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1 1. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized, general-purpose modeling language in the field of software engineering.

The Unified Modeling Language includes a set of graphic notation techniques to create visual models of object-oriented software-intensive systems.

1. In software engineering, a class diagram in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a type of static structure diagram that describes the structure of a system by showing the system's classes, their attributes, operations (or methods), and the relationships among the classes.

COCOMO: The COCOMO (Constructive Cost Estimation Model) is proposed by DR. Berry Boehm in 1981 and that's why it is also known as COCOMO'81. It is a method for evaluating the cost of a software package. According to him software cost estimation should be done through three stages: Basic COCOMO Model Intermediate COCOMO Model Complete/Detailed COCOMO Model COCOMO'81 models depend upon the two main equations: 1. Development Effort : MM = a * KDSI b Which is based on MM - man-month / person month / staff-month is one month of effort by one person. Note: In COCOMO'81, there are 152 hours per Person month. According to organization this values may differ from the standard by 10% to 20%. 2. Efforts and Development Time (TDEV) : TDEV = 2.5 * MM c Note: The coefficients a, b and c depend on the mode of the development.

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The major difference between DSI and SLOC is that a single Source Line of Code may beseveral physical lines. but COCOMO II is based on KSLOC (logicalcode). butmight be counted as several DSI.4 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COCOMO I(COCOMO 81) AND COCOMO II:The major differences between COCOMO I AND COCOMO II are: § COCOMO'81 or COCOMO-I requires software size in KDSI as an input. but COCOMO II provides likely ranges of estimates that represent one standard deviation around the most likely estimate. § The estimation equation exponent is determined by five scale factors (instead of the three development modes) . § COCOMO II addresses the following three phases of the spiral life cycle: applications development. For example. early design and post architecture § COCOMO-I provides point estimates of effort and schedule. an "if-then-else" statement would be counted as one SLOC.

RUSE. LEXP. PVOL.5 § Changes in cost drivers are: Added cost drivers (7): DOCU. PCON. PLEX. but COCOMO'81 made little accommodation for these factors § COCOMO II accounts for requirements volatility in its estimates Solution: . LTEX. SITE Deleted cost drivers (5): VIRT. MODP Alter the retained ratings to reflect more up-do-date software practices § Data points in COCOMO I: 63 and COCOMO II: 161 § COCOMO II adjusts for software reuse and reengineering where automated tools are used for translation of existing software. TURN. VEXP.

4 * (32)1. Assume that the average salary of software engineers be Rs.38 = 14 months Cost required to develop the product = 14 * 15. Solution: As per the basic COCOMO estimation formula for organic software: Effort = 2.5 * (91)0.6 Problem2: Assume that the size of an organic type software product has been estimated to be 32. 210. Determine the effort required to develop the software product and the nominal development time.000 = Rs.000 lines of source code. 15.000/- .05 = 91 PM Nominal development time = 2.000/per month.