countries, including Australia. Some governments are now encouraging greater use of solar and wind energy by introducing a variety of mechanisms to facilitate their use. A number of industries are now looking for new business opportunities in the area of renewable energy. There are several reasons for this interest in renewable energy. First, the world is becoming increasingly concerned about the environmental impact associated with fossil fuel use, particularly the threat of climate change. Second, countries which import their energy supplies are vulnerable to increases in energy prices. Many are turning to renewable energy, since it is a local resource, and therefore offers greater security of supply. Third, many people in the world still do not have access to electricity. Many do not live near an existing electricity network. Solar and wind energy are often the ideal energy sources in these cases. Solar and wind energy will be significant energy sources of the future, so it is important that tomorrows engineers understand how we can utilize these energy sources. This course outline was originally developed by Dr. Andrea Bunting and modified by Dr. Petros Lappas

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Course coordinator

Dr. Petros Lappas


Email: petros.lappas@rmit.edu.au Address: School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering RMIT University GPO Box 2476 Melbourne VIC 3001

In this course, Renewable Energy Systems, we will examine not only the technical aspects of harnessing solar and wind energy for electricity generation and heating applications, but also study the current state of the renewable energy industry and the barriers to greater use of renewable energy.

Conceptual background
This course assumes that you: Are aware of methods for the analysis of basic statistics in the areas of probability distribution and use of histograms.

Progress through the course


Use the Planning and Time Management chart at the end of Part A to assist you in working through the course. The chart lists all your topics and their learning outcomes, and the activities and assessments to complete. Make sure you use the Planning and Time Management chart as a way of scheduling your time, and monitoring your progress. You will be studying this course over a suggested duration of 13 weeks (approximately 12 hours per week. Note that this is a 12 credit point subject). When you have completed the course Learning Guide, put aside some time for review before the examination. You will be informed of the examination time by your course coordinator via the Online Classroom.

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Communicating with your Peers and Course Coordinator


Whenever you have a problem or a question, you are encouraged to consult your peers on the Discussion Board in Blackboard. If your problem is unresolved you will be able to contact your coordinator via email. The email contact is available at MyRMIT.

Resources
Computer access: You will be able to have online access as a student of RMIT University. You will be given a generic password, which you can then change if you wish. This will enable you to: Ask your classmates questions via the blackboard Discussion Board. Ask your coordinator questions via email Register and send your assessments when indicated in the Learning Guide Access software Talk to students at other campuses in forums or as part of a group activity Access announcements relevant to your study. Make sure you access and carefully read announcements at least once a week. For details of appropriate web sites and recommended references, go to the Course Guide via the Online Classroom.

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RMIT Engineering Topic 7 uses readings which are reproduced with the permission of the Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria from the following publication: Authors: William W.S. Charters and Trevor Pryor Title: Solar Energy: An Introduction to Solar Thermal Energy Systems (2nd edition) Publisher: Renewable Energy Authority Victoria Year Published: 1993; ISBN: 0 7306 35066

References and software:


Your recommended texts are: Mukund R. Patel, Wind and Solar Power Systems, 2nd edition, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2006. This book is available as an e-book in the RMIT library website. Elliott, D. Energy, Society and Environment: Technology for a sustainable future, Routledge, London, 1997. Walker, J.F. and Jenkins, N. Wind Energy Technology, Wiley, New York, 1997. Markvart, Tomas(Ed.) Solar Electricity, second edition, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK, 2000. Manwell, J.F., Wind Energy Explained: Theory,Design and Application, John Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2002. The required software programs used are: MS Excel MS PowerPoint or equivalent spreadsheet and presentation software. You will have access to these online. More detail is provided in your student information kit. It is expected that you are familiar with spreadsheet package software and research via the Internet. Any other references used in this Learning Guide are available on the Learning Hub or through the Library e-reserve.

