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MEHR CHAND POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, JALANDHAR
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2 INDEX Introduction Block Diagram Of FM Receiver Circuit Diagram Operation Of The Circuit List Of Components           Resistors Capacitors Transistors Battery Inductor coil Antenna PCB Connecting wire Speaker IC Advantage & Disadvantages Applications Modification Of FM .

FSK is widely used in data and fax modems. .[1] Radioteletype also uses FSK. the difference between the instantaneous and the base frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input-signal amplitude. two-way radio systems. magnetic tape-recording systems and some video-transmission systems. in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant. radar. In radio systems.3 INTRODUCTION In telecommunications and signal processing. frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. seismic prospecting and newborn EEG seizure monitoring. This contrasts with amplitude modulation. FM is widely used for broadcasting music and speech. Digital data can be sent by shifting the carrier's frequency among a range of settings.[3] Frequency modulation is known as phase modulation when the carrier phase modulation is the time integral of the FM signal. frequency modulation with sufficient bandwidth provides an advantage in cancelling naturally-occurring noise.[2] Frequency modulation is also used in telemetry. a technique known as frequency-shift keying (FSK). and can be used to send Morse code. In analog applications.

The method of demodulation is entirely different in FM. The basic block diagram of super heterodyne FM receiver is shown in fig. The limiting circuits and de-emphasis circuits are needed in FM. The method used for obtaining AGC is also different in FM. The FM receiver is also a super heterodyne receiver which is similar to that of the AM receiver. The basic differences between the two receiver circuits are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The operating frequencies in case of fm are much higher. the main stages of FM receiver are as follows: .4 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FM RECEIVER The block diagram of fm receiver We have discussed the block diagram of AM super heterodyne receiver.

5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM The small fm receiver’s circuit .

Coil L1 and the trimmer capacitor form the tuned tank circuit to tune the receiver to the best FM station with strong signals. The fm receiver section has two RF transistors T1 and T2 to detect the Frequency Modulated signals.5 cm inner diameter. The amplified sound can be heard through the low impedance head phone or small Mylar speakers. Wind 4 turns on a ball pen to get 0. The circuit works off a small 4. The signals are capacitor coupled through C2. It is made up of 18 SWG enameled copper wire.6 volt Lithium button cells. Assemble all the receiver components as close as possible to get better result. The output of the receiver drives a head phone. FM radio coil Coil is the important part of the FM tuner. Adjust the spacing of the coil winding if necessary to get the station clearly. Trimmer and coil should be soldered very closely. IC1 is the micro power audio amplifier that works between 4.5 to 12 volts DC. Remove the enamel from the tip of the wire and solder tightly in the PCB. 10K preset VR controls the volume to the input of the amplifier. Its simple design makes it ideal for a pocket sized FM receiver.6 OPERATION OF THE CIRCUIT Perhaps this is one of the simplest and smallest FM radio receivers that can receive the FM stations available locally. .5 volt battery or two 3.

22pf . 0.7 LIST OF COMPONENTS Resistors 1. 22kΩ 2. VR 10kΩ preset Capacitor 1.

25v 4.1pf 3. 22. (VC) 22pf trimmer .ooµf. 0.8 2.

BF 492---(2) Battery 1.9 Transistors 1. 4T Air Core .5 to 9. 4. 18 SWG.00 volt Inductor coil 1.

Singal core wire . Telescopic Areal Printed circuit bords (PCB) 1. General PCB Connecting wire 1.10 Antenna 1.

4 Ω speaker Integrated circuit (IC) 1.11 Speaker 1. IC LM 386 .

on the other hand. While competitors such as the CD and satellite radio have become popular. FM stands for "frequency modulation. An FM receiver will basically be capable of producing all the notes and sounds that are heard by the human ear. For music especially. more and more music became available through FM receivers. this is a significant advantage.  VARIETY OF STATIONS After widespread adoption of FM during the 1950s." which means that the receiver depends on the rate that a radio wave changes for the information that it receives. . This difference allows for FM receivers to avoid the interference of such things as tall buildings and lightning. and to introduce yourself to new artists and content.  AUDIO QUALITY The range of sounds that can be heard over an FM frequency is noticeably larger than that broadcast by the AM frequency. an FM receiver is still an accessible way to listen to a stream of free portable music.12 ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGE  STATIC AM receivers are much more subject to static and interference than FM receivers. rely on how strong or weak the radio wave is for their information. An FM receiver is a great device for any person who loves music. as they were meant to be heard. as all voices and sounds will be rendered accurately. AM receivers.

