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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

MNG TRUY NHP


(Dng cho sinh vin h o to i hc t xa)
Lu hnh ni b

H NI - 2007

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

MNG TRUY NHP

Bin son :

THS. L DUY KHNH

MC LC
Trang Mc lc Li ni u Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp 1.1 Mng truy nhp 1.1.1 S ra i 1.1.2 Khi nim mng truy nhp 1.1.3 Hng pht trin mng truy nhp 1.2 Phn loi mng truy nhp 1.2.1 Truy nhp bng hp 1.2.2 Truy nhp bng rng 1.3 Giao din mng truy nhp 1.3.1 UNI (User Network Interface) 1.3.2 SNI (Service Network Interface) 1.4 Cp ngun cho mng truy nhp 1.4.1 S cn bng truyn thng 1.4.2 Nhng vn trong cng ngh mi 1.4.3 D phng accu 1.5 Mch vng ni b 1.5.1 nh ngha mch vng ni b 1.5.2 Cc v d v mch vng ni b 1.6 Cng trnh ngoi vi 1.6.1 Phn loi 1.6.2 Nhng yu cu i vi cng trnh ngoi vi 1.6.3 Cc vn quan tm khi thit k ng dy thu bao bng cp kim loi i vii 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 13 14 14 15 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21

1.6.3.1 1.6.3.2

i vi cp treo i vi cp ngm

1.7 Cc dch v c mng truy nhp h tr 1.7.1 Gii thiu 1.7.2 VoD 1.7.3 Video trn ATM 1.7.4 Qung co theo nhu cu mua bn t xa 1.7.5 Cc dch v internet 1.7.6 Hc t xa 1.7.7 Cc dch v cnh bo 1.7.8 Cc dch v trang vng 1.7.9 Cc dch v cho nhu cu thit yu 1.8 Cc tiu chun 1.8.1 ADSL/VDSL 1.8.2 Cable Modem/HFC 1.8.3 DOCIS 1.8.4 IEEE 802.14

1.8.5 1.8.6

CableLabs ATM forum

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Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin 2.1 Cp kim loi i xng 2.1.1 Kt cu cp i xng

2.1.1.1 2.1.1.2 2.1.1.3 2.1.1.4 2.1.1.5


2.1.2

Kt cu dy dn Cht cch in V chng m v gia cng Mng bao che Nhng quy lut xp t b dy rut cp i dy xon nguyn bn H s xon Bc cn bng S tng ng ca mch dy cp Mch dy ng nht v khng ng nht C s ca phng trnh mch dy ng nht Nhng hin tng hiu ng khi truyn dng in cao tn in tr t cm in dung in dn cch in Tr khng c tnh Suy gim tn hiu Suy hao di hay suy hao phn hi Tc truyn dn s Xuyn knh Cp UTP Cp ScTP Cp STP u ni UTP u ni ScTP u ni STP u ni STP-A Cc bc tin xc nh Kt cui IDC cp ng xon i Gii thiu M t cc loi li cp Cc php o th cp Cc php o dng phng php TDR

Xon dy trong cp ng

2.1.2.1 2.1.2.2 2.1.2.3


2.1.3

Cc tham s truyn dn ca mch dy cp

2.1.3.1 2.1.3.2 2.1.3.3 2.1.3.4 2.1.3.5 2.1.3.6 2.1.3.7 2.1.3.8 2.1.3.9 2.1.3.10 2.1.3.11 2.1.3.12 2.1.3.13
2.1.4

Phn loi cp

2.1.4.1 2.1.4.2 2.1.4.3


2.1.5

Cc u kt ni cp

2.1.5.1 2.1.5.2 2.1.5.3 2.1.5.4


2.1.6

Kt cui cp

2.1.6.1 2.1.6.2
2.1.7

o th cp

2.1.7.1 2.1.7.2 2.1.7.3 2.1.7.4

ii

2.2 Cp ng trc 2.2.1 Cu trc 2.2.2 Cc cng thc tnh ton 2.2.3 Cc c tnh k thut 2.2.4 u ni cp ng trc 2.2.5 Kt cui cp

2.2.5.1 2.2.5.2

Cc bc thc hin chung Mt v d kt cui cp ng trc vo u ni loi F

2.2.6 o th cp ng trc 50-Ohm v 75-Ohm 2.3 Cp quang 2.3.1 Lch s 2.3.2 Cu trc 2.3.3 Tn sc trong si quang 2.3.4 u ni cp quang 2.3.5 Ni si quang 2.3.6 o th 2.4 Cu trc cc h thng cp 2.4.1 Gii thiu 2.4.2 Entrance facilities 2.4.3 Backbone cables 2.4.4 Horizontal cables 2.4.5 Work Areas 2.4.6 Equipment Rooms 2.4.7 Telecommunications closets 2.4.8 Cross-Connections 2.4.9 Topologies Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp 3.1 Truy nhp bng quay s 3.2 ISDN 3.2.1 3.2.2 Gii thiu Thit b ISDN

56 56 57 59 59 61 61 61 63 64 64 64 67 68 69 70 72 72 73 75 76 78 78 79 80 81 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 91 92 92 92 93 94 95 95 96 96

3.2.2.1 3.2.2.2
3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6

TA Dtel

Cu hnh ISDN Cc im tham chiu M hnh truy nhp V5 Kin trc dch v trong giao din V5 Giao din V5.1 Giao din V5.2 Mt s im khc nhau gia V5.1 v V5.2 Chng giao thc V.5

3.3 Giao din V5

3.3.6.1

Nguyn l c bn

iii

3.3.6.2 3.3.6.3
3.4 x.DSL 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5

Cu trc khung ca tn hiu 2M Cc giao thc V5

97 98 107 107 107 109 110 113 113 113 113 115 116 117 118 120 122 124 125 127 127 127 128 130 130 131 131 132 133 133 138 138 139 139 140 140 141 143 143 144

Gii thiu Tc , phm vi bao ph, v gii hn thit k ca DSL Cc loi DSL Cc thnh phn ca h thng DSL Tng thch ph ca cc h thng DSL

3.4.5.1 nh ngha 3.4.5.2 Gii thiu 3.4.5.3 ISDN 3.4.5.4 HDSL 3.4.5.5 SDSL 3.4.5.6 CAP RADSL 3.4.5.7 DMT ADSL 3.4.5.8 Tng thch ph ca CAP RADSL vi DMT ADSL
3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.4.9 iu ch DMT iu ch CAP/QAM o th DSL Lp t DSL

3.4.9.1 u chuyn ti dn MDF 3.4.9.2 Nhng yu t cn lu khi chn ng dy ADSL 3.4.9.3 Lp t ti nh thu bao
3.5 HFC v Cable modem 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 Mng HFC Truyn dn trn mng HFC IEEE 802.14 Kh nng bng thng Cable modem

3.5.5.1 Gii thiu cable modem 3.5.5.2 M hnh kin trc phn lp cable modem 3.5.5.3 Ph cable modem 3.5.5.4 nh x ph ca cable modem
3.5.6 3.5.7 POTS trn HFC An ton trong mi trng HFC

3.5.7.1 Gii thiu 3.5.7.2 An ton v b mt trong mng HFC


3.6 Truy nhp quang 3.6.1 3.6.2 Gii thiu Cu trc mng truy nhp quang

iv

3.6.2.1 Cu hnh tham chiu 3.6.2.2 Cc khi chc nng


3.6.3 Topology v cc p dng ca truy nhp quang

144 145 147 147 148 148 148 149 149 149 150 150 150 151 151 151 151 152 153 153 153 154 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 156 156 156 157 157 157 158 158 159 159

3.6.3.1 Aggregated Point to Point Using a Single Channel per Optical Fiber 3.6.3.2 Aggregated Multichannel Point to Point 3.6.3.3 Spatially Distributed WDM 3.6.3.4 Arbitrary Mesh 3.6.3.5 Link Protection
3.7 Truy nhp v tuyn c nh (FWA) 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 nh ngha Cc phng thc ng dng FWA Phn loi FWA

3.7.3.1 Dng ton b FWA 3.7.3.2 Dng FWA thay th on B v C 3.7.3.3 Dng FWA thay th on C
3.7.4 Cu hnh c bn FWA

3.7.4.1 p dng cng ngh chuyn dng 3.7.4.2 p dng cng ngh viba im-a im
3.7.5 Ch tiu k thut ca FWA

3.7.5.1 S dng tn s 3.7.5.2 Sp xp tn s 3.7.5.3 Phm vi ph sng 3.7.5.4 Dung lng v dch v 3.7.5.5 Tn x
3.8 VSAT 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 Gii thiu Cu trc c bn ca VSAT K thut truyn dn ca VSAT

3.8.3.1 M ha ngun tin 3.8.3.2 M ha knh v sa sai 3.8.3.3 iu ch v gii iu ch


3.8.4 Topology ca VSAT

3.8.4.1 Star Topology 3.8.4.2 Mesh Topology


3.8.5 3.8.6 Cng ngh truy nhp ca VSAT Cc ng dng VSAT trn th gii

3.8.6.1 3.8.6.2
3.9.1

VSAT IP ti Vit Nam VSAT for the World Bank and Africa Virtual University (AVU)

3.9 H thng thng tin v tinh di ng v khng dy Gii thiu

3.9.2 3.9.3

Qu o Cc h thng v tinh di ng

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3.9.3.1 INMARSAT 3.9.3.2 MSAT 3.9.3.3 ARIES 3.9.3.4 ELLIPSO 3.9.3.5 IRIDIUM 3.9.3.6 ORBCOMM 3.9.3.7 GLOBALSTAR
3.9.4 3.9.5 Cc bng tn trong h thng thng tin v tinh di ng LMDS

3.9.5.1 Gii thiu 3.9.5.2 Kin trc LMDS


T vit tt Ti liu tham kho

vi

LI NI U
Bi ging Mng truy nhp c bin son nhm ging dy cho cc sinh vin theo hc h o to t xa ti Hc vin cng ngh bu chnh vin thng. Ni dung Bi ging ny c ba chng: Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp: Gip cho sinh vin nm c khi nim v mng truy nhp, phn loi mng truy nhp, xu hng pht trin mng truy nhp, cc c s h tng xy dng mng truy nhp, cc dch v mng truy nhp h tr v mt s ni dung cn thit d dng tip cn hai chng sau. Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin: Ni dung chng ny rt rng, ch yu trnh by sinh vin nm c cc vn : Cu trc, cc thng s k thut, o th, v nguyn l hot ng c bn ca cc loi cp ng xon i, cp ng trc v cp quang. Cu to, cc thng s k thut, o th ca cc loi u ni cp ng xon i, cp ng trc v cp quang. Cu trc mng cp ca cc h thng mng in thoi, mng my tnh. Yu cu k thut c bn ca cc mng in thoi v mng my tnh c phm vi hot ng va v nh c th thi cng lp t mng cp v thit b cho hai mng ny.

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp: C th ni mi cng ngh truy nhp l mt mn hc m sinh vin hc ngnh k thut vin thng cn c trang b. V d: i vi mng bng hp c cng ngh truy nhp in thoi truyn thng, vi mng bng rng hu tuyn c truy nhp ISDN, x.DSL, HFC, PLC, vi mng bng rng v tuyn c h thng thng tin v tinh c nh VSAT v cc h thng thng tin v tinh di ng: GEO, LEO, MEO. Ni dung chng ny trnh by cc cng ngh nu ra trn. Bi ging Mng truy nhp cng c dng lm ti liu tham kho cho cc h khc trong Hc vin cng ngh bu chnh vin thng. Bi ging ny khng trnh khi nhng ch thiu st, rt mong s ng gp ca ng nghip v bn c. Ngi bin son chn thnh cm n tc gi ca cc ti liu v kin thc tham kho cng nh cc h tr khc bin son bi ging ny./.

TP. H ch Minh, ngy 08 thng 5, nm 2007 L Duy Khnh.

vii

GII THIU

Mng truy nhp l phn mng nm dm cui cng ca mng thng tin lin lc. S ra i v pht trin ca n nhm phc v cho nhu cu s dng thng tin lin lc ca con ngi ngy cng phong ph hn. T in thoi truyn thng, fax, cho n cc dch v mang tnh tng tc hn nh in thoi hi ngh truyn hnh, hc tp t xa, xem truyn hnh theo yu cu, internet, Nh vy mng truy nhp tr nn a dng t bng hp nh truy nhp quay s theo kiu truyn thng v ISDN cho n bng rng nh x.DSL, HFC v Cable modems, PLC, cp quang, h thng thng tin v tinh,

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp

1.1

MNG TRUY NHP

1.1.1 S ra i
Mng vin thng hin nay c pht trin theo hng hon ton s ha a phng tin v internet. iu ny lm cho vic tm kim phng n gii quyt truy nhp bng rng c gi thnh thp, cht lng cao tr nn rt cp thit. Cng vi s pht trin ca x hi thng tin, nhu cu s dng dch v vin thng ngy cng tng, t dch v in thoi n dch v s liu, hnh nh, a phng tin. Vic tch hp cc dch v ny vo cng mt mng sao cho mng vin thng tr nn n gin hn ang tr thnh vn nng bng ca ngnh vin thng quc t.

1.1.2 Khi nim mng truy nhp


Mng truy nhp v tr cui ca mng vin thng, trc tip u ni vi thu bao, bao gm tt c cc thit b v ng dy c lp t gia trm chuyn mch ni ht vi thit b u cui ca thu bao. C th hiu khi nim v mng truy nhp theo cc ni dung sau y:

Mng truy nhp (AN) l phn mng gia SNI v UNI, c nhim v truyn ti cc tn hiu n thu bao.
M hnh tham chiu vt l ca mng truy nhp c m t qua hnh sau:
SW SW SW FP SN RSU RSU Dy chnh Dy phn phi Mng truy nhp DP Sub CPE Dy thu bao

Hnh 1.1: M hnh tham chiu mng truy nhp Phm vi ca mng truy nhp c chia ra thnh ba phn: SNI ni n nt dch v; UNI ni n thu bao; v Q3 ni n TMN. Cn c vo phm vi ca mng truy nhp m mng ny c cc c im nh sau: Thc hin chc nng ghp knh, ni cho, v truyn dn. Mng truy nhp khng thc hin chc nng chuyn mch. Cung cp a dch v: chuyn mch, s liu, hnh nh, thu knh, ... ng knh mng tng i nh: trong ni thnh khong vi km, ngoi thnh khong t vi km n hn 10 km. Gi thnh u t mng ph thuc vo thu bao: bi v thu bao gn nt dch v cn t cp truyn dn hn so vi thu bao xa nt dch v. S chnh lch gi thnh u t c th ln n 10 ln.

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


Thi cng ng dy kh khn: Vic xy dng mng cp ni ht l phc tp, nht l trong khu vc ni thnh. Cn phi quan tm n nhiu vn : m quan, cc cng trnh khc nh nh , in, nc, ng s, ... Kh nng tip cn cp quang ca thu bao: ONU t cng gn nh thu bao th on cp ng ni n nh thu bao cng ngn. Kh nng thch ng i vi mi trng: ONU ca mng truy nhp c th thch ng cho hon cnh mi trng khc nghit, c th t ngoi tri. Tuy nhin mi trng cng khc nghit th yu cu i vi thit b cng cao. S bin thin tnh nng ca cc linh kin in t v linh kin quang theo nhit tun theo hm m, do tnh nng cc linh kin trong thit b mng truy nhp xu i nhanh gp 10 ln thit b thng thng.

1.1.3 Hng pht trin mng truy nhp


C th a ra vi con s trong qu kh thy s quan tm trong vic pht trin mng truy nhp: Hng Bell ca M v nhiu cng ty khc u t 50-60 t USD i mi mch vng thu bao cho hn 10 triu thu bao. Cng ty Future Vision xy dng ti bang New Jersey mt mng bao gm MPEG-2, ATM, PON v trong thng 8 nm 1995 hon thnh giai on 1 th nghim 200 h gia nh. Nht Bn vo u nm 1995 u t 20 t USD xy dng ton din mng truy nhp, n nm 2000 c 10% khu vc thc hin cp quang n ta nh, n nm 2015 s thc hin cp quang n h gia nh. Ti Anh, c, Trung Quc cng c s u t ng k cho mng truy nhp. p ng nhu cu ngy cng cao ca ngi s dng, th vic u t mng truy nhp ca cc nc ni chung v Vit Nam ni ring cng theo cc nh hng sau y: Bng rng ha mng truy nhp. Cp quang ha mng truy nhp. i mi cng ngh cp ng. Mng cp quang th ng ly cng ngh ATM lm c s. Truy nhp v tuyn bng rng. Cng ngh truy nhp SDH. Cng ngh SDV da trn FITL v ATM.

1.2

PHN LOI MNG TRUY NHP


Sau y l mt s loi truy nhp c phn loi da trn bng thng.

1.2.1 Truy nhp bng hp Truy nhp bng quay s (Dial-up Aceess): y l mt loi truy nhp bng hp da trn phng thc quay s thng qua modem. Nu p dng trn ng dy thu bao truyn thng th modem ch t c tc ti a 56 Kbps. Nu p dng trn ng dy thu ISDN-BA, c 2 knh B vi mi knh bng 64 Kbps v mt knh D bng 16 Kbps nn cn gi l truy nhp 2B+D.

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


1.2.2 Truy nhp bng rng ng dy thu bao s (DSL): Vi cng i dy in thoi truyn thng c th c dng truyn d liu tc cao, nh minh ha trong hnh 1.2. C mt vi cng ngh cho DSL, khi m ngi dng c nhu cu tc ng xung cao hn tc ng ln th c hai loi DSL bt i xng : DSL v VDSL. Ty thuc vo chiu di mch vng, cc h thng DSL c th t n tc t 128Kbps n 52Mbps.

Hnh 1.2: Truy nhp ADSL

Cable Modems: Cable Modem l mt loi modem cung cp truy nhp d liu c truyn trn h thng truyn hnh cp. Cable modem ch yu c dng phn phi truy nhp internet bng rng. Bng thng ca dch v cable Modem thng mi thng thng trong khong t 3 Mbps n 30 Mbps hoc ln hn.

Hnh 1.3: HFC vi cable Modems

Cp quang: iu mong mun ca cc cng ty vin thng l a cp quang n tn nh ca ngi s dng. Vi SONET im ni im v cc vng ring, cp quang s bao ph cc khu dn c, cng s c th phc v in thoi, d liu, hi ngh truyn hnh, v cc dch v khc trong hin ti, v cng d dng nng cp khi c yu cu bng thng ln hn trong tng lai. Vi cng ngh APON nh m t trong hnh 1.4, s p ng yu cu t ra cng nh vn v chi ph xy dng mng. Cu trc mng GPON c bng thng 1,244 Gbps cho ng ln v 2,488 Gbps cho ng xung. 4

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp

Hnh 1.4: Mng APON V tuyn: Cc h thng v tinh c qu o thp nh Teledesic v Bridge c th ti hng chc Mbps n u cui ngi s dng, cn h thng LMDS bng thng t n 1 Gbps tn s 28 GHz.

Truy nhp qua ng dy in: ng dy in l mt mi trng c nhiu nghim trng, nhng n c kh nng truyn cc dch v vin thng c tc bit cao. Chng c ni vi ng dy in trong nh kin trc nn mt mng truyn dn hon chnh. Cc thit b u cui c kt ni vo cm in trong nh c th truy nhp n mng bng rng. Kin trc ny kt hp mt cch hi ha vi cc h thng t ng ha trong nh, cho php iu khin t xa cc thit b t ti nh thng qua internet.

1.3

GIAO DIN MNG TRUY NHP

1.3.1 UNI
UNI l mt im phn nh ranh gii gia nh cung cp dch v v thu bao. Ranh gii ny thit lp nn giao din k thut v phn phi cc hot ng tng ng. UNI c hai loi: c lp v dng chung. UNI dng chung l ch mt UNI c th m nhim nhiu nt dch v, mi truy nhp logic thng qua SNI khc nhau ni vi nt dch v khc nhau. V d, trong metro ethernet network, UNI l mt lin kt ethernet hai chiu (bidirectional ethernet link).

1.3.2 SNI
L giao din pha dch v ca mng truy nhp. SNI ch yu gm giao din tng t (giao din Z) v giao din s (giao din V). thch ng vi nhiu mi trng truyn dn trong mng truy nhp, phi hp vi nhiu loi truy nhp v nhiu loi dch v truy nhp, giao din V pht trin thnh giao din V1 n giao din V5. Giao din V5 l mt loi giao din thu bao s tiu chun quc t ca tng i chuyn mch s ni ht, n c th ng thi h tr nhiu dch v truy nhp thu bao, c th chia thnh giao din V5.1 v V5.2.

1.4

CP NGUN MNG TRUY NHP

1.4.1 S cn bng truyn thng


Trong mng PSTN truyn thng, my in thoi c cp ngun t tng i. Ngun cung cp l mt chiu (dc) trn cng i dy ng truyn ti tn hiu thoi. Cc u cui thng thng khng cn c s cp ngun ring, tr nhng u cui c bit nh my fax. 5

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


Vn quan trng trong mng PSTN l d ngun in li b s c th mng cng phi hot ng tip tc. Cc dch v trong mng PSTN c thit k hot ng khng ph thuc vo ngun in li ca a phng. Cng chnh v tng i cp ngun cho u cui, nn phm vi phc v ca tng i b hn ch, nu s dng cp c ng knh ln th kh nng u cui ko xa hn, tuy nhin nu dng c dy ln th chi ph cao, nng, chim nhiu khng gian hn. Nh vy trong mng PSTN truyn thng, khong cch t tng i n my u cui b gii hn mt cch t nhin sao cho ph hp kh nng truyn dn ngun n u cui. Tuy nhin trong cc cng ngh mi, gii hn ny khng cn l t nhin, bi v khong cch t tng i n u cui ch ph thuc vo vic tn hiu c truyn n c u cui hay khng, ch khng ph thuc vo vic cp ngun. Do s cn bng gia vn cp ngun v vng phc v khng cn na.

1.4.2 Nhng vn trong cng ngh mi


Mt trong nhng thch thc i vi s cn bng trong phng n truyn thng dnh cho in thoi l vic tn dng ht tim nng truyn ti thng tin ca nhng i dy ng hin c. Nhng c gng trin khai ny hin nay th hin r rng nht s pht trin cc h thng HDSL v ADSL, nhng thch thc ban u li n t cng ngh li dy. Khi tt c nhng i dy d tr trn ng cp hin c c s dng ht, th vic lp t mt cp ng mi s l tn km. Thm ch cn c th tn km hn, nu phi thc hin vic ny p ng mt nhu cu v dch v t xut. Cc h thng li dy v cc h thng ghp knh, c tp trung v phn tn, u c pht minh ra tn dng nhng dung lng truyn ti thng tin cha c s dng ca cc i dy ng. Cc h thng li dy cn cp ngun cho cc thit b in t ti u xa ca i dy ng. May thay, c th tn dng tnh cht dn cm ca nhu cu v ngun l chc chn nm trong kh nng ca n, v thi gian ng truyn khng hot ng thng nhiu hn l hot ng. Mt accu c th np li c c th dng b ngun cp t tng i khi ng truyn hot ng.
Ngun in c tch tr trong accu in thoi khng hot ng in thoi hot ng

Hnh 1.5: S dng mt accu np li c b s tiu hao ngun

Trong thc t, vic trin khai mt accu np li c theo cch nh vy to ra nhiu vn , bi v khi s dng ng truyn cng cao, mt khch hng thng mi c th lm phng ht in ca accu. mt mc no , iu ny c th c b p nu vic lp t c thc hin theo yu cu c th, sao cho kt cui s dng cng cao nht c cp ngun bnh thng vi kt qu l ch cn mt accu cho nhng kt cui c s dng cng km hn. Nhng cp ngun nh th s khng tin cy, bi v thu bao c t do thay i vic s dng cc 6

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


kt cui . Ngoi ra, thi gian s dng ca mt accu np li c l c hn, k c trong iu kin mi trng tt ti nh ring ca thu bao, dn n nhng chi ph bo dng ln. c bit, nu khng c s cnh bo v s ngng hot ng ca mt accu s pht sinh vic bo dng ngoi k hoch khi accu gp s c. ng tic, khng th s dng mt accu m (b) s tiu th ngun cho nhng h thng li dy rt tiu hao ngun, cc h thng HDSL v ADSL dung lng cao hn. l v ngun trung bnh cho nhng h thng ny thng vt qu kh nng c th c cung cp trn cc i dy ng. Vn ny khng ln nh vi cc h thng v tuyn v si quang, bi v vic truyn dn ngun ti cc kt cui xa bng v tuyn hoc si quang l khng kh thi. D vy, cc h thng dy ng s dng mt accu b s tiu th ngun ca cc kt cui xa, c th khng c u im ln so vi cc h thng v tuyn v si quang bi chi ph bo dng v thay th accu xa. Thot nhn th v tuyn dng nh l phng tin km nht cho vic cp ngun, v khng th chuyn i c mt lng ngun in ln dc mt tuyn v tuyn. Tri li, cc si quang c th truyn c mt lng nng lng c ch, v ngi ta cho rng n c th cp ngun cho mt my u cui c bit cng sut thp. Ngi ta cng cho rng cc tuyn cp quang/dy ng c th c s dng chuyn i c thng tin v ngun. Nhng khng may, trong nhng khi nim ny c mt s sai lm. Mc d mt lng ngun nht nh c th c chuyn i trn mt si quang, nhng hiu sut bin i sang cng sut in thp lm cho cng sut pht cn thit phi rt cao, m iu ny c th lm nguy him cho cc hot ng bo dng. Ngoi ra, cng c th cn ti mt accu m, nh c th gim c cng sut quang t cc nh xung gn hn gi tr trung bnh, iu ny li gy ra vn v bo dng accu. Hn na, nu nhng u im v chi ph ca vic chia tch th ng c tng ln, th cng sut pht quang s cn c tng ln vt qua gi tr yu cu cho hot ng im ni im, do cc b chia quang gy ra vic gim cng sut thu. Khi nim v mt cp lai cng l sai lch, bi v cc h thng dy ng thm ch khng th cp ngun tng xng vi dung lng truyn ti thng tin ca chnh chng, mt dung lng km xa dung lng truyn ti thng tin ca mt si quang lin i. C mt ng dng ca vic dng si quang cp ngun, nhng ng dng ny li c tnh mu thun. Gii hn trn i vi tc d liu ca cc h thng si quang c th tng nu s dng cc b khuch i quang khuch i tn hiu quang. Cc b khuch i ny c th c cp ngun rt hiu qu bng si quang, bi v yu cu ch yu ca chng l ngun quang, ch khng phi ngun in. y l s mu thun, bi v vic s dng ph hp nht ca ngun quang l lm tng dung lng truyn ti thng tin ca cc h thng si quang, v v th lm trm trng hn vn cp ngun cho cc kt cui xa, bi v nhng kt cui xa cn nhiu ngun hn, do dung lng ca h thng tng ln.

1.4.3 D phng accu


Nu ngun in ni b trong mt tng i b s c, th ngun khn cp thng c cung cp bng mt my pht in d phng. Nhng my pht in ny lun c mt sn sng v c th c bo dng trong mt mi trng tt, thng vi s c mt ca cc nhn vin bo dng. Cc my pht in cng sut ln c th to ra nhiu nng lng hn so vi nhng accu np li c.

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


Trn thc t thng khng s dng cc my pht in ti nhng u xa ca cc mng truy nhp, d l nhng my pht in c cng sut nh, bi nhng kh khn ca vic thng gi v bo dng. Thng gi c th l mt vn , bi v u xa c th t trong mt khng gian kn, chng hn mt hp ngm. Bo dng cng l mt vn bi v cn phi gi mt k thut vin bo dng ti cc v tr xa b s c v ngun. Bi vy nhng accu np li c l gii php hin nhin i vi vn ngun d phng ti cc u xa ca mt mng truy nhp. Nhng accu ny c th m bo lun c np y trong khi hot ng bnh thng, v c s dng cp ngun cho mi u xa ca mt mng truy nhp nu ngun cp in chnh b s c. Nhng accu khng np li c c th c s dng lm gii php thay th cho cc accu np li c cho hot ng mt ln. Ging nh cc my pht in d phng, i vi cc accu khng np li c, cn c mt nhn vin k thut n thay cc accu sau khi chng c s dng ht in. Cc accu khng np li c cng c mt tui th hn ch v v vy s cn c thay th khi chng qu hn s dng, cho d chng vn cha c s dng. Cc accu np li c c a chung bi v chng c chi ph bo dng thp hn, do chng khng cn phi thay th sau khi s dng. Tuy nhin, c mt s vn lm cho vic s dng cc accu np li c km hp dn i. C l vn r nht v mt vt l l kch thc ca nhng accu ny. Nhng tham s xc nh kch thc ca nhng accu ny l cc yu cu v ngun ca cc u xa v khong thi gian m ngun in phi cung cp c, cng vi cng ngun, l tham s xc nh mc hiu qu m cc accu tch tr ngun. Cn c nhng tr ngi v mt mi trng i vi vic s dng cc accu np li c. Nhng tr ngi ny c th tr nn r rt hn theo thi gian do s nhn thc ngy cng tng v cc vn mi trng. Nhng accu axit ch, nh loi s dng trong cc xe hi, l loi accu np li c ph bin nht. Ch trong cc accu ny gy ra nhim cho mi trng, v c mt yu cu l nhng accu c phi c thu hi v hy b mt cch an ton.

1.5

MCH VNG NI B

1.5.1 nh ngha mch vng ni b


Trong vin thng, mch vng ni b (local loop) l mt mch dy kt ni t thit b ti sn khch hng n bin ca nh cung cp dch v vin thng. Trong mng PSTN, mch vng ni b l mch dy cp kt ni thit b u cui n tng i ni ht. Mch vng ni b h tr cc ng dng truyn thng s liu, hoc kt hp truyn ting ni v s liu nh trong DSL. Cc kt ni mch vng ni b c th c s dng trong cc cng ngh: Tn hiu thoi tng t v bo hiu trong POTS, ISDN, DSL. Cc kt ni mch vng ni b cn hin din trong cc cng ngh: PLC : Electric local loop, thng tin v tinh: Satellite local loop, Cablemodem: Cable local loop, v LMDS-WiMAX-GPRS: Wireless local loop.

1.5.2 Cc v d v mch vng ni b


Loi n gin nht ca mch vng ni b c khong cch t 2 Km n 4 Km vi c dy 0,4 mm hoc 0,5 mm, s dng cp ng xon i.

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp

Loi c p dng c dy khc nhau, trong khong cch t n 2,5 Km dng dy 0,4 mm, tip theo 1,5 Km dng dy 0,5 mm. Khong cch dng dy 0,4 mm c th thay i t 1,5 Km n 5,55 Km, v c th m rng n 6 Km.