Study needs
Although studying can be difficult at times, you can help yourself by being organised and by allocating specific times for your study. There are some general guidelines which may help you:

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Plan your week. Schedule the times when you will be working through the Learning Guide. Use the suggested time allocation in the chart to estimate how long to set aside for each session of study. Ask questions of your tutor and institution. Dont wait until you feel swamped or overwhelmed. Ask questions when you first have a problem. Use your student group as a network and for assistance. It has been proven many times that a group of students can help each other to keep motivated and to work to schedule.

Course-specific study needs


For this course, you will be assisted by your tutor, as well as by the course coordinator. One of the benefits of tertiary study is interaction with fellow students. You will at times be working in groups. Feedback will be provided in the following manner:

In relation to the assignments, after submission there will be comments from the assessor and a mark providing guidance on progress. General comments of relevance to all students undertaking the course may be posted on the Course Discussion Board via the Online Classroom. Specific comments of relevance to a particular student will be sent directly via Student Emails.

Submission of assessment
You will be submitting your assessments and activities as indicated by the Learning Guide, through the Online Classroom. Your assessor will provide feedback through the Online Classroom as well. All work must be presented as specified in the instructions and guidelines in Part B: Assessment, which also indicates the due dates for submitted work. You are required to be professional in both presentation and attitude, including meeting of deadlines. Please check the plagiarism statement in the Course Outlines online, and ensure that you follow the guidelines provided. A schedule of when assessments are due can be found at the start of Part B: Assessments.

Evaluation process
There is an evaluation form available at the Online Classroom on the RMIT website. Please complete and return as indicated at the relevant
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RMIT Engineering time specified by your course coordinator. Your comments will assist us in improving and refining the materials and resources.

Use of Icons
Icons have been used throughout this Learning Guide to identify the different components. The meaning of each of the icons is as follows:
Reference/reading/resource/research this may be printed and available in Part D: Resources, as an additional recommended text, or for example as audio or video tape or web site. Individual Activity may be self assessment questions, problem solving, demonstration, simulation, lab, checklist/short answer after reading, case study. Complete the activity following the given instructions. Group Activity may be problem solving, lab, case study, demonstration. Complete the activity following instructions given. Feedback turn to Feedback section at end of Part C: Learning Guide to check answers and responses for the activities.

Frequently Asked Questions provides some responses to key areas students have highlighted as queries or difficulties.

Summary checklist what has been learnt, in preparation for assessment

Assessment must be achieved to pass topic or group of topics. Turn to Part B: Assessment for details of assessment requirements. Additional reading and research - to extend knowledge of key area

Evaluation tool to gain student feedback on course content, structure and/or implementation issues

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Graduate Capabilities Engineering


The engineering courses at RMIT are designed to provide the community with engineers who: Have effective written and oral communication skills Are aware of the social and environmental implications of their work Possess strong fundamental knowledge derived from an enduring core of engineering principles Have good design skills, in both analysis and synthesis, and are able to exercise engineering judgement in decision making Readily adapt to new learning situations Have effective leadership and management skills Possess a positive attitude towards lifelong education Work well in team situations Are entrepreneurial and international in outlook and enjoy a challenge Acquire a global outlook to ensure that they operate professionally and ethically in a multi-cultural society.

This course integrates development and demonstration of these attributes into the various topics.

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Planning and Time Management Guide: Renewable Energy Systems


Week(s) of study 1 Topic 1. Background to renewable energy systems Learning outcomes Identify the different types of renewable energy. Identify issues facing the renewable energy industry Identify environmental issues associated with renewable energy supply and use Determine greenhouse gas emissions associated with use of natural gas, electricity and liquid fuels Work with units of energy and power Apprx hours 10 Activities Activity 1A comparing emissions from water heaters Activity 1B converting units Assessment Assessment 1: Written Essay 20% Weblearn/Blackboard Tests submission week: Essay: week 5

2. Wind resource

Identify wind distribution patterns Identify the types of factors to be considered in selecting a suitable wind power site Understand how to measure wind speed at a given location Generate a wind rose as a way of visually representing a set of

