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Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Osaka University 2-1 Yamadaoka Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan E-mail: email@example.com
by Ken Takagi and Wataru Yano
Recent years are showing increasing temperatures in various regions, and/or increasing extremities in weather patterns and, many reports from various scientist show that climate change is here, and further, that human activity has contributed to it. Besides the global warming, exhaustion of the fossil fuels has been on notice since 1970s. Therefore, the renewable clean energy such as solar energy and wind energy are in the limelight recently. The solar energy and the wind energy are in practice in many countries, although their share is very small compared with fossil fuels or nuclear energy. The biggest problem on the practical application of these renewable energies in Japan is that Japan is composed of mountainous islands and has no advantage as a location of renewable energy plant. However, the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) of Japan is broad and has many possibilities of utilization. We proposed a new design concept of a very large oating structure with thrusters (we call it VLMOS Very Large Mobile O shore Structure) that is utilized as a carrier of the renewable energy plant (see Takagi et al. 1]). It is apparent that the concept of VLMOS is suitable for the solar energy plant, because it requires a large area while Japan has no such a broad area in the country. The structure is planned to sail in the EEZ of Japan and the generated energy is transformed into hydrogen, which is easily transported by shuttle tankers. The mobility plays an important role on this concept, since the weather condition a ects a lot on the e ciency of power plants. If the structure is mobile, we could move the structure to get the maximum e ciency of the power plant. Mobility gives another bene t that the structure is free from the mooring system and also its cost. In order to get good mobility, VLMOS has a con guration that a broad deck is supported with many slender lower hulls and vertical columns. Since the section of lower hulls is semicircle for minimizing the resistance due to the surface friction, it is supposed that the wave exciting force on lower hulls is not small. Thus we need to analyze the hydroelastic behavior of VLMOS in waves for the design of a early prototype. Green function for hydroelastic analysis of vibrating free-free plates by Eatock Taylor and Ohkus 2] is used for representing the elastic motion of the deck and the conventional modal analysis and the three-dimensional boundary element method are employed for the hydroelastic analysis of the lower hull. Combining these methods, the hydroelastic behavior of VLMOS in waves is analyzed.
2.FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
Suppose a VLMOS which has a very large at deck supported with 2 2 columns and 2 slender lower hulls as shown in Fig.1. Cartesian coordinate system ( ) is de ned so that the axis is vertically upward and ; plane coincides with the calm water surface.
N M N x y z z
Figure 1: Image of Very Large Mobile O shore Structure. The following assumptions are employed regarding the elastic behavior of the hull structure. The elastic behavior of the upper deck is represented by the thin elastic plate theory. Deformations in the ; plane of the upper deck are represented by the two-dimensional stress eld theory. Columns are not deformable, since they are fat and short. Lower hulls de ect according to the Euler beam theory in horizontal and vertical plane.
since it strongly a ects the e ciency of the computation. The velocity potential may be represented as n j j j j j j j j j j j j j j g ( + = i! I I D )+ 1 XX N n =1 j =1 i!X n j n j (9) D where g is the gravitational acceleration. It is assumed that the deformations of the n-th hull are represented by a linear combination of the vibration modes n n n n n n n n n n n 1 (x) = 1 X j n 2 (x) = 1 X j =0 (X n 8j +1 X n 8j +2 ) ~ +1 (x) j (2) (3) (4) (5) =0 ( X n 8j +3 +X n 8j +4 ) ) j +1 (x) (x) n 3 (x ) = 1 X j n 4 (x) = 1 X j =0 (X n 8j +5 X n 8j +6 j +1 =0 ( X n 8j +7 +X n 8j +8 ) ~ +1 (x) j where X is the amplitude of the j -th vibration mode of the n-th lower full and we take plus sign. sin p L sinh p x + 2 + sin p x + 2 .1 Equation of motions Lower hulls are compressed or extended in the longitudinal direction. 