Loi mch vng dng ba c dy khc nhau : on 0,2 Km tnh t tng i ni ht dng dy 0,32 mm (28 AWG) ; tip theo t 1Km n 5 Km dng dy 0,4 mm ; v khong cch cn li dng dy 0,9 mm (10 AWG), khong ny c th l 4 Km tnh n CPE. Vi loi mch vng ny khi m rng n ht kh nng khng cn cun ti.

Loi mch vng c cu r, trong cu hnh ny ch dng mt c dy l 0,4 mm. Tuy nhin cho php cu r c th ko di n 0,5 Km tnh t im r.

1.6
1.6.1

CNG TRNH NGOI VI


Phn loi
Cng trnh ngoi vi c th phn loi theo kiu mng, lp t, v h thng truyn dn. Phn loi theo kiu mng c cc loi cng trnh sau y:

Cng trnh ng dy thu bao: l cng trnh nh thu bao, phng tin in thoi cng cng, v thit b PBX c kt ni vi thit b ca tng i trung tm. Cp dng cho ng dy thu bao c gi l cp thu bao v c phn thnh cp feeder v cp phn phi. Cp feeder l phn cp thu bao i t tng i n im ni cho CCP. Cng trnh cp trung k: l cng trnh kt ni cc tng i trung tm vi nhau. Cng trnh ng dy ng di: l cng trnh kt ni cc tng i trung tm ng di vi nhau. Thng thng, cc loi cp ng trc, cp quang, v tuyn c s dng lm kt ni. Phn loi theo lp t, c cc cng trnh nh sau: Cng trnh ng dy trn khng (cp treo): Mc d ng dy truyn dn trn khng c nhng hn ch c bn do b nh hng ca mi trng t nhin v nhn to, n vn c s dng kh rng ri, c bit l ng dy thu bao. S d nh vy l v cc cng trnh ngoi vi trn khng thng thng rt kinh t so vi cc cng trnh ngm.

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


Cng trnh ngm (cp ngm): Thng thng, khi cp ngm c chn su di lng t trn 1 mt th chng c nhng s ph hoi ca thin nhin v nhn to. Tuy nhin, chi ph xy dng t hn chi ph cng trnh trn cao. ng truyn dn ngm thng c s dng cho cp ng di, cp trung k v cp feeder dng cho thu bao. Chng c chn trc tip hay t trong ng ngm di lng t. Cng trnh ngm lm p cnh quan th v khng chim dng khng gian bn trn, nn gn y c xu hng ngm ha cc cng trnh ngoi vi cp. Cng trnh ng dy di nc: Cc dy cp c t di y h, sng, gi l cp di nc. Cp t di y bin gi l cp bin. Cp di nc v cp bin c lp v bc c bit chng li cc tc nhn gy nguy hi cho cp nh: thm nc, n mn, lc nn, ... Phn loi theo h thng truyn dn, c cc cng trnh nh: truyn dn hu tuyn, v tuyn, v truyn dn quang.

1.6.2 Nhng yu cu i vi cng trnh ngoi vi


Cng trnh ngoi vi phi c nhng tnh cht in tt truyn cc tn hiu thng tin. N phi vng chc di nhng iu kin hy hoi khc nhau ca thi tit, a hnh, v nhn to. Sau y l cc yu cu v in v c i vi cng trnh ngoi vi. - in tr cch in. - Sc bn in mi. - in tr dy dn. - Suy hao truyn dn. - Mo. - Xuyn m. - S ng nht ca cc tnh cht in. - Sc bn c hc. - Nghin cu nhng mi nguy him v nhiu lon. - Xem xt v bo dng.

1.6.3 Cc vn quan tm khi thit k ng dy thu bao bng cp kim loi

1.6.3.1 i vi cp treo
La chn tuyn: Mt tuyn cp treo phi tnh n yu t kinh t, s tin li cng vic v tin li bo dng nh sau: - C li th nht cho vic phn phi v lp t dy tch ra. - C di ng dy ngn nht. - Dc theo tuyn cp khng c s thay i d kin hay bi b ng s theo k hoch pht trin th. - Khng ng n cc ng s, giao thng v cc kt cu do ngi khc qun l iu hnh. Xc nh vng n v v vng phn phi: Vng n v l vng c tuyn cp d ton nhu cu trong 10 nm cho ng dy chnh phn phi c nh, c cn nhc n thay i ng s, nh ca, .... 10

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


Mt vng n v c phn chia thnh cc vng phn phi, trong mi vng phn phi c mt ng dy chnh v cc tuyn nhnh lin quan c hoch nh phn phi. Cc vng phn phi c thit lp sao cho s phn phi c kinh t nht c cn nhc n cc ng dy hin hu v cc iu kin ng s. D bo nhu cu: Khi lp d bo nhu cu cn lu n cc im sau y: - Nhu cu i vi cc ng dy cho thu v cc dch v phi thoi c th khc vi nhu cu c d bo trong cc khu trung tm ca thnh ph ln. - S thu thp thng tin cha y t cc tng i in thoi ti thi im d bo nhu cu v vic thit k ng dy thu bao c th dn ti cc d on khng chnh xc v nhng s thay i trong nhng iu kin tng lai ca vng ny. - Ngay c trong cc vng m ti cc ct in thoi c phn b mt cch ng nht, nhu cu cho mi ct thc t c th thay i do s khc nhau din tch t ai cho mi ngi nh. - Kho st cc iu kin thc t: y l mt chui cng vic kim tra xem nhu cu hin ti i vi ton b vng phc v ca mt tng i c phn phi nh th no trn cc vng phn phi c nh lin quan d bo nhu cu cho tng lai. Tm tt cc bc kho st thc t nh sau : Bc 1: Thu thp v sp xp cc t liu, s liu v cc ti liu khc. Bc 2: Kho st hin trng. Bc 3: D bo nhu cu. Xc nh ng knh dy cp: - ng knh phi tha mn suy hao ng dy, in tr dc, v cht lng truyn dn ghi r do tng i qui nh. Cc gi tr tng ng ca phn cp ngm di t phi c tr i. - Mt s v d thc t v cc phng php xc nh ng knh dy cp:
M u 1 M t Ch c cp ca ng dy chnh trong mt vng phn phi c nh c tiu chun ha vi mt ng knh dy cp h tr cho thu bao xa nht trong vng. Cc ng knh dy ca cp nhnh c tnh ton khi cn thit. ng knh dy c tnh ton cho mi cp trong mt vng phn phi c nh theo tng di cp ring, h tr thu bao xa nht trong vng. Cc ng knh dy ca cp nhnh c tnh ton khi cn thit. V d thc t Vng c th p dng Cc vng ngoi vi thnh ph.

Cc vng trung tm thnh ph.

11

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


3 Mt vng phn phi c nh c chia ra thnh mt s khu vc nh hn theo ng knh dy cp. ng knh dy cp c p dng mt cch t ng cho cc ng dy chnh v nhnh trong mi khu vc. Cp c tiu chun ha trong mi vng phn phi c nh theo ng knh dy dn nhm h tr thu bao xa nht trong vng. Cp c tiu chun ha trong mt vng phn phi c nh theo ng knh dy h tr thu bao xa nht trong vng. Cc vng ngoi v trung tm thnh ph xen ln nhau.

Cc vng ngoi vi thnh ph (trong giai on lp t khi lng ln)

Xc nh loi cp: Cp treo c nhiu loi khc nhau nh : CCP-AP (cc loi SS v round), CCPCS, CCP-HS, CCP-ES. Bng sau y trnh by cc tiu chun c th p dng cho nhng loi cp ny.
Loi p Cp CCP-AP Khu vc ng dng (1) Loi SS: tt c cc khu vc tr khu vc dnh cho cp CCP-CS, CCP-HS v CCP-EC. (2) Loi round: cc loi 0,4-400; 0,65-200; 0,9-100. Nhng khu vc d b h hng do chim, cn trng, ng vt, sn bn, ... Nhng khu vc d b h hng do chim, cn trng, ng vt, sn bn, ... Nhng khu vc cn c cc bin php chng li hin tng can nhiu do cm ng.

Cp CCP-CS Cp CCP-HS Cp CCP-ES

Xc nh loi ct: La chn loi ct cn xem xt n yu t tit kim, kh nng lm vic, v cc yu cu x hi. Tuy nhin khi p dng loi no th n cng cn c xc nh theo cc yu cu sau y: - Phi dng cc ct thp nu d kin phi thay th trong tng lai gn do phi di chuyn hoc v bt k l do no khc. - Nu qui nh trong cc cuc thng lng vi nhng ngi ngoi cuc (cc khu t t nhn, ng s hoc c dn a phng) th cc loi ct quy nh phi c s dng. - Cc ct i ngoi tr cc ct c np, ch c dng vi cc ct hp quy cch. - Cc ct kinh t nht phi c dng trong cc trng hp trn. Xc nh v tr ct: Vic s dng ring a im lp t ct tr nn rt kh khn do: gi t tng, quyn li ca c dn a phng. V tr dng ct c nh hng rt ln n kh nng thi cng v an ton cho vic xy dng v bo dng ct. i khi chng c th gy phin h cho c dn a phng. Do vy, cc v tr phi c la chn cn thn, c lu n cc im sau y: - Nu ct cn phi xy dng trn ng, phi iu tra xem liu b rng ng c c d kin m rng hay khng. Nu s m rng nh vy c quy hoch th kim tra xem c bao lu ri. 12

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


- Nu ct cn c xy dng ti nh ring ca c dn, th b tr v tr ct trn vnh ai ca nh ring sau khi kim tra xem ch nh c k hoch m rng hoc xy li nh, - Trong cc khu vc c tuyt hay nhit thp cn ch n cc yu t do tuyt v nhit thp gy h hng ct. Trong trng hp s dng chung ct vi ng dy in lc n cho php gim ng k chi ph lp t v bo dng ct, s dng hiu qu ng s, gim thiu cc nh hng ca ct n giao thng v ci thin m quan th. Vic s dng chung ny cn c ngha nhng con ng hp, ni m chnh quyn a phng, b phn qun l ng s mun ci thin tnh hnh cc ct chim c c hai bn ng lm tr ngi giao thng.

1.6.3.2 i vi cp ngm
Cc phng tin ng dy thu bao phi ni mt cch hiu qu cc thu bao phn tn trn khp mt vng no ti mt tng i in thoi t ti trung tm, n khng ging nh cc ng trung k ni hai im vi nhau. V vy, cc phng tin ng dy thu bao ni chung c hai cu hnh: mng ng trc gn tng i in thoi c gi l h thng ng dy feeder, v mng nhnh gn cc thu bao gi l h thng phn phi. Mi h thng s dng mt phng php phn phi cp sao cho ph hp vi tnh nng ca n. i vi h thng ng dy feeder s dng phng php phn phi FD thay cho phng php phn phi feeder c in. i vi h thng phn phi th dng phng php phn phi t do. Phng php phn phi cp feeder c in:
Cc vng ng dy chung Cc t cp Cc vng ng dy chung

MDF

Cc ng dy tng i c nh

Cc ng dy chung (200 i cho mi vng ng dy chung)

Cc ng dy chung (100 i)

Hnh 1.6: Phng php phn phi cp feeder c in

Phng php ny c mt s c im nh sau: - Mt s vng phn phi c nh ln cn nhau (trong vng 2,5 Km) to thnh mt vng ng dy chung c coi nh mt n v. - Mt ng dy chung kt ni 200 i c lp t dng chung gia cc vng phn phi c nh trong phm vi mt vng ng dy chung. - Mt ng dy d phng chung 100 i, thm vo ng dy chung c dnh ring cho mt cp feeder, p ng nhu cu t xut cha c d kin trc.

13

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


- Mt t cp c t ti im feeder hnh thnh nn mt nhm ng dy hon chnh to nn t cp feeder v cp phn phi ngn chn s gia tng ca suy hao chn vo (insertion loss) trong cc ng dy chung a kt ni. Phng php phn phi cp feeder FD
Cc vng ng dy chung Cc t cp FD Cc vng ng dy chung

MDF

Cc ng dy tng i c nh

Cc dy ph

Cc dy ph lin kt

Cc dy ph

Hnh 1.7: Phng php phn phi cp feeder FD

Phng php ny c mt s c im nh sau: - Mt dung lng ph c b sung x l bin ng nhu cu da trn c s nhu cu tng trng trong 2 nm (trc y l 5 nm), mt khong thi gian trung bnh k t khi lp k hoch n khi bt u cc dch v. - Cc si cp c chia s mt cch linh hot gia cc vng phn phi chung thng qua phn phi lin kt bao gm cc dy ph, v dy ph khng phi l dy a kt ni. Theo quy tc chung, cc t FD c trang b y cc giao din gia mng cp feeder v cp phn phi c t ti cc im feeder ci thin kh nng thi cng cho phn chia dy cp v hot ng bo dng. Tnh ton s lng cp S lng cp quy hoch cho mi ng knh dy = Trong : n15

n15 + n15 N max

s lng cc chm cp cn cho nhu cu trong thi gian 15 nm.

n15 s lng cc chm cp tng ng vi cc thay i nhu cu c c t s gia tng nhu cu trong 15 nm. h s thch hp dy cp.

Nmax s cc i ca nhm cp c th thch hp trong mt cp.

1.7 CC DCH V C MNG TRUY NHP H TR


1.7.1 Gii thiu
S xut hin cc dch v vin thng mi c th tng t nh s xut hin cc phn mm ng dng sau khi my tnh c nhn c s dng. Tuy nhin, s pht trin ca cc dch v vin thng i sau s pht trin ca cc phn mm ng dng cho my tnh c nhn. 14

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


Cc dch v vin thng lc u pht trin chm tr l do ngh rng chng phi c iu khin tp trung bi cc nh khai thc vin thng. Nhiu dch v vin thng tin tin ban u d nh c cung cp bi nh khai thc vin thng thng qua cc tng i s th nay c cung cp bi chnh cc my in thoi. Mc d khi u c chm tr, nhng s pht trin ca dch v vin thng r rng. Dch v ph bin nht cho khu vc dn c rt c th l gii tr video, vi nhng hng dn chng trnh c tnh tng tc v s la chn theo nhu cu t nhng th vin giu chng trnh. Dch v nhu cu mua sm ti nh v cc dch v ti chnh cng hnh thnh. S pht trin dch v vin thng c ngha x hi nht c th l giao tip t xa, iu khin t xa, l dch v cho php con ngi lm vic ti nh, v internet - l dch v cho php con ngi truy nhp thng tin bt c u trn ton cu. Truyn thng n gin trn ton cu c th c phc v tt hn bng th in t. y l mt dch v nhanh, n gin khng cn thi gian thc.

1.7.2 VoD
Dng nh s khng tha mn ang ngy cng tng i vi cc dch v c cung cp bi truyn hnh CATV. S ph bin ca vic thu video cho thy hai iu l khch hng (thu bao) rt thch th c nhiu dch v v c iu khin mnh thng qua vic sp lch ca h hn l c h tr bi pha truyn hnh cp. Cc dch v video trong tng lai khng chc da trn kiu pht qung b trn t lin thng thng, v ph v tuyn sn c l hn ch v c th tm cch s dng tt hn ngun ti nguyn hn ch ny. Tng lai ca video dng nh l cng vi cc h thng v tinh hoc vi cc mng truy nhp c mt c s h tng c nh, hn l truyn hnh qung b thng thng hoc kiu phn phi bng cp khng tng tc thng thng. VoD thc t l mt dch v thu video in t, nhng c nhng u im l a ra yu cu ngay trn mn hnh, c ngay tc th, iu khin ging nh cc u video (VCR), khng c nhng kh khn do nhng b phim ni ting u ang c cho mn chiu. Vic s dng cc tiu chun nn MPEG v truyn dn ADSL cho php cung cp cc video cht lng VCR trn hu ht cc i dy ng hin c. Dch v cht lng cao hn c th c cung cp trn nhng ng ngn hn hoc tuyn truyn dn c b tr bng cc nt tch cc. Vic s dng cc i dy ng cho VoD c th l mt chin lc m u hiu qu, v n s dng c s h tng ang c. Nhng n cha chc l mt gii php lu di bi v n khng cung cp c cht lng truyn dn tt trn tt c cc ng truyn nu khng c cc nt tch cc xa, m nhng nt ny s gy tn km chi ph bo dng. VoD c th bao gm cc ng dng nh sau: MoD (Movies on Demand): y l mt dch v VoD u tin, cho php mt thu bao nh ring yu cu bt k b phim no t th vin lu tr phim rng ln. Dch v ny tng t nh vic chn ra mt b phim t b lu tr video o, khng c s kh khn nh i vi b lu tr video tht, thu mn mt b phim v ri tr li bng VHF hoc a DVD vo mt ngy khc. SVoD (Subscription Video on Demand): l mt loi thu bao c k hn ca VoD, cho php khch hng xem c tt c ni dung chng trnh trn mt knh c ph thng qua lch chng trnh ca khch hng. V d, ton b ni dung chng trnh ca knh HBO trong thng 10 c lu tr trn cc a VoD. Vi mt t cc ph hng thng cng thm, cc khch hng HBO c th la chn 15

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


mt dch v nng cao (HBO SVoD) cho php xem bt k chng trnh no ca HBO trong thng . Dch v ny cho php thng thc theo chng trnh sp xp ca ring khch hng. PVR (Networked Personal Video Recorder): PVR ang dn tr thnh ph bin ghi hnh cc chng trnh biu din trn tivi v cho php xem li trong thi gian sau . Mt PVR tch hp vi mt a cng trong mt STB (Set Top Box) ghi cc chng trnh dng nn tn hiu s ri xem li sau . V cu trc VoD bao gm ba dng cu trc: Centralized VoD

Distributed VoD

Hybrid VoD

16

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


1.7.3 Video trn ATM
ATM c mt s ngi xng l h tng c bn cho VoD bi tnh linh hot ca n. ATM c th c m t nh l cng ngh c kh nng cung cp cc dch v trong tng lai, bi v ATM khng hn ch bng thng. Mt khc, n c xem nh l mt gii php chp nhn tnh khng chc chn v bn cht ca mt dch v VoD, v chi ph ca vic s dng ATM c th c loi b nu bn cht ca dch v ny r rng. Ngi lc quan c th xem vic s dng ATM l vic lm y cm hng. Cn ngi bi quan c th so snh n vi vic mt ngi sp cht ui v phi cc. Mt trong nhng u im ca ATM l n cung cp mt ti mang chung c lp vi phng tin vt l c s dng trong mng truy nhp. iu ny cho php tch cc dch v ra t phng tin vt l, cho php thay i phng tin vt l m khng cn thay i phng tin dch v. ATM c th cung cp gi tr gia tng l nh n c kh nng cung cp mt c s h tng chung cho mt s dch v khc nhau v lm n gin s tin trin ln cc dch v bng rng tc cao hn. Mt u im na ca ATM l n cho php ti thiu phn bng thng mo u cn cho bo hiu, v khng cn dnh ring mt knh c dung lng c nh cho bo hiu m thng l khng hot ng. iu ny tr nn quan trng hn nu mt s lng ln cc dch v tc bit thp cn c h tr ng thi. Mt gii php thng thng hn kt hp cc knh bo hiu c th a vo mc tng tc cao hn gia cc dch v, nu nhng yu cu bo hiu ca mt trong s cc dch v tng t ngt. Tuy nhin ATM cng c th chu ng nhng vn tng tc, v n s dng phng thc ghp knh thng k. Sau y ta xem xt mt gii php Video trn ATM SVCs ca Cisco MC3810: Video trn ATM m rng cc kh nng ca b tp trung truy nhp a dch v Cisco MC 3810 cung cp tnh hiu qu v chi ph, nng ng, v h tr dch v hi ngh truyn hnh mt cch linh hot. S dng plug-in VDM cung cp mt giao din quay s RS-366 n b H.323 video codec, Cisco MC3810 tip nhn mt cch t ng cc yu cu quay s ra ngoi t h thng video. B codec kt ni n mt trong cc cng ni tip ca Cisco MC3810 v cng ni n cng quay s ca Cisco MC3810.

Hnh 1.8: Mt v d ng dng video trn ATM

1.7.4 Qung co theo nhu cu mua bn t xa


17

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


Nhng dng ban u ca mua hng ti nh n gin gm nhng qung co qung b kt hp vi vic t hng bng in thoi, th tn dng v gi th, vi phng thc truyn thng thng thng qua mng truyn hnh cp. Mt phng n hiu qu hn l to ra nhng chng trnh qung co ph hp cho tng i tng khch hng. iu ny c thc hin theo mt cch hn ch bng vic ln lch qung co ph hp vi ni dung chng trnh. i vi mua sm ti nh tinh vi phc tp hn, th vic pht qung b hoc pht trn din hp nhng chng trnh qung co c thay bng s truy nhp tng tc, hoc l thng qua s la chn cc ti liu qung b hoc l thng qua vic xem lt bng video cc ca hng o. Kiu mua sm ti nh ny c th c nh gi qu cao. N c th hiu qu hn cho nhng cng ty t hng bng th hin c gi i cc tp ch ca h dng a CD. Mc tnh vi phc tp tip theo, v c l dng kh thi u tin ca mua sm t xa, loi b vic phn pht bu phm bu kin. Tuy nhin vic ny s vn cn i vi hng ha vt l, v cng ngh c kh nng vn chuyn t xa nhng hng ha ny ti ch ca chng vn cha kh thi. Vic loi b phn pht bu phm bu kin tr nn kh thi trong nhng trng hp nht nh m hng ha c phn pht cha thng tin. Dch v VoD l mt dng thng tin c mua bn, mc d thng thng n khng c coi l nh vy bi v thng tin khng c lu tr. m nhc cng c th c phn pht theo cch ny, v i vi m nhc th vic lu tr nghe li sau ny c th thch hp hn, v m nhc thng c nghe li thng xuyn hn cc chng trnh video. Tuy nhin, trong c hai trng hp vic truyn d liu i lu tr v nghe hoc xem li sau thng d hn l pht d liu i hin th ch thi gian thc, v nhng tr ngi v tr v hin tng trt s t hn.

1.7.5 Cc dch v internet


Nhng dch v c bn c internet cung cp l th in t gia nhng ngi s dng, truy nhp t xa vo cc my tnh khc, v truyn file n hoc t cc my ch. c bit, internet cho php truy nhp thc hin truyn thng ton cu vi chi ph ca mt cuc gi in thoi ni ht ti my ch, v chi ph thm ch cn t hn nu ngi s dng c ni trc tip vi my ch. Th in t cng l dch v c s dng ph bin rng ri bi v n nhanh v cho php truyn i vn bn hoc cc ti liu c m ha ph hp gia cc my tnh khc nhau. Vi s pht trin cc ng lin kt siu vn bn v vic to ra World-Wide Web (www) v nhng trnh duyt tinh vi, lm cho internet tr nn d truy cp hn vi nhng ngi bnh thng. S tng trng ca lu lng internet phn no l do nhng ngi mi s dng mun khm ph internet, cn nhng ngi ang s dng c th thay i phng thc lm vic nn s dng nhiu hn. Nhng yu t ny cng c th c tng ln bi tnh d s dng ca nhng cng c c tnh thn thin vi ngi dng.

1.7.6

Hc t xa

Hc t xa l mt thut ng chung dng ch vic s dng vin thng cho gio dc. N thng c mt yu cu truyn dn bt i xng tng t nh VoD, v cn truyn nhiu thng tin ti cc ngi hc hn l nhng thng tin nhn t h. dng n gin nht, hc t xa khng cn g nhiu hn VoD vi mt ni dung c tnh gio dc. Mt dng tinh vi phc tp hn s cho php truyn cc bi ging ch thi gian thc n ngi hc v cung cp cho h kh nng a ra 18

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


nhng cu hi thng qua in thoi hi ngh nh l h ang c mt trong cng mt phng hc. Ty thuc vo s trin khai, c th tt hn nu cc cu hi a ra c nh vo my hn l ni, v m thanh hi ngh t ra nhng kh khn cho cc mng my tnh. Truyn thng tng tc c vit ra c thm nhng u im l d iu khin hn v to ra nhng bng ghi xem li sau ny. Bng thng yu cu cho mt bi ging hoc mt bi trnh by t hn bng thng yu cu cho mt dch v VoD, v thng tin c trnh by khng thay i nhanh chng. Mt quy tc i vi ngi trnh by l cho php 2 pht cho mi slide ni v ch ra nhng kha cnh quan trng bng mt con tr. Bng thng cho vic ny nh hn t nht hai ln so vi bng thng cho video thng thng. Nhng tc d liu c th d dng cung cp c bng mt tuyn truyn dn ISDN bng hp. Cng ngh c bn truyn cc bi ging cho mt phm vi hp ngi s dng c th nghim qua internet, v nhng loi modem tinh vi phc tp hn s cho php cung cp hc tp t xa thm ch thng qua truy cp internet trn nhng ng dy tng t hin c.

1.7.7 Cc dch v cnh bo


Cc dch v cnh bo c th c c trng bi tnh tng t vi cc dch v khn bo cng an, cu ha v cp cu. Dch v cnh bo pht hin trm khc vi nhng dch v cnh bo cu ha v cp cu, v nhng tn trm c th lm mt tc dng ca cnh bo ny. Cc tnh hung cu ha v cp cu khng c gng lm mt tc dng ca dch v h tr cho cnh bo. Mt dch v cnh bo phi pht ra mt tn hiu cnh bo nu truyn thng b mt hoc b can nhiu, v n cn phi pht hin s lc li tm kim ca nhng tn trm. iu ny cng hu ch cho cp cu v cu ha, v la c th lm cho cc thit b truyn thng khng hot ng c, v s mt ng truyn thng c th gy nguy hi n sinh mng ca con ngi trong trng hp cn c cp cu y t. Mt trong nhng vn ln nht i vi cp cu v cu ha l vic xy ra nhng cnh bo sai. c bit, mt s ngi s dng cnh bo y t ch th chng m khng ch n hu qu xy ra. iu ny c chn li bng mt th tc xc nhn chc chn. V d, gi in cho ngi s dng khng nh rng cnh bo l c tht. Tuy nhin, vic xc nhn li nh vy gy ra chm tr m c th l mm mng ca cc tnh hung cp cu v cu ha, cng nh b phn tc dng nu vic chm tr cho php k t nhp bt gi ngi s dng . Nhng tn trm cng c th ch ng to ra mt dng cnh bo sai lm chm tr thm cho nhng ngi c trch nhim khi nhng cnh bo thc xy ra. Trong nhng tnh hung cc oan, chng thm ch c th tn cng mng truyn thng sao cho mc tiu c th ca chng khng b pht hin. trnh nhng vn nu trn ngi ta s dng truyn thng v tuyn c bo v chng nhiu. Cc h thng v tuyn ny thch hp cho cc cnh bo y t di ng v d dnntong lp t.

1.7.8 Cc dch v trang vng


Cc dch v trang vng dng nh c nhng yu cu v bng thng cao nht trong tt c cc dch v vin hnh, v chng lin quan n vic trnh by thng tin ti khch hng. Chng khc vi gii php thng thng dng cho mua sm ti nh l dch v c ngun gc t video qung b. Cc dch v trang vng in t c th lm chi tit hn phng php trang vng trn giy thng thng, v chng c th cung cp nhiu thng tin hn bng nhng sn phm c th. Kiu truyn thng ny cn cho php a vo phng thc bn l khng cn kho cha hng, ngi bn l 19

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


c th x l n t hng v sau t mt t cc n t hng vi kho ca ngi phn phi chnh, nh ngi bn l khng gi mt kho hng vt l.

1.7.9 Cc dch v cho nhu cu thit yu


Cc dch v vin hnh yu cu cho cc nhu cu thit yu (gas, nc, in, v vin thng) cn c xem khc vi cc sn phm khc c bn cho khch hng, v chng yu cu bng thng thp hn v h tr cho cc chc nng khc nhau. Chc nng hin nhin l c cng-t t xa, v iu ny trnh c chi ph c nhn vin n tn ni lm vic ny. N cn c th h tr lp ha n trc tip. Dch v ny khuyn khch vic thanh ton cc ha n ngay lp tc v v th li tc tit kim c l mt ng c mnh cho cc cng ty tin ch. Lp ha n in t trc tip c th cn r hn so vi phng php lp ha n thng thng, v khng cn gi ha n bng ng th. Cn n gin hn na nu vic thanh ton cng c thc hin theo phng thc in t. Tht mu thun khi chnh cc nh khai thc vin thng khng tn dng s tit kim ny gim chi ph ca h trong vic lp ha n cc ph cho khch hng. Cn c nhng u im i vi vic qun l nhu cu v cc mt hng (dch v) tin ch, c bit i vi in, v kh c th lu tr c in. Vic qun l nhu cu c th t c bng vic iu khin trc tip s tiu th nh dch v vin hnh hoc l bng iu khin gin tip thng qua vic thng bo v nhng thay i cc ph. Phng n sau c th c tch hp vi mt iu khin thng minh t ti cc gia nh, n c th tnh ton sao cho vic mua bn thi im no l c li cho khch hng nht.

1.8 CC TIU CHUN


Mt vi t chc tiu chun sau y chu trch nhim v s pht trin cc tiu chun truy nhp.

1.8.1 ADSL/VDSL
Tiu ban T1E1: T1E1 l mt hi vin ca Vin tiu chun quc gia Hoa K (ANSI). Trong c cc nhm: 1. T1E1.1 2. T1E1.2 3. T1E1.3 4. T1E1.4 5. T1E1.5 6. T1E1.7 7. T1E1.8 Cc truy nhp vt l v cc truy nhp tng t Truy nhp bng rng Truy nhp in v quang Truy nhp DSL Cc h thng ngun Bo an v in Bo v vt l v thit k

ADSL Forum: Din n v ADSL ra i cui nm 1994 nhm h tr cc cng ty in thoi. Cc ng dng ca n em n mt tim nng th trng ADSL to ln. Vi gn 300 thnh vin, trong c cc thnh vin ch o v cc lnh vc vin thng, networking, v cng ngh thng tin. Din n ADSL c chia thnh 7 nhm: 1. ATM over ADSL 2. Packet over ADSL 3. Giao tip v cu hnh CPE/CO 20

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


4. Operations 5. Qun tr mng 6. o th v tng tc hot ng 7. H tr nhm nghin cu VDSL

1.8.2 Cable Modem/HFC


Cc t chc tiu chun, din n, v hip hi sau y chun ha cable modems trn nn HFC: 1. SCTE 2. MCSN 3. IEEE 802.14 4. CableLabs 5. ATM Forum 6. DAVIC

1.8.3 DOCIS
D n DOCIS i din cho cable industry system operations, cung cp dch v cho phn ln thu bao cp Bc M. D n DOCIS cung cp cc c trng giao tip cho cable modems v lin kt cc thit b trn nn HFC. M hnh tham chiu cho d liu trn h thng cp c thit lp, n bao gm cc phn t truyn thng s cng nh cc hot ng cn thit v cc phn t h tr trong thng mi nh lit k sau y: Bo v, cu hnh, thc hin, li mng, k ton v qun tr.