pagers. . if multiple systems are being used in close proximity. Remember. newly developed 216MHz systems are now available that should alleviate this intereference problem. These receivers vary in quality with the manufacturer. there must be at least one free channel between the separate systems to prevent interference in adjacent rooms. Only purchase these systems from companies that will help you troubleshoot and that have a trial period and return policy. police band.  If you purchase multiple systems at separate times. outside interference may occur with nearby radio stations. . If you can leave the room and still pick up the signal. Although 40 channels (narrow band) in the 72-76 MHz bandwidth have been set aside by the FCC for use in FM systems. and construction walkie talkies. If security is an issue (as in jury deliberations or in high-tech company business) an infrared system would be the system of choice (discussed in the next section).13 DISADVANTAGE  The biggest problem with FM is the potential for outside interference. However. color code or number transmitter and receiver pairs. this means others could pick it up. the pairs must be tuned into the same channel.  Receivers are required for everyone. Sometimes devices ‘drift’ from their targeted frequencies and must be adjusted to correct for this.  Finally. as well.  This system is also not a secure system.

14 APPLICATIONS  MAGNETIC TAPE STORAGE FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by analog VCR systems (including VHS) to record the luminance (black and white) portions of the video signal. contrast this with FM audio broadcasting. on demodulation. in that they have a ratio of carrier to maximum modulation frequency of less than two. this results in unwanted output at 6−1 = 5 MHz. if added to the signal – as was done on V2000 and many Hi-band formats – can keep mechanical jitter under control and assist timebase correction. video signals have a large range of frequency components – from a few hertz to several megahertz. too wide for equalizers to work with due to electronic noise below −60 dB. Commonly. and the FM capture effect removes print-through and pre-echo. Consider. The system must be designed so that this unwanted output is reduced to an acceptable level. The result is a reversed-phase sideband on +1 MHz. acting as a form of noise reduction. the chrominance component is recorded as a conventional AM signal. where the ratio is around 10.  SOUND FM is also used at audio frequencies to synthesize sound.000. FM is the only feasible method of recording the luminance ("black and white") component of video to (and retrieving video from) magnetic tape without distortion.5 MHz and the second sidebands are on 13 MHz and −1 MHz. the first sidebands are on 9. This technique. a limiter can mask variations in playback output. for example.5 and 2. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level. using the higher-frequency FM signal as bias. was popularized by early digital synthesizers and became a standard feature in several generations of personal computer sound cards.5-MHz rate. known as FM synthesis. . by Bessel analysis. These FM systems are unusual. a 6-MHz carrier modulated at a 3. A continuous pilot-tone.

Normal (analog) TV sound is also broadcast using FM. In two-way radio. In broadcast services. The FM modulation and demodulation process is identical in stereo and monaural processes. A high-efficiency radio-frequency switching amplifier can be used to transmit FM signals (and other constantamplitude signals). switching amplifiers use less battery power and typically cost less than a linear amplifier. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. marine mobile and other radio services. such as AM and QAM. narrowband FM (NBFM) is used to conserve bandwidth for land mobile. where audio fidelity is important. FM_Broadcast_Transmitter_High_Power . this is done with multiplexing and demultiplexing before and after the FM process. For a given signal strength (measured at the receiver antenna). wideband FM is generally used. This gives FM another advantage over other modulation methods requiring linear amplifiers.15  RADIO An FM signal can also be used to carry a stereo signal. Narrowband FM is used for voice communications in commercial and amateur radio settings.

you can listen to your favorite local radio stations. These receivers come in all shapes and sizes. ranging from small. portable devices to larger. Once you have the speakers in place. insert the wire from the speakers into the speaker connection ports on the FM receiver. .  Purchase new stereo speakers if your FM receiver allows for stereo speaker hook up (there are two wire input connections on the back of the receiver for this).  Twist off your current antenna (if you have a detachable antenna) and connect a new. it plays back the audio from the hooked up hardware. amplified antenna (purchased at most electronic stores). stereo units. This improves your audio reception and increases the number of FM stations to which you can listen. When you select the "Aux" option on your receiver. You can buy any size or shape of speakers to fit your needs. This is a red and white RCA input connection.16 MODIFICATION OF FM HOW TO MODIFY AN FM RECEIVER When using an FM radio receiver. Plug the RCA audio cables into the "Audio Out" ports of the desired source equipment. such as a DVD player or television. When using an FM receiver. you have several options for modifying the equipment. ranging from the speakers you have connected to the equipment to being able to hook up outside audio devices to your FM receiver INSTRUCTIONS  Check your FM receiver for an auxiliary port. then insert the opposite ends of the cables into the "Aux" ports of your FM receiver. which allows you to hook up outside devices to your receiver.