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spline ®nite strip method
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay*
Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721 302, India
Received 13 February 1997; accepted 22 June 1999
Abstract
Geometric nonlinear analysis of stiened plates is investigated by the spline ®nite strip method. von Karman's
nonlinear plate theory is adopted and the formulation is made in total Lagrangian coordinate system. The resulting
nonlinear equations are solved by the Newton±Raphson iteration technique. To analyse plates having any arbitrary
shapes, the whole plate is mapped into a square domain. The mapped domain is discretised into a number of strips.
In this method, the displacement interpolation functions used are: the spline functions in the longitudinal direction
of the strip and the ®nite element shape functions in the other direction. The stiener is elegantly modelled so that it
can be placed anywhere within the plate strip. The arbitrary orientation of the stiener and its eccentricity are
incorporated in the formulation. All these aspects have ultimately made the proposed approach a most versatile tool
of analysis. Plates and stiened plates are analysed and the results are presented along with those of other
investigators for necessary comparison and discussion. 7 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Plate; Stiener; Spline functions; Large de¯ection; Total Lagrangian coordinate system; von Karman's nonlinear plate
theory
1. Introduction
Plates are extensively used in various engineering con
structions. The technique of stiening a plate by stien
ers is rather common as it gives higher values of strength
to weight ratio of the structure. This has made the struc
ture more attractive in practice. Investigations on the
behaviour of stiened plates have been carried out for a
long time [1] but most of these works are con®ned to lin
ear analysis only. As plates and stiened plates belong
to the category of thin walled structures, they may
undergo large deformations when they are subjected to
external loading. At large de¯ection level, membrane
stresses are produced which give additional stiness to
the structure. The strain±displacement relationship
becomes nonlinear in this range which is the bane of
nonlinearity of the present problem.
In this age of the computer, a numerical method is the
only alternative to obtain a general solution of a com
plex problem such as nonlinear analysis of a stiened
plate. Amongst the dierent numerical methods avail
able, the ®nite element method is undoubtedly the most
accurate and versatile one but it takes a large amount of
computer storage and solution time. To get an economic
solution with reasonable accuracy, a semianalytical
®nite strip method [2] has been proposed particularly for
the regular shaped structures. The method has been
Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785
00457949/00/$  see front matter 7 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0045 7949( 99) 00191 1
www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc
* Corresponding author.
Email address: jit@naval.iitkgp.ernet.in (M.
Mukhopadhyay).
extensively used for the analysis of regular shaped plates,
but it suers from a number of drawbacks such as mixed
boundary conditions, continuous span, internal open
ing, interior supports and some similar features. These
are mostly due to the characteristic beam function used
as a displacement interpolation function along the longi
tudinal direction of the strip.
The spline ®nite strip method [3] has recently been
proposed as a complement to the semianalytical ®nite
strip method. In this method, spline functions are used
in the longitudinal direction of the strip. It has resulted
in overcoming most of the shortcomings of the conven
tional ®nite strip method. Actually, spline functions can
represent fairly well any sharp variation of the defor
mation as the functions are piecewise polynomials. This
has increased the accuracy of the method [4]. Further,
the method has been made more general to cater for
plates having an arbitrary shape [5]. Thus, the method is
more economic than the ®nite element method for the
attainment of the same order of accuracy [4] and gener
ality [5]. The authors have applied the method to the lin
ear analysis [6,7] of stiened plates.
In this paper the spline ®nite strip method is applied
to the large de¯ection analysis of plates and stiened
plates. The formulation is performed in the total
Lagrangian coordinate system [8] using von Karman's
large de¯ection plate theory. The governing equations
are nonlinear which are solved by iterative technique
following the Newton±Raphson method. As the com
putational time involved in the generation of a tangent
stiness matrix is signi®cant, a slight modi®cation is
made in the iteration technique. Once the tangent sti
ness matrix is generated and factorised, it is used for a
few iterations which has helped to reduce some compu
tational time. In order to maintain a better rate of con
vergence, it is updated after a few iterations. The
generalised form of the spline ®nite strip method [5] is
used to analyse plates having any shape. The stiener
is modelled in such a way that it may lie anywhere
within the plate strip and it may have any orientation
and eccentricity. The same displacement interpolation
functions are used for the plate and the stiener which
ensures compatibility between these two. Numerical
examples of dierent plates and stiened plates as
available in the literature are solved to validate the
proposed technique.
2. Proposed analysis
The basic assumptions made in the formulation are:
(a) the transverse de¯ection is moderate; (b) material is
linearly elastic; and (c) the common normal to the
plate and the stiener system before bending remains
straight and normal to the de¯ected middle plane of
the plate after bending.
To cater for the arbitrary plate shape, the whole
plate is approximately mapped into a square domain
in a dierent plane (x÷Z ) as shown in Fig. 1. The
mapping is done by using a cubic serendipity shape
function [8] and is as follows
x =
12
i=1
N
i
(x, Z)x
i
y =
12
i=1
N
i
(x, Z)y
i
(1)
where N
i
is the cubic serendipity shape function and
Fig. 1. Transformation of an arbitrary plate geometry into a square domain.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 766
(x
i
, y
i
) is the coordinate of the ith boundary node of
the plate.