1.8.4 IEEE 802.14


Nhm IEEE 802.14 to ra 3 nhm ph : PHY SWG, MAC SWG, v kin trc SWG. PHY SWG: c y nhim pht trin tiu chun cho lp vt l ca cable modem. Cng b ca h nhm m rng s m ha iu ch, trong cng phi ti u ha tc truyn bit, hiu qu, BER, v kh nng h tr trn MAC a truy nhp theo Tree-branching c ly xa c nhiu ngi s dng. MAC SWG: c y nhim pht trin tiu chun cho lp MAC ca cable modem. Kin trc SWG: c giao nhim v gim st cc lin kt, tng tc hot ng bn trong, v cc giao tip chc nng gia MAC SWG v PHY SWG. Kin trc SWG cng c pht trin trn m hnh tham chiu OSI cho cable modem v kin trc dch v phn lp ca n da trn MAC v PHY.

1.8.5 CableLabs
CableLabs thc hin cc d n R&D do cc thnh vin ch nh hoc cc nhm thnh vin, v cng chuyn giao cc cng ngh c lin quan n cc thnh vin ca n. CableLabs cng tc vi computer industry pht trin cc mng cp s HFC. T chc ca CableLabs c xy dng xung quanh cc hot ng nh sau: Truyn hnh tin tin: ph trch cc cng ngh truyn hnh mi (nn hnh, HDTV). Cc d n, cng ngh, hot ng: ph trch ton b hot ng c lin quan n ban hnh cc mng CATV. 21

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp


u t v thit k kin trc mng: ph trch vic thit k kin trc mi (PCS, SONET, hubs, ...). Ging nh Bellcore, CableLabs khng l thnh vin ca ANSI. Do vy nhim v ca CableLabs khng to ra cc tiu chun, nhng cc i l s dng CableLabs kim tra s ph hp khi tip cn cc vn k thut cng nh cc tiu chun i vi th trng CATV.

1.8.6 ATM Forum


ATM Forum c thnh lp nm 1991, l mt t chc quc t phi li nhun nhm mc ch thc y vic s dng cc sn phm v dch v ATM nh vo s hi t nhanh ca cc c tnh k thut c tnh lin kt hot ng c vi nhau. Nm 2004, ATM Forum lin kt vi MPLS v Frame Relay hnh thnh nn MFA Forum. ATM Forum khng lin kt vi bt k t chc tiu chun no. C mt vi MOU thit lp nn nh l ITU, IETF, v cc t chc khc. ATM Forum cng hnh thnh ra RBB Working Group vo thng 2 nm 1995. Nhm ny c c trch l a ATM n tn nh ca ngi s dng. ATM Forum cn c cc nhm lm vic khc, bao gm 14 nhm sau y: 1. SIG 2. SAA 3. TM 4. B-ICI 5. PNNI 6. NM 7. RBB 8. MPOA 9. PHY 10. LANE 11. Testing 12. Security 13. VTOA 14. WATM P-T-P v P-T-M Siganaling Point-to-multipoint Services appects and application Traffic management Interoffice interface ; +PNNI/B-ICI IW Private NNI interface specifications Network Management (M4, M5 interface specifications) Residential Broadband services Multiprotocol Over ATM Physical Layer LAN Emulation Testing (PICS) Security Voice Telephone Over ATM Wireless ATM

22

GII THIU
Mng cp ni ht v ang ng mt vai tr quan trng trong mng thng tin lin lc ni chung v mng truy nhp ni ring. Cc vn cu to ca dy dn, kt cu ca mt si cp c nhng nh hng quyt nh n cht lng thng tin lin lc. Tn hiu truyn trn cc i dy trong si cp khng ch c tn s thp nh tn hiu in thoi truyn thng, m cn c cc tn hiu tn s cao, tc ln ca cng ngh ng dy thu bao s. Do , cn phi xem xt cc nh hng ca tn hiu tn s cao nh cc hiu ng b mt dy dn, hiu ng ln cn, hiu ng kim loi, S pht trin phong ph cc dch v vin thng i hi cc thnh phn thit b mng truy nhp a dng hn rt nhiu, t cp kim loi i xng, cp ng trc, cp quang, v tuyn v cc thit b u cui nh in thoi truyn thng, cc u cui s, my tnh, v cc u cui a phng tin khc. Vn bo dng o th mng truy nhp cng yu cu k thut cao hn c th duy tr hot ng tt cc dch v.

23

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

2.1 CP KIM LOI I XNG


2.1.1 Kt cu cp i xng
Kt cu ca mt si cp ty thuc vo yu cu khai thc, mi trng lp t m c rt nhiu dng khc nhau. Nhng chung qui c cc yu cu sau: nh. Cp i xng c s dng truyn tn hiu m thanh, hnh nh, hoc d liu. Chng gm hai si bc cch in xon li vi nhau. Nhn chung cp i xng c ba phn t kt cu c bn l: Dy dn. Cht cch in gia cc dy dn. V chng m. Bn vng v c hc v ha hc. Truyn dn tt, t tiu hao nng lng tn hiu, c kh nng chng xuyn nhiu gia cc mch cao, chng c s nh hng xuyn nhiu t cc ngun ngoi lai. Tn t nguyn vt liu, nht l kim loi mu. D thi cng lp t, s dng v bo qun. m bo c cc yu cu trn l do kt cu cng nh k thut ch to si cp quyt

Ngoi ra ty thuc vo ch khai thc v mi trng t cp m cn c: V gia cng, lp bao che in t.

2.1.1.1

Kt cu dy dn

Dy dn c mt yu cu c bn l phi dn in tht tt, ngha l in tr cng nh cng tt, song yu cu cng phi dung ha vi mt iu kin khc l s dng vt d kim v r tin. Chnh v vy m ng l kim loi lm dy dn rt ph hp. Trong ch to c hai loi dy ng l cng v mm. Dy rut cp u c cu trc hnh tr trn, vi yu cu ng knh phi u mt ngoi phi nhn. Ty theo yu cu s dng m ng knh dy dn c cc c khc nhau t 0,4 mm n 1,4 mm, nhng thng dng nht l c 0,4 mm hoc 0,5 mm cho ng dy in thoi trong thnh ph. Cu trc dy dn cng ty thuc vo yu cu s dng, c th c cc loi sau y: dy dn c v trn, dy dn bn, dy dn lng kim, v dy dn c nhiu si xon quanh mt si to gia (hnh 2.1)

Hnh 2.1: Cu trc dy dn ca rut cp

24

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

2.1.1.2

Cht cch in

Khi ch to cht cch in cho dy dn, cc nh ch to tp trung quan tm n cc yu t sau: Cht cch in tiu hao nng lng tn hiu nhiu hay t, v do c ly thng tin c rt ngn hay ko di. c bit i vi cp truyn tn hiu cao tn th yu t ny cng quan trng. in tr ca cht cch in cng ln th thnh phn dng in r gia hai dy dn gn nhau s cng b. Ngi ta mong mun cht cch in c in tr bng v cng ln, nhng thc t rt kh thc hin c. in p xuyn thng ( E ): cht cch in cng chu c mt in p cng ln, chng t vt liu cng bn vng v in. in tr sut ( ): thng s ny c trng cho mc chuyn i cc ion trong cht in mi. in tr sut cng ln th mc chuyn di cc ion cng nh, l iu ta mong mun. Hng s thm thu ca in mi ( ): thng s ny c trng cho dy ca lp in mi b phn cc trn b mt ca n khi c tc dng ca trng in t. Lng tiu hao ( tg ): i lng ny biu hin s tiu tn nng lng ca trng vo vic xoay chuyn cc phn t lng cc in ri khi v tr ban u ca n. Trong l gc chuyn di , cng ln chng t cc phn t lng cc in c xoay mt gc ln, ngha l tiu hao nng lng trng cng nhiu. Cc thng s E , , , v tg ni trn dng lm tiu chun chn dng cht cch in cho tng loi cp theo yu cu s dng ca n. Trong ch to ngi ta thng dng cc vt liu cch in nh: polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), si thin nhin, t nhn to, giy. Cc kt hp ca nhng vt liu ny thnh thong cng c s dng. Mt s kt hp c bit l gia cc lp cch in c bm khng kh, bi v ta bit rng khng kh l mi cht cch in rt tt. Vic chn la cht cch in no khng ch nh hng n kch thc vt l ca si cp m cn quyt nh n hai trong bn c tnh in ca si cp, l in dung (C) v in dn (G). in dung (C) khng ch ph thuc vo vt liu cch in m cn ph thuc vo dy ca lp cch in. Cn in dn (G) ch c quan tm khi truyn tn hiu tn s cao. Tuy nhin, cc tn s nh vy th in dn cng gp phn ng k vo suy hao ca cp. Cht cch in c nh hng trc tip n tc lan truyn ca tn hiu trong mt mch dy. Thi gian truyn tn hiu t im ny n im kia trong mch dy c gi l tr lan truyn, khc vi tr lan truyn gia cc i dy trong mt si cp, c bit nh l lch ca tr.

2.1.1.3

V chng m v gia cng

V chng m c th lm bng kim loi hoc nha. Cp hin nay c v chng m l nha dai, bn. dy lp v chng m ty thuc vo loi cp v kch thc cp. Ni chung khi chn 25

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


la vt liu lm v chng m cho cp phi da trn c s: kh nng lm phng b mt, kh nng chu ng thi tit, tnh bc chy, kh nng mu sc, kh nng in n. tn s cao, v bc ngoi cng gy ra lm phin toi cho cp. C th tham kho vi vt liu lm v bc ngoi bng sau y: Vt liu
PVC Polyethylene Polypropylene FlamarrestTM TeflonTM

Kh nng mu sc
Xut sc Tt Tt Tt Kh tt

Kh nng lm phng b mt
Tt Rt tt Rt tt Kh tt Xut sc

Tnh bc chy
Kh kh Rt kh Rt kh Rt d Rt d

Kh nng in n
Xut sc Tt Tt Xut sc Rt xu

Gi thnh
Thp-trung bnh Trung bnh Trung bnh Trung bnh cng Cao

c th t cp nhng mi trng nh vch ni , di lng sng, lng t v bin, th cp cn phi c thm mt lp v nha, l v gia cng. C ba loi v gia cng (hnh 2.2) thch ng vi mi trng t cp khc nhau l: - Loi qun hai bng st l (a): cp c gia cng nh vy ch yu chn trc tip di lng t. - Loi qun bng cc si st dt (b): cp c gia cng nh vy dng t nhng ni hay b chn ng mnh v nhng sn ni khng th chn xung c, hoc chn theo sn i dc 450 tr xung. - Loi qun bng cc si st trn (c): cp c gia cng nh vy dng th di nc.

Hnh 2.2: Kt cu v gia cng ca cp

2.1.1.4

Mng bao che

Bn cnh vic xon dy, chng ta cn bo v tn hiu trnh b nhiu bi cc i dy bn cnh, hoc tn hiu, nhiu t bn ngoi xm nhp vo. C ba loi mng bao che c bn l: xon c, bn, v bng kim loi. C su l do khi la chn mng bao che: Mc bao ph (coverage). mm do (Flexibility). bn khi phi un nn nhiu ln (Flex life). Tm tn s hot ng (Frequency range). Nhiu in ma st (Triboelectric noise). Xuyn knh gia cc i dy (Multipair crosstalk).

26

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


C ba cch bao che c bn trong si cp l: phn i (a), theo lp (b), v theo chm (c).

Hnh 2.3: cc dng sp xp mng bao che

2.1.1.5

Nhng quy lut xp t b dy rut cp

Mt vn rt quan trng l cu trc ca li cp, cc i dy trong si cp phi c sp t sao cho lm nh tit din si cp, d dng nhn bit, hn ch n mc thp nht nh hng ca trng in t ca dng in tn hiu gia mch dy ny vi mch dy khc, t gim nh c xuyn nhiu. sp xp c qui lut, ngi ta thc hin nhm dy. C bn cch nhm dy c bn (hnh2.4) l: nhm xon i (a), nhm xon hnh sao (b), nhm xon i kp (c), v nhm xon sao kp (d).

Hnh 2.4: Mt ct ca cc kiu xon dy c bn trong cp

Khi nhm dy nh vy th ng knh ca cc nhm xon c tnh nh sau: ng knh dy dn k c cht cch in

d1 = d0 1 +
Vi: d0

0 g1 1 g0

[mm]

(2.1)

ng knh dy kim loi [mm] t trng ca vt liu lm dy dn t trng ca vt liu cch in trng lng ca dy dn kim loi trn n v di trng lng ca cht cch in trn n v di

0
1
g0
g1

ng knh nhm xon i Ta c: Di= d1 + bd, m bd = x nn: Di= d1 + x Ta c: d12 = 2x2 , suy ra: x = d1/ 2 Suy ra: Di= d1 + d1/ 2 =1,71 d1

27

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


ng knh nhm xon sao 4 si

ng knh nhm xon i kp Ta c: Di kp = 1,71 Di=1,71.( 1,71 d1) = 2,92 d1 ng knh nhm xon sao kp Ta c: Dsao kp= 2,41Di= 1,71 (2,41d1) = 4,12 d1 Trn y ch mi cp n kt cu ca nhm dy c bn. Ta cn phi xem xt s sp xp cc nhm dy c bn y trong b dy rut cp. C bn loi sp xp cc nhm dy c bn sau y: ng nht theo chm: Cc nhm dy c bn xon chung mt dng theo tng chm, chng hn tt c xon i, hoc tt c xon hnh sao thnh tng chm. Trong mi chm bao gm t 50 n 100 nhm c bn, mi nhm trong chm c xon theo bc xon khc nhau. Loi sp xp ny thng dng cho cp c dung lng ln. ng nht theo lp: Cc nhm dy c bn xon chung mt dng theo tng lp, chng hn tt c xon i, hoc tt c xon hnh sao thnh tng lp. Loi sp xp ny c qui lut hn. Ty vo dung lng cp m n bao gm lp trung tm v nhiu lp pha ngoi. Cng ra ngoi s nhm trong lp cng ln. Hai lp st nhau c xon ngc chiu nhau. Hn hp theo chm: Cc nhm dy c bn va c loi xon i va c loi xon sao, c xon vi nhau thnh tng chm. Hn hp theo lp: Cc nhm dy c bn va c loi xon i va c loi xon sao, c xon vi nhau theo lp.

2.1.2

Xon dy trong cp ng

2.1.2.1

i dy xon nguyn bn

Vo nm 1877, Alexander Bell ni in thoi qua ng dy st n v ly t lm ng v ca mch in. Phng php ny truyn dn rt km khi kh hu kh ko di. Sau vn ny c gii quyt bng cch s dng i dy trn cng song song cch nhau vi cm. Phng php ny cung cp ng tr v ca tn hiu in tin cy hn. Tuy nhin, khi ng pht hin ra hin tng xuyn m, v cng bit c rng xuyn m c th gim theo chu k bng cch thay i v tr bn phi v bn tri ca dy dn. Bell pht minh ra i dy xon vi nhau. Vi bc xon va , nng lng in t trng trn mi phn nh ca dy b trit tiu bi nng lng bao quanh phn nh ca dy tip theo. 28

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Khi thit k cp vin thng, ngi ta trnh chn si cp c hai i c bc xon bng nhau trong nhm 25 i cp. Vic xon dy ny ci thin ng k s mt cn bng in dung v hiu ng in t trng, lm ti thiu nhiu v xuyn knh c hi. iu ny i hi ngi thit k cp phi quan tm c bit n vic xon ca cc i dy.

2.1.2.2

H s xon

Sau khi xon, di thc t ca si dy ln hn khi cha xon. V th m cc tham s in kh ca mch dy c s thay i. tnh ton cc tham s sau ny cho chnh xc, ta cn xc nh h s xon. H s xon cng ni ln di thc ca mch tng ln bao nhiu ln so vi di ca cp. xc nh h s xon, ta gi thit, c mt si dy qun theo trc qun, trc ny c ng knh D1. Ta dng hai mt phng ct, ct vung gc vi trc qun ti hai im khi u v kt thc ca mt bc xon. Kt qu l tit din ct i vi trc xon l hnh trn, i vi dy qun l hnh elip. Sau dng mt mt phng ct khc b dc trc qun (mt phng ny vung gc vi hai mt phng trc), v tri mt ct ny trn mt phng, ta c hnh v sau: Trong :

L
H D1

l di dy qun ca mt bc xon. l di bc xon. ng knh trc xon. l gc hp gia dy qun trong mt bc xon vi mt phng ct ti im kt thc bc xon.

T hnh v ta c:

sin =

d1 H = 2 2 b H + (D1 + d1 )2
H 2 + 2 (D1 + d1 )2 H2

(2.2)

Suy ra:

b = d1

t: K =

H 2 + 2 (D1 + d1 )2 v gi l h s xon. H2
2

(2.3)

Nh vy ng knh ln ca tit din dy dn (hnh elip) l b=Kd1, cn di thc t dy dn qun trong bc xon l: L = H 2 + 2 (D1 + d1 ) = KH (2.4)

Nu mt nhm hai dy xon vi nhau th trc xon ca n c th hnh dung nh mt nt mnh n mc ng knh ca n khng ng k, v lc : K =

L = 1,01 1,07 H

2.1.2.3

Bc cn bng

Trong mt b dy c nhiu mch nn nhiu i dy c bc xon trng nhau, m bc xon trng nhau th kt qu chng xuyn nhiu gia chng khng cn tc dng. Cho nn trn thc 29

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


t: c hai mch gn nhau, xon theo bc xon no , chng hn nhm mt xon theo bc xon h1, nhm hai xon theo bc xon h2. Nu cc bc xon tha mn iu kin:

LS =

h1 .h2 ; D

x=

h1 + h2 D

(2.5)

Trong : D l c s chung ln nht ca h1, h2, x l mt s nguyn l, v L S =

1 = . Vi l 8

bc sng tn hiu c tn s cao nht. Nh vy s m bo cho hai mch st nhau nh hng qua li l t nht, hay ni xon dy nh vy c hiu qu nht. di LS c gi l on cn bng. Ta xt mt v d sau y:

T hnh v, ta c mch mt c bc xon h1= 40mm, mch hai c bc xon h2= 50mm. Do c s chung ln nht ca 40 v 50 l D=10. Vy di on cn bng L S = v x =

40.50 = 200 10

40 + 50 = 9 l s nguyn l; xon nh th l tt. 10 Cc tham s truyn dn ca mch dy cp

2.1.3

2.1.3.1

S tng ng ca mch dy cp

Cht lng truyn dn trn mch dy cp thng tin v c tnh in kh ca n c trng bi cc tham s : in tr (R), t cm (L), in dung gia hai dy (C), v in dn cch in gia hai dy (G). Cc tham s ny khng ph thuc vo in p v dng in, m ch c xc nh thng qua kt cu mch, vt liu ch to v tn s ca dng in m thi. V ngha vt l, cc tham s mch dy cp tng t nh cc tham s ca mt mch dao ng c hnh thnh bi cc phn t R, G v L,C. Ch khc ch l cc tham s ca mch dao ng th tp trung. Cn mch dy cp cc tham s R, L, C, G phn b trn mi im ca mch. Hnh v sau y l s tng ng ca mch dy cp bao gm cc tham s trn.

Hnh 2.5 : S tng ng ca mch dy cp

30

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


y l s tng ng ca mt on ngn mch dy cp, v trn on y ta gi thit s phn b cc i lng R, L, C, G l u n. Trong cc tham s R v L phn b lin tc theo chiu dc ca mch v hnh thnh tng tr khng: Z=R+jL Cn cc tham s G v C hnh thnh tng dn np ngang: Y=G+jC Khi truyn tn hiu trn mch dy, do c s tn ti ca tr khng dc v dn np ngang m in p cng nh dng in gim dn t u mch in n cui mch. Do , cng sut ca tn hiu cui ng dy nh hn cng sut u ra ca my pht. Trong bn tham s R, L, C, G th phn t gy ra tiu hao nng lng tn hiu chnh l R v G, nhng phn t cn li c c trng bi kho in v kho t, n tch t nng lng in t v sau li tr v ngun, cho nn L v C thng c coi l phn t tch phng nng lng. R c trng cho s tiu hao nng lng trong dy dn v nhng kim loi k cn. G c trng cho s tiu hao nng lng trong cht in mi. Bn tham s trn y c th coi n c trng y v bn cht ca mt mch dy.

2.1.3.2

Mch dy ng nht v khng ng nht

Ni chung v khi nim mch dy ng nht v khng ng nht c mt v tr c bit khi ta nghin cu s truyn dn tn hiu in trn mt mch dy. Khi nim v s ng nht c ngha hp l s phn b cc tham s u n trn mi im ca mch. Ngoi ra cn hiu khi nim l iu kin kt cu ca b dy rut, ngha l mi si dy li c cng chung mt iu kin in kh nh nhau hay khng. Khi nim ng nht cn c mt nh ngha khc l : mt mch dy ng nht khi tr khng ca ngun bng tr khng sng ca mch v bng tr khng ti. Ngc li vi nhng khi nim l mch dy khng ng nht.

2.1.3.3

C s ca phng trnh mch dy ng nht

Ta hy nghin cu mt mch cp ng nht thng qua cc tham s R, L, C, G ca n.

Tr khng ngun l Z0, tr khng ti l ZL, in p v dng in u mch l U0 v I0, in p v dng in cui mch l UL v IL. T hnh v ta ly mt on mch v cng ngn l dx. Cch im u ca mch l x. Dng in truyn qua phn t mch dx l I v in p trn hai dy dn l U. T st p trn on dx l:

31

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Dng hao ht trn on dx l:

dU = I (R + j L ) dx

(2.6)

dI = U (G + jC ) dx
d 2U dI (R + j L ) = dx dx2

(2.7)

Gii phng trnh (2.6) theo I ri thay gi tr I tm c vo phng trnh (2.7), ta c:

Thay gi tr ca

(2.8)

dI t (2.7) vo phng trnh (2.8) ta c: dx

t: Vy:

d 2U = U (R + jL)(G + jC ) dx 2 = (R + jL)(G + jC ) d 2U = 2 .U 2 dx

(2.9)

(2.10)

Gii phng trnh vi phn cp hai (2.10), ta s c nghim ca n c dng tng qut l:

U = Aex + Bex
Ly o hm hai v theo x, ta c:

(2.11)

dU = Ae x Be x dx = (Aex Bex )
Thay (2.12) vo phng trnh (2.6), ta nhn c:

(2.12)

I (R + jL) = (Aex Bex )


Hoc k hiu:

ZB =
th:

R + jL R + jL = G + jC

(2.13)

IZ B = Aex + Bex
n y ta c hai phng trnh vi hai n s A v B nh sau:

(2.14)

U = Aex + Bex IZ B = Aex + Bex

(2.15)

tm A v B ta li dng gi tr dng v p u mch (khi x=0) l I0 v U0, t phng trnh (2.15) c vit:

U 0 = A+ B I 0 ZB = A+ B
32

(2.16)

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Suy ra:

A=

U 0 I 0 ZB
2

; B=

U 0 I 0 ZB
2

(2.17)

Thay (2.17) vo (2.15) ta c:

U=

U 0 I 0 ZB

2 2 U I Z U +I Z I = 0 0 B e x + 0 0 B e x 2 2

e x +

U 0 + I 0 ZB

e x

Thc hin bin i hai phng trnh trn vi ch rng:

2 e e x shx = 2 Ta s nhn c in p Ux v Ix ti mt im bt k x no ca mch:


x

chx =

e x + e x

U x = U 0 chx I 0 Z B shx U I x = I 0 chx 0 shx ZB


cui mch tc l khi x=1 th:

(2.18)

U 1 = U 0 ch 1 I 0 Z B sh 1 U I1 = I 0 ch 1 0 sh 1 ZB
Gii phng trnh (2.19) theo U0 v I0, ta li c:

(2.19)

U 0 = U 1ch 1 + I1 Z B sh 1 U I 0 = I1ch 1 1 sh 1 ZB

(2.20)

Cc phng trnh (2.18), (2.19), (2.20) cho ta quan h gia dng v p vi cc tham s R,L, C, G hoc vi v ZB. Qua , cho php xc nh c in p v dng in ti im bt k ca mch, ty thuc vo in p v dng in u ca mch . Cc phng trnh ng vi trng hp tr khng ca ngun v ti l bt k (Z0 v Z1). Khi c s phi hp tc l khi Z0=Z1=ZB v U0/I0=U1/I1=ZB, th cc phng trnh (2.18), (2.19), (2.20) c dng n gin nh sau:

U x = U 0 e x I x = I 0 e x

U 0 = U 1e 1 I 0 = I 1e 1
U 1 = U 0 e 1 I1 = I 0 e x

(2.21)

33

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


T (2.21) ta c th suy ra dng hay dng hn c l:

U 0 x e v U1

I 0 x e I1

(2.22)

Nu li p dng cng thc P=UI th t (2.22), ta li suy ra:

P0 = e 2 1 P1

(2.23)

Nh vy khi xt mch dy ng nht ta ln lt nhn c cc phng trnh (2.18), (2.19), (2.20) trong trng hp tr khng ngun v ti l bt k. Cn cc phng trnh (2.21), (2.22), (2.23) l trng hp tr khng ngun bng tr khng sng v bng tr khng ti. ng thi chng ta cng rt ra mt kt lun l: t cc phng trnh dn ra chng t rng s truyn dn nng lng trn ng dy th dng v p ti im bt k trn mch do hai tham s ch yu ZL v ZB quyt nh, m hai tham s ny li ph thuc vo cc tham s R, L, C, G. Hay ni cch khc chng ph thuc vo cc tham s R, L, C, G.

2.1.3.4

Nhng hin tng hiu ng khi truyn dng in cao tn

Hin tng hiu ng mt ngoi: i vi mt dy dn c lp, khi truyn dng in tn s cao th mt dng in ngy cng dn ra pha mt ngoi (dy dn hnh tr) trong khi tm dy dn mt rt nh. Tn s cng cao th mt dng in tm dy dn hu nh khng c. Hin tng nh vy gi l hin tng hiu ng mt ngoi. l gii hin tng ny, ta xt dy dn nh hnh trn. I l dng chy trong dy dn. Di tc dng ca t trng H, pht sinh cc dng xoy. pha trc ca dy dn, dng xoy ngc chiu vi dng dn I , cn pha mt ngoi th chng cng chiu. Do , mt dng in I c phn b tp trung ra pha ngoi, cn tm dy dn th mt dng nh. Khi tn s cng cao, th hin tng ny xy ra cng mnh, kt qu l tit din dn in hu hiu ca dy dn xem nh b gim i. Hin tng hiu ng ln cn: Xt hai dy dn hnh tr song song gn nhau, cng truyn dng in cao tn th mt dng in li phn b tp trung v pha hai dy dn gn nhau, pha hai dy dn xa nhau th mt dng in nh. xt hin tng vt l ca hiu ng ln cn ta xut pht t hnh bn. Khi dng in chy trn hai dy dn c chiu nh hnh v, t trng H do dng trn dy a gy ra, to nhng dng xoy Ibm trn dy b. pha gn dy dn a, dng xoy Ibm cng chiu vi dng chy I, pha xa chng c chiu ngc nhau. Kt qu l pha gn dy a, dng in l I+Ibm, pha xa dy a dng in l I-Ibm. Do , mt dng khi c hiu ng ln cn tp trung v pha hai dy dn gn nhau. 34

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Khi hai dy dn c dng in ngc chiu v cng chiu th qua hiu ng ln cn ta c th biu din s phn b mt dng in trn tng dy dn nh m t trong hnh sau:

Hin tng hiu ng kim loi: Trn si dy dn truyn a dng in cao tn, th chung quanh dy dn y c mt trng bin i. Trong phm vi khng gian nht nh xung quanh n, nu ta t nhng vt dn, th lp tc trn cc vt dn t vo s c nhng dng in xoy xut hin do tng tc ca ng sc t. Nhng dng in xoy y tiu tn i di dng nhit.

2.1.3.5

in tr
2 d0 pG (Kr ) a [/Km] R = 2 R0 x 1 + F (Kr ) + 2 d0 1 H (Kr ) a

Trong : d0=2r a x p R0 ng knh dy dn [mm] khong cch gia hai dy trong mt mch [mm] h s xon (1,011,07) tiu hao ph thm do xon dy. Khi xon i p=1 ; sao p=5 ; i kp p=2 in tr ca dy dn i vi dng mt chiu

Trong tnh ton ngi ta thng p dng cng thc:

R0 =
Trong : l S

l [] S

in tr sut [.mm2/m]. nhit 200C, vi dy ng: =0,01754; i vi dy nhm : =0,0291. di dy dn [m] tit din dy dn [mm2]

i vi dy dn hnh tr th S =

.d 0 2
4

; d0 l ng knh dy kim loi [mm]

i vi mch hai dy th cng thc tnh in tr mt chiu l: R0 = Sau khi xon dy th in tr mt chiu c nhn vi h s xon x.

8000

.d 0 2

[/Km]

R0 =

8000

.d 0 2

x [/Km]; x = (1,011,07)
35

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


nhit khc 200C: Rt R20

Rt = R20 [1 + (t 20)] [/Km]

l in tr nhit o l in tr 200C l h s nhit in tr vi dy ng =0,004; vi nhm =0,0037; vi st =0,0046.