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Activity 2A - Reading Activity 2B - Turbulence of the wind Activity 2C- Web reference Activity 2D - Quiz Activity 2E - Web reference Activity 2F - Web reference Activity 2G - Estimation of

Weblearn/Blackboard Tests

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Week(s) of study Topic Learning outcomes wind speed and direction data Determine the wind speed profile for a particular height Identify planning and environmental issues related to wind power systems. Apprx hours Activities wind speed at a local site Activity 2H - Drawing a wind rose for given frequency data Activity 2I Web reference Activity 2J Graphing wind speed against height Activity 2K Reading and Questions Assessment submission week:

3. Wind statistics

Present wind speed data using a relative frequency histogram and cumulative frequency distribution Fit wind speed data to a cumulative Weibull distribution and Weibull probability distribution Calculate the average wind power density from wind speed data

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Activity 3A Producing frequency histograms and cumulative frequency distribution Activity 3B Reading Activity 3C Producing Weibull cumulative andprobability distributions Activity 3D Energy in the wind

starting Assessment 2 Weblearn/Blackboard Tests

Assess 2: week 9

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Week(s) of study 4 Topic Learning outcomes Apprx hours 10 Activities Assessment submission week: Assess 2: week9

4. Wind turbine performance

Determine performance characteristics of a wind turbine Determine the performance of a wind turbine in a given wind regime

Activity 4A Wind turbine performance curves Activity 4B Worked examples Activity 4C Reading Activity 4D Quiz

Working on Assessment 2 Weblearn/Blackboard Tests

5. Wind power systems

Identify the various components of a wind turbine and their functions and types Describe the basic aerodynamic principles and methods of power control in wind turbines

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Activity 5A - Reading Activity 5B - Quiz Activity 5C Reading and quiz Activity 5D - Reading Activity 5E Quiz Activity 5F Performance versus tip speed ratio Activity 5G Reading and Questions

Submissions of Assessment 1 (week 5) (20%) Working on Assessment 2 Weblearn/Blackboard Tests

Assess 2: week9

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Week(s) of study 6, 7 Topic 9. Economics of renewable energy systems Learning outcomes Determine the value of money over time for different interest rates Evaluate the financial benefits of a renewable energy project Estimate the cost of renewably generated electricity. Apprx hours 20 Activities Activity 9A Money-time relationship Activity 9B Present Worth Activity 9C Annual worth Activity 9D Annual Worth: Solar Hot Water System Activity 9E Finding the cost of electricity from a gas turbine generator and wind turbine Activity 9F Value of Wind Energy as Function of Wind Regime Activity 9G Economic analysis of renewable energy projects Activity 9H Discounted pay period Activity 9I Internal rate of return Assessment Weblearn/Blackboard Tests submission week:

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Week(s) of study 8, 9, 10 Topic 6. Solar radiation geometry Learning outcomes Identify elements of latitude, longitude and solar declination Determine solar time for a range of locations Determine sun angles for a range of situations Identify shading caused by obstacles using a sun chart Determine solar collector angles Determine solar radiation received Apprx hours 30 Activities Activity 6A - Standard time of solar noon Activity 6B Solar altitude and azimuth Activity 6C Effect of shading from a building - Melbourne Activity 6D Length of a shadow Activity 6E - Effect of shading from a long wall Activity 6F Effect of shading from a building 1 Jakarta Activity 6G Effect of shading from a building 2 Jakarta Activity 6H Effect of shading from tree Activity 6I Shading on a wall Activity 6J Angle of incidence of radiation Activity 6K Direct radiation falling on a tilted surface Activity 6L Using solar radiation data Assessment Submission of Assessment 2 (week 9) (20%) Weblearn/Blackboard Tests submission week:

