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Questions, questions, questions……….

Effective questioning; How questions develop thinking; Levels of Thinking; Bloom’s Taxonomy ~ what is it? Bloom’s Taxonomy ~ how do you apply it? Using questions effectively.


What are effective questions?

• Purposeful (asked to achieve a specific purpose) • Phrased clearly (pupils understand what they mean) • Brief (stated in as few words as possible) • Thought provoking (they stimulate thought and response) • Probing (involve follow-on or leading questions and ‘digging deeper’) • Limited in scope (multiple part questions are confusing) • Adapted to the level of the class (appropriate and differentiated)


• Planned • Logical and sequential • Addressed to the whole class/group • Posed to allow pupils to have ‘Think time’ • Balanced between fact and thought • Not repeated • Asked in a conversational tone • Designed to elicit sustained responses What are powerful questions? 3 .

as teachers must encourage them by asking higher level questions.“If we expect pupils to engage in more creative and stimulating thought processes. Teachers overemphasise fact questions in tests and exams. Questions in textbooks are predominantly memory or fact questions.” Karron G Lewis ~ Centre for Teaching Effectiveness. we. Karron G Lewis ~ Centre for Teaching Effectiveness. University of Texas 4 . University of Texas Research shows overwhelmingly that: Teachers use memory questions in over 70% of their teaching time.

Think/pair/share 5 .” William G Camp Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University What are the words you use when you ask questions? List as many as you can. But just as a good mechanic selects the right tool for the job and uses it correctly. a good teacher uses questions at the right level and follows good questioning techniques.“Effective use of questioning is a critical asset in every good teacher’s toolbox.

Be prepared to share your thinking to explain your hierarchy. 6 .Q Matrix Is What Where /When Which Who Why How Did Can Would Will Might Organise the cards into a hierarchy.

and three storey intellects with skylights…… • All fact collectors who have no aims beyond their facts are one storey men…… 7 .Holmes • There are one storey intellects.Oliver Wendell . two storey intellects.

reason.• Two storey men compare. using the labour of fact collectors as their own……. generalise. imagine. • Three storey men idealise. predict – their best illumination comes from above the skylight 8 .

Three Storey Intellect Applying Processing Gathering 9 .

reason complete.Three Storey Intellect evaluate. make analogies. describe. interpret. analyse. predict. match. • During the 1990s Lorin Andersen made some significant improvements to the original taxonomy. scan Applying Processing Gathering • Benjamin Bloom developed his taxonomy in the 1950s • It is a hierarchy of six developmental stages of thinking which become increasingly complex and demanding. apply principle. infer. forecast. idealise. count. judge. then. generalise. define. sequence. speculate. compare / contrast. • The levels of thinking can be applied to developing questioning across all levels of schooling and in all areas of learning. classify. hypothesise. recite. reason. explain why. name. observe. imagine. if …. synthesise. list. 10 . identify. select.

contrast. hypothesise… Design. identify. illustrate. plan. judge. use… Compare. organise… Check. show.Evaluation Synthesis Creating Evaluating Blooming Thinking Analysis Analysing Application Comprehension Knowledge Bloom Applying Understanding Remembering Anderson Complexity of Thinking Thinking Language I can recall information Action Words Recognise. name … Interpret. list. invent. describe. decide. carry out. test. repeat. show understanding. explain. construct. infer. give an example. produce… Remembering Understanding I can recall and explain ideas and concepts I can use the knowledge in a familiar or new situation I can tease out the important ideas I can make some judgements and decisions I can think of new ideas and new ways to use the information Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating 11 . translate … Implement. summarise. classify.

devise a question for each level of Bloom’s Taxonomy. recall and recognition Thinking Language Invent Design Improve Rank Evaluate Decide Compare Classify Examine Show Apply Illustrate Produce Compose Conclude Assess Question Starters How could we design…? Could we add …? What would happen if …? Why do you think about…? Why do you prefer this? What is the best …? How are they similar/different? How does it work .? What is the evidence …? What other examples are there of this? Creating Complex Questions Evaluating Analysing Contrast Order Analyse Use Construct Applying Understanding Simple Questions Restate Explain Interpret Translate Summarise Repeat Recall List Name State What does this mean? What is the point? Can you explain …? Who…? What …? Where…? When…? Which…? Remembering Applying Bloom Using the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears.. Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating 12 ..Level of Thinking and Questioning Description Combining information to create something new Making judgements and assessments and coming to conclusions Break into parts to examine more closely and understand relationships Applying knowledge to a new situation or experience Rephrasing and interpreting to show understanding Factual answers.

Using the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears Applying Bloom Remembering chair best? house? ~ What were the items used by Goldilocks while she was in the bears’ house? Understanding ~ Why did Goldilocks like Baby Bear’s Applying ~ What would Goldilocks use if she came to your Analysing ~ ~ What was the turning point in the story? Evaluating ~ ~ What do you think about what Goldilocks did? Creating ~ What alterations might you make to put the story of Goldilocks in a modern context? Handouts 13 .