1 x + L (6) L 2 p x (7) 1 (x) = 1 2 (x) = 2 L p L . we use this symmetry property. According to this representation. where the centerline of the n-th hull is located on y = y . it is assumed that the uid is incompressible. y . z = 0 is the original n-th hull shape. cosh p x + 2 . b (x y) . The instantaneous shape of the n-th hull is represented as b (x . the linear hull surface conditions for the n-th velocity potential may be ~ +1 (x)n on the n-th and n0 -th hull surface @ (10) 8 +1 = 0 on the other hulls @n 8~ on the n-th hull surface < +1 (x)n @ (11) . ~ 2 (x t) = < 2 (x) exp(i!t)] is horizontal de ection ~ 3 (x t) = < 3 (x) exp(i!t)] is vertical de ection and ~ 4 (x t) = < 4 (x) exp(i!t)] is the twisting deformation. cos p L L L L L (x) = cosh sinh p L . z . The vibration modes are given as follows: ~ (x) = p2 cos j . ~ 2 + z ~ 4 ) . ~ 1 (x t) = < 1 (x) exp(i!t)] is telescopic deformation in longitudinal direction. ~ 3 = 0 (1) n n n n n n n n 2. It is also assumed that all motions are sinusoidal in time with the circular frequency !. In addition to these assumptions.It is very important to de ne the elastic modes of the hull structure properly. if n N and we take minus sign. inviscid and irrotational. In order to reduce the computational time. We assumed that the shape of VLMOS is symmetry with respect to the x-axis and y-axis. ~ 1 y . y ) ~ 4 . (y . is the incident wave potential and is the di raction potential. if n > N . cos p x + 2 (8) where p is a root of cos p L cosh p L = 1 and L is the length of the lower hull. Lower hulls twist as a slender axisymmetry beam. ~ +1 (x )n on the n0 -th hull surface 8 +2 = :0 @n on the other hulls n j j x j x n j j n x . The uid motion accords with the linear free surface and body surface condition.
Using the radiation forces and the di raction forces. Mh is the mass of the n-th lower hull and AEx is the rigidity of the longitudinal direction of the lower hull. it is lengthy to show all equations of motions here. !2 2M X ! N XX 3 X 1 m=1 j =0 l=1 ASm n k+1 8j+2` Xm 8j+2` (20) (21) 1 =2 where the radiation coe cient for the longitudinal direction ASm n k j is de ned as 80 when k and j are even number > < or k and j are odd number Z ASm n k 8j+` = ~ > :2 k (x) m 8j +` nx dS other cases m=1 (fh m n 1 . The equations are categorized into two groups and the symmetric motion is represented as @ @n @ @n @ @n @ @n 8 (x)n < j+1 y n 8j +3 = : . y ) @2 + @2 g + 1 + @2 g + @2 g (24) . y plane are represented by Green functions gu (x y x y ) and gv (x y x y ) which satisfy equations of vibration in x . elastic motion of the upper deck is represented by Green functions. @=@n denotes the partial derivation with respect to the normal direction to the hull surface. n. j +1 (x)ny 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . fh m n 1 ) ~k+1 (xm ) + gEn 8k+2 0 (22) On the other hand. However. n 8j +7 = :0 @n on the other hulls ~j +1 (x)(ynz + zny ) on the n-th and n -th hull surface @ (17) on the other hulls @n n 8j+8 = 0 where n = 2N + 1 . !2 2M X ! N XX 3 X 1 m=1 j =0 l=1 ASm n k+1 8j+2l 1 Xm 8j+2l . x ) (y . Thus. xm is the longitudinal position of the center of the column. ! Mh + kL 2 2 AExL Xn 8k+2 . y plane @2 g + @2 g @2 + @2 g + 1 + (23) . only the equations of motions in the longitudinal direction are shown here. Velocity potentials are obtained by means of the threedimensional boundary element method with the linear free surface Green function.on the n-th hull surface on the n -th hull surface (12) on the other hulls j +1 (x)ny on the n-th and n -th hull surface (13) n 8j +4 = 0 on the other hulls j +1 (x)nz on the n-th and n -th hull surface (14) n 8j +5 = 0 on the other hulls 8 (x)n on the n-th hull surface < j+1 z (15) n 8j +6 = : . we obtain the equations of motions of the n-th hull.2 Elastic motion of the upper deck where Sh denotes the surface of the n-th lower hull. n = 2N +1 . n = 1 2 3 . @x2 u @x@y v = (x .!2 md gv + Gt @x 2 @y2 v 1 .!2 md gu + Gt @x u 2 @y2 1 . n. the equation of anti-symmetric motion is given as 0 m=1 (fh m n 1 + fh m n 1 ) ~k+1 (xm ) + gEn 8k+1 0 . y ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2. Elastic motions of the deck in x . (nx ny nz ) is components of the normal vector. Similarly. j +1 (x)nz on the n -th hull surface 0 on the other hulls 8 ~ (x)(yn + zn ) on the n-th hull surface < j+1 z y @ ~j +1 (x)(ynz + zny ) on the n -th hull surface (16) . ! Mh + kL 2 2 AExL Xn 8k+1 . Sh . 1 (18) (19) =1 2 where k = 0 1 2 . . x ) (y . @y2 v @x@y u = (x . The radiation forces and the di raction forces are obtained by integrating the velocity potential on the hull surface.