In the context of the spline ®nite strip method, the
mapped domain of the plate is divided into a number
of strips in one direction, say x as shown in Fig. 2.
The knots are taken along the nodal lines to adopt the
spline functions which serve as the displacement interp
olation functions in the Zdirection. The ®nite element
shape functions are adopted on the other side, i.e., x
direction. In this formulation, cubic Bspline functions
and Hermitian polynomials (cubic polynomials) are
adopted in the x and Zdirections, respectively, for
both inplane and transverse displacements. Thus, the
complete interpolation functions for the displacements
are the product of ®nite element shape functions and
spline functions.
Thus, the interpolation function of the displacement
components within a strip or a portion of it (Fig. 2) is
bicubic. In standard ®nite element analysis, a similar
situation may be attained by using the conforming rec
tangular element of Bogner et al. [9], which has four
nodes at its four corners and each node contained four
degreesoffreedom (w, dw/dx, dw/dy and d
2
w/dxy ). In
that case, a portion of a strip between two adjacent
knots as shown in Fig. 2 may be compared with the
above element where the degreesoffreedom in each
knot/node is only two (w, dw/dx). This indicates that
the number of equations/nodal unknowns is half com
pared to the standard ®nite element analysis. More
over, the cubic splines give c
2
continuity in the
direction of Z which may be obtained by using a quin
tic interpolation function considering curvature as the
additional degreesoffreedom at the nodes. The con
dition of c
2
continuity improves the order of accuracy
Fig. 2. Mesh division of the mapped domain of the plate geometry.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 767
Fig. 3. Coordinate axes at a Gauss point of a curved stiener.
which indirectly helps to reduce the number of div
isions in the direction of Z compared to the ®nite el
ement analysis to attain the convergence. A further
reduction in the number of equations is obtained by
this elegant feature (c
2
continuity) of splines. In ad
dition to the reduction of the problem size, the present
formulation is applicable to plates of general shapes
which cannot be achieved by the rectangular element
mentioned above [9]. In this context, an isoparametric
element may be used to achieve the generality, but the
advantage of reducing the problem size will not be
attained.
Now the displacement components may be expressed
as
{ f ] =
V
`
X
u(x, Z)
v(x, Z)
w(x, Z)
W
a
Y
=
P
R
[N
mu
]
[N
mv
]
[N
mw
]
Q
S
{d] =
P
R
[N
u
]
[N
v
]
[N
w
]
Q
S
[F]{d],
(2)
where
[N
u
] = [N
1
(
"
x) N
2
(
"
x) 0 0 0 0 N
3
(
"
x) N
4
(
"
x) 0 0 0 0] (3)
[N
v
] = [0 0 N
1
(
"
x) N
2
(
"
x) 0 0 0 0 N
3
(
"
x) N
4
(
"
x) 0 0] (4)
[N
w
] = [0 0 0 0 N
1
(
"
x) N
2
(
"
x) 0 0 0 0 N
3
(
"
x) N
4
(
"
x)] (5)
[F] =
P
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
R
[f
i
u
]
[f
i
u, x
]
[f
i
v
] 0
[f
i
v, x
]
[f
i
w
]
[f
i
w, x
]
[f
j
u
]
[f
j
u, x
]
[f
j
v
]
0 [f
j
v, x
]
[f
j
w
]
[f
j
w, x
]
Q
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
S
(6)
and
{d]
T
=
h
{u]
T
i
{u
, x
]
T
i
{v]
T
i
{v
, x
]
T
i
{w]
T
i
{w
, x
]
T
i
{u]
T
j
{u
, x
]
T
j
{v]
T
j
{v
, x
]
T
j
{w]
T
j
{w
, x
]
T
j
i
X (7)
Again, j=i + 1, [f
i
u
] = [f
÷1
f
0
f
1
f
2
, F F F, f
r
, F F F,
f
m
f
m÷1
] (the spline functions along the ith nodal
line corresponding to inplane displacement u ), and
{u]
T
i
= {u
÷1
u
0
u
1
u
2
, F F F, u
r
, F F F, u
m
u
m÷1
]
i
(the
displacement parameters at the ith nodal line corre
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 768
sponding to u ). This is similarly applicable to the
other nodal lines and displacement components.
The expressions of the polynomials of a cubic B
spline, f
r
(at the rth knot) [3] may be written as
f
r
= 1a6h
3
V
b
b
b
b
`
b
b
b
b
X
(Z ÷ Z
r÷2
)
3
, Z
r÷2
ZZ
r÷1
h
3
÷ 3h
2
(Z ÷ Z
r÷1
) ÷ 3h(Z ÷ Z
r÷1
)
2
÷ 3(Z ÷ Z
r÷1
)
3
, Z
r÷1
ZZ
r
h
3
÷ 3h
2
(Z
r÷1
÷ Z) ÷ 3h(Z
r÷1
÷ Z)
2
÷ 3(Z
r÷1
÷ Z)
3
, Z
r
ZZ
r÷1
(Z
r÷2
÷ Z)
3
, Z
r÷1
ZZ
r÷2
W
b
b
b
b
a
b
b
b
b
Y
(8)
while the expressions of the Hermitian polynomials [8]
are
N
1
(
"
x) = 1 ÷ 3
"
x
2
÷ 2
"
x
3
N
2
(
"
x) = b
"
x(1 ÷ 2
"
x ÷
"
x
2
)
N
3
(
"
x) = 3
"
x
2
÷
"
x
3
N
4
(
"
x) = b
"
x(
"
x
2
÷
"
x), (9)
where
"
x = (x ÷ x
i
)ab and b=x
i + 1
÷x
i
.