2.1.3.6

t cm

Cng thc tnh t cm ca mt mch dy cp i xng:

L = 4 ln
Trong : a d0=2r

a r + Q(Kr ) 10 4 [H / Km] r

khong cch gia hai dy trong mt mch [mm] ng knh dy dn [mm] h s t thm

Tr s c cc hm F(Kr), G(Kr), H(Kr), Q(Kr),


Kr
0

F(Kr)
0

G(Kr)
0

H(Kr)
0,0417

Q(Kr)
1,0

0,1

kr 4 64
kr 4 64 kr 4 64 kr 4 64
0,00975 0,00202 0,00373 0,00632 0,01006 0,01519 0,0220 0,0306 0,0413 0,0541 0,0619 0,0863 0,1055 0,1262

0,0417

1,0

0,2

0,0417

1,0

0,3

0,0417

1,0

0,4

0,0417

1,0

0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8

0,000326 0,001 0,001 0,002 0,003 0,005 0,008 0,011 0,015 0,020 0,020 0,033 0,042 0,052

0,042 0,044 0,045 0,046 0,049 0,053 0,058 0,064 0,072 0,080 0,092 0,106 0,122 0,137

0,9998 0,9998 0,999 0,999 0,998 0,997 0,996 0,996 0,993 0,990 0,937 0,9983 0,979 0,974

36

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


1,9 2 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 2,9 3 3,2 3,4 3,6 3,8 4 4,2 4,4 4,6 4,8 5 5,2 5,4 5,6 5,8 6 6,2 6,4 6,8 7 7,4 7,8 8 9 10 11 12 0,064 0,078 0,099 0,111 0,131 0,152 0,175 0,201 0,228 0,256 0,286 0,318 0,385 0,456 0,529 0,603 0,678 0,752 0,826 0,899 0,991 1,043 1,114 1,184 1,258 1,324 1,394 1,463 1,533 1,673 1,743 1,844 2,024 2,094 2,446 2,799 3,151 3,504 0,1489 0,1724 0,1967 0,2214 0,2462 0,2708 0,2949 0,3184 0,3412 0,3632 0,3844 0,4049 0,4439 0,4807 0,5160 0,5503 0,5842 0,6179 0,6517 0,6858 0,7203 0,7550 0.7902 0,8255 0,8609 0,8962 0,9316 0,9671 1,0030 1,0730 1,1090 1,1180 1,251 1,287 1,464 1,641 1,818 1,995 0,154 0,169 0,187 0,205 0,224 0,242 0,263 0,280 0,248 0,316 0,333 0,348 0,367 0,400 0,420 0,440 0,460 0,474 0,490 0,505 0,516 0,530 0,540 0,550 0,558 0,566 0,575 0,582 0,590 0,602 0,608 0,620 0,630 0,634 0,655 0,670 0,682 0.690 0,968 0,961 0,953 0,945 0,935 0,925 0,913 0,901 0,888 0,874 0,860 0,845 0,814 0,782 0,743 0,717 0,702 0,657 0,629 0,603 0,579 0,556 0,535 0,516 0,498 0,456 0,451 0,436 0,412 0,406 0,397 0,360 0,360 0,351 0,313 0,282 0,256 0,235

2.1.3.7

in dung

in dung ca mch cp tng t nh in dung ca mt t in. mch dy cp th hai bng t chnh l hai na din tch b mt ca hai dy dn hnh tr pha gn nhau, cn in mi l cht cch in dy dn hoc khng kh. in dung c xc nh bi t s gia in tch trn in p gia hai dy. Cng thc tnh in dung nh sau:

C=x

[F / Km] a r 36 ln r

Trong : 37

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin x: a d0=2r : :


h s xon (1,011,07) khong cch gia hai dy trong mt mch [mm] ng knh dy dn [mm] h s in mi tng ng ca cht cch in l h s hiu chnh c trng cho hiu ng ln cn. Cng thc tnh h s hiu chnh ng vi xon nhm i, xon nhm sao (c mng bao che v khng mng bao che) v xon i kp nh sau:

(d i + d1 d 0 )2 a 2 = (d i + d1 d 0 )2 + a 2

sao

(d sao + d 1 d 0 )2 a 2 = (d sao + d 1 d 0 )2 + a 2
sao =
d 2 a 2 d 2 + a 2
+ d1 d 0 ) a 2
2 2

i kp

(0,65d = (0,65d

i kp i kp

+ d1 d 0 ) + a 2

Trong : ng knh dy dn [mm] d0 ng knh dy dn k c cht cch in [mm] d1 ng knh mng che chn [mm] d a khong cch gia hai dy trong mt mch [mm]

2.1.3.8

in dn cch in

in dn cch in l mt i lng c trng cho mc tiu hao nng lng tn hiu trong mi trng cht cch in. xt in dn cch in, ta hy xem mt mch gm hai dy dn nh mt t in. Kt qu xem xt, ta c cng thc tnh in dn cch in nh sau:

G = G0 + G f

[cimen / Km]

Trong : 1 : in dn cch in mt chiu (Rc: in tr cch in mt chiu) G0 =

Rc

G f = Ctg : in dn cch in xoay chiu vi tg l h s tiu hao in mi. 2.1.3.9 Tr khng c tnh
Tr khng c tnh c xc nh nh tr khng u vo i vi ng truyn dn tn hiu tng t dng chun c c ly v hn. Tr khng c tnh c hnh thnh t in dung, t cm, v in tr. Mi si cp u c tr khng c tnh ca n, gi tr ca tr khng c tnh c xc nh bi kch thc hnh hc v hng s in mi ca dy dn. Cc loi cp truyn dn c ch to t c tr khng c tnh khng i theo di ca cp. V d, nu si cp c di 30 m c tr khng c tnh l 100 th n vn l 100 khi di ca n tng ln gp i, gp ba ln ng vi mt tn s tn hiu truyn. 38

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Vic phi hp tr khng tr nn rt quan trng khi tn s cao. Vi cp UTP, ScTP c tr khng c tnh 100 15% tn s 1 MHz hoc cao hn. Vi cp STP, STP-A c tr khng c tnh 150 10% tn s 3 MHz300 MHz.

2.1.3.10

Suy gim tn hiu

Suy gim tn hiu ca ng dy l s khc nhau v t l ca cng sut ng vo v ng ra. T l ny c biu din bng gi tr decibels (dB). Tuy nhin, suy gim tn hiu ca ng dy l trng hp c bit v ch p dng khi c s phi hp tr khng gia tr khng ti v tr khng ngun vi tr khng c tnh ca i dy. i vi tt c cc u cui khc, cc php o lng v suy hao c tham chiu nh l suy hao chn vo v s ln hn gi tr suy gim tn hiu c cho trn ng truyn dn.

2.1.3.11

Suy hao di hay suy hao phn hi

Khi m tr khng ti khng phi hp vi tr khng c tnh th c mt phn nng lng tn hiu b phn hi v ngun. Suy hao ny gp phn vo suy hao chn ca ng truyn dn. Ton b nng lng phn hi lin quan n cp mt phi hp gia ti v ng truyn dn. Phi hp cng tt nng lng phn hi cng b. Cng t nng lng phn hi th nng lng tn hiu truyn n ti cng ln. Trong h thng cp, cc im kt ni khng phi hp tr khng tt cng gy ra suy hao phn hi. V d: cc u ni, cc kt cui ng dy.

2.1.3.12

Tc truyn dn s

n v c bn ca tin tc s l bit (cch gi tt ca s nh phn). N c dng biu din hai trng thi (v d: c hoc khng c dng in, ...). Mt vi bit nh vy nhm theo lut m cho trc to ra mt character. Tc bit l s lng bit tin truyn i trong mt giy. V d, trong mt giy truyn c 1000 bit, ta gi ng truyn c tc 1000 bps (bits per second). Tc baud l s lng mu tin truyn i trong mt giy. V d: 250 Bd (baud) l trong mt giy truyn i c 250 mu tin. C 16 mu tin khc nhau c s dng. Mi mu i din 4 bit tin, trong mt giy c 1000 bit tin c truyn i nhng ch c 250 mu tin c truyn. Khi ta gi ng truyn c tc bit l 1000 bps hoc tc baud l 250 baud. Baud khng c nhm ln vi bits per second (hoc bytes per second, ...). Mi mu truyn i c th c mt hoc nhiu bit tin tc (v d: 8 bits trong iu ch 256-QAM). Khi m mt mu truyn i ch c mt bit th lc tc baud bng tc bit.

2.1.3.13

Xuyn knh

Hin tng tn hiu truyn trn mt mch dy ny to ra mt hiu ng khng mong mun trn mt mch dy khc, hoc s chuyn di tn hiu t mch dy ny sang mch dy khc c gi l xuyn knh. S chuyn di ny c th xy ra gia cc i dy k cn nhau trong mt si cp. Hin tng xuyn knh s gim i khi cc i dy c xon, c s xp t cp, c lp bo v, v tnh cht cch ly ca cc i dy trong qui trnh ch to cp. Hin tng xuyn knh s tng ln khi tng tn s ca tn hiu truyn, nhng khng t l vi nhau.

39

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


C hai loi xuyn knh trong cc h thng cp kim loi. Xuyn knh u gn (NEXT-Near End Crosstalk) l mc tn hiu ca i dy gy xuyn knh so snh vi tn hiu trn i dy b xuyn knh cng mt pha u gn.Trong khi xuyn knh u xa (FEXT-Far End Crosstalk) l mc tn hiu ti u gn ca i dy gy xuyn knh so snh vi tn hiu truyn n i dy b xuyn knh u xa.

2.1.4

Phn loi cp

2.1.4.1

Cp UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)

Cp UTP c dng truyn tn hiu thoi v d liu, ph bin trong mng my tnh, h thng in thoi. Cp UTP thng c gi l cp Ethernet v c cc c tnh sau y: Bao gm nhiu i dy xon c trong si cp. Thng thng chp nhn t 2 n 1800 i. Khng cn c lp bo v cho n 600 i v c lp bao bng thp-nhm khi t n 1800 i. Bo v nhiu in bng cch xon dy. C tr khng c tnh 100 . Khuyn ngh c dy t 22 AWG24 AWG. Dy c rut. UTP

C th ni cp UTP c cc u im sau y: C kch thc nh, mm do d dng cho i cp theo cc b tng. Do kch thc nh, n khng d chim y trong ng. Gi cp UTP thp hn so vi tt c cc loi cp LAN khc. Tuy vy n cng c nhc im l d b nh hng ca nhiu so vi nhiu loi cp khc. Chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A xy dng mt s loi cp UTP c c trng truyn dn nh sau: 40

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Cp UTP loi 3 (Category 3-UTP cables) v phn cng lin kt c th truyn tn hiu t n tn s 16 MHz. Cp UTP loi 4 (Category 4-UTP cables) v phn cng lin kt c th truyn tn hiu t n tn s 20 MHz. Cp UTP loi 5 (Category 5-UTP cables) v phn cng lin kt c th truyn tn hiu t n tn s 100 MHz.

Cp UTP loi 1 v 2 (Category 1 and Category 2) khng c cng nhn cho lp t trong cc dch v mi. Chng c th ch dng cho cc ng dng thoi. Cp UTP loi 3 l cp b nht m ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A ngh lp t trong cc dch v mi. Vi cp ng UTP loi 5: c ngh l la chn th hai trong lp t cp ra (area outlet) (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A tha nhn la chn th nht l cp UTP loi 3). S h tr 10BASE-T Ethernet, 100BASE-T Fast Ethernet, 1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet, ATM 155 Mbps, TP-PMD 100 Mbps, v cc cu hnh LAN khc. C th h tr bng thng n 100 MHz. Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair (cc loi cp UTP) Type Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Use Voice Only (Telephone Wire) Data to 4 Mbps (LocalTalk) Data to 10 Mbps (Ethernet) Data to 20 Mbps (16 Mbps Token Ring) Data to 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet)

Khi lp t cp xon i cn ch phn bit r rng cc i dy, cc si dy trong si cp. Cc m mu cp gip ngi lp t nhn bit mt cch nhanh chng cc i dy trong si cp. Ngi lp t cng phi phn bit gia hai si trong mt i. Trong in thoi, mi i dy c si tip v si ring hoc dy dng v dy m theo th t. Cm t tip v ring c a ra trc y trong h thng in thoi, trong trng hp mt in thoi vin thc hin mt kt ni vt l cho cuc gi bng dy ni lp i lp li nhiu ln. Cp UTP c dng lm kt ni tm (UTP patch cable/cord), c s kt ni lp i lp li nhiu ln cn c cu trc dy bn mm do. Cc u ni cng phi c thit k dnh ring cho loi cp ny trnh lm hng dy v kt ni sai. 41

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Mt loi khc ca UTP l cp i di thm. Cp i di thm khng phi l s la chn u tin. N khng c khuyn khch dng bi l: D b hng. B hn ch linh ng khi di chuyn, thm vo, v thay i. Nu phi s dng cp i di thm, ngi lp t cn trnh: Cc ni c mt s dng cao. Cc vt dng trong vn phng nng t bn trn. Cp ngun i di thm. Cp c nhiu i dy (ln hn 4 i) thng c dng lp t backbone. Cp UTP loi 6 v 7 (Category 6 and Category 7 cable) khng c U ban tiu chun chp nhn. Chng c c tnh ca cc nhm lm vic TIA t c: Category 6 s h tr cc bng thng t n 200 MHz. Category 7 s h tr cc bng thng t n 600 MHz.

2.1.4.2

Cp ScTP (Screened Twisted Pair)

Cp ScTP c gi thnh t hn cp UTP. Cp ScTP cho kh nng min dch cao i vi s giao thoa tn hiu v c dng trong cc khu vc d b nhiu v giao thoa. Nu khng tnh n lp bo v bng mylar/aluminum dng l v dy dn lu (drain wire) th cu trc v trnh by ca cp ScTP ging nh cp UTP. Lp bo v mylar tip nhn v truyn dn cc tn hiu tn s cao thng qua lp bao cp (cable jacket). Dy dn lu chy gia lp mylar v lp bao bn ngoi (outer jacket) dng ni t lp mylar. Cp ScTP c : Tr khng c tnh 100 . Bn i dy c rut c 22 AWG24 AWG (thng thng). Lp bo v bng mylar/aluminum bao quanh cc i dy. Dy dn lu c ni t. Cc c tnh in cng tng t nh cp UTP loi 3, 4, 5.

Loi ScTP c mn bao che (S/STP- Sreened Shielded Twisted Pair) cn gi l Sreened Fully shielded Twisted Pair (S/FTP) c hai lp bao che ring bit: lp bao che cho mi i cp (ging nh cp STP) v lp bao che bng kim loi bn ngoi bao bc ly ton b nhm bao che ca cc i dy ng (ging nh cp (S/UTP). Loi cp ny bo v rt tt s giao thoa tn hiu t cc ngun tn hiu bn ngoi.
(Screened Shielded Twisted Pair) S/FTP (Screened Fully shielded Twisted Pair)

42

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


ScTP loi khng c mn bao che (S/UTP-Sreened Unshielded Twisted Pair) cn gi l cp Fully shielded (or Foiled) Twisted Pair (FTP).
(Sreened Unshielded Twisted Pair/Fully shielded (Foiled) Twisted Pair)

2.1.4.3

Cp STP (Shielded Twisted Pair)

Cp STP c pht trin ti thi im m cp UTP khng cn ph hp truyn d liu tc cao. Cp STP c mn bao che bng kim loi ring bit cho mi i dy trong si cp. Mn bao che ny chng li hin tng giao thoa in t bn ngoi (EMI-Electromagnetic Interference). Cp STP 150 h tr truyn dn tn hiu ln n 20 MHz. Vi yu cu tng bng thng th cp STP c mn bao che c bit v cc u ni (STP-A) c th h tr truyn dn tn hiu ln n 300 MHz. Cp STP v STP-A thng s dng trong lp t mng token ring. STP-A c bng thng cao nht trong cc phng tin truyn dn cp ng c ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A ph chun. N c dng hu ht cho cc ng dng trong trng hp khng dng hn hai i dy. Cp STP-A c cc c im sau : Ch bao gm hai i dy. Mi i c bao bc bng mng bao che mylar/aluminium dng l gim thiu hin tng giao thoa tn hiu tn s cao. Mng bao che dng bn bao bc ton b hai i dy gim thiu hin tng giao thoa tn hiu tn s thp. Dy dn c kch thc 22 AWG. Mng bao che ni t. C duy nht m mu: cc i green/red v black/orange.

2.1.5 Cc u kt ni cp

2.1.5.1

u ni UTP

8P8C (eight positions, eight conductors/contacts) l u cm hoc l cm (plug or jack) c 8 v tr v 8 dy/8 chu. u cm hoc l cm 8P8C rt ging vi u cm v l cm RJ45 (Register Jack). Tuy vy, khng th so snh mt cch hon ton RJ45 vi cc u ni 8P8C. RJ-45 khng s dng ht 8 dy m cng khng th cm va vn vo 8P8C v RJ45 l loi c cht (keyed). 43

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


C ba loi u cm v l cm c s dng trong vin thng l:

4P4C - u ni 4 v tr, 4 chu: dng cho dy ni t hp my in thoi. 6P6C - u ni 6 v tr, 6 chu: dng kt ni ng dy vi my in thoi v modem (tham chiu nh cc u ni RJ11). 8P8C - u ni 8 v tr, 8 chu: dng cho cc dy ni truyn d liu (tham chiu nh cc u ni RJ45). Cc u ni UTP (ch yu l cc u cm v l cm 8P8C) c thit k cho: Kt cui cp 100 , 4 dy, 22 AWG24 AWG. H tr 100 MHz, Category 5 standards. S dng cc kt cui IDC (Insualation Displacement Connections). C rt nhiu h thng tng i PBX s dng cp 25 i c u ni loi Telco 50-pin.

MALE

FEMALE

MAL

FEMAL

TELCO 50-PIN CONNECTOR (IDC)

S BM CP CHO RJ45 (CROSS-OVER)

44

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

2.1.5.2

u ni ScTP

Mt u ni 8P8C c v bao che thng s dng cho cp ScTP 4 i. Cc u ni ScTP l cc u cm hoc l cm 8P8C c v bao che c thit k cho kt cui cp 100 , 4 i, 22AWG24AWG ; h tr n 100 MHz, Category 5 standards; s dng cc kt cui IDC (Insualation Displacement Connections), c bao bc bi lp bo v bng kim loi, v kt ni vi v bao che ca cp ScTP bng dy dn lu (drain wire).

ICC ScTP Category 5e Modular Schielded Connector

2.1.5.3

u ni STP

u ni STP d liu l u ni lng tnh c 4 chu dng kt ni cp c mng bao che. Cc u ni ST c th kt ni vi nhau. Khi thit k cho cc ng dng token ring, cc u ni ny chuyn tip tn hiu n thit b thng qua mt i dy ca u ni. Tn hiu sau i ra t mt dy khc ca u ni. Tt c cc thit b c kt ni trong mt vng ni tip ln. Ch mt mch u b h th ton b vng ring b hng. Trong mi u ni c mt cp thanh ngn mch trnh b h mch vng ring khi u ni tho ra. Ngay khi u ni b tho ra th thanh th nht s ngn mch hai dy tip v thanh th hai s ngn mch hai dy ring. iu ny lm ni thng u vo v u ra ca mt u ni, nn vng ring vn m bo khp kn. Kh nng ca cc u ni c th truyn dn vi bng thng n 20MHz, v cc u ni ny c thit k : Kt cui cp 150 , 2 i dy, 22 AWG. C bng thng 20 MHz. S dng m mu red/green v black/orange.

2.1.5.4

u ni STP-A

Cp v u ni STP-A cng ging nh cp v u ni STP ngoi tr lp bao che nng cao. N c ng dng trong truyn dn s liu c tc cao. y cng l cc u ni lng tnh c 4 chu. Cc u ni STP-A c bng thng ca i dy xon cao nht c tha nhn bi ANSI/TIA-568-A v c ch to cho : Kt cui cp nng cao 150 , 2 i dy, 22 AWG. C bng thng 300 MHz. S dng m mu red/green v black/orange.

45

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


2.1.6 Kt cui cp

2.1.6.1

Cc bc tin xc nh

1) T chc cp ti ni kt cui: Cn bit trc s ni dy, xc nh cc phn t khng tng thch. i vi kt cui IDC cho cp ng, c ba s ni dy ph bin : T568A, T568B, v USOC (Universal Service Order Code). Ch c s ni dy T568A v T568B tun th theo chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A. S ni dy nh m t trong hnh sau :

2) Sp xp cp ti ni kt cui: trnh cp chng cho ln nhau, tt c cc si cp t song song nhau, sp xp phi gn gng, trt t. Sau khi xc nh chng cp, th cc si cp phi c t tn li v ct b cc cp tha sao cho di cc si cp ng dng. Mi si cp phi c lm du cn thn trc khi ct b phn tha cha tn cp, sau t tn li cho chnh xc. S dng cc phng tin gi cht cp nh dy buc, cc mc , mc gi, v ch buc cht cp bng tay. 3) Xc nh di v chng cp theo yu cu: cn xc nh khng gian ng i ca cp y v chnh xc m bo cp sau khi kt cui c chng t yu cu. Trong trng hp chng khng m bo th s gp rt nhiu kh khn khi di chuyn, thm vo, thay i. 4) S dng cc phn cng chm sc cp thch hp: c mt vi loi phn cng chm sc cp khc nhau, nhng chung qui u m bo gi cp ng v tr, gim s chn p, h tr ti a cho sau ny khi c s di chuyn , thm vo, v thay i. i vi cc loi cp UTP v ScTP, do c xon i v qui lut xp t hp l nn trnh c hin tng xuyn knh v min dch vi hin tng giao thoa in t (EMI). Mt iu cn ch l bn knh un cong b nht ca si cp. iu ny bo v tnh ton vn ca si cp lp t. Bn knh un cong b nht ca cp UTP v ScTP phi bng bn ln ng knh si cp (i vi cp quang l 10 ln).

2.1.6.2

Kt cui IDC cp ng xon i

Gii thiu: C bn loi block kt cui IDC c bn dng kt cui cc cp ngang v cp backbone. Ni chung hu ht cc block kt cui IDC l loi 66-type, 110-type, BIXTM, v LSA. m bo kt ni tt, cn phi tun th theo mt qui trnh khuyn ngh cho tng loi cp v u ni:
Xc nh chnh xc phng php v di ca lp v bao bn ngoi si cp cn bc ra. di ca phn i dy cho php khng xon. (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A khuyn co di ny ti a l 13 mm tnh t bc xon cui cng n IDC).

Mi loi kt cui IDC cn c mt cng c kt ni cp c trng nhm kt ni cp vo IDC c chnh xc. 46

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Cc bc kt cui cp vo IDC:
1) Xc nh phng php v di ca phn v bao bn ngoi c bc ra. Khi bc lp v cn ch trnh try xc phn dy dn bn trong, s dng cc cng c chuyn dng thc hin ct phn v: Ringing tool, Electrician snips, Slitter tool. 2) S dng mt cng c bc phn v sau khi ct ra khi si cp ng theo cc chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A v cc c tnh k thut ca nh ch to. Cn bc lp v ny va c th lp t cp vo IDC v gi c cc i dy xon. Thng th di ca phn v bc ra khong t 50 mm n 76 mm. Tuy nhin di ny ty thuc vo kch thc si cp v loi IDC. 3) Phn tch, xc nh, v buc nhm cp. 4) Phn cc i cp t mi nhm dy buc cp.

66-block termination: y l mt loi IDC dng cho kt ni cc ng dng thoi nh tng i PBX, Key Telephone, v mt vi mng LAN. Mt s nh ch to cng cp nht block kt cui 66-type ng dng truyn s liu tc cao v tng thch vi cc c tnh k thut ca chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A Category 5. Block kt cui 66-type thng kt hp vi 89-style bracket lp t ti backboards.

A split-50 M or 66 Block with bridging clips

110-style hardware: y l phn cng kt cui ng dng cho c thoi v d liu. Loi ny s dng cho kt cui cp backbone lp t trn tng hoc trn rack, c th kt cui 50, 100, 300, 900 i. Phn ln cc patch panel c i dy theo cc cu hnh c trng (T568A, T568B, USOC) v ch yu c kt cu vi cc u ni 110-style. Ngoi ra, cc kt ni ng ra cng s dng 110-style hardware.

47

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

Work area outlets: C nhiu loi u cm ng ra lp t ti kt cui ngi s dng. Trong cc vn phng c th c kt cui bng mt cm n hoc i c mt hoc tm jack cm ty mt s dng. C mt s jack cm c thit k c bit c th cm cho cc thit b vt dng trong nh.

Modular-furniture faceplate

2.1.7 o th cp

2.1.7.1

Gii thiu

o th l mt phng php c tnh h thng, trt t c dng kim tra vic lp t hon thnh cha, c ph hp vi tt c cc gii hn v cc iu kin ca hp ng v cc chun cng nghip. Phng php ny c ba giai on : Kim tra bng th gic. o th vi cc trng o khc nhau theo yu cu ca mi loi cp. i chiu vi ti liu.

Kim tra bng th gic bao gm tt c ng dn, khng gian, phng thit b. Tt c cc hng mc u phi c kim tra, k c: Cc thit b c s h tng. Ni t, lin kt. Sp t cp. Kt cui cp. Thit b v cc dy ni. Nhn ca cc thit b. o th vi cc trng o khc nhau bao gm mt s thit b nh sau: 48 ng h o V.O.M. B pht m hiu. Cc b o th bn dy. Kit nh v kt cui cp.

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


ng h o TDR (Time Domain Refelectometer). B o th in thoi. Cc b tng thch o th chuyn dng, dy dn, cp, ....

Trong giai on ny, iu quan trng l chn thit b o chuyn dng cho mi loi cp v phi c ti liu i chng.

2.1.7.2

M t cc loi li cp

1) Dy b ni t : C th l dy tip hoc dy ring hoc c hai dy b ni t.


Tip [A] Ring [B] Mng che Ni t Tip [A] Ring [B] Mng che Ni t do nc Dng s Nc

2) B ni tt: Hai dy dn ca mt i b chm nhau. Tip [A]


Ring [B] Tip [A] Ring [B] Dng s

3) B chm dy khc: Dy dn i ny b chm vi dy dn i khc.


Tip [A] Ring [B] Nc Ring [B] Tip [A] Tip [A] Ring [B] Ring [B] Tip [A] Dng s

4) B h mch:
Tip [A] Ring [B] Tip [A] Ring [B]

49

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

5) B tch i: L dy dn ca i dy ny ni cho vi dy dn ca i dy khc.


Ring [B] Tip [A] Tip [A] Ring [B] Ring [B] Tip [A] Tip [A] Ring [B]

Dng s

2.1.7.3

Cc php o th cp

1) o in tr mt chiu ca dy dn o in tr mt chiu ca dy dn, c th dng cu o Wheatstone hoc my o tng ng nh ng h VOM. Nguyn tc o: Nh hnh bn cnh. Trng hp s dng cu o wheatstone o in tr : Vi R1 v R2 l nhng in tr c gi tr xc nh, t s R1/R2 c nh, R4 l bin tr, G l in k, v R3 (RL1) l in tr cn o. Tip [A] R1 i k cn u oR3 Wheatstone cn bng, dng RL1 in qua in k G bng 0, khi :
R2

R1 G R3 R1 R3 R 4 = (bi =tr R4 n ) R2 R4 R2

o in tr bng cu o Wheatstone cn bng c u im l kt qu o khng ph thuc vo ngun cung cp. Cc vn lu khi o: Nu o nhit khc 200C th cn phi qui i kt qu o c v v gi tr in tr 200C theo cng thc:

R( / Km ) = Rt [1 + 0 ,0039(t 20 )]
Vi: 50 R in tr mt chiu ca dy dn quy i nhit 200C ().

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Rt in tr ca dy dn o c nhit t0C ().

Nu di mu cp khc 1Km th phi quy i gi tr o c v di chun 1 Km theo cng thc :

R=
V i : R RL l

RL l

gi tr in tr quy i v 1 Km () gi tr in tr o c trn chiu di mu cp () chiu di mu cp (Km)

Kt qu o ca cc php o sau cng phi quy i v gi tr 200C v di chun 1Km. Nguyn tc o in tr mt chiu trn y c th ng dng o in tr gia dy tip v t, gia dy ring v t, in tr vng ca i dy, in tr cch in ca dy dn v gia hai dy dn trong mt i. 2) o in tr mt cn bng gia hai dy xc nh mt cn bng in tr gia hai dy ca bt k i dy no trong si cp, ln lt phi o in tr ca tng dy trong mt i dy. Nu gi tr in tr mt chiu ca hai dy trong i dy khc nhau, i dy b mt cn bng v in tr.
Tip [A]

Ring [B] Mng che Tip [A]

Ring [B] Mng che Mc mt cn bng thng c tnh theo phn % theo cng thc:

Rmcb =

Rmax Rmin 100% Rmin

Trong Rmax l gi tr in tr mt chiu ln nht ca mt dy, Rmin l gi tr in tr mt chiu b nht trong dy cn li. 3) o in dung i dy Thit b o: Cu o in dung hoc cc thit b o t ng, bn t ng c chc nng o in dung. Sau y l v d o in dung cng tc bng thit b Dynatel 965DSP SLA.

S o:
Ring[B] R Tip[A] C1 C2 C3

51

Mng che

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

Nguyn tc o: Bc 1: Mt kha in t bn trong ng li trong thi gian ngn, nhm loi b in p ca bt k t in trn ng dy nu c.

Kha ng

Bc 2: Khi kha m, mt ngun dng s bt u np vo t cho n khi t n mc in p cho trc. Thi gian np t c o c li.

Kha m

Bc 3: n khi t c mc in p ngng (7 Vdc), ngun dng i hng x t va np xong. Thi gian x t cng c o c li.

Kha vn m

T thi gian np v x t, s tnh ton c in dung cn o, do in dung t l vi thi gian np v x t. Lu :Khi o phi m bo cc dy dn cn o khng b ngn mch hoc b ni t, cc i dy cn li trong si cp phi c ni vi nhau ri ni vi mng che v ton b ni t. a. o in dung gia dy tip v t xc nh in dung gia dy Tip[A] v t, phi ni dy Ring[B] vi mng che ri ni vi t. Theo s o th que o (red) v que o xanh (green) ca thit b o c ni vi nhau. Khi in dung ca dy Tip[A] i vi t c biu din nh sau: Tip[A] Tip[A] Ring[B] C2

C3

C3

C2

52

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

CT G = C 2 + C 3
b. o in dung gia dy ring v t xc nh in dung gia dy Ring[B] v t, phi ni dy Tip[A] vi mng che ri ni vi t. Theo s o th que o en (balck) v que o xanh (green) ca thit b o c ni vi nhau. Khi in dung ca dy Ring[B] i vi t c biu din nh sau:
Tip[A] C2 Ring[B] Ring[B]

C1

C2

C1

C R G = C 1 + C 2
c. o in dung gia hai dy in dung gia hai dy l in dung cng tc hoc in dung tng h gia hai dy dn ca mt i dy khi tt c cc i dy cn li c ni vi mng che v tt c c ni t. Khi in dung cng tc c tnh bng cng thc :
Tip[A] C2 Ring [B]

C1 C3 CM = C 2 + C1 + C3

C3
Mng che

C1

2.1.7.4

Cc php o dng phng php TDR

1) Xc nh v tr h mch hon ton: H mch l li lm tng tr khng ng dy, v s thay i tr khng ny rt ln, nn xung phn x (Peak) kh cao. 2) Xc nh v tr h mch mt phn:
im cui cp

H mch mt phn 3M 965DSP Cursor

Peak thp hn

Phn x cui cp

H mch mt phn l li cng lm tng tr khng, nhng s thay i ny khng ln bng h mch hon ton nn xung ph x (Peak) b hn. 3) Xc nh v tr ngn mch:

53

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Ngn mch l li lm gim tr khng ng dy. Do li ny s to ra mt xung phn x (Dip) kh su.
im cui cp

Ngn mch 100 3M 965DSP Cursor Dip

Phn x cui cp

4) Xc nh v tr nhnh r: Nhnh r to ra in dung. in dung ny s cng thm vo in dung ca ng dy, lm gia tng in dung tng cng ca ng dy. in dung cng thm ca nhnh r s hp thu nng lng xung tn hiu o kim, tc l lm gim tr khng ng dy ti ch r. V vy, ti u nhnh r s to ra mt Dip trn mn hnh TDR. Cng ti u nhnh r, tn hiu chia ra theo hai hng : mt- truyn dc theo nhnh r n cui nhnh v mt- truyn dc theo cp chnh n u xa ca i dy. Do s tch i tn hiu ny, hai xung phn x (Peak) c to ra trn mn hnh TDR, mt- ti im cui ca nhnh r, mt- ti im kt thc ca cp chnh. Lu : Du hiu ca nhnh r trn mn hnh TDR l s kt hp ca c xung phn x dng (Peak) v phn x m (Dip).