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Week(s) of study 11 Topic 7. Solar water heating Learning outcomes Identify the elements of active and passive solar thermal systems Identify the main components of a solar hot water collector Identify the elements of hot water storage Evaluate common types of residential solar hot water systems Apprx hours 10 Activities Activity 7A - Reading and questions Activity 7B Reading and questions Activity 7C Reading and questions Activity 7D - Web search Activity 7E Reading and performance graph Activity 7F Reading and Questions Activity 7G Web search Activity 7H Reading and Questions Assessment Weblearn/Blackboard Tests submission week:

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Week(s) of study 12 Topic Learning outcomes Apprx hours 10 Activities Assessment submission week:

8. Photovoltaics

Identify applications of photovoltaic systems Describe how a solar cell produces electrical current Identify solar cell performance characteristics Identify the purpose of other photovoltaic system technologies Analyse the elements of a grid connected photovoltaic system to meet a given demand

Activity 8A Reading and questions Activity 8B - Reading and questions Activity 8C- Reading and questions Activity 8D - Examining a Photovoltaic module Activity 8E - Reading Activity 8F Reading and questions Activity 8G Sizing a PV System

Weblearn/Blackboard Tests

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Part B Assessment

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Part B Assessment
Schedule
Topic covered 1, 2 2, 3, 4, 5 All All Major Assessment Task Assessment 1 Assessment 2 Assessment 3 Examination (hurdle) Proportion of final assessment 20% 20% 20% 40% Submission time Wk 5 Wk 9 Weekly End of course

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Assessment Tasks

Major Assessment 1: Written Essay


DUE: Friday of Week 5 by 5 pm (Australian Eastern Standard Time) Percentage of Final Mark 20%

Students must work in groups of two. Note that the ability to work in teams is one of the graduate attributes required by the Institution of Engineers Australia. Each group will produce an essay on the question given below. Final Essays (that are produced via the plagiarism program at Turnitin.com) are to be submitted via Assignments on the Learning Hub with a filename that includes all students family names. Filenames that do not contain two family names will not be marked. Essays must not include any graphics. Students must first submit their essay to the plagiarism detector site Turnitin. (See below.) The originality report from Turnitin is submitted to the Learning hub for marking. Instructions on submitting to Turnitin will be given on the Learning Hub Students may draw on a variety of resources, including newspaper articles, magazine and journal articles, and organisations websites. Useful databases include Science Direct, Lexis-Nexis, Australian Public Affairs Full-Text, and Australian Engineering File. Essays are to be fully referenced using the Harvard style. Students should refer to the RMIT library website on Referencing Resources. http://www.rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=8rwjnkcmfoeez The originality verification software Turnitin (see http://www.turnitin.com) will be used on these assessments. Any student found to have plagiarised will be subjected to the RMIT Student Discipline Regulation. Student should also refer to http://www.rmit.edu.au/academicintegrity for more detail on avoiding plagiarism. For further clarification on appropriate referencing, students should consult their tutor.
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RMIT Engineering Essays should be written succinctly, with a length of about 1500 words per group. Students may draw on relevant references listed on the Learning Hub and in Topic 1 as a starting point. Question:

Choose one of the following renewable energy technologies: wind power, biofuels, geothermal power, large-scale solar power. Drawing on literature debating the merits of this technology, review the advantages and disadvantages of the technology, and then discuss how a compromise may be achieved Tips for this assignment: The structure of the essay should read something like the following. (It is suggested that you use headings.)

Introduction Brief overview of the technology Advantages of the technology Disadvantages of the technology How a compromise can be achieved Conclusion

Introduction: Not more than around 200 words, including overview of the focus and scope of the essay. Advantages, disadvantages and compromise: Discussion should be based on evidence, clearly referenced in the text using Harvard style. For example: Globally installed wind power grew at an average rate of 30% per year from 2002 to 2008 (International Energy Agency, 2008) instead of There has been a large growth in wind power in the world lately. You should consider a wide range of issues when discussing advantages and disadvantages. Referencing: Include an alphabetical list of references at the end of the document using Harvard style. All the references in the text should be in the list. References not mentioned in the text should NOT be in the list. Wikipedia, How Stuff Works and similar websites are not valid sources. Use books, articles from journals and statistical data from recognised international institutions instead. Renewable energy technologies are constantly improving. Hence
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RMIT Engineering when writing about the current state of technologies you should always use recent references.