Once the displacement interpolation functions are
obtained, the nonlinear stiness matrices and the load
vector can be formed in a manner which is similar to
that followed in a ®nite element displacement model.
The present formulation is based on the total
Lagrangian coordinate system. In this context, the
approach proposed by Zienkiewicsz [8] is followed. As
its details are available in the text [8], the dierent
equations are directly used in their ®nal forms.
The governing equations are the equilibrium
equation and the incremental equation which are as
follows
[K
s
]{d] = {R] (10)
[K
T
]{dd] = {dR], (11)
where [K
s
] and [K
T
] are the secant and tangent stiness
matrices, respectively, {d } and {dd } are the displace
ments vectors and its increment and {R} and {dR} are
the load vector and its increment.
The explicit expressions of the above stiness
matrices of an element/strip may be expressed as
[K
s
] =
dv
([B
0
]
T
[D][B
0
] ÷ 1a2[B
0
]
T
[D][B
L
] ÷ [B
L
]
T
[D][B
0
] ÷ 1a2[B
L
]
T
[D][B
L
])dv (12)
[K
T
] =
dv
([B
0
]
T
[D][B
0
] ÷ [B
0
]
T
[D][B
L
] ÷ [B
L
]
T
[D]
[B
0
] ÷ [B
L
]
T
[D][B
L
] ÷ [G ]
T
[S][G ])dv, (13)
where [D] is the rigidity matrix, [S] is the initial stress
matrix, [B
0
] is the linear strain matrix, and [B
L
] is the
nonlinear strain matrix.
Now the nonlinear strain matrix in the above
equations may be expressed as
[B
L
] = [A][G ], (14)
where [A] is dependent on displacements but [G] is
free from that.
The element stiness matrix of a stiened plate el
ement consists of the contribution of the plate and the
stiener. The dierent matrices mentioned above corre
sponding to the plate and the stiener are as follows.
2.1. A plate strip
The middle plane of the plate is taken as the refer
ence plane. In addition to the usual transverse displa
cement in the reference plane, there will be inplane
displacements due to the eect of large de¯ection and
stiener eccentricity. The generalised stress±strain re
lation of a plate strip may be written as
{s] = [D]{E], (15)
where the stress resultant vector is
{s]
T
= {N
x
N
y
N
xy
M
x
M
y
M
xy
], (16)
the rigidity matrix is
[D] =
P
T
T
T
T
T
T
R
D
xA
D
1A
D
1A
D
yA
D
xyA
D
xF
D
1F
D
1F
D
yF
D
xyF
Q
U
U
U
U
U
U
S
(17)
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 769
and the generalised strain±displacement relationship is
{E] =
V
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
`
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
X
duadx
dvady
duady ÷ dvadx
F F F
÷d
2
wadx
2
÷d
2
wady
2
÷2d
2
wadx dy
W
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
a
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Y
÷
V
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
`
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
X
1a2(dwadx)
2
1a2(dwady)
2
dwadx dwady
F F F
0
0
0
W
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
a
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Y
= {E
0
] ÷ {E
L
]X (18)
Using the interpolation functions of the displacement
components (2), the linear strain vector may be written
as
{E
0
] = [B
0
]{d], (19)
where
[B
0
] =
P
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
R
[N
mu
]
, x
[N
mv
]
, y
[N
mu
]
, y
÷ [N
mv
]
, x
÷[N
mw
]
, xx
÷[N
mw
]
, yy
÷2[N
mw
]
, xy
Q
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
S
X (20)
In the above equations, the derivatives are with respect
to x and y but the interpolation functions for the
dierent displacement components are functions of x
and Z. In this context, Eq. (1) which correlates the
structures axes system x±y and the mapped axes sys
tem x±Z is used to carry out the above derivatives
through proper coordinate transformation.
Now the nonlinear strain vector may be written as
{E
L
] =
1
2
P
T
T
T
T
T
T
R
dwadx 0
0 dwady
dwady dwadx
0 0
0 0
0 0
Q
U
U
U
U
U
U
S
&
dwadx
dwady
'
=
1
2
[A]{y]X (21)
Using the displacement interpolation functions (2), the
above matrices may be expressed as
[A] =
P
T
T
T
T
T
T
R
[N
mw
]
, x
{d] 0
0 [N
mw
]
, y
{d]
[N
mw
]
, y
{d] [N
mw
]
, x
{d]
0 0
0 0
0 0
Q
U
U
U
U
U
U
S
(22)
and
{y] = [G ]{d], (23)
where
[G ] =
[N
mw
]
, x
[N
mw
]
, y
!