Cui nhnh r C C in dung cng thm u nhnh r Cursor C C Phn x cui nhnh r Phn x cui cp chnh

3M 965DSP

Dip

5) Xc nh v tr cun ti: Cun ti thc ra l mt b lc, ch cho php cc tn s di 3000 Hz i qua n. Bt c tn hiu no c tn s ngoi di tn trn u b chn li. Xung o kim TDR c tn s cao hn 3000 Hz, v 54

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


th xung b chn li ngay ch cun ti, tc tr khng ng dy tng ln rt ln ti y. Do , cun ti to ra mt xung phn x dng (Peak) rt cao ti v tr ca n trn ng dy.

Load Coil

Cui ng dy

3M 965DSP Cursor

Peak
Peak i khi cun
ti gn my o Phn x cui ng dy

Xung phn x Peak do cun ti gy ra khc vi cc Peak do nhng nguyn nhn khc to nn. Peak ca cun ti l xung trn v trn u. Mt khc, do Peak ca cun ti to ra rt cao, n c th che khut cc xung phn x (Peak hoc Dip) ca cc li cp xut hin sau n. iu ny c ngha l cc li cp (gy ra s thay i tr khng ca ng dy) pha sau cun ti c th khng th xut hin c trn mn hnh TDR. 6) Xc nh v tr cp b tch i: Khi hai dy dn ca i cp b tch ra, in dung ca n gim xung ch b tch nn lm gia tng tr khng ca ng dy ni cp b tch i v do to nn mt xung phn x (Peak) trn mn hnh TDR.
Ring [B] Tip [A] Tip [A] Ring [B] in dung bnh Split in dung gim bt

3M 965DSP

Cursor Trc honh

Peak

Phn x cui cp

7) Xc nh v tr mi ni cp b thm nc: Mt mi ni khng tt b thm nc s to in dung cng thm vo in dung sn c ca ng dy. Do s lm thay i tr khng ca ng dy xung mc gi tr thp hn. Kt qu to ra mt xung phn x (Dip) trn mn hnh TDR. Sau mi ni thm nc cp vn tt (khng b thm nc) nn in dung tr li gi tr bnh thng ca in dung i dy. V th trn mn hnh TDR s xut hin mt Peak. Tm li mi ni thm nc s to ra ng thi mt Dip v ngay sau n l mt Peak trn mn hnh TDR. 55

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Mi ni thm nc

in dung nh hn C

in dung nh hn

3M 965DSP

in dung ln hn Peak Cursor

Phn x cui cp

Trc honh Dip

8) Xc nh on cp b thm nc:

Trng hp cp c on b thm nc to nn du hiu trn TDR tng t nh cp c mi ni thm nc, cng l mt Dip v theo sau l mt Peak. S khc bit chnh l khong cch gia Dip v Peak. Do on cp b thm nc c chiu di ln hn nhiu so vi mi ni thm nc nn khong cch gia Dip v Peak ca on cp b thm nc rng hn nhiu ln.
in dung bnh thng Water in dung tr li bnh thng

C in dung tng ln Cursor

3M 965DSP

Wet Section

im cui on b thm nc (Peak) Phn x cui cp

Trc honh im bt u b thm nc (Dip)

2.2

CP NG TRC

2.2.1 Cu trc
Cp ng trc bao gm dy dn trong v dy dn ngoi (lp bo v) c bao bng lp v bn ngoi. Dy dn trong c th l dy n hoc dy bn. Dy n s cho in tr nh hn dy bn nhng km mm do hn dy bn. Mt s loi cp ng trc c cu trc c dy gia cng. Dy gia cng c dng si, kch thc nh hoc lm bng cht do qun quanh dy dn trong. Cp ng trc thng thng c cu trc nh sau:

56
V bc bn ngoi

Dy dn ngoi Dy dn trong Cht cch in

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

V bc bn ngoi L lp v bao bn ngoi si cp lm bng cht cch in (polyethylene, PVC, ) bo v dy dn ngoi. Dy dn ngoi ( lp bo v) C dng l lp bao c lm bng ng hoc nhm. Lp bao ny c hai chc nng: - ng quay v ca tn hiu truyn. - Lp bo v cho dy dn trong, chng li xuyn nhiu. Ngoi ra cn gii hn bc x tn hiu t dy dn trong. Cht cch in Cch ly gia dy dn trong v ngoi, c lm bng cht Polyethylene, khng kh, . Cht cch in c gi l cht in mi. Dy dn trong C th l dy n hoc bn li vi nhau. Vi loi dy n s c in tr nh hn loi dy bn nhng khng mm do bng. Cp ng trc cng c th c cu trc c hai si bn trong nh hnh 2.7. Hai si cp ng trc cch ly vi nhau. Cp c cu trc nh vy gi l cp ng trc i (Twinaxial).

Hnh 2.7: Cp ng trc i (Twinaxial)

Cc cp ng trc c cu trc tng qut nh nhau, ch khc nhau mt vi im v c tnh in. C hai loi c bn c cu trc nh sau: dy dn ngoi (lp bo v) bng kim loi cng, v bn li.

2.2.2 Cc cng thc tnh ton


in dung:

C=

7,36. D log d

pf ft

t cm:

L = 0,14. log Z0 =

D d

H ft

Tr khng:

L 138 D = . log C d
57

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Vn tc truyn:

=
=

100

%c (vn tc nh sng trong chn khng)


7,5

Tn s ct:

.(D + d )

GHz

H s phn x:

Z r Z 0 VSWR 1 1+ = , VSWR= 1 Z r + Z 0 VSWR+ 1

in p nh: Trong : d D S = = = = = =

D 1150 S d log d (V ) =

K f

ng knh ngoi ca dy dn trong (inch) ng knh trong ca dy dn ngoi (inch) gradient in p cc i ca v cch in (volt/mil) hng s in mi H s an ton tn s (MHz)

Suy hao cp l tng cc suy hao dy dn v suy hao in mi, tnh theo cng thc:

conductors = c =

11,39

Prd PrD + d D

dB m dB m

dielectric = diel = 90,96 f r tan ( )


r = 1 i vi ng, r = 10 i vi thp

Trong :

d D r f rd

= = = =

ng knh ngoi ca dy dn trong (inch) ng knh trong ca dy dn ngoi (inch) hng s in mi tn s (GHz)

= in tr sut ca dy dn trong = in tr sut ca dy dn ngoi = skin depth

rD
58

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


2.2.3 Cc c tnh k thut
Dielectric Type Solid Polyethylene (PE) Foam Polyethylene (FE) Foam Polystyrene (FS) Air Space Polyethylene (ASP) Solid Teflon (ST) Air Space Teflon (AST) Time Delay (ns/ft) 1.54 1.27 1.12 1.15-1.21 1.46 1.13-1.20 Propagation Velocity (% of c) 65.9 80.0 91.0 84-88 69.4 85

Type (/U) RG-4 RG-5 RG-5A/B

MIL-W-17

Z0() 50.0 52.5 50.0

Dielectric Type PE PE PE

Capacitance (pF/ft) 30.8 28.5 30.8

O.D. (in.) 0.226 0.332 0.328

dB/100 ft @400 MHz 11.7 7.0 6.5

Vmax (rms) 1,900 3,000 3,000

Shield Braid Braid Braid

. . .
RG-216 RG-217 RG-218 RG-219 RG-223

. . .
/77-RG216 /78-RG217 /79-RG218 /79-RG219 /84-RG223

. . .
75.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0

. . .
PE PE PE PE PE

. . .
20.6 30.8 30.8 30.8 19.8

. . .
0.425 0.545 0.870 0.928 0.211

. . .
5.2 4.3 2.5 2.5 8.8

. . .
5,000 7,000 11,000 11,000 1,900

. . .
Braid Braid Braid Braid Dbl Braid

O.D.

Outside Diameter (Dielectric Diameter)

2.2.4 u ni cp ng trc
Cc u ni cp ng trc thng c gi l cc u ni RF. C th s dng u ni male hoc female kt cui vo cp ng trc, nhng thng thng th dng u ni male kt cui cp. u ni cp ng trc bao gm hai thnh phn dn in c hnh dng hai vng trn ng tm gi l sreen. Gia hai thnh phn dn in l cht in mi cch in. Mt trong s cc tnh cht ca cp ng trc l tr khng c tnh. nng lng tn hiu c th truyn ti a t ngun n ti, cc tr khng c tnh phi c s phi hp vi nhau. Trong tr khng c tnh ca cp feeder l quan trng nht. Nu khng c s phi hp tr khng, s gy ra s phn x tn hiu tr v ngun. iu ny cng rt quan trng, i vi cc u ni cp ng trc phi c tr khng c tnh phi hp vi tr khng c tnh ca cp khng gy ra phn x tn hiu tr v ngun . C mt s loi u ni c ng dng cho RF. Tr khng c tnh, tm tn s, kch thc vt l, l c s la chn u ni tt nht cho mt ng dng. F series coaxial connector

59

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Cc u ni loi F khng c chn cm cho dy dn trong, m n s dng dy dn trong ca cp lm chn cm. Do , u ni loi F khng th dng kt cui cp ng trc c dy dn trong l loi bn. Loi ny c mt s c im sau: Kinh t. Dng kt cui cc loi cp ng trc RG-59 v RG-6 cho video, CATV, v cc camera bo v. S dng rng ri cho cc dch v ti t gia, khu dn c.
F series coaxial connector

N series coaxial connector Cc u ni loi N c dng cho cc ng dng d liu v video nh RG-8, Thicknet coaxial cable, v RG-11U coaxial cable, cc u ni ny s dng cho video backbone distribution. Cc u ni loi N c mt chn cm cho dy dn trong. u ni male s dng mt ai rng vn kt cht vi u ni female.

N series coaxial connector

u ni loi N do Paul Neill thuc phng th nghim Bell thit k vo thp nin 1940. Lc u, u ni c thit k truyn tn hiu n tn s 1 GHz cho cc ng dng trong qun i, nhng sau ny c thit k c th truyn tn hiu n 11 GHz v s dng rng ri hn. Gn y, Botka thuc Hewlett Packart thit k ci thin chnh xc nn c th truyn tn hiu n 18 GHz. u ni loi N tun theo chun MIL-C-39012, v c phin bn 50 , 75 . u ni cng c s dng trong ngnh cng nghip truyn hnh. BNC coaxial connector c t tn t hai nh thit k (Bayonet Neill-Concelment). u ni c s dng t Th chin II. u ni c mt chu cm gia dng ni dy dn trong ca cp ng trc v s dng cho cc loi cp RG-6 (75 ), RG-58A/U thinnet coaxial (50 ), v RG-62 (93 ). u ni BNC s dng cho cc kt ni video chuyn nghip, cc tn hiu tng t v s ni tip, cc kt ni antenna trong v tuyn nghip d, v trong cc thit b o. C ba loi u ni BNC: Crimp, Three-piece, Screw-on. Crimping cn phi c cng c c bit bm nhng khng cn hn. Cn loi Three-piece c th bm hoc hn kt cht dy dn vo chu cm gia.
BNC connector

TNC coaxial connector u ni TNC rt ging vi u ni BNC. im khc nhau ch yu l n c mt ai vn thay th cho 60

TNC connector

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


ai ghim (bayonet). u ni TNC c pht trin trn nhng s c rung ng. Khi bayonet trt nh to ra s thay i nh v in tr ca u ni gy ra nhiu. khc phc nhc im ny, mt ai vn c nh c thay th cho bayonet.

2.2.5

Kt cui cp

2.2.5.1

Cc bc thc hin chung


Vut thng phn u cp. Trng vng st m u ni vo si cp. iu chnh hai bc cng c ct (striper) ph hp vi kch thc cp v cc loi u ni. t cp vo striper. Xoay striper hai chiu t 3 n 5 ln. Tho cp ra khi striper. Bc b phn v, lp bao che, v lp in mi b ct. Kim tra cht lng cc vt ct, v m bo rng dy dn trong v lp cch in khng b try xc, v dy dn ngoi khng chm vo dy dn trong.

Bc 1: Xc nh phng php thch hp v di phn v cn bc b:

Bc 2: Kt cui cp: Gn dy dn trong ca cp vo chn u ni vo. S dng mt cng c bm bm cht dy dn trong vi chn gia ca u ni.

Bc 3: Lp t ng bao ngoi v u ni vo si cp: t thn u ni vo cp sao cho va vn vi dy dn trong v ti v tr gia lp in mi v dy dn ngoi. y nh ng bao ngoi ca u ni trm ln phn dy dn ngoi phi ra. S dng cng c bm ph hp bm ng bao ngoi u ni cho cht. Kim tra k u ni t n tinh xo.

2.2.5.2

Mt v d kt cui cp ng trc vo u ni loi F

Bc 1: Ct b phn cui cp bng mt cng c ct tht sc.

61

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

Bc 2: t u cp vo strip sao cho thng gc vi strip. Xoay strip vng quanh si cp cho n khi strip ct ht phn v cp (khong chng 5 n 10 vng).

Bc 3: Bc b phn v b ct. Gp ngc phn dy ngoi (braid-dy bn) li ra, ch gi li lp kim loi (foild) p st vo lp in mi mu trng.

Bc 4: Tho ri vng mu en t u ni loi F ri trng vo u cp. Gn u cp vo u ni.

Bc 5: Gn tht st u cp vo u ni sao cho lp in mi mu trng thng gc vi mp cnh kim loi.

Bc 6: gn vng mu en vo u ni v t ton b vo trong cng c bm. Bp cn bm cho n khi vng mu en p st vo u ni v ting click pht ra.

2.2.6

o th cp ng trc 50-Ohm v 75-Ohm

o th lin tc 62

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


o th ny cn c ng h vn nng (multimeter) v u ni ngn mch. u ni ngn mch c th t ch to t mt u ni loi BNC bng cch ni tt chu cm gia vi vng ai bn ngoi. Cn tun th qui trnh o th nh sau: Tho ri tt c cc thit b v kt cui 50 mi u si cp cn o th. Ci t ng h o v ch o ac ri dc kim tra cp nhm loi tr trng hp c cc in p khng mong mun lm nh hng n thit b o khi o in tr. Tho ri bt k thit b no c th to ra tn hiu khng mong mun. Ci t ng h v ch o ohm. Chnh ng h v zero ohm. Vi ng h vn nng, m bo khng h mch u xa. Lp t u ni ngn mch vo mt u on cp cn o. c tr s in tr dc trn ng h vn nng.

Xc nh di Kim tra u cui sau: Cn c vo chun IEEE 802.3, in tr vng ti a ca mt on cp khng vt qu 10. xc nh in tr vng ti a trn mt foot (=0,3048 m), chia in tr vng ti a (10 ) cho di ti a ca mt on (185 m=606 ft). Gi tr in tr vng vo khong 0,054 /m (0,016 /ft). Khng ging nh UTP, cc gi tr in tr ca dy dn trong v dy dn ngoi khng ging nhau. S dng s liu ca nh my sn xut, cng gi tr in tr danh nh ca dy dn trong v in tr danh nh ca dy dn ngoi (cng theo ni tip) ta c in tr vng danh nh. Vi in tr danh nh c c trn on cp di 1000-foot hoc 1 Km, chia in tr vng danh nh ny cho 1000 c c in tr vng trn mt foot hoc mt mt. Vic chia in tr vng dc trong php o lin tc cho in tr vng danh nh trn mt foot hoc mt mt (nu trong php o lin tc c mt u kt cui th phi tr i in tr dc ca u kt cui ny). Kt qu s cho bit di ca on cp cn o. o in tr dc gia chu cm gia v vng ai ngoi (ground). in tr dc ny phi bng 50 1%. Chn on v xc nh on cp v u ni b li. Lp bng cc kt qu o th. S dng cc kt qu o in tr dc trn y, di ca on cp c th c tnh ton nh

V d: o th di on cp 50-Ohm. 63

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Gi tr in tr vng trong o th lin tc l 58 . o in tr dc ca u cui l 50,2 . Xc nh di on cp: Ly gi tr in tr trong php o lin tc tr cho gi tr in tr trong php o u cui : 58 -50,2 = 7,8 T s liu ca nh sn xut, gi tr in tr dc ca dy dn trong l 8,8/1000foot v ca dy dn ngoi l 5,8 /1000 foot. Vy in tr vng l 14,6 /1000 foot. Chia in tr vng 14,6 cho 1000 foot, c c 0,0146 /foot. Chia in tr vng dc (7,8 ) cho in tr vng dc danh nh trn mt foot (0,0146 ). di ca on cp cn o vo khong 534 feet.

2.3
2.3.1

CP QUANG
Lch s

Nh vt l hc ngi Ireland l John Tyndall (2/8/1820 - 4/12/1893) tm thy nh sng thay i hng khi i vo trong mi trng nc bng vic phn x bn trong ton phn. Nguyn l ny c s dng lm sng cc vi phun nc mt cch tinh xo. Vo nm 1952 nh vt l hc Narinder Singh Kapany tp hp tt c nhng kinh nghim, nghin cu ca minh dn n s pht minh ra si quang, da trn c s cc nghin cu trc ca John Tyndall. Nm 1956, Basil Hirschowitz, C.Wilbur Peters, v Lawrence E.Curtiss thuc i hc Michigan c bng sng ch v ng ni soi bng si quang (semi-flexible) u tin. Nm 1965, Charles K. Kao v George A. Hockham thuc Bristish company Standard Telephones and Cables pht hin ra suy hao ca cc si quang thi m nguyn nhn l do c ln cc tp cht. H chng minh rng si quang phi c suy hao gim xung di 20 dB/Km (Hecht,1999,p.114). Vi gii hn ny, si quang thc nghim u tin cho truyn thng c pht minh ra vo nm 1970 do cc nh nghin cu Rober D. Maurer, Donald Keck, Peter Schulz, v Frank Zimar lm vic cho Corning Glass Works. H sn xut ra si quang c suy hao 17dB/Km bng doping silica glass vi titanium. Ngy 22 thng 4, nm 1977, General Telephone and Electronics truyn trc tip lu thoi u tin trn cc si quang tc 6 Mbps (Long Beach, California).

2.3.2

Cu trc

Si quang c cu trc vi mt li trung tm trong sut, ng knh nh, c ph bng mt lp t trong sut v c bao bc bng lp v. Lp ph, thng t trong sut hn li, bo v li v h tr qu trnh phn x, trnh nh sng di mc tn s ti hn thot ra khi si. Lp v bao bn ngoi l cht polyme gm mt hoc nhiu lp bo v lp ph v li i vi cc tc ng ca mi trng bn ngoi, nh nng, m, d bn, co xc, .

64

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

nh sng lan truyn dc theo li bng mt qu trnh TIR (Total Internal Reflection). iu ny c c l nh vo hai lp thy tinh c chit sut khc nhau. Li thy tinh bn trong c chit sut ln hn chit sut ca lp thy tinh ph bn ngoi. Suy hao dc theo si l b v tn hiu khng b nh hng bi nhiu in t trng nh i vi cc phng tin truyn dn khc: radio, cp kim loi. Tuy vy, tn hiu vn b suy gim bi s tn sc v cc hiu ng phi tuyn. C ba loi kch c si quang c s dng trong truyn d liu l 50/125; 62,5/125 v 8,3/125. Trong 50/125; 62,5/125 micron l si a mode v 8,3/125 micron l si n mode. S khc nhau gia si n mode v a mode: i vi cp kim loi, nu kch thc si cng ln th in tr cng nh v do dn c dng in cng ln, nhng i vi si quang th ngc li, si c kch thc li nh hn c bng thng ln hn v truyn khong cch xa hn. Si a mode

Hnh 2.9: nh sng lan truyn trong si a mode

Si quang nu c li ln hn 10m c xem l si a mode. Si a mode c hai loi l step-index, graded-index.

Multimode Step-index Fiber


i vi si a mode c chit sut bc (step index), cc tia sng c dn dc theo li si quang bng s phn x bn trong tng cng. Cc tia hp vi ng bin ca lp ph v li mt gc ln hn gc ti hn (critical angle) th c phn x ton phn. Cc tia hp vi ng bin ca lp ph v li mt gc b th b khc x vo trong lp ph, v khng truyn nh sng cng nh tin tc dc theo li si quang. C 3 tia sng khc nhau truyn trong Multimode Step-index Fiber.

Step-index

Graded-index

Hnh 2.10: Multimode opticth hai lan truyn do s phn x ti Tia th nht truyn thng theo h ng trc cfiber a li.Tia mt tip gip gia lp ph v li.Tia th ba b khc x vo trong lp ph. Bng trc gic, tia th

65

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


hai c khong cch lan truyn di hn so vi tia th nht, nh vy s c hai tia sng khc nhau n u thu ti nhng thi im khc nhau. S chnh lch v thi im n ny ca cc tia sng khc nhau c bit nh l hin tng tn sc (dispersion).

Multimode graded--index Fiber


Loi ny c chit sut gim dn t tm ca li. S tng dn ca chit sut khi vo n tm ca li lm chm i cc tia sng, cho nn ton b cc tia sng n u thu gn nh cng mt lc, lm gim i hin tng tn sc. Si n mode Si n mode cho php truyn thng tin tt hn bi v n c th gi c trung thc ca xung nh sng khi truyn nhng c ly xa. Ngoi ra, n t ra khng b hin tng tn sc bi nguyn nhn gy ra tn sc cho cc si a mode. Si n mode cng c suy hao t hn si a modem, do , c nhiu thng tin hn c truyn trn n v thi gian. Cng ging nh si a mode, ban u si n mode cng c loi step-index, graded-index. Cc si n mode tin tin sau ny c cc thit k hon thin hn nh l matched clad, depressed clad v cc cu trc exotic khc.

Hnh 2.11: Single-mode fiber optic

Si n mode c nhc im kch thc li b nn vic ni ghp si kh khn hn. Cc dung sai ca cc u ni, b ni si n mode cng i hi kht khe hn. C hai cu trc cp quang c bn l: Loose-Tube v Tight-Buffered. Loose-Tube Trong thit k cp quang s dng ng m xp, cc ng m c mu cha v bo v cc si quang. Hn hp gel c bm vo trong cc ng m ngn cn s thm nhp ca nc. Do ng m khng tip xc trc tip vi si quang nn gip cho si quang trnh c cc nn trong qu trnh lp t v trong mi trng chn p. Cc ng m nh c thnh phn gia cng trung tm hoc lp in mi nn cng trnh c b on. Loose-Tube Cables thng thng c s dng lp t bn ngoi trong cc ng dng treo, i trong ng v chn trc tip.

Tight Buffered Trong thit k cp s dng m cht, vt liu m tip xc trc tip vi si quang. Thit k nh vy l ph hp cho cc cp nhy (jumper cables) khi lp t bn ngoi ni n cc thit b u cui, v cng ph hp cho vic ni lin kt mt thit b pha mng thu bao.

66

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Thit k loi m cht lm cho cp chc chn hn bo v cc si quang trong vn chuyn, i cp, ni cp. Cc thnh phn si gia cng gi cho cc si quang khng b nh hng khi cp b ko cng.

2.3.3

Tn sc trong si quang

Tn sc mu (Chromatic Dispersion): Tn sc mu ngha l c nhiu mu hoc bc sng nh sng khc nhau truyn trong si quang nhng tc khc nhau cho d c cng mode. Tn sc mu l kt qu ca tn sc vt liu (material dispersion), tn sc ng dn sng (waveguide dispersion), hoc tn sc profile (profile dispersion).

Hnh 2.12: Tn sc mu

Trong v d ca hnh v trn cho thy tn sc mu tin n zero khi bc sng gn 1550nm. y l mt c trng bng thng ca si quang loi dispersion-shifted fiber. Vi si quang tiu chun n mode v a mode c tn sc mu bng zero ti bc sng 1310 nm. Mi laser c mt tm bc sng v tc nh sng i vi silica nng chy (fiber) thay i theo bc sng ca nh sng. Hnh v sau y cho bit chit sut ca silica nng chy bin i theo bc sng ca nh sng.

Khi mt xung nh sng laser c mt vi bc sng, nhng bc sng ny c khuynh hng gin ra theo thi gian sau khi truyn mt s khong trong si quang. Chit sut ca si s tng ln khi bc sng gim xung. Kt qu l xung nhn c u thu rng hn xung u pht, c s trng lp cc xung n tr nhng bc sng khc nhau. 67

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Tn sc mode phn cc (Polarization Mode Dispersion-PMD): Tn sc mode phn cc l mt hiu ng quang phc tp khc. N xy ra trong si n mode. Si n mode h tr lan truyn tn hiu di dng hai phn cc trc giao. Trong trng hp l tng th hai phn cc trc giao ny lan truyn i vi cng vn tc. Nhng trong cc si quang thc t, th hai phn cc ny lan truyn vi nhng vn tc khc nhau v nh vy chng n u cui khc nhau v thi gian. S khc nhau v thi gian n ca hai phn cc trc giao c gi l tn sc mode phn cc (ps/Km0,5).

Hnh 2.13: Tn sc mode phn cc

Cng ging nh tn sc mu, PMD l nguyn nhn gy ra cho cc xung s n rng khi truyn n u cui trong cc m hnh c phn cc. i vi truyn dn tc cao, iu ny s dn n cc li bit b thu hoc l gii hn nhy ca b thu. 2.3.4

u ni cp quang
Common fiber connectors

Short name LC ST SC FC Biconic ESCON FDDI MTP MT-RJ MU SMA TOSLINK Toshiba link

Long form Lucent Connector / Local Connector Straight Tip Subscriber Connector / Standard Connector Ferrule Connector

Coupling type Snap Twist Snap Screw

Enterprise Systems Connection Fiber distributed data interface

Screw Snap Snap

Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack

Snap Snap Screw Snap

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Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

ST Connector

SC Connector

LC Connector

FC Connector

MTP Connector

MT-RJ Connector

Biconic Connector

ESCON Connector

TOSLINK Connector

2.3.5

Ni si quang

Ni cp quang c th xy ra gia hai si cp quang: gm cc si quang loose-tube 250 m v cc si quang tight-buffered 900 m. C hai phng php ni c kh (mechanical) hoc nng chy (fusion) c th s dng ni si 250 m vi si 250 m, si 250 m vi si 900 m, hoc si 900 m vi si 900 m. Thng thng, cc si a mode l 50/125 m n 62,5/125 m trong khi cc si n mode l 6/125 n 9/125 m. Ni bng c kh hoc nng chy c th h tr ni c hai loi si n v a mode. Phng php ni bng nng chy Trong phng php nng chy, my c s dng xp hai u cui si quang cn ni tht thng hng ri hn nng chy hai u cui thy tinh li vi nhau bng h quang in. Phng php ny to mt kt ni lin tc gia hai hai si quang, cho nn suy hao ca nh sng truyn qua mi ni l rt b, thng thng l 0,1 dB.

Fujikura FSM 50S Fiber Optic Fusion Splicer Kit

69

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


C th tm tt phng php hn nng chy bng bn bc c bn sau y: Bc 1: Chun b si - Bc cc lp ph bo v, cc lp v, cc ng, cc thnh phn gia cng, ch li phn si thy tinh, ch phi gi phn thy tinh ny tht sch. Bc 2: Ct si - S dng dng c ct si tht tt, y l yu t cn thit mi hn nng chy thnh cng. Lt ct phi phng nh gng v vung gc vi trc si quang t c mi ni hon ho. LU : tun th cch thc s dng dng c ct lt ct t n tinh xo. Bc 3: Lm nng chy si - C hai bc trong bc xp thng hng v t nng. Xp thng hng c th c thc hin bng nhn cng hoc t ng ty thuc vo thit b ni ang s dng. Nu s dng thit b ni cao cp t tin th vic xp thng hng cng hon ho. Khi xp thng hng t yu cu, thit b ni nng chy s dng h quang in lm nng chy si, hn c nh hai u cui si li vi nhau. Bc 4: Bo v si - Vic bo v si i vi un cong hoc ko cng s m bo cho mi ni khng b hng trong khi vn hnh. Thng thng mt mi hn nng chy chu c sc cng trong khong t 0,5 n 1,5 lbs (1 pound = 453,59237 grams) v s khng b hng trong iu kin hot ng bnh thng, nhng n vn cn c bo v khi b un cong qu mc v cc tc ng mnh. C th s dng ng nhit co, silicone gel v/hoc cc dng c bo v c kh bo v mi ni. Phng php ni bng c kh Cc b ni c kh l cc dng c xp thng hng n gin, c thit k gi hai u cui si thng hng mt cch cn thn m khng c lin kt c nh cho php nh sng truyn t si ny qua si kia, thng thng suy hao l 0,3 dB.

Ni c khi cng c thc hin qua bn bc sau y: Bc 1: chun b si - Bc cc lp ph bo v, cc lp v, cc ng, cc thnh phn gia cng, ch li phn si thy tinh, ch phi gi phn thy tinh ny tht sch. Bc 2: Ct si Thc hin nh i vi ni bng cch hn nng chy nhng chnh xc ca lt ct khng t n hon ho. Bc 3: Ni lin c kh cc si Khng cn t nng, n gin t hai u cui si vo trong b ni c kh. Index matching gel bn trong b ni c kh s gip ni nh sng t si ny qua si kia. Bc 4: Bo v si Mt b ni c kh hon chnh bo v tt cho mi ni. 2.3.6

o th
o th cp quang tun theo qui trnh sau y: o th trc khi lp t. o th khi tip nhn.

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Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


o th bo dng ngn nga h hng. X l h hng.

o th trc khi lp t (Preinstallation Testing): o th trc khi lp t c thc hin trn cun cp quang ngay sau khi nhn t nh cung cp vt t v trc khi em i lp t. Cc li ch ca o th trc khi lp t l kim tra c: cp b h hng hay khng trong qu trnh vn chuyn. Cp c hay khng c qu trnh kim tra ca nh my. Suy hao ca si c ging nh ca nh sn xut thng bo. V trong qu trnh vn chuyn c th lm cho suy hao si quang tng ln.