? Can you write a brief outline.. Make an acrostic...? What was the main idea. List all the .? Can you distinguish between.. Write and perform a play based on the story. Retell the story in your words..? What do you think could of happened next.........? Can you name the...? Who was the key character.. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. 14 ..... Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember.. in the story.? Who spoke to. Make a facts chart. Paint a picture of some aspect you like..? Describe what happened at.? Potential activities and products Make a list of the main events... Make a chart showing.. Useful Verbs explain interpret outline discuss distinguish predict restate translate compare describe Sample Question Stems Can you write in your own words.... Recite a poem.? Who was it that... Write a summary report of an event...? Who do you think.? What is.? Which is true or false.? Can you tell why... Make a timeline of events...? Potential activities and products Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event...? Can you provide a definition for...? How many. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events.. Illustrate what you think the main idea was....? Can you provide an example of what you mean.? What differences exist between. Make a colouring book.? Find the meaning of...Useful Verbs tell list describe relate locate write find state name Sample Question Stems What happened after.

? What was the turning point in the game? What was the problem with... Write a biography of the study person. Arrange a party...? Potential activities and products Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work.? What are some of the problems of...? Would this information be useful if you had a .? Can you group by characteristics such as. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages.? How is ....? Potential activities and products Design a questionnaire to gather information. 15 .. Write a textbook about. what might the ending have been? How was this similar to. Dress a doll in national costume. Paint a mural using the same materials. Prepare a report about the area of study. happened. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study... Design a market strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model. changes occur? Can you compare your ..? From the information given. colour and texture.? What questions would you ask of.? Can you apply the method used to some experience of your own. Useful Verbs analyse distinguish examine compare contrast investigate categorise identify explain separate advertise Sample Question Stems Which events could have happened........ Review a work of art in terms of form...? Could this have happened in. can you develop a set of instructions about.. Make a clay model of an item in the material. Make a family tree showing relationships. Make a jigsaw puzzle.? What were some of the motives behind...? Can you explain what must have happened when.? What factors would you change if.. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information.. Write a commercial to sell a new product.? If ....? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did . Make a diorama to illustrate an important event. Make all the arrangements and record the steps needed. with that presented in.... for others. similar to ......? Can you distinguish between.Useful Verbs solve show use illustrate construct complete examine classify Sample Question Stems Do you know another instance where... Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point.....

? Why not compose a song about. Potential activities and products Invent a machine to do a specific task... Form a panel to discuss views..? How many ways can you. Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody. Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest.. Prepare a case to present your view about. book. Write a TV show. is a good or a bad thing? How would you have handled...? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with.. show......? Can you see a possible solution to..? What would happen if.? What do you think about.? What changes to . Create a new product. song or pantomime about..Useful Verbs judge select choose decide justify debate verify argue recommend assess discuss rate prioritise determine Sample Question Stems Is there a better solution to..? Sell an idea....? Can you write a new recipe for a tasty dish? can you develop a proposal which would.? Can you create new and unusual uses for....... puppet show... play.? Design a record........ person? How would you feel if. to . Write about your feelings in relation to. 16 . Can you defend your position about.. would you recommend? Do you believe? Are you a . "Learning at School..? Why don't you devise your own way to deal with...? How effective are. e..... Devise a way to.g. Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important. Design a building to house your study... Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Judge the value of........ Useful Verbs create invent compose predict plan construct design imagine propose devise formulate Sample Question Stems Can you design a .. advising on changes needed at.? Potential activities and products Prepare a list of criteria to judge a .." Write a letter to .. role play.. or magazine cover for. Convince others...? Do you think .

• Stop asking so many questions yourself! • Expect pupils to pose more questions both spoken and written • Encourage pupils to question other pupils during discussion • Welcome questions when they come • Give time to follow up pupils’ questions • Collect. discuss. categorise and develop pupils’ questions 17 .

• To assess prior knowledge • To arouse interest • To develop insights • To develop ideals. attitudes and appreciation • To strengthen learning • To stimulate critical thinking • To assess learning and pupil progress 18 .

Can you explain that a bit more…? What do you mean by …? Can you give me an example of …? Can you put it another way? Can you show me …? 19 .

Why do you think that …? How do we know that …? What are your reasons …? What evidence do we have for … ? Why do you say that? 20 .

Can you put it another way …? Is there another point of view …? What if someone were to suggest that …? What would we need to know if …? 21 .

• What follows from what you say? • Does it agree with what was said earlier? • What would be the consequences if …? • Is there a general rule for …? • How could you test to see if … was true? Analyse the question ~ What do you mean by…? Rephrase the question ~ Are you saying …? Turn the question back to the pupil ~ What do you think? Ask a supporting question ~ I wonder whether …? Suggest a line of enquiry ~ Perhaps we could … 22 .

Fat Questions … are ‘open’ questions and have more than five words in the answer. Once you have asked a pupil a question. How long? 23 . Skinny Questions … are ‘closed’ questions and have less than five words in the answer. give them some time to think about their answer.

The average teacher’s wait time is 1 second! 24 .Wait time is essential to the development of higher order thought processes when pupils are asked to answer a questions. It is the amount of time that elapses between a teacher asking a question and asking pupils to answer.

How questions develop thinking. Bloom’s Taxonomy ~ what is it? Bloom’s Taxonomy ~ how do you apply it? Using questions effectively.Effective questioning. 25 . Levels of Thinking.

It is not a bolt to be tightened into place but a seed to be planted and to bear more seed toward the hope of greening the landscape of idea.” John Anthony Ciardi (1916~1986) 26 .“A good question is never answered.