X (24)
For the plate strip, the initial stress matrix is
[S] =
N
x
N
xy
N
xy
N
y
!
X (25)
As the formulation is done with the generalised stress±
strain relationship, the eect corresponding to the
direction of plate thickness is already taken care of in
the rigidity matrix. Thus, the integrations involved in
the generation of stiness matrices are carried out over
the area. Eq. (1) is again used to carry out an inte
gration of a function, say f(x, Z) as
f (x, Z)dx dy =
f (x, Z) [ J [ dx dZ, (26)
where the Jacobian is
[ J [=
dxadx dyadx
dxadZ dyadZ
X (27)
2.2. A stiener having arbitrary orientation
A curved eccentric stiener placed within a plate
strip represents the most general situation of a stiener
which is chosen for the derivation. The middle plane
of the plate is again the reference plane. The stiener
is modelled using the same displacement interpolation
functions of the plate strip which gives the stiness
matrix of the stiener in terms of nodal parameters of
the plate strip. This not only ensures compatibility
between the stiener and the plate, but also avoids the
incorporation of additional degreesoffreedom for the
stiener element. The properties of the stiener are
taken along the direction of its axis which changes
from point to point for a curved stiener as shown in
Fig. 3. The integrations involved in the evaluation of
the stiness matrices are carried out numerically using
a Gaussian quadrature integration scheme where the
dierent quantities are evaluated at the Gaussian inte
gration point. As the direction of the stiener axis/tan
gent at these points is dierent from the global/
structural axis system x±y, it gives results in a local
axis system which is converted afterwards into the glo
bal axis system x±y. In Fig. 3, a local axis system x'±
y' at a Gauss point corresponding to the direction of
the stiener axis is shown which makes an angle a
with the global axis system x±y. The relationship
between these two axes systems may be written as
x = x
/
cos a ÷ y
/
sin a
y = x
/
sin a ÷ y
/
cos aX (28)
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 770
Again, the local displacement parameters may be
expressed in terms of global displacement parameters
as
u
/
= u cos a ÷ v sin a
v
/
= v cos a ÷ u sin a
w
/
= wX (29)
The detailed derivation of the stiener has been pre
sented in earlier works of the authors [6,7] where the
scope of the work was limited within the range of lin
ear analysis. Thus, the additional features needed to in
corporate the eect of large de¯ection are highlighted
only. In a stiened plate, the eccentricity of the stif
fener proves coupling between the membrane and ¯ex
ural actions. The eect of large de¯ection is also
responsible for this coupling as it contributes ad
ditional term dependent on transverse displacement in
the axial strain component.
For a stiener element, the stress resultant vector in
its local axes system is
{s]
T
= {N
s
M
s
T
s
], (30)
the corresponding rigidity matrix is
[D] =
P
R
EA
s
ES
s
0
ES
s
EI
s
0
0 0 GJ
s
Q
S
(31)
and the generalised strain vector is
{E] =
V
b
b
`
b
b
X
du
/
adx
/
F F F
÷d
2
wadx
/ 2
÷d
2
wadx
/
dy
/
W
b
b
a
b
b
Y
÷
V
b
b
b
`
b
b
b
X
1a2(dwadx
/
)
2
F F F
0
0
W
b
b
b
a
b
b
b
Y
X (32)
With the help of Eqs. (2) and (29), the linear strain
vector may be expressed as
{E
0
] = [B
0
]{d], (33)
where
[B
0
] =
P
R
[N
mu
]
, x
/ cos a ÷ [N
mv
]
, x
/ sin a
÷[N
mw
]
, x
/
x
/
÷[N
mw
]
, y
/
y
/
Q
S
X (34)
The derivatives in the above matrix are calculated with
the help of Eqs. (2) and (28) which correlate the dier
ent axes system.
Now the nonlinear strain vector may be written as
{E
L
] =
1
2
P
R
dwadx
/
0
0
Q
S
{dwadx
/
] =
1
2
[A]{y]X (35)
Using the displacement interpolation functions (2), the
above matrices may be expressed as
[A] =
P
R
[N
mw
]
, x
/ {d]
0
0
Q
S
(36)
and
{y] = [G ]{d], (37)
where
[G ] = [N
mw
]
, x
/ X (38)
Here the initial stress matrix is
[S] = [N
s
]X (39)
As the generalised stress±strain relationship is taken
for the stiener, the eect corresponding to the direc
tion of width and depth of the stiener is already con
sidered in its rigidity matrix. Thus, the integrations
involved in the generation of stiness matrices are car
ried out along the stiener axis. The integration of a
function, say f(x, Z ) may be expressed as
f (x, Z)dx
/
=
f (x, Z) [ J
st
[ dl, (40)
where [ J
st
[ is the Jacobian of the stiener which is the
ratio of actual length to mapped length of the stiener
within the plate strip. l is the direction of the stiener
axis in the mapped plane.
2.3. Load vector
A consistent formulation is made for the load vector
which may be written as
{R] =
[N
mw
]
T
q [ J [ dx dZ, (41)
where q is the intensity of load distributed on the plate
skin.