Nu c nhng khuyt im tm thy trong qu trnh kim tra trc khi lp t th phi lin h vi mt trong cc nh xut nhp khu, nh cung cp, hoc nh sn xut thay th. Nu ngi lp t khng thc hin cng on o th trc khi lp t m pht hin ra cc khuyt im sau khi lp t, th khng c cch no chng minh nhng ngi lp t khng gy ra cc khuyt im . Cng on o th kim tra trc khi lp t ch tn khong vi gi nhng n c th tit kim c hng ngn USD thay th cp b khuyt im. o th trc khi lp t c th c thc hin bng mt optical fiber flash light ty thuc vo chiu di cun cp, ngun pht quang v ng h o cng sut quang, hoc mt OTDR. Cun cp phi c xp trt t sao cho hai u cun c th d dng thc hin o th. S dng ngun pht quang v ng h o cng sut quang, cc u ni hoc cc b ni c kh c th dng li c kt ni vo u cui mi si. Ngun pht quang v ng h o cng sut quang ch c th o suy hao ca si quang t u cui n u cui, ch khng th xc nh c v tr gy ra suy hao. o th trc khi lp t thng s dng OTDR thc hin o v n c th o c: Suy hao u cui n u cui. Kt qu ny c th so snh vi thng bo ghi trn cun cp. Ch n phng php o suy hao m nh sn xut s dng. Khong cch n im suy hao ln. OTDR c th xc nh khong cch t u cun cp n vng b li ch x dch trong khong 1 mt. Cc nh du footage trn lp che chn si cp c th c s dng h tr nh v ch b li. Suy hao quang trn n v chiu di (dB/Km). o th lin tc u cui n u cui mi si quang.

o th khi nghim thu (Acceptance testing): Cc chun sau y c th c ng dng o th cp si quang: ANSI/TIA/EIA-455-171A ANSI/TIA/EIA-455-61 ANSI/TIA/EIA-562-7 ANSI/TIA/EIA-526-14A 71

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Mt lin kt quang gm mt si quang m hai u u c cc u ni. Cc lin kt quang thng thng c bt u v kt thc ti cc n v phn phi quang. Cc lin kt quang c kt ni n cc thit b in t nh cc hub, b ghp knh, router. Mt lin kt quang hoc mt mch quang phi c o th trc khi a vo phc v, hoc nhng thi im khc, nh trong lc sa cha h hng. Mt ngun pht quang v ng h o cng sut hoc OTDR c th c s dng o c suy hao tuyn cp quang hoc mt mch quang. Sau y l cc li ch ca vic o th khi nghim thu: Gim st suy hao tng ca cc thnh phn th ng trong lin kt quang theo cc tham s thit k. Gim st cc thnh phn th ng c lp t ng qui cch cha. Ti thiu thi gian cht trong lc bo dng khi m cc thnh phn th ng c lp t khng ng qui cch. Thit lp nn mt trch nhim gii trnh khi m cc mch quang c thit k vi cc lin kt quang a knh kt ni vi nhau v lp t bi nhiu hn mt nh cung cp. Cung cp im chun so snh vi cc o c trong tng lai.

o th bo dng ngn nga h hng (Preventive maintenance testing): o th bo dng ngn nga h hng l php o th theo chu k mt lin kt quang, nhm gim st suy hao ti thi im o v so snh vi suy hao chun khi o nghim thu. o th ny tm cc h hng tim tng trc khi chng gy ra h hng lm ngng hot ng ca lin kt quang. o th bo dng ngn nga h hng thng thc hin v m hoc cui tun t nh hng n ngi s dng. Cc li ch ca o th bo dng ngn nga h hng l: Ti thiu thi gian ngng hot ng. Tng tin cy ca mng.

2.4
2.4.1

CU TRC CC H THNG CP
Gii thiu

Cu trc mt h thng cp c xc nh nh l mt cu hnh tp hp hon chnh h thng cp, c lin kt vi phn cng cho trong h thng m cc phn cng ny c lp t cung cp mt h tng vin thng c tnh ton din. H tng ny phc v cc ng dng rng ln, nh l cung cp dch v in thoi hoc cc mng my tnh. Cu trc h thng cp bt u ti im m nh cung cp dch v (SP-Sevice Provider) kt cui. im ny cng c xem l im phn ranh gii (Demarc-Demarcation) hoc thit b giao tip mng (NID-Network Interface Device). Mi cu trc h thng cp l duy nht. iu ny l do s thay i v: 72 Kin trc ca ta nh m cha cc h thng lp t cp. Cc sn phm cp v s kt ni. Thao tc lp t cp. Cc loi thit b m vic lp t cp s h tr trong hin ti v tng lai.

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Cu hnh ca h thng cp hin hu (trong trng hp nng cp v trang b thm cc thit b mi). Cc yu cu ca khch hng. Bo hnh ca nh sn xut. Tnh nht qun ca thit k v lp t. Thch ng vi cc yu cu v ng dy vt l v truyn dn. Cung cp c s thm nh khi m rng h thng v cc thay i khc. Cung cp ti liu ng dng. Cc phng tin thit b ng vo (entrance facilities). Cc ng dn trc chnh ngang dc. Cc cp trc chnh ngang dc. Cc ng dn ngang. Cc cp ngang. Cc ng ra kt ni thit b s dng. Cc phng thit b. Telecommunications closets. Cc phng tin thit b ni cho. Multiuser Telecommunications Outlet Assemblies (MUTOA). Cc im chuyn tip (Transition Points). Cc im hp nht (Consolidation Points).

Tiu chun ha lp t cp l cn thit v n em n cc li ch sau y:

Kin trc ca cc h thng cp bao gm hu ht hoc tt c c cc thnh phn sau y:

2.4.2

Entrance facilities

Cc phng tin thit b ng vo bao gm cc thnh phn cp cn thit cung cp kh nng kt ni cc thit b phc v bn ngoi n mng cp trong nh. Cc phng tin thit b ng vo bao gm: Cc ng dn ng vo. Cp Phn cng kt ni. Cc thit b bo v mch in. Phn cng chuyn tip. Thit b khc. Ngm c ng dn (underground) . ng hm (Tunnel). Ngm trc tip (Buried). Treo (Aerial).

C bn loi phng tin ng vo:

Cc ng vo ngm c ng dn: Cc ng vo ngm di t s dng cc ng dn hoc cc ng dn c kh khc cung cp cc ng dn ngm di t n ta nh. Cc ng dn ng vo ngm di t c ng dn c nhng thun li nh sau: Gi v m quan ca ta nh. Thch hp cho thay th trong tng lai hoc di chuyn. 73

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Kinh t trong thi gian di. Cung cp s an ton tt hn bo v si cp v vt l. Gim thiu cc sa cha sau ny c th c i vi ti sn khi s pht trin cn thit cho cc thit b phng tin hin c.

Cc bt li ca ng vo ngm di t c ng dn l: Chi ph lp t ban u cao. i hi cn thn khi lp k hoch cho cc ng dn vo. To ra ng dn nc ngm vo ta nh nu tht s khng c che chn kn. Mt nhiu thi gian thi cng lp t.

Cc ng vo ngm trc tip: Cc ng vo ngm trc tip (rnh) khng s dng cc ng dn. c im ca cc ng dn ngm khng dng ng ny l: Thng c cung cp bi ch nhn ta nh tnh t ta nh n ranh gii s hu (hoc n cc ta nh khc c cng ranh gii). Dn t v tr ng vo ta nh n hm, hoc hm bo dng. T nhng v tr ny, nh cung cp dch v s kt ni n h thng cung cp dch v. i hi phi c mng sng hoc ng dn khi i qua vnh ai c tng bao.

Cc thun li ca ng vo ngm trc tip l: Gi v m quan ca ta nh. Thng thng chi ph lp t ban u r hn lp t cc ng vo ngm c ng dn. C th d dng i qua chng ngi vt, c so snh vi cc lp t ng vo c ng dn.

Cc bt li ca ng vo trc tip l: Khng linh ng ci tin hoc thay i dch v trong tng lai. Khng cung cp s an ton hn na bo v si cp v vt l nh i vi h thng ng vo ngm c ng dn. Kh nh v, tr khi c bng thng bo kim loi hoc cc loi khc cng dng c mu sc, c bit trong trng hp cp quang khng c thnh phn kim loi. Kh khn cho lp k hoch nh tuyn v lm ng theo h s.

Cc ng vo treo: Cc thun li ca ng vo treo l: Thng thng c chi ph lp t thp. D dng cho bo dng.

Cc bt li ca ng vo treo l: 74 Km m quan th. Gy chng ngi cho phng tin lu thng. C th lm h hi bn ngoi ta nh.

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


D b nh hng ca cc iu kin mi trng, nh l: cy ng, dng gi, Thng thng lp t chung vi dy in lc, CATV, v dy in thoi hoc cc ng dy truyn s liu khc.

2.4.3

Backbone cables

Hnh 2.14: Mt v d v cu trc lp t backbone cabling

75

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Backbone cable c m t l cp truyn ti thng tin trong phn mng li ca mi mng. Chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A nh ngha backbone cabling nh sau: Chc nng ca backbone cabling l cung cp cc lin kt gia cc telecommunications closets, cc equipment rooms, v cc phng tin ng vo trong cu trc h thng cp vin thng. Backbone cabling bao gm cc backbone cable, cc thit b kt ni cho chnh v trung gian, cc b kt cui c kh, v cc dy ni (patch cords) hoc cc jumper c dng kt ni cho backbone-to-backbone. Backbone cabling cng bao gm h thng i cp gia cc ta nh.

C hai loi backbone cable: interbuilding v intrabuilding. Inter building backbone cable c xc nh l cp dng truyn ti thng tin gia cc ta nh. Intrabuilding backbone cable c xc nh l cp truyn ti thng tin gia cc closets trong ta nh n. Chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A cng nh ngha c hai cp qun l i vi backbone cabling: backbone cp mt v backbone cp hai. Backbone cp mt l cp c lp t gia thit b kt ni cho chnh (MC-main cross-connect) v thit b kt ni cho trung gian (IC-intermediate cross-connect) hoc thit b kt ni cho ngang (HC-horizontal cross-connect). Backbone cp hai l cp c lp t gia IC v HC. Cc thnh phn thit b ch yu ca backbone cabling bao gm: Cc trc ng dn cp, ng dn, cc ng cng xuyn sn nh (mng sng). Cc thnh phn ny c dng lm khng gian ng dn cho cp. Cc loi cp: cp quang, cp ng xon i, cp ng trc. Cc phn cng kt ni: cc block kt ni, cc bng cm dy, cc phn cng kt ni trung gian, kt ni cho. Cc thnh phn khc: phn cng h tr cp, chng chy, v phn cng ni t.

2.4.4

Horizontal cable

Horizontal cable c hiu l mt h thng cp chy ngang theo sn nh hoc trn nh. Chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A nh ngha horizontal cabling nh sau: Horizontal cabling l mt phn mng cp ca h telecommunications cabling, n l phn m rng tnh t work area telecommunications outlet/connector n thit b ni cho ngang trong telecommunications closet. Horizontal cabling bao gm cc cp ngang, cc telecommunications outlet/connector trong area work, kt cui c kh, v cc dy ni hoc cc jumper c trong telecommunications closet. Cc h thng horizontal cabling gm hai thnh phn c bn sau y:

76

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Cp ngang v cc phn cng kt ni dng truyn ti cc tn hiu gia work area outlets v thit b ni cho ngang trong mt telecommunication closet. H thng cp ny v cc phn cng kt ni ca n c xem l mt kt ni c bn (basic link). Cc khng gian v ng dn ngang c dng phn phi v h tr cp ngang v phn cng kt ni gia work area outlet v telecommunications closet.

A B C

Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) HCEquipment Cord Patchcords/cross-connect jumpers s dng trong HC bao gm equipment cables/cords phi khng di hn 5m (16ft). Note: ISO/IEC 11801:2002 specifies a max. patchcord/ cross-

connect length of 5m (16.4 ft.), which does not include equipment cables/cords.
D E F G Cp ngang ti a di 90m (295ft). TP (Transition Point) hoc CP (Consolidation Point) (ty chn). Telecommunications outlet/connect Work area Equipment cord

Hnh 2.15: Mt v d v cu trc lp t horizontal cabling

Cc ngh cn xem xt chc chn khi chn la horizontal cabling: Cp ngang di ti a 90 m (295 ft). Ti thiu c hai telecommunications outlet cho mt work area. Horizontal cabling thng khng sn sng truy nhp. Cung cp nhiu ng dng (thoi, d liu, video, v cc dch v c in p thp khc) m khng c cc yu cu thay i no ln. nh tuyn v cc thnh phn h tr h thng cp ngang (loi cp ng) phi trnh cc khu vc c ngun to ra EMI. Chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A yu cu chn loi cp cho horizontal cabling l: 100 UTP. 100 ScTP. 100 STP-A. 2-fiber (duplex) 62.5/125 m hoc 50/125 m multimode optical fiber.

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Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


2.4.5 Work areas

Thng thng work area l khu vc c din tch vo khong 10m2. Work area bao gm cc thnh phn dng m rng t work area outlet n thit b. Cc thnh phn ny c th bao gm cc thit b nh my in thoi, u cui d liu, thit b video, v my tnh. Cng bao gm trong work area l h thng cp kt ni t thit b n work area outlet. Khi lp k hoch cho work area cabling, cn ghi nh nhng yu t sau y: Cc dy ni (patch cords) c thit k d dng khi thay i ng i. di ti a ca cp ngang c ch r vi gi nh rng c ly ti thiu 3m ca dy ni c s dng trong work area. Dy ni vi hai u cm ging nhau thng c s dng. Cc dy ni phi c ch to t nh my. Cc dy ni bng ng c yu cu c cu trc dng bn c mm do.

2.4.6

Equipment rooms

Phng thit b l mt phng c mc ch c bit c dng cung cp khng gian v duy tr mi trng vn hnh cho thit b vin thng rng ln. Phng thit b ni chung c xem xt phc v cho ton b ta nh, mt telecommunications closet phc v mt phn hoc ton b tng lu ca ta nh. Phng thit b: Dng kt cui v kt ni cho cc backbone v horizontal cable. Cung cp khng gian lm vic cho ngi qun l iu hnh. c thit k ty thuc vo cc yu cu c trng c xem xt n chi ph, kch thc, s pht trin, v s phc tp ca thit b. Cng c th phc v mt phn ca c tnh ng vo hoc nh mt telecommunications closet. Cha nhiu b phn ca thit b iu khin chung nh thit b thoi, d liu, video, cnh bo chy,

Thng thng, phng thit b phc v cho ton b ta nh. i khi, c cc ta nh trang b nhiu hn mt phng thit b : Phn chia cc loi thit b v dch v khc nhau. Trnh cc him ha. Phn chia thit b cho mi ngi thu khi trong ta nh c nhiu ngi cng thu. Cc im cn lu i vi phng thit b: N phi c tnh a nng. Mt phng thit b phi c thit k c xem xt n cc ng dng c trong hin ti v tng lai. N phi c kh nng cung cp s gia tng v thay th cc thit b, cng nh cc nng cp trong thi gian hot ng m gim thiu c s gin on dch v v chi ph.

78

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


N phi c n chiu sng, my iu ha khng kh, ngun in, v cc i hi khng gian ti thiu.

2.4.7

Telecommunications Closets

Telecommunication closets khc vi equipment rooms v entrance facilities im chng c dng phc v trong mt tng lu ca ta nh (floor-serving). Cc Telecommunication closets c th: Phc v nh mt im kt cui cc h thng backbone cable v horizontal cable trong mt mng. Cha cc b kt ni cho ngang, cc phn cng kt ni, jumper, cc dy ni. Bao gm cc im kt ni cho trung gian cho cc b phn khc nhau ca h thng backbone cable. Cung cp mt mi trng c tnh iu khin cho cc thit b vin thng, phn cng kt ni.

Kch thc ca telecommunication closets c th khc nhau ty thuc vo chc nng ca n v kch thc ca tng lu m n phc v. Thng thng, cc yu cu v kch thc da trn s phn b cc dch v vin thng n mt khu vc lm vic ring bit. Trong khi kch thc thc s ca telecommunications closets s ph thuc vo ng dng ca ta nh. V th kch thc ph thuc vo nhiu s thay i trong giai on xy dng d n. Tuy nhin, kch thc ti thiu cho mt telecommunications closet c cho trong bng sau y: Nu khu vc phc v Nh hn 5000 sf 5000 sf 8000sf Ln hn 8000 sf Th kch thc ca Closet ti thiu 10 feet x 7 feet 10 feet x 9 feet 10 feet x 11 feet

1 foot = 0,3084 m; 1sf = 0,09290304 square metters

Theo NEC Section 110-16 yu cu cn 3 feet cho khng gian lm vic xung quanh thit b, iu ny cng c p dng cho telecommunications closets. Ngun cho cc thit b trong telecommunications closets phi c cung cp t cc dy dn ngun s dng ring bit (NEC Article 215). Cc cm in loi quadplex vi dy dn 20 amp ring bit v cc dy t tch bit c lp t theo mi b tng trong equipment room. Cc ngun khc cho n chiu sng, cc motor, my iu ha nhit cng c cung cp bng cc dy dn ngun ring bit. H thng cnh bo chy phi c lp t trong telecommunications closets. Trang b cc bnh cha chy v t ch thch hp trong telecommunications closets. La chn v tr cho telecommunications closets sao cho chiu di cp l ti thiu i vi horizontal cable v vertical cable.

79

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin

Hnh 2.16: Mt v d v telecommunications closets

2.4.8

Cross-connections

Mt trong cc chc nng ch yu ca telecommunications closet l cha cc kt ni cho v kt ni trung gian. Hnh v sau y so snh gia hai loi kt ni ny.
Cross connection

Equipment cable 300 paire 110 Bunch Blook Horizontal Cabling

300 paire 110 Bunch Blook Horizontal Cabling Equipment cable

Common Equipment

Work Area Cross connection

Common Equipment

Work Area Interconnection

Hnh 2.17: Cross connection, inteconnection

Cc kt ni cho c yu cu gia horizontal v backbone cable v khi c cc kt ni thit b a cng (v d, cc b kt ni 25 i) gn vi horizontal hoc backbone cabling. Cc kt ni trung gian c th c dng khi m c cc kt ni thit b n cng (v d, cc b ni cp quang 4 si) gn vi horizontal hoc backbone cabling. C 3 loi ni cho: 80 Main cross connect: l kt ni cho trong equipment room dng kt ni cho cc cp ng vo, backbone cables, v equipment cables. Intermediate cross connect: l cc im kt ni cho nm gia main cross connect v horizontal cross connect trong backbone cabling. Horizontal cross connect: l kt ni cho cho horizontal cable n cabling v thit b khc.

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Cc kt ni cho chp nhn hai loi: Patch cords (UTP, ScTP, STP-A, si quang). Copper jumpers. Chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A a ra cc khuyn ngh cho tt c cc kt ni cho: Horizontal v backbone cabling c kt cui c nh trn phn cng kt ni sao cho tha cc yu cu ca chun ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A. Tt c cc kt ni gia backbone v horizontal cables c kt ni cho. Equipment cables cng vi mt s port trn b kt ni n th c kt cui bng phn cng kt ni chuyn dng. Equipment cables c th hoc l kt ni cho hoc l kt ni trung gian vi horizontal hoc backbone cable. Kt ni trc tip lm gim thiu cc kt ni trong thit k mt lin kt. Tuy nhin, cng lm gim i linh hot. Cp dng cho kt ni cho l loi patch cable c bn.

2.4.9

Topologies
C hai nh ngha khc nhau v topology l physical v logical. y ta ch xt Physical topology.

kt ni cc thnh phn thit b, tt c physical topology bin i theo hai phng php ch yu sau: point-to-point v multipoint. Point-to-point (PTP) topology: kt ni hai nt trc tip vi nhau. V d, hai my tnh kt ni thng tin vi nhau qua cc modem. Trong mt lin kt point-to-point, hai thit b chim dng hon ton phng tin truyn thng. Bi v phng tin truyn thng khng c tnh chia s, c ch khng cn thit nhn dng cc my tnh nn hai thit b trong mng point-to-point khng cn nh a ch. Cc lin kt point-to-point c th l n cng, bn song cng, hoc song cng. Khi cc thit b phi lin lc vi nhau hai chiu trn lin kt bn song cng, mt vi c ch thay i phi c p dng chuyn i cc qui nh cho cc thit b gi v nhn. Multipoint topology: Multipoint topology lin kt ba hoc nhiu hn cc thit b thng qua mt phng tin truyn thng n l. Multipoint topology hot ng kh ging vi dch v hi thoi, cc thu bao in thoi c kt ni trn cng mt ng dy. Do multipoint topology chia s mt knh chung, mi thit b cn c mt cch thc t xc nh mnh v xc nh thit b no mun gi thng tin. Phng php s dng xc nh cc thit b gi v nhn c gi l nh a ch. C bn loi physical topology s dng trong mng my tnh: Star, Bus, Tree, Ring, v Hybrid.

81

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Star Topology: Star topology l mt phng php thng dng kt ni h thng cp trong mng my tnh. Trong star topology, mi my tnh kt ni n thit b trung tm thng qua mt lin kt im-im (point-to-point). Ty thuc vo kin trc logic c s dng, m thit b trung tm c cc tn sau y: Hub, Multipoint Repeater, Concentrator, Multi-Access Unit (MAU).

Hnh 2.18: Star Topology

Cc hub trung tm cng c th c phn loi nh sau:

Passive hub: l mt splitter tn hiu n gin. Chc nng chnh ca n l kt ni cc nhnh


ca hnh sao trong khi bo dng duy tr cc c tnh in thch hp. Mt passive hub nh tuyn tt c cc nt . iu ny c ngha to ra mt ti lu lng ln khi c nhiu lin kt lm vic gia cc my tnh. Mi my tnh c nhim v thm l c a ch ca mi mu tin m n nhn xc nh c phi l mu tin m n cn phi nhn hay khng. Tin tc cha cc a ch khc th c loi b.

Active hub: active hub thc thi chc nng nh mt passive hub, nhng c cc mch in t
to li v pht li tin tc. Do , cc active hub c th c s dng m rng c ca mt mng.

Intelligent hub: intelligent hub thc thi cc chc nng nh cc passive hub v active hub;
N cn c th thc hin cc cng vic chn la ng v mt vi chc nng qun tr mng. Cc intelligent hub nh tuyn lu lng ch n nhnh ca mng sao trn nt nhn c ch nh. Nu c cc lin kt d tha tn ti khi m c cc s c v cp xut hin, mt intelligent hub c th nh tuyn thng tin trn cc lin kt s dng mt cch bnh thng.

Cc router, bridge, v switch l cc v d ca intelligent hub m chng c th nh tuyn truyn dn mt cch thng minh. Cc intelligent hub cng c th tch hp cc c im chn on c th d dng khc phc cc s c mng.

u im ca star topology:
Rt nhiu h thng cp c thit k theo star topology. Mng ny c cc u im: Mi thit b c phn bit bng chnh si cp kt ni ca n. iu ny d dng cho vic cch ly ring bit cc thit b ra khi h thng bng cch tho cp kt ni ca n ra khi hub. Tt c d liu u truyn qua nt trung tm, cho nn c th trang b cc thit b chn on d dng khc phc v qun l mng. S t chc c tnh phn cp cho php c lp lu lng trn knh truyn. iu ny c li cho mt s trng hp, nhng khng phi l tt c cho cc my tnh c ti nng trong mt

82

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


mng. Lu lng t nhng my tnh c ti nng c th c chia s t ton b lu lng hoc tng lu lng phn tn c mt lu lng ng u hn.

Khuyt im ca star topology:


Bi kt ni cp l im-im cho mi nt nn s tn cp. Mt hub b s c c th lm t lit mt vng rng ln ca mng.

C th v d mt vi mng star topology sau y: ARCnet, 10Base-T, 100Base-TX, StarLAN. Bus Topology: trong bus topology, tt c cc thit b c ni n cng mt phng tin truyn dn. Cc bus s dng l kim loi, thng dng l cp ng trc, v kt cui si cp phi l mt in tr kt cui phi hp tr khng vi si cp. in tr kt cui gip ngn chn cc phn x d liu. Bus kt ni c xem nh l h thng a im bi v tt c thit b c mc vo cng mt backbone cable.
10BASE2 cable with BNC T-Connector

Hnh 2.19: Bus Topology

Mt c tnh quan trng cn nh trong bus topology l tt c tn hiu d liu pht qung b xuyn sut cu trc bus, cho nn cn c mt c ch nh a ch sao cho mi nt hiu c bc in no mnh cn phi nhn.

u im ca bus topology
Chi ph cp ti thiu v s dng bus chung. Yu cu di cp ngn hn so vi star topology. D dng kt ni my tnh hoc thit b ngoi vi n h thng bus.
10BASE2 cable end Terminator

Khuyt im ca bus topology


Kh khn cho x l s c v khng tn ti cc im phn phi trung tm. Ton b mng ngng hot ng nu c s c trn cp chnh. Cn c kt cui hai u backbone cable. C th v d mt vi mng bus topology sau y: ARCnet, Token bus, Ethernet, (10Base2). Tree Topology: tree topology kt hp cc c tnh ca star v bus topology. N bao gm cc nhm workstation c cu hnh star topology kt ni n mt bus backbone cable (xem hnh di y). Tree topology cho php vic m rng mng hin c. 83

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin u im ca tree topology


i dy im-im cho cc phn mng ring bit. c h tr bi cc nh cung cp phn cng v phn mm.

Khuyt im ca tree topology


Chiu di ton b mi on b gii hn bi h thng cp s dng. Nu backbone cable b s c th ton b mng ngng hot ng. Kh khn hn cho vic cu hnh v i cp so vi cc topology khc.

Hnh 2.20: Tree Topology

Ring Topology: trong ring topology, mi nt c kt ni n hai nt khc, nh th to ra mt vng ring. Mi nt trong ring topology hot ng nh mt b repeater. N nhn tin tc pht i t nt lin k trc v khuch i tin tc ny trc khi pht i tip.

Hnh 2.21: Ring Topology

u im ca ring topology 84 Mi repeater nhn i tn hiu d liu cho nn him khi xut hin s suy gim tn hiu. D liu c chuyn giao mt cch nhanh chng khng c dng c chai. Truyn dn d liu tng i n gin, cc gi d liu truyn i ch trong mt hng. Thm mt nt khng lm nh hng ng k n bng thng. Trnh c xung t mng.

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


Khuyt im ca ring topology S c v vng ring hoc mt nt c th dn n ton b mng ngng hot ng. Bi v mi nt phi c kh nng nh mt repeater nn cc thit b mng t . Cc gi d liu phi i qua mi nt gia nt gi v nhn. Do , gy ra chm chp. Kh khn trong vic sa cha h hng vng ring. Khi thm mt nt cn phi tm thi ngng hot ng mng.

C th v d mt vi mng ring topology sau y: IBM Token Ring, Fiber Distributed Data Interface. Hybrid Topology: hybrid topology l s kt hp nhiu topology thnh mt topoloy rng ln. Hybrid topology ni chung l cc mng c khu vc rng ln. Mi topology u c mt mnh yu ca n, do s kt hp ca mt vi loi topology s em n mt mng c hiu qu cao.

Hnh 2.22: Hybrid-Star Bus Topology

S kt hp ca hai basic topology to ra mt topology mi i khi khng phi l hybrid topology nu topology mi to ra khng lm thay i cc c tnh ca basic topology. V d, tree topolopy kt hp vi tree topology th vn l mt tree topology. S kt hp ca hai basic topology lun to ra mt hybrid topology.

Hnh 2.23: Hybrid-Star Ring Topology

85

Chng 2: Cp v k thut lp t cp thng tin


u im ca hybrid topology C th kt hp cc mt u im ca cc topology. C hiu qu i vi workgroup v lu thoi c th ti u ha.

Khuyt im ca hybrid topology Cc thit b trong hybrid topology khng th em s dng cho mt topology khc nu khng c mt vi thay i v phn cng.

86

GII THIU

trin khai tt cc dch v vin thng v p ng cc yu cu ngy cng cao v cht lng dch v ca ngi s dng, mng truy nhp i hi phi c thit k thc hin ng theo qui trnh v m bo y cc yu k thut cho mi loi mng truy nhp. Cc loi mng truy nhp trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: mng truy nhp in thoi truyn thng v ISDN, mng truy nhp x.DSL, mng truy nhp HFC v cable modem, mng truy nhp quang, mng truy nhp v tuyn c nh (FWA), mng truy nhp v tinh vi gc m b (VSAT) v cc mng truy nhp v tinh di ng v khng dy. Ni dung chi tit trnh by nhm nm c cu trc, nguyn l hot ng c bn, cc yu cu k thut ca mng truy nhp, mt s ch dn trin khai lp t mt vi mng truy nhp n gin.

87

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

3.1 TRUY NHP BNG QUAY S


Truy nhp bng quay s l kt ni thit b u cui n mng thng qua mt modem v mng in thoi cng cng. Truy nhp bng quay s cng ging nh kt ni my in thoi, ngoi tr hai u cui l cc thit b my tnh. V truy nhp bng quay s s dng cc ng dy in thoi, nn cht lng kt ni khng th lun lun tt v tc d liu b gii hn. Tc d liu ca truy nhp bng quay s ch t n 56 Kbps, nhng vi cng ngh mi hn mt cht nh ISDN th c cc tc cao hn. Truy nhp bng quay s khng i hi thm c s h tng trn mng in thoi, n l s la chn thch hp cho nhng khu vc nng thn, khu vc xa m nhng ni xy dng mng bng rng khng hiu qu v yu cu khng cao cng nh mt s dng thp. Truy nhp bng quay s i hi thi gian thit lp mt kt ni in thoi v thc thi cng vic bt tay trc khi chuyn giao d liu. Khi thc hin mt lin kt, nu cuc gi tnh cc theo kt ni, th mi kt ni phi chu cc ph. Nu cuc gi tnh cc theo thi gian, th thi gian kt ni l thi gian phi chu cc ph.

Hnh 3.1:Truy nhp bng quay s (modem tng t qua mng in thoi IDN)

Khi s dng modem truy nhp, iu cn quan tm l tc v tin cy ca modem. ITU nh ngha cc chun v c tnh ca modem nh sau: V.21: Modem song cng tng t, s dng iu ch audio phase shift keying 300 baud, c tc truyn d liu s 300 bps, chun s dng cho mng in thoi kt ni lin lc hai chiu gia hai modem tng t. V.22: Modem song cng tng t, s dng iu ch PSK 600 baud, c tc truyn d liu s 1200 bps hoc 600 bps, chun dng cho mng in thoi kt ni im im dng cc mch 2 dy: Truyn dn s ng b/bt ng b, truyn song cng i dy kt ni gia hai modem tng t c tc 1200 bps. V.22bis: Modem song cng, s dng iu ch QAM 600 baud, c tc truyn d liu s 2400bps hoc 1200 bps, chun s dng cho mng in thoi v kt ni im im dng cc mch 2 dy (xem nh phin bn ca V.22). V.23: Modem n cng, s dng iu ch FSK 600/1200 baud, c tc 600/1200 bps. 88

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


V.26bis: Modem tc 1.200/2.400 bps chun dng cho mng in thoi. V.32: Cc modem song cng tc t n 9.600 bps, 2.400 baud (thay th cho 600 baud ca chun V.22), s dng cho mng in thoi ca cc mch thu ring: Truyn dn s ng b/bt ng b, truyn song cng trn i dy tc 9.600 bps, 4.800 bps. V.32bis: Modem song cng tc t n 14,4 Kbps s dng cho mng in thoi ca cc mch thu ring ni im im: Truyn dn s ng b/bt ng b, truyn song cng trn i dy tc 14,4 Kbps, 12 Kbps, 9.600 bps, 7.200 bps, 4.800 bps. V.34: Modem song cng tc t n 28,8 Kbps, truyn dn s ng b/bt ng b, song cng hai dy (2/4 dy knh thu ring), tc 28,8 Kbps. V.34+: Modem song cng tc t n 33,6 Kbps s dng cho mng in thoi v cc mch in thoi im im thu ring: Truyn dn s ng b/bt ng b, song cng trn hai dy (2/4 dy knh thu ring), tc 33,6 Kbps. V.90: Cp modem tng t v s s dng cho mng in thoi cng cng (PSTN-Public Switched Telephone Network) tc t n 56 Kbps theo chiu xung v 33,6 Kbps theo chiu ln, c pht trin trong thi gian t thng 3 nm 1998 n thng 2 nm 1999: Truyn dn s ng b/bt ng b, song cng trn hai dy, tc 56 Kbps. V.90 s dng iu ch PCM (Pulse Code Modulation).