. 3. 2002. number of modes may not be large enough to ensure the perfect convergence of the solution and increase in the number of modes may leads a problem on CPU time. 2] Eatock Taylor. Funaki. The elastic vibration of the upper deck in z direction is represented by a Green function gw (x y x y ) which is presented by Eatock Taylor and Ohkus 2].. References 1] Takagi. The equation of motions contains 32J 2 MN radiation coe cients and 8JN exciting force coe cients. However this problem contains a large number of unknowns. K. Kobe. (26) is transformed to represent the displacement of the lower hull hm n i at the base of the m n-th column as a linear summation of internal forces acting on the lower hull k=1 `=1 j =1 fd k ` j Gi j (xm yn xk y` ) (26) hm n i = . Z. J Applied Ocean Research. M. fd k ` j is the j -th internal force at the k `-th column and Gij is the Green function for the elastic deformation of the deck. Kondo.where md is the unit mass of the upper deck. K.239-244. pp.hd when j =5 0 other cases: 8 < hd when j =4 (28) (29) (30) The displacement of the lower hull has a relationship with the deformation of the lower hull hm n i = n i (xm ) i=1 4 @ (x ) and h @ hm n 5 = @x n3 m m n 6 = @x n 2 (xm ): Combining these equations. However. R.295-314. The equation of motions contain 24MN unknowns for representing the displacement and force at columns and 8JN unknowns for representing the elastic motion of lower hull. we obtain the nal solution. and Ohkus. vol. where 2M X 2N X 6 X k=1 `=1 j =1 (fd k ` j + j fh k l 6 j )(Gi j (xm yn xk y` ) + . T. t is the equivalent thickness of the upper deck and is Poisson's ratio..j Gi 6 j (xm yn xk y` )) .gv and gw . M. deformation of the deck is represented as linear summation of the inner forces acting at connection points of columns @2 + @2 . Proceedings of the Asia Paci c Workshop on Marine Hydrodynamics. G is the modulus of torsion.. Using these Green functions. 6. Yamamoto. Some numerical results will be presented at the workshop and the accuracy of the solution will be discussed.:Conceptual Design of a Very Large Mobile Structure for the Renewable Energy Plant. 2000. gu and gv are obtained by means of the energy method with the free-free boundary condition. In this work. y ) 0 0 (25) dm n i = 2M X 2N X 6 X where dm n i j is the deformation of the deck at the point (xm yn ) (where the m n-th column is located). pp. (27) j = : . 22. we take M = N = 5 and J = 20 for the typical case.!2 md + D @x 2 @y2 gw = (x . It is noted that Gij is the general notation of gu . x ) (y . DISCUSSION The procedure of the solution is straight forward. :Green Functions for Hydroelastic Analysis of Vibrating Free-Free Beam and Plate. and Kawasaki. It satis es the equation of the vibration of the thin elastic plate 0 0 where D denotes the exural rigidity of the upper deck. gv and gw and it also represents gradients of gu .
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .18th IWWFB Le Croisic (France) 6-9 April 2003 Question by : J.N. However. near the middle of the platform) Author’s reply: My plot of the surge exciting force is for the entire structure. it seems necessary to investigate the force acting on each hull as you suggest. Newman Is your plot of the surge exciting force for the entire structure? (the near-trapping theory for large arrays suggest that the peaks will be much larger for the latter component.
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