Major Assessment 2: Wind power analysis


DUE: End of Week 9 (Australian Eastern Standard Time) Percentage of Final Mark 20% Assignment 2 is to be submitted by groups of two students via Assignments on the Learning Hub with a filename that includes all students family names. Note that the ability to work in teams is one of the graduate attributes required by the Institution of Engineers Australia. The wind speed at a potential wind farm site has been monitored hourly for one year. Wind speeds are in m/s and were measured at height 10 m. Wind speed data is available on the learning hub under Resources for Assignment 2, Assignment 2 data files. Students are to select the wind speed data file corresponding to the last two digits of their student number. Files are named: wind_data_00.xls through to wind_data_99.xls. Thus if your student number is S1234567, you must select the wind speed data file named wind_data_67.xls. The wind speed data file contains a column of the hourly wind speed data, i.e. 8760 points. It also contains the shape and scale parameters (k and c respectively) for the Weibull distribution which models the data at height 10m. Note that neither the wind speed measurement height nor the height modelled by the Weibull distribution corresponds to the hub height of the wind turbine. Assume that the terrain has a roughness length of 0.01 m. The work for this assignment is to be done on a spreadsheet (such as Excel). The assignment is to be submitted as a proper report, with each step clearly indicated. Submissions must include sample calculations for each step, along with the relevant tables, graphs and answers.

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RMIT Engineering 1. You are to install a Gamesa 2MW wind turbine at your site. You can choose from 3 different blade lengths (the G80 with diameter 80 m, G87 with diameter 87 m, or G90 with diameter 90 m) and two different tower heights (corresponding to hub heights 78 m or 100 m). The six possible combinations and their costs are: G80, hub height 78 m, installed cost $5,000,000 G87, hub height 78 m, installed cost $5,085,000 G90, hub height 78 m, installed cost $5,130,000 G80, hub height 100 m, installed cost $5,300,000 G87, hub height 100 m, installed cost $5,385,000 G90, hub height 100 m, installed cost $5,430,000

The power curve for each wind turbine is given below (and also in the wind power calculator). Use the wind power calculator on the learning hub (filename: wind power calculator.xls) to determine the MWh produced per year at your site by each of the six combinations. Use the Weibull parameters given in your data file. (These correspond to height of 10 m. The calculator will convert them to the hub height.) Use roughness length of 0.01 m. 2. For each of these six possible combinations, determine the MWh produced per unit cost. Tabulate these. Then find the wind turbine that produces each year the most MWh per unit cost. This is the turbine you should select for your site. 3. Convert your column of wind speeds to your selected hub height, using the log law to determine the wind speed gradient. Use a roughness length of 0.01 m. Include a sample calculation for the first data point. Remember that the wind speeds are at height 10 m. 4. Using the wind speeds at your selected height, a class width of 1 m/s, and class intervals of 0.5 < v 1.5, etc, produce a table of the relative frequency distribution, and construct a relative frequency histogram (i.e. a graph), where each interval is represented by its midpoint. The first interval will contain wind speeds from 0 to 0.5. This can be represented by the value 0. When you produce the histogram, ensure that x-labels read 0, 1, 2, 3. (See Procedure under Topic 3 for instructions on this.)