3.2 ISDN
3.2.1 Gii thiu
ISDN l mt mng s a dch v, cung cp dch v thoi v s liu chung trn mt ng dy thu bao. ISDN dn n qu trnh s ha mng li, cho php cc ngun tn hiu: voice, data, text, graphic, music, video c th c truyn trn i dy ng hin hu. im ni bt ca ISDN biu hin qua vic chun ha cc dch v thu bao, cc giao tip user/network, v kh nng lin kt mng. Cc ng dng ca ISDN gm c: fax nhm 4, dch v khn cp (bao trm, bo chy, ), dch v ghi s in, nc, gas. Cc thit b c ca mng PSTN vn dng c vi ISDN qua mt b tng thch u cui TA (Terminal Adapter).

3.2.2 Thit b ISDN


Cc thit b ISDN bao gm: cc u cui (terminals), b thch nghi u cui (TA-Terminal Adapters), cc thit b kt cui mng, thit b kt cui ng dy, v thit b kt cui tng i. Cc thit b u cui ISDN c hai loi: cc u cui ISDN c bit c coi l thit b u cui loi 1 (TE1); cc u cui khng ISDN nh l DTE, trc khi c cc chun ISDN c coi nh l thit b u cui loi 2 (TE2). Cc TE1 kt ni n ISDN bng cp 4 dy, twisted-pair digital link. Cc TE2 kt ni n ISDN thng qua TA. TA c th ng ring mt mnh hoc l board mch nm trong TE2. Nu TE2 khng c TA th n c kt ni vi TA thng qua giao tip lp vt l chun. V d bao gm EIA/TIA-232-C (trc RS-232-C), V.24, v V.35. Kt ni tip theo TE1 v TE2 l thit b kt cui mng loi 1 (NT1) hoc thit b kt cui mng loi 2 (NT2). Cc thit b kt cui mng ny kt ni ng dy thu bao 4 dy thnh mch vng thu bao 2 dy. khu vc Bc M, NT1 l thit b CPE. Hu ht cc khu vc cn li th NT1 l phn mng c cung cp bi truyn dn. NT2 l thit b kh phc tp, thng thng nm trong cc tng i PBX v thc hin cc chc nng giao thc lp 2 v 3 cng nh chc nng tp hp cc dch v. Mt thit b NT1/2 bao gm cc chc nng ca NT1 v NT2 cng tn ti trong h thng. 89

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

3.2.2.1 B tng thch u cui TA (Terminal Adapter)


TA l giao tip cho thit b u cui truyn thng n mng ISDN. Thit b ny l mt trong nhng iu kin trc tin c th truy nhp cc dch v ISDN t cc my tnh c nhn, my ch, my fax nhm 3 v cc thit b trc y kt ni mng in thoi tng t truyn thng v mng PBX. im R Thit b u cui truyn thng B tng thch im R/T
DSU

Hnh 3.2: Cu hnh kt ni b tng thch

B tng thch u cui c c trng bi cc cng kt ni ca n. Cc cng ny c th c la chn ty vo b tng thch s dng. Cc b tng thch u cui thng mi s dng cc giao tip tiu chun nh l RS-232C, V.35, v X.21. Cc giao tip ny cho php kt ni hu ht thit b u cui truyn thng. S khi tng qut ca b tng thch c cho trong hnh v sau y: Mn hnh Cng RS-232C (V24-100) Cng X.21 Cng V.35
ng dy tng t

Bn phm

Giao tip cng CPU

Giao tip ISDN

Hnh 3.3: S khi b tng thch u cui

u ni 8 chn

3.2.2.2 My in thoi s (D-Tel)


im R Cc u cui truyn thng D-Tel
i m T (S)
DSU

Hnh 3.4: Cu hnh kt ni D-Tel

Ngoi dch v truyn thng, my in thoi s cn cung cp nhiu chc nng khc v cng c xem nh l mt u cui truy nhp mt s dch v ISDN. Trong my in thoi s c trang b b tng thch u cui c th kt ni cc u cui truyn thng v my tnh n mng ISDN. Cu hnh kt ni my in thoi s nh hnh trn. 90

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


S khi ca mt D-Tel nh m t trong hnh sau:
Mn hnh Cng RS-232C (V24-100) Cng X.21 Cng V.35 ng dy tng t Loa
A/D

Bn phm

Giao tip cng


CPU

Giao tip ISDN

u ni 8 chn

T hp

Hnh 3.5: S khi D-Tel

Cng nh cc b tng thch, D-tel c cc cng khc nhau kt ni cc thit b u cui. Giao tip BA cung cp cho cc u cui ngun backup 420 mW thng qua DSU cc u cui ny vn hot ng lin tc khi c s c ngun in li.

3.2.3 Cu hnh ISDN


Trong ISDN c hai loi knh truyn, B v D. Cc knh B dng truyn d liu (k c thoi), v knh D dng cho bo hiu, iu khin (cng c th dng cho truyn d liu). BRA (Basic Rate Access): cng c gi l BRI (Basic Rate Interface), bao gm hai knh B mi knh 64 Kbps, v mt knh D 16 Kbps. S kt hp ba knh c gi l 2B+D. PRA (Primary Rate Access): cng c gi l PRI (Primary Rate Interface), bao gm nhiu knh B v mt knh D, mi knh 64 Kbps. S knh B ca PRA ty thuc vo quc gia: Bc M v Nht Bn l 23B+1D c tc bit l 1,544 Mbps (T1); Chu u v c l 30B+1D c tc bit l 2,048 Mbps (E1). ISDN bng rng (BISDN-Broadband ISDN): l kh nng truy nhp th ba ca ISDN v n c th m trch nhiu loi dch v khc nhau trong cng thi im. N ch yu c dng trong cc mng backbone v mng ATM. S dng k thut m ha B8ZS (Bipolar with Eight-Zeros Substitution), d liu cuc gi c truyn trn cc knh B, knh D s dng cho bo hiu nhm thit lp v qun l cuc gi. Khi mt cuc gi c thit lp, c mt knh d liu song cng ng b 64 Kbps thit lp gia hai u cui s dng. Knh D c th c s dng n gi v nhn cc gi d liu theo giao thc X.25, v kt ni n mng gi X.25.

91

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


3.2.4 Cc im tham chiu
ISDN c trng mt s im tham chiu xc nh cc giao tip logic gia cc nhm chc nng, nh l TA v NT1. Cc im tham chiu ISDN bao gm: R - im tham chiu gia thit b khng ISDN v TA. S - im tham chiu gia cc u cui s dng v NT2. T - im tham chiu gia NT1 v NT2.

U- im tham chiu gia NT1 v thit b kt cui ng dy trong mng truyn dn. im tham chiu U ch cp n trong khu vc Bc M, chc nng NT1 khng c cung cp bi mng truyn dn.

Hnh 3.6: Cu hnh c bn v cc im tham chiu

3.3 GIAO DIN V5


3.3.1 M hnh truy nhp V5
M hnh kin trc m t V5 khc vi cc m hnh khc dng trong mng truy nhp bi v n ch tp trung cc kha cnh c lin quan n cc giao din V5 v khng quan tm n cc chi tit ch lin quan n cc cng ngh ring. M hnh c bn c trnh by trong hnh sau:

CPE

Phn s rISDN (ty chn)

Mng truy nhp

Truyn dn feeder (ty chn)

Host Exchange

LLDN Hnh 3.7: M hnh c bn truy nhp V5

Cn phn bit gia mng phn b ng dy ni ht LLDN (Local Line Distribution Network) ko di t host exchange trong mng li ti CPE, v mng truy nhp khi n c nh ngha cho giao din V5. S khc nhau ch LLDN cn bao gm cc h thng truyn dn feeder (FTS-Feeder Transmission System) v cc phn s u xa (rDS-remote Digital section) no nu chng c mt. 92

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Mt FTS cho php headend ca mng truy nhp c t cch xa host exchange ca n. FTS c th c dng mt vng SDH vi cc b ghp knh xen k ti host exchange v cng ti cc v tr headend ca mng truy nhp. Nu tr truyn dn chp nhn c, FTS c th cho php mt mng truy nhp c b tr trong mt quc gia hoc mt chu lc ny v host exchange t ti mt quc gia hoc chu lc khc. Mng truy nhp bao gm hai tng. Tng th nht m trch lu lng gia host exchange v cc u xa. Tng th hai m trch cc lu thoi nh hn gia cc u xa v cc ch n cui cng. N cng c th thc hin ton b qu trnh truyn dn theo mt h thng truyn dn quang phc tp duy nht. H thng ny c th c php phn tp nh tuyn n cc v tr u xa m bo an ton v c th vn hnh vi c ly rng ln n cc im cui xa.

3.3.2 Kin trc dch v trong giao din V5


C bn loi dch v c trng chung c th c h tr ti mt cng ngi dng lin quan n mt giao din V5, nhng ch c ti a ba trong s c th c h tr cng mt lc. Loi dch v c trng chung th nht l dch v theo yu cu hoc dng cho ISDN hoc dng cho PSTN, trong kt ni s do host exchange thit lp vo lc khi to mi cuc gi. Ngoi dch v theo yu cu cn c hai loi dch v cho thu. Dch v cho thu khc vi dch v theo yu cu ch kt ni c to ra theo cu hnh ca mng v khng c thit lp cho tng cuc gi ring l. Loi dch v cho thu th nht l dch v cho thu c nh. N c x l qua mt mng ng dy cho thu tch bit khi host exchange. Cc cng ngi dng ch h tr cc dch v cho thu c nh khng ph thuc vo cc giao din V5, bi v khng c s lin quan n host exchange. Loi dch v cho thu th hai l dch v bn c nh, trong lu lng c nh tuyn qua mt host exchange trn mt giao din V5, nhng kt ni do cu hnh mng thit lp v khng thit lp cho mi cuc gi. Giao din V5 ch cho php cc knh B 64 Kbps c s dng cho cc dch v bn c nh, bi v cc host exhange bng hp c thit k kt ni cc knh 64 Kbps. Cc cng ngi dng lin quan n giao din V5 v h tr cc dch v theo yu cu c phn chia ra thnh cc cng ngi dng PSTN hoc ISDN, bt chp vic cc dch v cho thu no c h tr ti cng ngi dng ny. Vic phn chia ny ch c ngha i vi cc cng ngi dng ISDN, bi v mt cng ch c phn loi thnh cng PSTN nu n h tr dch v PSTN theo yu cu, v n khng li knh kh dng cho cc dch v cho thu no . Knh D ca mt ngi dng ISDN thng xuyn c kt ni n host exchange qua giao din V5, bi v knh D duy tr vic iu khin cuc gi cho cc dch v theo yu cu. Mt giao din V5.1 ch c th h tr ISDN tc c bn, bi v n khng c dung lng cho ISDN tc s cp. Mt giao din V5.2 c th h tr c ISDN tc c bn v tc s cp. M hnh kin trc cho cc dch v v cc cng c trnh by trong hnh 3.8. M hnh ny b qua FTS c th c, bi v FTS l trong sut v do vy khng c nh hng g ti cc cng v cc dch v. Gia cc cng ISDN vi nhau c s phn bit l c v khng c rDS, do chng c cc giao din khc nhau ti mng truy nhp. Bn cht ca s phi ghp ti cc NT1 u xa cho ISDN khng c c t y. Giao din phi ghp ti mt thit b ng dy cho thu khng c c t do n cng khng c tiu chun ha. Host exchange h tr cc dch v theo yu cu v cc dch v cho thu bn c nh. Mng ng dy cho thu h tr cc dch v cho thu c nh. 93

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


CPE AN V5

PSTN ISDN-BA/PRA

Mch ng dy + L1/3 NI1+LT+chuyn tip khung NT1 LT+chuyn tip khung Mch ng dy + L1+

Host Exch

ISDN-BA/PRA

ng dy cho thu

Mng ng dy cho thu

Hnh 3.8: Kin trc dch v

3.3.3 Giao din V5.1


i vi V5.1 ch c duy nht mt ng truyn thng bo hiu S-ISDN (Signaling-ISDN) tng ng vi mt khe thi gian duy nht. Khe thi gian ny c th c cc giao thc truyn thng khc hoc cc loi ng truyn thng ISDN khc dng chung hoc khng dng chung. C th c nhiu ng truyn thng P-ISDN (Packet-ISDN) v F-ISDN (Frame relay-ISDN) khc nhau s dng ti a ba khe thi gian. Nu ch c mt khe thi gian c s dng cho tt c cc knh truyn thng th n phi l khe thi gian 16, bi v giao thc iu khin c b tr ti y. Nu hai khe thi gian c s dng cho cc ng truyn thng, th cc khe ny l cc khe 15, 16. Giao thc iu khin phi s dng khe thi gian 16 v t nht c mt trong s cc ng truyn thng hin nhin s phi dng khe thi gian 15 (xem hnh 3.9). V d, c th c cc ng truyn thng F-ISDN trn c hai khe thi gian. Tng t nh vy, c th c cc ng truyn thng P-ISDN trn c hai khe thi gian. Giao thc PSTN v ng truyn thng S-ISDN u c th s dng mt trong hai khe 16 hoc 15.
CONTROL A-TS16 B-TS15 A-TS16 B-TS15 PSTN S-ISDN F-ISDN P-ISDN

V d 1

V d 2

Hnh 3.9: Cc trng hp gn ca V5.1 vi hai khe thi gian truyn thng

Nu ba khe thi gian c s dng cho cc ng truyn thng, th cc khe ny l 16, 15, v 31 (xem hnh 3.10). Giao thc iu khin vn phi s dng khe 16. Do giao thc PSTN ch c th s dng mt khe thi gian duy nht, cho nn cng phi c cc ng truyn thng ISDN hin din nu ba khe thi gian c s dng. C th c cc ng truyn thng F-ISDN, v P-ISDN 94

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


trn bt k khe thi gian no. Giao thc PSTN v ng truyn thng S-ISDN u c th s dng trong mt khe thi gian 16, 15, hoc 31.
CONTROL A-TS16 B-TS15 C-TS31 A-TS16 B-TS15 C-TS31 PSTN S-ISDN F-ISDN P-ISDN

V d 1

V d 2

Hnh 3.10: Cc trng hp gn ca V5.1 vi ba khe thi gian truyn thng

3.3.4 Giao din V5.2


Ngoi s khc nhau v s lung kt ni 2048 Kbps, giao din V5.2 cn khc giao din V5.1 hai kha cnh chnh. Th nht, giao din V5.2 h tr thm cc giao thc ni dch (housekeeping), m cc giao thc ny dng chung mt khe thi gian nh giao thc iu khin. Kha cnh quan trng th hai, giao din V5.2 khc vi giao din V5.1 l n c thm cc khe thi gian d phng ph nng cao tnh an ton truyn thng (xem hnh 3.11). Ngoi nhng khc bit quan trng ny ra, V5.2 cn khc V5.1 ch c th c thm nhiu hn mt ng truyn thng S-ISDN, sao cho vic iu khin cuc gi ISDN khng b gii hn mt khe thi gian V5 duy nht. iu ny cn thit m rng bng thng hn mc bnh thng cung cp cho vic iu khin cuc gi khi c thm cc cng ISDN c giao din V5.2 h tr. Bng thng m rng hn mc bnh thng khi c thm cc cng PSTN th khng cn thit, bi l bo hiu PSTN t i hi hn v bng thng.
Cc khe thi gian 15 16 31 Link s cp Ty chn Cc giao thc ni dch Ty chn Link th cp Ty chn Bo v ni dch Ty chn Cc link khc Ty chn Ty chn Ty chn

Hnh 3.11: Cc khe thi gian truyn thng V5.2

3.3.5 Mt s im khc nhau gia V5.1 v V5.2


V5.1 ch dng mt lung 2.048 Kbps, trong khi V5.2 c th c n 16 lung 2.048 Kbps trn mt giao din. V5.1 khng c h tr chc nng tp trung trong khi V5.2 vn c thit k h tr chc nng tp trung bng cch s dng mt giao thc chuyn dng BCC (Bearer Channel Connection protocol). V5.1 khng h tr cc cng ngi dng PRA-ISDN trong khi V5.2 c h tr.

95

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


V5.1 khng c khi nim bo v knh thng tin, trong khi chc nng ny c chp nhn trong V5.2, khi m giao din V5.2 lin quan s dng nhiu hn mt lung 2048 Kbps. Mt giao thc c trng, xem nh mt giao thc bo v c cung cp cho chc nng ny. Giao thc iu khin ca V5.2 th hi khc vi giao thc iu khin ca V5.1. Giao din V5.1 gia AN v LE h tr cc loi truy nhp sau y: Truy nhp in thoi tng t. Truy nhp c bn (BA) ISDN. Cc truy nhp s hoc tng t khc dng kt ni bn c nh khng cn tin tc bo hiu knh ring ngoi bng tn in thoi. Giao din V5.2 gia AN v LE h tr cc loi truy nhp sau dy: Truy nhp in thoi tng t. Truy nhp c bn (BA) ISDN. Truy nhp tc s cp (PRA/PRI) ISDN. Cc truy nhp s hoc tng t khc dng kt ni bn c nh khng cn tin tc bo hiu knh ring ngoi bng tn in thoi.

3.3.6 Chng giao thc V5


Chng giao thc V5 c s dng cho kt ni mng truy nhp (AN-Access Network) n tng i ni ht (LE-Local Exchange). N c dng cho cc truy nhp sau y: Truy nhp in thoi tng t. Truy nhp ISDN tc c bn. Truy nhp ISDN tc s cp (V5.2). Cc truy nhp s v tng t khc i vi cc kt ni bn c nh khng cn tin tc bo hiu knh ring ngoi bng.

3.3.6.1 Nguyn l c bn

Hnh 3.12: Nguyn l V5

96

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Cc giao din V5 da trn c s cc giao din G.703/G.704 c tc 2.048 Kbps (E1). V5.1 (ETS 300 324) l mt giao din n 2.048 Kbps, trong khi V5.2 (ETS 300 347) c th gm mt hoc ti a 16 lung 2.048 Kbps. Lu rng AN thng thng tham chiu kt cui ng dy (LT-Line Termination) v LE nh l kt cui tng i (ET-Exchange Termination). Khe thi gian 0 (TS0) s dng cho ng b khung, bo li, v gim st thc thi li bng th tc CRC (Cyclic redundancy Check). Trong trng hp ca cc lung V5.2, TS0 cn s dng gim st tnh ng n kt ni vt l lung 2.048 Kbps. C n ba khe thi gian trong mi lung 2048 Kbps c th c ch nh l cc called- communication channel (C- Channel). Cc knh C ny truyn dn bo hiu PSTN, tin tc knh D ISDN, tin tc iu khin, v trong trng hp ca V5.2 l giao thc kt ni knh bearer (BCC-Bearer Channel Connection protocol) v giao thc bo v. Tt c khe thi gian 64 Kbps khng phi l knh C th l knh B ca PSTN hoc ISDN hoc c th l cc knh tng t hoc s thu ring.

3.3.6.2 Cu trc khung ca tn hiu 2M


a khung ph (SMF) Khung s Bits 1 n 8 ca TS 0

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 C1 0 C2 0 C3 1 C4 0 C1 1 C2 1 C3 E C4 E

2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

3 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A

4 1 Sa4 1 Sa4 1 Sa4 1 Sa4 1 Sa4 1 Sa4 1 Sa4 1 Sa4

5 1 Sa5 1 Sa5 1 Sa5 1 Sa5 1 Sa5 1 Sa5 1 Sa5 1 Sa5

6 0 Sa6 0 Sa6 0 Sa6 0 Sa6 0 Sa6 0 Sa6 0 Sa6 0 Sa6

7 1 Sa7 1 Sa7 1 Sa7 1 Sa7 1 Sa7 1 Sa7 1 Sa7 1 Sa7

8 1 Sa8 1 Sa8 1 Sa8 1 Sa8 1 Sa8 1 Sa8 1 Sa8 1 Sa8

II

E: Cc bit ch th li CRC-4 Sa4 n Sa8: Cc bit d phng, c th c dng cho cc mc ch DCN C1 n C4: Cc bit CRC-4 A: Ch th cnh bo t xa
Hnh 3.13: Cu trc a khung ca tn hiu 2M G.703/G.704

97

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sa4 Sa5 Sa6 Sa7 Sa8 Framing Sync. -V5 --

Hnh 3.14: TS0 ca tn hiu 2M G.703/G.704 trong V5.2

Bit Sa7 dng iu khin lung ch khi no giao din s dng l V5.2. Bit Sa4 dng ng b v l mt ty chn ph thuc yu cu cung cp. Trong truy nhp ISDN PRA s dng Sa4 n Sa6 qun l lung.

3.3.6.3 Cc giao thc V5


Cc giao thc V5 v cc giao thc in thoi khc c m t trong hnh bn di c lin h n m hnh OSI.

Hnh 3.15: Cc giao thc V5 lin quan n m hnh OSI

98

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


LAPV5-EF (Link Access Protocol V5-Envelope Function) Cc lp ph ca LAPV5-EF trao i thng tin gia AN v LE. Khun dng ca khung nh sau:
8 C: 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Trng a ch EF Tin tc Chui kim tra khung (FCS) C: 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 Otet 1 2 3 4n-3 n-2 n-1 n

Cu trc khung EF
Trng a ch EF (Envelope Function): Trng a ch EF bao gm hai octet. Khun dng ca trng a ch EF nh sau: 3-8 a ch EF a ch EF (tip theo) 2 0 1 EA0 EA1

Trng a ch EF a ch EF (Envelope Function):


a ch EF l mt s 13 bit, vi ba bit c nh, bao gm cc gi tr t 0 n 8191.

EA (Extension Address):
Bit u tin ca trng EF l bit m rng a ch. Bit th hai ca octet th nht l bit C/R (Command/Response) ca khung ISDN, nhng y n c ci t bng 0 v chc nng ca n do bit C/R ca lp con lin kt d liu bn trong thc hin. Trng tin tc: Trng EI (Envelope Information) ca mt khung theo sau trng a ch EF v trc trng FCS (Frame Check Sequence). Cc ni dung ca trng EI cha mt s nguyn cc octet. S octet ti a mc nh ca trng EI l 533 octet. S octet ti thiu ca trng EI l 3 octet.

FCS (Frame Check Sequence):


FCS c nh ngha trong phn 2.1 ca chun G.921. LAPV5-DL (LAPV5-DataLink) Cc lp ph ca LAPV5-DL nh ngha trao i tin tc peer-to-peer gia AN v LE. Cc khung LAPV5-DL c th c hoc khng c mt trng tin tc. Khun dng ca cc khung nh sau:

99

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


87654321 a ch link iu khin Octet 1 2 3 87654321 a ch link iu khin Tin tc Khun dng A Khun dng B Octet 1 2 3 N

Cu trc lp ph LAPV5-DL
a ch link: a ch V5 data link l mt s 13 bit cc gi tr nm trong dy t 0 n 8.175 s khng s dng xc nh mt thc th giao thc lp 3, bi v dy c s dng xc nh cc cng ngi dng ISDN. iu khin: Xc nh loi khung trong hoc l mt lnh hoc l p ng. Trng iu khin cha cc s th t, c th dng c. Tin tc: L mt s nguyn cc octet. S ti a cc octet trong trng tin tc l 260. V5-Link Control Giao thc V5 Link Control c gi i bi AN hoc LE truyn t tin tc yu cu cho s phi hp ca cc chc nng iu khin lung trong mi lung 2.048 Kbps ring bit. Khun dng ca giao thc V5 Link Control nh sau:
8 7 B phn phn bit giao thc a ch lp 3 a ch lp 3 ( tip theo) 0 Loi bn tin Cc thnh phn tin tc khc 1 Octet 1 2 3 4 .v.v.

Cu trc giao thc iu khin lung


B phn phn bit giao thc: Phn bit gia cc bn tin tng ng vi mt trong cc giao thc V5. a ch lp 3: Xc nh thc th lp 3. Trong giao din V5, m n pht hoc nhn bn tin ng dng. Loi bn tin: Xc nh chc nng ca bn tin c gi i hoc nhn v. Loi bn tin c th l LINK CONTROL hoc LINK CONTROL ACK.

100

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Cc thnh phn tin tc khc: Ch c IE ca giao thc iu khin lung mi c chc nng iu khin lung. Khun dng ca n nh sau:
8 7 00100001 Chiu di ca chc nng iu khin lung 1 Chc nng iu khin lung 1 Octet 1 2 3

IE chc nng iu khin lung


V5-BCC (V5-Bearer Channel Connection) Giao thc V5-BCC cung cp cc iu kin cho LE yu cu AN thit lp v gii ta cc kt ni gia cc cng ngi dng AN c trng v cc khe thi gian giao din V5 c trng. N chp nhn cc knh mang giao din V5 c nh v tr hay khng do cc qu trnh x l c lp. C thm mt trnh x l na hot ng ti bt k mi thi im a ra mt cng ngi dng. Khun dng giao thc V5-BCC nh sau:

7 Phn t phn bit giao thc S tham chiu BCC

Octet 1 2 3 4 v.v.

Loi bn tin Cc thnh phn tin tc khc

Cu trc giao thc lp 3


Phn t phn bit giao thc: Phn bit gia cc bn tin tng ng vi mt trong cc giao thc V5. S tham chiu BCC: Thnh phn tin tc s tham chiu BCC l c trng giao thc BCC. N dng nh v thnh phn tin tc a ch lp 3 trong cu trc bn tin chung cng nh xc nh cc giao thc trong lp 3. S tham chiu BCC xc nh tin trnh giao thc BCC. Trong giao din V5, n pht hoc nhn bn tin ng dng. Gi tr s tham chiu BCC l mt gi tr ngu nhin c to ra bi thc th (AN hoc LE) to ra tin trnh giao thc BCC mi. iu cn thit l cc gi tr khng c lp li trong cc bn tin cho d mt tin trnh giao thc khc c yu cu (trong cng mt hng), cho n khi tin trnh BCC c c hon thnh v s tham chiu BCC b xa. Thnh phn tin tc s tham chiu BCC l mt phn ca mo u (header) bn tin s l phn th hai ca mi bn tin (nm sau thnh phn tin tc phn bit giao thc). Trong trng hp bt k, mt tin trnh to ra cc ch th li, s tham chiu BCC s khng c s dng li cho n khi thi gian hiu lc tri qua do cc bn tin cha cng s tham chiu BCC n tr. di ca thnh phn tin tc s tham chiu BCC l 2 octet. N c khun dng nh sau: 101

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


8 ID ngun 0 0 7 Gi tr s tham chiu BCC Gi tr s tham chiu BCC 1 Octet 1 2

Thnh phn s tham chiu BCC

ID ngun:
Trng 1 bit c trng cho thc th (AN hoc LE) to ra s tham chiu BCC. M ha ca trng ny bng zero cho mt LE v mt AN to ra tin trnh.

Gi tr s tham chiu BCC:


Trng 13 bit dng cung cp m nh phn xc nh tin trnh BCC.

Loi bn tin:
Xc nh chc nng ca bn tin c gi i hoc nhn v. C cc loi bn tin nh sau:
ALLOCATION ALLOCATION COMPLETE ALLOCATION REJECT DE-ALLOCATION DE-ALLOCATION COMPLETE DE-ALLOCATION REJECT AUDIT AUDIT COMPLETE AN FAULT AN FAULT ACKNOWLEDGE PROTOCOL ERROR

Cc thnh phn tin tc khc: Cc thnh phn tin tc c trng cho BCC nh sau: Nhn dng cng ngi dng Nhn dng knh ca cng ISDN Nhn dng khe thi gian V5 nh x a khe Nguyn nhn t chi Nguyn nhn li giao thc Kt ni khng thnh cng

102

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


V5-PSTN c trng giao thc bo hiu v giao thc PSTN ghp lp trong giao din V5 da trn c s giao thc tc nhn gy kch thch (Stimulus) m trong n khng iu khin tin trnh cuc gi trong AN, nhng d nhin n chuyn giao thng tin v trng thi ng dy thu bao tng t trn giao din V5. Giao thc V5 PSTN c s dng kt hp vi thc th giao thc quc gia trong LE. Thc th giao thc quc gia trong LE c dng cho cc ng dy ca khch hng m chng c ni trc tip n LE, n cng c dng iu khin cc cuc gi trn cc ng dy thu bao khch hng khi chng c kt ni thng qua giao din V5. Trong cc chui thi gian ti hn, n cn thit tch cc chui bo hiu no ( v d, cc chui compelled) t thc th giao thc quc gia a vo trong phn AN ca thc th giao thc quc gia. Giao thc V5 PSTN c mt phn nh chc nng m n c lin quan n vic thit lp ng thng, gii ta ng thng trong giao din V5, gii php cho vic xung t cuc gi trong giao din V5, v iu khin cc cuc gi mi trong cc iu kin qu ti trong LE. Phn ln giao thc V5 PSTN khng lm r rng cc tn hiu ng dy , nhng n gin truyn dn trong sut gia cng ngi dng trong AN v thc th giao thc quc gia trong LE. Khun dng ca header c cho trong hnh sau:
8 Phn t phn bit giao thc a ch lp 3 a ch lp 3 (cc bit thp) 0 Loi bn tin Cc thnh phn tin tc khc 1 1 Octet 1 2 3 4 v.v.

Cu trc header PSTN


Phn t phn bit giao thc: Phn bit gia cc bn tin tng ng vi mt trong cc giao thc V5. Gi tr phn t phn bit giao thc ca PSTN l 01001000. a ch lp 3: a ch ny xc nh thc th lp 3 trong giao din V5 m n pht hoc nhn bn tin ng dng. Loi bn tin: Xc nh chc nng ca bn tin s gi hoc nhn. C cc loi bn tin trong PSTN nh sau:
ESTABLISH ESTABLISH ACK SIGNAL STATUS STATUS ENQUIRY DISCONNECT DISCONNECT COMPLETE PROTOCOL PARAMETER

103

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Cc thnh phn tin tc khc: i vi PSTN c cc thnh phn tin tc nh sau:

Cc thnh phn tin tc c mt octet:


Pulse-notification. Line-information. State. Autonomous-signalling-sequence. Sequence-response.