2.4. Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are attained through
proper amendment of the local splines in the Zdirec
tion and the standard ®nite element technique in the x
direction [3].
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 771
3. Numerical examples and discussions
In this section, the proposed technique is validated
through the following numerical examples. The itera
tive process involved in the solution of these examples
are continued until the convergence is attained. In this
context, the criterion adopted is the total residual
norm which may be written as
(c
T
c)a({R]
T
{R]) 100g, (42)
where g is the tolerance for the convergence and it is
taken as 0.1% in all the examples. The mesh division
used in an example is decided after solving the example
with a dierent mesh size for its ®rst load level so as
to assure the convergence with respect to the mesh div
ision. This has been followed in all the examples.
3.1. A square plate
The square clamped plate has been used by a large
number of investigators to study the large de¯ection
behaviour of thin plates. This problem is investigated
by the proposed method using a 12 10 mesh (that is
12 strips and 10 divisions in a nodal line). The de¯ec
tion and the normal stress at the plate centre and also
the normal stress at the centre of an edge obtained by
the proposed method are presented in Tables 1±3 with
those of other investigators for comparison. The stress
at the plate centre is taken as the extreme bottom ®bre
in a direction parallel to any one edge and the stress at
the centre of an edge is taken at the top extreme ®bre
in a direction perpendicular to that edge. The stresses
are obtained by combining the contributions of the
bending moment and the membrane forces. The ana
lytical thin plate solution for the problem is given by
Levy [10] which is referred to as the `exact' solution.
Results obtained by the two ®nite element models
[9,11] based on the assumptions of thin plate theory
are considered. One of them employs the Irons±Razza
que nonconforming triangular element [11] with linear
inplane displacement (IR) and the other uses the slope
conforming rectangular element of Bogner et al. [9]
with parabolic inplane behaviour (BFS). Pica et al.
Table 1
De¯ection, w/h at the centre of the clamped square plate
Load qa
4
/Et
4
Exact [10] Linear inplane behaviour Higherorder inplane behaviour
RI [11] CD LN [12] BFS [9] Present QS [12]
17.79 0.237 0.2387 0.2361 0.2349 0.2361 0.2362 0.2351
38.3 0.471 0.4717 0.4681 0.4705 0.4717 0.4686 0.4673
63.4 0.695 0.6916 0.6887 0.6990 0.6900 0.6902 0.6887
95.0 0.912 0.9008 0.8992 0.9191 0.9012 0.9016 0.9003
134.9 1.121 1.1025 1.1018 1.1318 1.1047 1.1052 1.1041
184.0 1.323 1.2961 1.2956 1.3350 1.2992 1.2999 1.2990
245.0 1.521 1.4879 1.4866 1.5347 1.4908 1.4919 1.4913
318.0 1.714 1.6744 1.6714 1.7439 1.6761 1.6776 1.6774
402.0 1.902 1.8529 1.8474 1.9109 1.8524 1.8544 1.8682
Table 2
Stress, sa
2
/(Eh
2
) at the centre of a clamped square plate
Load qa
4
/Et
4
Exact [10] Linear inplane behaviour Higherorder inplane behaviour
RI [11] CD LN [12] BFS [9] Present QS [12]
17.79 2.6 2.6890 2.5778 2.6274 2.6328 2.5894 2.6571
38.3 5.2 5.4140 5.3290 5.5435 5.4847 5.3725 5.5137
63.4 8.0 8.0205 8.0606 8.5570 8.3372 8.1445 8.3528
95.0 11.1 10.521 10.733 11.575 11.127 10.854 11.115
134.9 13.3 12.971 13.367 14.567 13.866 13.518 13.817
184.0 15.9 15.390 15.965 17.493 16.552 16.137 16.431
245.0 19.2 17.885 18.633 20.446 19.296 18.819 19.160
318.0 21.9 20.438 21.350 23.605 22.081 21.550 21.902
402.0 25.1 23.020 24.085 26.318 24.881 24.301 24.805
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 772
[12] have also analysed the plate using linear (LN) and
quadratic (QS) serendipity Mindlin elements. Cheung
and Dashan [13] have applied the spline ®nite strip
method to study the large de¯ection behaviour of bare
plates and they have studied only the de¯ection. The
interpolation functions for the displacements used by
Cheung and Dashan [13] are similar to the present
approach except for the ®nite element shape functions
for the inplane displacements which are linear. The
problem is again solved according to Cheung and
Dashan [13] to evaluate both the de¯ection and stres
ses (CD). The tables show that the proposed method
gives good results for the de¯ection and stresses
whereas the CD yields slightly poorer results for stres
ses. This is due to the linear inplane behaviour which
is also observed with the ®nite element method [11,12].
The same plate is again analysed with simply sup
ported boundary conditions using a 12 10 mesh. The
de¯ection and the normal stress at the centre of the
plate obtained by the proposed method are compared
with those of Rushton [14] and QS [12] in Table 4
which indicates that the results agree well. The stress is
taken at the bottom extreme ®bre in a direction paral
lel to any one of the plate edges and it is combined
stress considering the bending moment and membrane
force.