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5. Convert the shape parameter and scale parameter given in the data file to your selected hub height. Note that the shape parameter does not change. The scale parameter should be multiplied by a factor found from the log law corresponding to extrapolation from height 10 m to your selected hub height. Now construct a graph of the Weibull probability distribution and compare it with the histogram. (See the Learning Hub under Assignments for tips on how to draw a histogram and a curve on the same graph. When constructing these graphs, show the curve only. Ensure that you do not use markers for each data point as these will obscure the curve.) Comment on how well the data fits a Weibull distribution. In particular, note the difference between the relative frequencies recorded and the values predicted by the Weibull probability distribution over a range of wind speeds. Does the Weibull distribution appear to be a good model for the wind speeds? 6. Determine the average wind power density at your selected hub height and then at 50 m height. To convert from hub height to 50 m you need to divide by the cube of the factor found from the log law corresponding to extrapolation from height 50 m to your selected hub height. (This factor is cubed, as wind power density is found from cube of the wind speed.) Considering your calculated wind power density, what is the class of wind speed based on the U.S. Wind Atlas? Determine the average wind speed at the hub height. 7. Using the data for your selected wind turbine construct the power curve for this wind turbine, and a graph showing the proportion of the wind power captured by the wind turbine versus wind speed. Provide a brief interpretation of this graph. 8. Using your wind turbine power curve, and the wind speed frequency histogram construct a table and a graph of the energy generated by the wind turbine versus wind speed for a wind turbine at your selected hub height. 9. Construct a powerduration curve for the wind turbine at this site. Provide a brief interpretation of this graph. Include the table of data.

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RMIT Engineering 10. Determine the annual energy output of your wind turbine at its selected hub. Include table of data. 11. Determine the annual energy output, had you used the Weibull distribution. Use the wind power calculator. Comment on the difference between this value and the one found using the frequency histogram. 12. Assuming the annual electricity consumption of Victoria is 60,000 GWh. Assuming the given wind speed distribution calculate how many of your selected wind turbines should be erected to provide for 15% of Victorian electricity demand. Assuming a distance between wind turbines of at least 5 diameters, what is the area of land required to install that number of turbines? (Assume a rectangular grid formation.) To visualize this area, compare it to the area of Greater Melbourne (about 8000 square kilometers). 13. Determine the proportion of wind energy captured, the average power output, the capacity factor, the annual generation per unit of capacity, and the specific yield of the wind turbine. Provide a brief interpretation of each of these quantities. Show all calculations. 14. Determine the specific rated capacity of your selected wind turbine. Comment on how this value compares with that for of the other two Gamesa 2.0 MW wind turbines. Explain the significant of the specific rated capacity. 15. Using the wind power calculator, and the Weibull distribution found for this site, compare the annual energy output for hub height 78 m and 100 m. How much more energy is produced at 100 m? How does this compare with the additional cost for the taller tower? Tips for this assignment: Read the questions carefully and ensure that you have answered them in full. Write units properly (kWh, MW) and label all graphs axis. Carefully check the histogram. Excel automatically assigns x-axis labels to the histogram starting from 1. You should change it to associate x-labels to the histogram bins, i.e. starting from 0. In addition, count the wind speeds in one of the bins (for example 0.5 to 1.5) and compare the result to the

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RMIT Engineering one in the histogram bin to be sure that the histogram is correctly calculated. Histogram and Weibull should both start at 0. If the histogram and Weibull distribution in question 5 are not at least roughly matched, you have probably made a mistake. Check your calcuation Average wind power density at 50 m height should be lower than at hub height. When answering Q7, Q8 and Q9, read the notes to be sure that you are producing the correct graphs. In Question 11 use the Wind Power Calculator. In Question 12 be careful with area units. 1 km2 = 1,000,000 m2. Take a couple minutes thinking about your answer before starting the calculations. This one is about geometry

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Gamesa 2.0MW Wind Turbine Power Curve G80 2MW m/s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 kW 0 0 0 0 66.3 152 280 457 690 978 1296 1598 1818 1935 1980 1995 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 0 G87 2MW kW 0 0 0 0 79 181 335 550 832 1175 1530 1816 1963 1988 1996 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 0 G90 2MW kW 0 0 0 21 85 197 364 595 901 1275 1649 1899 1971 1991 1998 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1906 1681 1455 1230 0

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