3.2. A circular plate
A clamped circular plate is analysed by the proposed
approach using a 12 10 mesh. The problem is solved
for two loading conditions, one is a uniformly distribu
ted load (UDL) and the other is a central point load.
The de¯ection and normal stress at the plate centre
and also the normal stress at the edge obtained in the
present analysis are compared with the results of Weil
and Newmark [15] and QS [12] in Table 5 for the uni
formly distributed load. In Table 6, the central de¯ec
tion and the edge stress are compared with those of
Schmidt [16] and QS [12] for the central point load.
The stress is taken at the extreme bottom ®bre in the
radial direction. Combined eect of the bending
moment and the membrane force are taken into
account for the stress computation. Results compare
satisfactorily.
3.3. An annular sector plate
An annular sector plate is analysed by the proposed
Table 3
Stress, sa
2
/(Eh
2
) at the centre of an edge of a clamped square plate
Load qa
4
/Et
4
Exact [10] Linear inplane behaviour Higherorder inplane behaviour
RI [11] CD LN [12] BFS [9] Present QS [12]
17.79 5.48 5.2523 5.3331 3.3663 5.2915 5.4042 5.3256
38.3 11.52 10.807 11.043 7.1122 11.137 11.347 11.155
63.4 18.03 16.680 17.155 11.198 17.556 17.886 17.515
95.0 25.32 23.001 23.767 15.639 24.649 25.166 24.522
134.9 33.50 29.875 30.944 20.461 32.485 33.313 32.278
184.0 42.40 37.257 38.588 25.597 40.961 42.274 40.710
245.0 52.80 45.357 46.864 31.172 50.251 52.306 50.043
318.0 63.90 54.011 55.554 37.459 60.097 63.206 60.064
402.0 75.80 63.000 64.404 43.121 70.190 74.688 70.897
Table 4
De¯ection and stress at the centre of a simply supported square plate
Load qa
4
/Et
4
Central de¯ection, w/t Central stress, sa
2
/(Et
2
)
Exact [14] Present QS [12] Exact [14] Present QS [12]
9.16 0.335 0.3436 0.3478 2.46 2.6084 2.6214
36.6 0.818 0.8094 0.8184 6.90 6.9790 7.0026
146.5 1.47 1.4538 1.4655 14.50 14.652 14.644
586.0 2.40 2.3750 2.3927 30.00 30.186 30.183
2344.0 3.83 3.7864 3.8124 65.20 65.580 65.673
9377.0 6.07 6.0511 6.0521 148.3 149.16 149.66
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 773
Table 5
De¯ection and stresses of a circular plate under UDL
Load qa
4
/Et
4
Central de¯ection w/t Central stress sa
2
/(Et
2
) Edge stress sa
2
/(Et
2
)
Exact [15] Present QS [12] Exact [15] Present QS [12] Exact [15] Present QS [12]
1.0 0.169 0.1684 0.1614 0.502 0.5163 0.5018 0.772 0.7818 0.7831
2.0 0.323 0.3236 0.3116 0.986 1.0282 1.0044 1.550 1.5544 1.5550
3.0 0.457 0.4598 0.4453 1.421 1.4979 1.4724 2.302 2.2949 2.2924
6.0 0.761 0.7716 0.7566 2.477 2.5984 2.6070 4.324 4.2961 4.2639
10.0 1.035 1.0535 1.0417 3.542 3.6577 3.6774 6.517 6.5875 6.4692
15.0 1.279 1.3038 1.2950 4.622 4.6156 4.6595 8.694 9.0903 8.8125
Table 6
De¯ection and stress of a circular plate under the point load at the plate centre
Load Pa
2
/Et
4
Central de¯ection, w/t Edge stress, sa
2
/(Et
2
)
Exact [16] Present QS [12] Exact [16] Present QS [12]
1.0 0.2130 0.2121 0.2044 0.4858 0.5011 0.5318
2.0 0.4052 0.4033 0.3908 0.9592 0.9885 1.0478
3.0 0.5705 0.5675 0.5528 1.3974 1.4391 1.5240
4.0 0.7123 0.7081 0.6930 1.7988 1.8512 1.9583
5.0 0.8354 0.8299 0.8152 2.1679 2.2299 2.3553
6.0 0.9442 0.9375 0.9237 2.5110 2.5816 2.7221
Table 7
De¯ection and moments at the centre of an annular sector plate (r
i
/r
o
=0.5, n=0.3)
a
Load qa
4
Central de¯ection w/t Bending moment M
r
r
2
0
a(Et
4
) Bending moment M
y
r
2
0
a(Et
4
)
Ref. [17] Ref. [18] Present Ref. [17] Ref. [18] Present Ref. [17] Ref. [18] Present
666.7 0.8069 0.8344 0.7649 4.372 4.320 4.365 2.136 2.137 2.108
1333.3 1.2090 1.2298 1.1452 6.077 5.940 6.065 2.799 2.796 2.744
2666.7 1.6870 1.6665 1.5908 7.716 7.376 7.674 3.359 3.340 3.271
4000.0 2.0080 1.9497 1.8872 8.668 8.190 8.596 3.681 3.650 3.580
a
r
i
Ð inner radius of the plate, r
o
Ð outer radius of the plate and a=(r
o
÷r
i
).
Table 8
Membrane forces at the centre of an annular sector plate (r
i
/r
o
=0.5, n=0.3)
a
qa
4
/Et
4
N
r
r
2
0
a(Et
3
) N
y
r
2
0
a(Et
3
)
Ref. [17] Ref. [18] Present Ref. [17] Ref. [18] Present
666.7 6.5390 5.3800 6.5812 4.0070 4.6100 4.0236
1333.3 14.450 12.516 14.609 8.2820 10.353 8.9676
2666.7 27.710 25,430 28.065 16.880 19.956 17.338
4000.0 39.010 36.490 39.537 23.170 27.680 24.512
a
r
i
Ð inner radius of the plate, r
o
Ð outer radius of the plate and a=(r
o
÷r
i
).
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 774
Fig. 4. Simply supported rectangular orthotropic plate.
Fig. 5. De¯ection at the centre of an orthotropic plate.
Fig. 6. Curvature at the centre of an orthotropic plate.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 775
Fig. 7. Axial force at the centre of an orthotropic plate.
Table 9
De¯ection at A, B and C of the stiened annular sector plate
Sector angle Method Point Load level (N/cm
2
)
25 50 75 100 125 150
y=08 SFSM
a
A 3.745 6.449 8.526 10.251 11.747 13.076
B 1.336 2.614 3.805 4.918 5.962 6.946
C 1.336 2.614 3.805 4.918 5.962 6.946
FEM
b
A 3.794 6.434 8.639 10.385 11.895 13.237
B 1.384 2.703 3.926 5.064 6.129 7.128
C 1.384 2.703 3.926 5.064 6.129 7.128
y=308 SFSM A 3.834 6.619 8.742 10.487 11.986 13.317
B 0.871 1.705 2.494 3.246 3.963 4.651
C 2.211 4.165 5.879 7.410 8.797 10.067
FEM A 3.883 6.701 8.854 10.620 12.136 13.473
B 0.909 1.781 2.605 3.397 4.133 4.846
C 2.276 4.278 6.025 7.577 8.977 10.253
y=458 SFMS A 3.929 6.793 8.956 10.717 12.217 13.536
B 0.731 1.419 2.063 2.675 3.261 3.823
C 2.815 5.151 7.127 8.841 10.363 11.735
FEM A 3.982 6.882 9.071 10.851 12.368 13.670
B 0.767 1.490 2.170 2.815 3.431 4.022
C 2.899 5.295 7.230 9.030 10.530 11.935
a
SFSM Ð Spline ®nite strip method.
b
FEM Ð Finite element method.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 776
Fig. 8. Twobay rectangular stiened plate.
Fig. 9. De¯ection at A of a twobay stiened plate.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 777
Fig. 10. De¯ection at B of a twobay stiened plate.
Fig. 11. Stress at A of a twobay stiened plate.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 778
Fig. 12. Stress at B of a twobay stiened plate.
Fig. 13. Fivebay DRES stiened panel.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 779
Fig. 14. De¯ection at A of the DRES stiened panel.
Fig. 15. Moment M
x
at A of the DRES stiened panel.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 780
Fig. 16. Moment M
y
at A of the DRES stiened panel.
Fig. 17. Stress at B of the DRES stiened panel.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 781
method using a 12 10 mesh to study the stress resul
tants. The sector angle of the plate is 608 and the
boundaries are clamped all around. Salehi and Turvey
[17] have studied the plate using a ®nite dierent im
plementation of the dynamic relaxation algorithm. It
has also been solved by Srinivasan and Thiruvenkata
chari [18] using the integral equation method. The
de¯ection, bending moments and membrane forces at
the centre of the plate obtained by the present analysis
are presented along with those of others [17,18] in
Tables 7 and 8. The Tables indicate that the results
agree well in all cases except the membrane forces
obtained by Srinivasan and Thiruvenkatachari [18].
They [18] have obtained lower values of the membrane
forces in the radial direction and higher values in the
circumferential direction compared to those obtained
by Salehi and Turvey [17] and also the present method.
In Ref. [18], the results are presented for dierent
mesh divisions where a wide variation of the results
are found which indicates that the method of Sriniva
san and Thiruvenkatachari [18] to be less accurate.
3.4. A simply supported rectangular orthotropic plate
Stiened plates are often modelled as orthotropic
plates. As such, an example of an orthotropic plate is
presented here. Basu and Chapman [19] have investi
gated the large de¯ection behaviour of orthotropic
plates using the ®nite dierence method. They have
converted the dierential equation and the boundary
conditions into nondimensional forms and presented
their results accordingly. An example of a simply sup
ported orthotropic plate as shown in Fig. 4, is analysed
by the proposed method using a 12 10 mesh. The
de¯ection, curvature and axial force obtained by the
proposed method are compared with those of Basu
and Chapman [19] in Figs. 5±7. The agreement
between the results is found to be very satisfactory.
3.5. A twobay rectangular stiened plate
A clamped twobay stiened plate as shown in
Fig. 8, is analysed by the spline ®nite strip method.
Half of the plate has been analysed using a 10 10
mesh. Koko and Olson [20] have studied the stiened
Fig. 18. Skew plate with equispaced stieners in both direc
tions.
Fig. 19. De¯ection at the centre of a stiened skew plate.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 782
plate using a superelement model and also by the semi
analytical ®nite strip method. This is also solved by
Rao [21] using the isoparametric quadratic bending el
ement. The de¯ection at the plate centre (A) and panel
centre (B) obtained in the present analysis are pre
sented in Figs. 9 and 10, respectively, with those of
Koko and Olson [20] and Rao [21]. Also the normal
stresses in the xdirection of the plate skin obtained by
combining the eect of the membrane force and the
bending moment at the top extreme ®bre at A and at
the bottom extreme ®bre at B are compared with Rao
[21] in Figs. 11 and 12. The present results agree better
with Rao [21] than others.
3.6. A ®vebay DRES stiened panel
A rectangular eccentrically stiened plate (Fig. 13)
constructed at the Defense Research Establishment,
Sueld, Canada (DRES) [22] has been analysed by
Koko and Olson [20] using a superelement model and
also the general purpose computer program ADINA
[23]. The structure has also been analyzed by Rao [21]
using an isoparametric quadratic bending element.
Half of the plate has been analysed by the proposed
method using a 10 10 mesh. The de¯ection and
bending moments obtained at the centre of the plate
(A) are presented in Figs. 14±16 along with those of
Koko and Olson [20] and Rao [21]. Also, the normal
stress in the xdirection of the plate skin obtained by
combining the eect of the membrane force and the
bending moment at the top extreme ®bre at B (Fig. 13)
is compared with the result of Rao [21] in Fig. 17. The
results agree reasonably well with Rao's [21]. The
de¯ection values compare well with those by superele
ment M
1
as shown in Fig. 14.
3.7. A stiened skew plate
Srinivasan and Ramachandran [24] have studied the
large de¯ection behaviour of clamped skew plates stif
fened by identical and equispaced stieners placed
along the two skew coordinate directions. They [24]
have idealised the structure as an equivalent anisotro
pic bare plate and presented results for dierent values
of (h

/h ) which is the ratio of the volume of plate skin
and total volume of the stiened plate system. A stif
fened plate as shown in Fig. 18 is taken for the present
analysis which has a value of 1.5 for the parameter (h

/
h ). Five panels in both the directions are considered
for the present analysis which is carried out using a 10
10 mesh. The central de¯ection obtained by the
spline ®nite strip method is compared with that of Sri
nivasan and Ramachandran [24] in Fig. 19. The plate
is again solved for 08 skew angle, i.e., a square plate
and the de¯ection obtained for the plate centre is com
pared in Fig. 20. The results agree well.
3.8. A stiened annular sector plate
The large de¯ection behaviour of an annular sector
Fig. 20. De¯ection at the centre of a rectangular stiened plate.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 783
plate having two circumferential stieners as shown in
Fig. 21 is studied. The plate is clamped at all the edges
and it is subjected to uniformly distributed loading.
The problem is studied for three dierent values of sec
tor angle (y=0, 30 and 458) where the length of the
circumferential line c'd' (Fig. 21) is 60 cm in all cases.
The plate has been analysed by the proposed method
using a mesh of 14 8 and the values of de¯ection
obtained at A, B and C (Fig. 21) are presented in
Table 9 for dierent load levels. For the sake of com
parison, a ®nite element code based on nine noded iso
parametric elements is written which is used to analyse
the structure using a mesh of 16 10 and the results
obtained are presented in Table 9. The degreesoffree
dom involved in the solution of the present problem is
990 if the spline ®nite strip method is used, while it is
3465 for the ®nite element analysis. This clearly indi
cates the potential of the spline ®nite strip method
over the standard ®nite element analysis. The ®nite el
ement results are marginally higher than the results
obtained by the proposed method. This is expected
due to the incorporation of shear deformation in the
®nite element analysis which is not made in the spline
®nite strip method.
4. Conclusions
The spline ®nite strip method is extended to the geo
metric nonlinear analysis of stiened plates of any
shape where the stieners may have any arbitrary
orientation. The formulation is done in the total
Lagrangian coordinate system. The nonlinear govern
ing equations are solved iteratively following the New
Fig. 21. Stiened annular sector plate.
A.H. Sheikh, M. Mukhopadhyay / Computers and Structures 76 (2000) 765±785 784
ton±Raphson method. The stiener element is ele
gantly modelled so that it may lie anywhere within a
plate strip and need not follow the nodal lines. This
has increased ¯exibility in the mesh generation of the
structure. With the example of a bare plate, improve
ment in the performance of the spline ®nite strip
method in the context of the present problem over its
earlier attempt where linear inplane behaviour has
been considered, is demonstrated. Examples of stif
fened plates as available in the literature are carried
out by the proposed technique and the results obtained
are compared with those obtained by other investi
gators. In most of the cases, the results are found to
agree well which re¯ects the accuracy and power of the
proposed approach.
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