Cc thnh phn tin tc c kch thc thay i:


Sequence-number. Cadenced-ringing. Pulsed-signal. Steady-signal. Digit-signal. Recognization-time. Enable-autonomous-acknowledge. Disable-autonomous-acknowledge. Cause. Resource-unavailable.

V5-Control Cu trc ca giao thc V5 Control cho trong hnh sau y:


8 7 Phn t phn bit giao thc a ch lp 3 a ch lp 3 (tip theo) 0 Loi bn tin Cc thnh phn tin tc khc 0 0 1 1 Octet 1 2 3 4 v.v.

Cu trc giao thc iu khin


Phn t phn bit giao thc: Phn bit gia cc bn tin tng ng vi mt trong cc giao thc V5. a ch lp 3: Xc nh thc th lp 3 trong giao din V5.2 m n pht hoc nhn bn tin ng dng. Loi bn tin: 104

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Xc nh chc nng ca bn tin s c gi hoc nhn. C cc loi bn tin ca iu khin sau y:

PORT CONTROL PORT CONTROL ACK COMMON CONTROL COMMON CONTROL ACK

Cc thnh phn tin tc khc: i vi iu khin c cc thnh phn tin tc nh sau:

Cc thnh phn tin tc c mt octet


Performance grading Rejection cause

Cc thnh phn tin tc c kch thc thay i


Control function element Control function ID Variant Interface ID

V5-Protection Giao din V5 n bao gm ti a 16 lung 2.048 Kbps. Ty thuc vo kin trc giao thc v cu trc ghp knh ca ng truyn thng, m vic vn chuyn tin tc c th lin kt vi mt vi lung 2048 Kbps. S c ca ng truyn dn lm cho dch v ca mt s ln thu bao khng thc hin c. y tht s l mi quan tm ca giao thc BCC, giao thc iu khin, v giao thc iu khin lung, cc cng ngi dng b nh hng bi mt s c c lin quan n ng truyn. Nhm tng cng tin cy ca giao din V5, mt qui trnh bo v c xy dng cho cc kt ni chuyn mch khi c s c xy ra. Cc c ch bo v c s dng bo v tt c cc knh C ang ch tch cc. C ch bo v ny cng bo v c knh C dng truyn giao thc bo v (t bo v). Ngoi ra, cc c lin tc c gim st trong tt c cc knh C vt l (cc knh C ch tch cc v ch ch) nhm bo v chng li cc s c m chng khng c bo v bi cc c ch bo v trong lp 1. Nu c mt s c xy ra trong knh C ang ch ch (standby) th n v qun tr mng c thng bo v kt qu l chuyn mch knh C ch ch thnh ch khng hot ng.

105

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Cu trc ca giao thc bo v c cho trong hnh sau:
8 7 Phn t phn bit giao thc a ch lp 3 a ch lp 3 (tip theo) 0 Loi bn tin Cc thnh phn tin tc khc 0 0 1 1 Octet 1 2 3 4 v.v.

Cu trc giao thc bo v


Phn t phn bit giao thc: Phn bit gia cc bn tin tng ng vi mt trong cc giao thc V5. a ch lp 3: Xc nh thc th lp 3 trong giao din V5.2 m n pht hoc nhn bn tin ng dng. Loi bn tin: Xc nh chc nng ca bn tin s c gi hoc nhn. C cc loi bn tin ca giao thc bo v sau y:

SWITCH-OVER REQ SWITCH-OVER COM OS-SWITCH-OVER COM SWITCH-OVER ACK SWITCH-OVER REJECT PROTOCOL ERROR RESET SN COM RESET SN ACK

Cc thnh phn tin tc khc: i vi giao thc bo v c cc thnh phn tin tc nh sau:

Cc thnh phn tin tc c kch thc thay i


3 4 5 6

Sequence number Physical C-channel identification Rejection cause Protocol error cause

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3.4 x.DSL
3.4.1 Gii thiu
x.DSL l mt h cng ngh cung cp truyn dn s trn ng dy in thoi ca mng chuyn mch ni ht. ng dy in thoi, di sn pht minh ca Alexander Graham Bell vo nm 1875 gi y c th truyn tn hiu hng triu bps. S d iu ny thc hin c l nh p dng cc k thut iu ch tinh xo ng gi d liu vo cc ng dy in thoi, cc k thut truyn dn s phc tp, l s b cc suy gim truyn dn trn ng dy in thoi. x.DSL i khi c xem l mt cng ngh dm cui cng bi v n ch c s dng cho cc kt ni t h thng tng i chuyn mch thoi n nh khch hng, hoc vn phng m khng dng kt ni cc tng i chuyn mch vi nhau. Thng thng, tc chiu xung ca DSL trong tm t 640 Kbps3 Mbps, hoc trong trng hp c bit t 128 Kps24 Mbps ty thuc vo cng ngh DSL v cp dch v yu cu. Thng thng tc chiu ln thp hn tc chiu xung i vi ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) v bng nhau i vi SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line). Joe Lechleider (Bellcore nay l Telcordia Technologies) pht trin ADSL vo nm 1988 bng vic t cc tn hiu s bng rng trn tn hiu thoi tng t bng tn c s (baseband) c sn truyn gia cc tng i ni ht v cc khch hng trn i dy cp ng xon i truyn thng. Cc cng ty in thoi ca M y mnh pht trin DSL cnh tranh vi cable modem. Dch v DSL u tin c cung cp cho mch cnh bo (dry loop). Nhng khi FCC (Federal Communications Commision) yu cu ILEC (Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier) cho thu cc ng dy ca h cc nh cung cp c s cnh tranh nhau nh l Earthlink. iu ny cho php mt i dy n truyn d liu (thng qua DSLAM) v tn hiu thoi tng t (thng qua tng i chuyn mch knh) trong cng mt lc. Trong low-pass filter/splitter gi cho cc tn hiu DSL tn s cao khng ln ln vi tn hiu thoi.

3.4.2 Tc , phm vi bao ph v gii hn thit k ca DSL


ln (v d nh nng lng) tn hiu in gim khi khong cch tng do in tr ca dy dn tng ln, v suy gim tn hiu cng ln khi tn s cng cao. Nng lng ca tn hiu tiu hao trn ng dy tng ln khi tc v khong cch ln ln. Phm vi ca mch vng DSL b hn ch do tn hiu qu yu nhn bit chnh xc. ko di ti a khong cch truyn dn, bng cch s dng k thut iu ch phc tp, gi tn hiu i vi mc truyn tn hiu v tn s nht nh. i vi phng php truyn dn nht nh, tc truyn dn ti a gim khi chiu di tng ln. Do c th t c tc truyn dn cao cho nhng mch vng ngn v tc thp tng i cho nhng mch vng di hn. Tc d liu t c cn ph thuc vo cc yu t khc v xuyn m (nhiu tn hiu t cc i dy khc trong cng mt cp). Mc truyn tn hiu 2,5 V cho h thng ISDN c bn (BRI) trn mch vng c chiu di ti a c th suy gim ti 42 dB. Tn hiu thu vi mc bin nh nh c th chp nhn l 20 mV. H thng BRI c nhim v quan trng l khi phc tn hiu khi chng ch bng 1/125 tn hiu pht. Cc gi tr qui nh cho h thng DSL c cho di y.

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Loi DSL (tc ) BRI 2B1Q (144 Kbps) HDSL 2B1Q (1,5 Mbps) ADSL DMT (1,5 Mbps) VDSL SDMT (26 Mbps)

Mc nh truyn (V) 2,5 2,5 15* 3-4

Nng lng tn hiu suy gim ti a (dB) 42 35 45 30

Mc nh nhn ti thiu (V) 0,02 0,045 0,085 0,09-0,12

* Mc in p nh ADSL ph thuc vo b pht; trong mt s trng hp mc in p nh c th vt qu 15V. Thng thng vi mc truyn 20dB, mc tn hiu ADSL truyn trung bnh l 3,1V v in p tn hiu thu c l 0,02V i vi mch c chiu di ti a.

Tc truyn dn gn ng c th t c theo di ng dy. Trong hnh 3.16, ng cong di l truyn dn i xng, ng cong trn l tc thu cho truyn dn bt i xng vi t l bt i xng l 10:1. V vy tc pht bng khong 1/10 ln nh ch ra trong hnh. Gi thit nhiu xuyn m l 6 dB. Biu ny cho thy li th ca truyn dn bt i xng, l tc truyn dn thu cao hn rt nhiu.

Hnh 3.16: Tc DSL so vi di mch vng

Cc DSL c thit k gii hn 6dB t s tn hiu trn tp m (SNR-Signal to Noise ratio). iu ny c ngha l DSL c BER (Bit Error Rate) l 10-7 khi nng lng tn hiu nhiu l 6 dB tc ln hn m hnh xuyn m c nh ngha l t hi nht. Trong nhiu trng hp, m hnh xuyn m t hi nht l trong nhm 50 i dy c 49 ngun nhiu xuyn m. Nu ch c Gaussian, 6 dB gy ra mc li l 10-24. Tuy nhin trn thc t, nhiu thng l non-Gauusian. Do trn thc t, vi mc 6dB m bo cc DSL hot ng BER tt hn 10-9 v cc DSL s cung cp dch v tin cy, thm ch khi mi trng truyn dn km hn mc bnh thng. Gi tr 6dB xut pht t tiu chun ANSI ISDN c bn trong T1D1.3 (trc l T1E1.4) vo nm 1985 do Richard McDonald ca Bellcore a ra. Nh m t T1E1.4/95-133, gii hn 108

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


6dB vn l gi tr hp l. Gi tr ny p dng cho nhiu loi cp (cp bi lo ha, cp ni, cp b t), nhiu b sung tng i ni ht, dy thu bao, cc ngun nhiu khc, thit k b thu pht khng hon ho, v li nh sn xut. Mc gii hn thit k l s phi hp gia vic m bo hot ng tin cy trong mi trng hp v kh nng cho php di mch vng ti a. Cc phng php truyn dn phc tp c th t c cht lng lm vic tt hn, nhng vn cn cc gii hn thit k. Tuy nhin, cc h thng o gii hn khi khi ng c th cung cp cho ngi lp t ngay lp tc ch s cho bit liu mch vng c gii hn hay khng.
52 M 26 M Tc bit thu (bps ti khch hng) 13 M 6M 3M 2M 1,5 M 400 K 144 K 144 K ADSL E1-HDSL (7 Kft) 12 Kft BRI (15 Kft) 640 K 1,5 M 2M 13 M 26 M DS1-HDSL (9 Kft) 9 Kft

1 Kft 3 Kft VDSL 4 Kft 1 Kft

3 Kft

Tc bit pht (bps t khch hng)

Hnh 3.17: Tc bit DSL cng vi di mch vng cho dy 26 AWG (Kft khng c b lp)

3.4.3 Cc loi DSL

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3.4.4

Cc thnh phn thit b ca h thng DSL

Hnh 3.18: Cc thnh phn thit b ch yu trong h thng DSL

Cng ngh DSL bao gm hai thnh phn thit b thuc hai pha u cui, mt pha u cui thuc CPE v pha u cui kia l CO. Khong cch gia CPE v CO gi l chiu di mch vng. y l mt yu t quyt nh v tc bit m pha khch hng c c. N t l nghch vi khong cch tnh t CO ca nh cung 110

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


cp dch v DSL. Ngoi ra cn c nhng thch thc c dc theo ng dy: nhiu knh truyn, tn hiu di, xuyn knh, can nhiu t h thng v tuyn nghip d v cc nguyn nhn gy suy yu khc, chng c th lm suy gim tc truyn bit n khch hng. V mt l thuyt m ni, DSL khng c s nh hng nhiu bi nhng ngi s dng khc trong cng khu vc, ngoi tr c th c mt cht suy gim phm cht ca tn hiu do b xuyn knh (crosstalk), khi m c mt vi kt ni DSL trong cng mt si cp in thoi. Hnh 3.18 m t cu trc kt ni cc thnh phn thit b trong h thng DSL. Mi thnh phn thit b m nhim cc chc nng ca n c trnh by nh sau: DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer): DSLAM l mt thit b mng, thuc nh cung cp dch v v thng t ti tng i ni ht. DSLAM tip nhn cc tn hiu t cc ng dy thu bao s ri thc hin ghp knh v ghp vo ng truyn backbone. Ty thuc vo sn phm, m cc b ghp knh DSLAM kt ni cc DSL vi cc mng ATM, frame relay, hoc Internet Protocol.

Hnh 3.19: DSLAM

Cc i dy cn bng c suy hao cng ln khi tn s cng cao, khong cch t thu bao n DSLAM cng xa th tc d liu cc i cng b. Mi quan h gia khong cch v tc d liu cc i c cho nh sau: Tc
25 Mbps 24 Mbps 23 Mbps 22 Mbps 21 Mbps 19 Mbps 16 Mbps

Khong cch
1000 feet ~300 m 2000 feet ~600 m 3000 feet ~900 m 4000 feet ~1,2 km 5000 feet ~1,5 km 6000 feet ~1,8 km 7000 feet ~2,1 km

1,5 Mbps 800 Kbps

15000 feet 4,5 km 17000 feet ~5,2 km

Cc card ng dy x.DSL c lp t trong DSLAM kt cui tn hiu x.DSL n. DSLAM ghp cc ng truy nhp x.DSL thnh mt ng tc cao. 111

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Tn hiu sau khi ghp c chuyn thnh cc cell ATM gi ln ATM backbone.

x.DSL line card:

Hnh 3.20: S khi x.DSL line card

x.DSL modem/gateway: l thit b lp t ti CPE thu pht cc tn hiu x.DSL, c th lp t bn ngoi hoc tch hp bn trong mt my tnh. Mt x.DSL gateway tch hp chc nng ca modem v router.

Hnh 3.21: S khi x.DSL modem

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Splitter/DSL filter:

Hnh 3.22: PS200 DSL filter

3.4.5

Tng thch ph ca cc h thng DSL

3.4.5.1 nh ngha:
Tng thch ph ca hai h thng DSL c nh ngha bi s nh hng ca xuyn knh (crosstalk) t mt h thng DSL ny ln mt h thng DSL kia trong cng si cp.

3.4.5.2 Gii thiu


Cc DSL khc nhau trong si cp s dng cc bng tn khc nhau. Ty thuc vo nng lng ca tn hiu v sp xp ph tn hiu, m cc loi h thng DSL khc nhau c th hoc khng th tng thch ph vi nhau. nh hng xuyn knh t mt h thng DSL ny ln h thng DSL kia trong cng si cp s xc nh tnh tng thch ph ca chng. Trong thit k cc h thng DSL, vn tng thch ph l quan trng bi v s trin khai bt k mt dch v DSL mi no cng phi khng lm nh hng n cc dch v DSL c trong mt si cp. Ngc li, cc dch v DSL c trong mt si cp cng khng lm nh hng n vic trin khai mt dch v DSL mi. Nghin cu tng thch ph cho cc h thng DSL truyn dn trit tn hiu di (echocanceled) c lin quan n cc DSL khc trin khai trong mt mch vng theo thit k. Cc DSL truyn dn gm c ISDN, HDSL, v SDSL. Cc nghin cu tng thch ph ny ch cho trng hp si cp 50 i, c dy 26-gauge.

3.4.5.3 ISDN

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Do ISDN l mt h thng truyn Hnh dn i x ng t tn u di (echo-canceled), chng ta 3.23: Ph tri pht cahi ISDN cn xem xt n cc nh hng ca xuyn knh SNEXT (Self-Near End Cross talk). V ph ca SNEXT chng lp hon ton ln ph pht ca ISDN, chng ta mong mun s nhiu lon ny ch ng c cc nhiu lon khc v ph ca chng chng lp mt phn. Mc d ph HDSL c th chng lp hon ton ln ph pht ca ISDN, nhng mt phn b ph cng sut ca HDSL s thp hn mt phn b ph cng sut ISDN bi v hai h thng c cng sut pht tng cng nh nhau. Xem xt trong mt trng hp si cp 50 i c dy 26-gauge. Nu ch c trin khai mt h thng truyn dn ISDN v 49 i cn li khng s dng, th c ly hot ng ca ISDN vi BER bng 10-7 v gii hn mo 6 dB l 20,5 kft. Khi thm mt tn hiu ISDN vo si cp, th nhiu lon n SNEXT lm gim c ly ca ISDN xung cn 20 kft. Vi 10 nhiu lon SNEXT, th c ly ca ISDN l 19,1 kft, v vi 25 nhiu lon SNEXT, th c ly ca ISDN l 18,6 kft. Nu ton b 50 i ch c dng cho cc h thng ISDN, th c ly ti a ca ISDN l 18 kft. Hnh 3.24 tm tt c ly hot ng ca ISDN theo cc mc nhiu lon khc nhau ca SNEXT.

Hnh 3.24: C ly hot ng ca ISDN theo mc nhiu lon SNEXT

Hnh 3.25 cho thy cc th ph tn hiu thu v pht ca h thng ISDN hot ng mch vng 18 kft, 26-gauge. Hnh v cng cho thy ph insertion loss ca mch vng 18 kft v 49 SNEXT cng vo trong ton b tn hiu di m b trit tn hiu di khng kh c. Vng gia ng tn hiu thu v cc c tuyn xuyn knh xc nh SNR thu.

Hnh 3.25: Cc th ph ISDN vi 49 SNEXT

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Xem xt trng hp khi si cp bao gm mt hn hp ca cc dch v DSL khc nh HDSL, SDSL, v CAP RADSL cho dng d liu chiu xung v chiu ln. Trong mi trng hp, o c tm hot ng ca ISDN c xem xt n iu kin xu nht l c 49 nhiu lon t cc DSL khc. Hnh 3.26 cho thy s so snh c ly hot ng ISDN vi c dy 26-gauge c 49 nhiu lon t mi DSL khc.

Hnh 3.26: C ly hot ng ca ISDN theo cc mc nhiu lon NEXT khc

V ph ca SNEXT chng lp hon ton nn SNEXT l nhiu lon xu nht cho ISDN so vi nhiu lon ca cc DSL khc, v ph ca chng ch chng lp mt phn ph ISDN. Mc d ph HDSL chng lp ton b ph ISDN, nhng mc PSD ca HDSL thp hn mc PSD ca ISDN bi v hai h thng c cng cng sut pht. Do , HDSL gy ra xuyn knh ln ISDN thp hn SNEXT. Tm li, SNEXT l nhiu lon xu nht ln ISDN BRA. Vic trin khai cc dch v khc trong cng mt cp vi ISDN s c t va chm ln hot ng ca ISDN hn nu ch c ISDN c trin khai trong si cp.

3.4.5.4 HDSL
Ging nh vi ISDN, HDSL cng l mt h thng truyn dn i xng trit tn hiu di (echo-canceled). Trong nh gi hiu sut thu pht HDSL, cn a vo hiu sut ca b trit tn hiu di. Gi tr 70 dB trit tn hiu di c a vo thc nghim cho cc b thu pht HDSL.

Hnh 3.27: Tm hot ng ca HDSL theo mc nhiu lon SNEXT

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Nu khng c xuyn knh trong si cp, th hiu sut ca b thu pht HDSL b gii hn bi hiu sut ca b trit tn hiu di. Trong trng hp c bit cp 50 i, 26-gauge, nu ch c h thng truyn dn HDSL c trin khai v 49 i cp cn li khng s dng, th c ly thu pht ca HDSL hot ng vi BER bng 10-7 v gii hn mo 6 dB l 13,7 kft. Khi thm mt h thng HDSL vo si cp, th nhiu lon n SNEXT lm gim c ly pht ca HDSL xung cn 12 kft. Vi 10 nhiu lon SNEXT, th c ly thu pht ca ISDN l 10,6 kft, v vi 25 nhiu lon SNEXT, th c ly thu pht HDSL l 10,1 kft. Nu ton b 50 i ch c dng cho cc h thng HDSL, th c ly ti a ca ISDN l 9,5 kft. Xem xt trng hp h thng HDSL c trin khai trong si cp vi hn hp cc dch v DSL khc bao gm ISDN, SDSL, v CAP RADSL cho dng d liu chiu xung v chiu ln. o c tm hot ng ca HDSL c 49 nhiu lon t cc DSL khc, trong mi trng hp xem xt n trng hp xu nht. Hnh 3.28 cho thy s so snh tm hot ng HDSL vi c dy 26gauge c 49 nhiu lon t mi DSL khc.

Hnh 3.28: Tm hot ng ca HDSL theo cc mc nhiu lon NEXT khc

V s chng lp ph hon ton ca SNEXT, nn SNEXT l nhiu lon xu nht cho HDSL so vi nhiu lon ca cc DSL khc, v ph ca chng ch chng lp mt phn ph HDSL. Tm li, SNEXT l nhiu lon xu nht ln HDSL. Bi v cc DSL khc trong si cp c ph NEXT khng chng lp hon ton ph pht HDSL, nhiu lon tng cng ca chng b hn NEXT t cc tn hiu HDSL khc.

3.4.5.5 SDSL

Hnh 3.29: Tm hot ng ca SDSL vi 49 SNEXT

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SDSL cng l mt h thng truyn dn i xng trit tn hiu di (echo-canceled), v v th cc nhiu lon gy ra ch yu do SNEXT. Trn thc t, SNEXT l nhiu lon xu nht cho SDSL. Bng thng cng rng th SNEXT cng ln. Tc bit t l vi bng thng tn hiu, m c ly hot ng ca HDSL gim i khi bng thng tng ln (v th, tng tc bit). Hnh v 3.29 cho thy c ly hot ng ca HDSL quan h vi SNEXT. Ch gim c ly hot ng th tng tc bit.

3.4.5.6 CAP RADSL

Hnh 3.30: Ph ca tn hiu CAP RADSL chiu xung v chiu ln

Ph ca tn hiu CAP RADSL theo chiu xung v chiu ln c cho trong hnh 3.30. Lu CAP RADSL l h thng c tc bit v tc mu tin thay i, v th, cc bng thng ca ng xung v ng ln cng thay i. Ph trong hnh 3.30 l ph vi cc bng thng cc i cho c hai chiu. Bi v CAP RADSL l mt h thng FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexer), nn khng c SNEXT lin i vi n trong si cp. Vi h thng FDM, c SFEXT lin i vi c hai knh chiu xung v ln, nhng bin ca SFEXT b hn ca NEXT. Mc d vy, nhng nu trn cng si cp c truyn hn hp vi cc DSL khc m ph ca chng chng lp ln cc ph ca CAP RADSL theo hng ngc nhau, th cn phi xem xt NEXT ca cc DSL ln cc knh chiu xung v ln ca CAP RADSL.

Hnh 3.31: Tm hot ng ca CAP RADSL 272 Kbps theo chiu ln vi hin din ca NEXT t cc h thng DSL khc

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Hnh 3.31 cho thy c ly hot ng ca CAP RADSL 272 kbps theo chiu ln c hin din ca SFEXT v NEXT t cc dch v DSL khc bao gm ISDN, HDSL, 784 kbps SDSL, v T1 AMI. NEXT t HDSL v SDSL gii hn c ly hot ng ca CAP RADSL theo chiu ln v ph ca chng chng lp hon ton ln ph knh chiu ln ca CAP RADSL. C ly hot ng ca CAP RADSL s xa nht trong mi trng ch c SFEXT bi v mc nhiu ca n l thp nht. NEXT t T1 AMI t nh hng ln CAP RADSL theo chiu ln bi v nng lng ch yu ca T1 AMI nm trong ln cn tn s 772 KHz v nng lng xuyn knh ca T1 nm trong bng tn ca hng ln l tng i b. S hin din ca NEXT t HDSL v SDSL lm gim c ly hot ng ca CAP RADSL theo chiu ln vo khong gn 12 kft khi so snh vi SFEXT theo chiu ln.

Hnh 3.32: Tm hot ng ca CAP RADSL 680 Kbps theo chiu xung vi hin din ca NEXT t cc h thng DSL khc

Hnh 3.32 cho thy c ly ca CAP RADSL 680 kbps theo chiu xung c hin din ca SFEXT v NEXT t cc dch v DSL khc. Lu rng vi s hin din ca SFEXT th knh theo chiu xung ngn hn knh theo chiu ln, bi v knh chiu xung c tn s ln hn nn suy hao ln hn. C ly hot ng ca knh chiu xung khi c hin din ca SFEXT vo khong 18 kft. Nhiu lon c nh hng ln nht cho CAP RADSL l T1 AMI, bi v nng lng cc i ca n ti 772 KHz. c c ly tt nht l chng li SFEXT v NEXT t SDSL 784 Kbps. Ph ca HDSL chng lp ln ph ca knh chiu ln nhiu hn ln ph ca knh chiu xung CAP RADSL nn c ly ca knh chiu xung CAP RADSL xa hn knh chiu ln CAP RADSL. Tm li, cch tt nht trin khai mt h thng da trn k thut FDM nh CAP RADSL l trin khai ton b CAP RADSL trong si cp v khng c dch v DSL no da trn k thut trit tn hiu di trong cng si cp. Bi v cc knh theo chiu xung v ln trong h thng FDM chim gi cc bng tn khc nhau, khng c NEXT, thay vo l c FEXT, nhng FEXT c bin nhiu b.

3.4.5.7 DMT ADSL


Tng thch ph DMT ADSL trn c s FDM c a ra xem xt. Trong hnh 3.30 v ra ph pht v NEXT ca cc knh DMT ADSL theo chiu xung. S tng thch ph ca DMT ADSL v CAP RADSL l ging nhau trong trng hp khng c SNEXT. C hai u c SFEXT, v chng phi quan tm n NEXT t cc dch v DSL khc trong si cp.

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Nh vi CAP RADSL, DMT ADSL l h thng c tc bit thay i, v cc bng thng tht s ca cc knh theo chiu xung v ln ty thuc vo tc bit v xuyn knh. Hnh 3.30 cho thy bng thng hu ch cc i ca cc knh theo chiu xung v ln. nh gi s tng thch ph ca DMT knh chiu ln vi cc dch v khc, cn tnh ton c ly hot ng ca knh theo chiu ln DMT 272 Kbps vi hin din ca xuyn knh t cc dch v DSL khc. Hnh 3.33 so snh c ly hot ng ca h thng DMT knh chiu ln 272 Kbps vi hin din ca ca NEXT t HDSL, T1 AMI, ISDN, 784 Kbps SDSL, v SFEXT. lm r hn, SFEXT l mi trng nhiu gy t nghim trng nht, c can nhiu ti thiu. T1 AMI cng c can nhiu b bi v nng lng tn hiu AMI l rt b trong bng tn ca knh chiu ln DMT. Cc nhiu lon c nh hng nhiu nht cho knh theo chiu ln l HDSL v SDSL, bi v NEXT t cc dch v ny c mt bng thng hon ton chng lp ln knh theo chiu ln DMT. Ph ISDN c mt phn chng lp ln knh chiu ln DMT v v th c t va chm ln c ly hot ng ca knh theo chiu ln hn l ca HDSL v SDSL.

Hnh 3.33: Tng thch ph ca DMT knh chiu ln i vi cc DSL khc

nh gi s tng thch ph ca DMT knh chiu xung vi cc dch v DSL khc, cn tnh ton c ly hot ng ca knh theo chiu xung DMT 680 Kbps vi s hin din ca xuyn knh t cc dch v DSL khc. Hnh 3.34 so snh c ly hot ng ca h thng DMT knh chiu xung 680 Kbps vi hin din ca ca NEXT t HDSL, T1 AMI, ISDN, 784 Kbps SDSL, v SFEXT.

Hnh 3.34: Tng thch ph ca DMT knh chiu xung i vi cc DSL khc

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Nh vi knh theo chiu ln, SFEXT l mi trng nhiu gy t nghim trng nht, c can nhiu ti thiu. Mc d th, c ly hot ng ca knh theo chiu xung ngn hn so vi knh chiu ln bi v mch vng c suy hao cao hn nhng tn s ca knh theo chiu xung. Ngc li vi knh chiu ln, T1 AMI c can nhiu nh hng nhiu n knh chiu xung bi v nng lng tn hiu AMI cao hn nng lng tn hiu DMT trong bng tn ca knh chiu xung. Vi HDSL, bi v bng thng tht s ca HDSL chng lp hon ton knh chiu xung, nn n l mt nhiu lon c nh hng nhiu tip theo trn ng dy. ISDN v SDSL c s va chm ti thiu v NEXT i vi knh chiu xung DMT. S suy gim c ly hot ng ca DMT vi hin din ca T1 AMI c nhiu lon SFEXT mnh nht l vo khong 6 kft. Tm li, HDSL v SDSL l nhng nhiu lon gy nh hng nhiu n knh chiu ln ca DMT ADSL. T1 AMI l nhiu lon gy nh hng nhiu cho knh chiu xung ca DMT ADSL. Cch tt nht trin khai dch v DMT ADSL theo k thut FDM l trin khai ton b DMT ADSL trong si cp v loi tr tt c NEXT. Nu cp c cha mt s hn hp ca cc DSL khc, th NEXT t HDSL v SDSL l cc nhiu lon gy nh hng nghim trng n knh DMT ADSL theo chiu ln, v T1 AMI v HDSL l cc nhiu lon gy nh hng nghim trng n knh DMT ADSL theo chiu xung.

3.4.5.8 Tng thch ph ca CAP RADSL vi DMT ADSL


Khi so snh ph cc knh chiu xung v chiu ln ca CAP RADSL vi DMT ADSL, hin nhin c mt s chng lp gia knh chiu ln CAP RADSL v knh chiu xung DMT ADSL. Kt qu ca s chng lp ny l khi m cc h thng c trin khai trong cng si cp, s xut hin NEXT ln nhau. Nhng theo hnh 3.35 v 3.36 th s chng lp ny l ti thiu.

Hnh 3.35: So snh ph ca CAP RADSL vi DMT ADSL

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Hnh 3.36: So snh ph ca CAP RADSL vi DMT ADSL

Hnh 3.37 cho thy th hn hp ca 49 NEXT t cc tn hiu chiu ln CAP RADSL, chiu ln DMT ADSL, HDSL, v ISDN.

Hnh 3.37: Ph ca CAP RADSL chiu ln, DMT ADSL chiu ln, HDSL, v xuyn knh ISDN

Trong bng 3.1 ch ra gii hn ca b thu DMT ADSL 6,784 Mbps dng k thut FDM vi s hin din ca mt s nhiu lon trn mch vng th nghim 9 kft, 26-gauge. Gii hn ca knh chiu xung vi xuyn knh t 20 nhiu lon knh chiu ln DMT ADSL dng k thut FDM v 121

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


t 20 nhiu lon knh chiu ln CAP RADSL, vi c hai vo khong 5,5 dB. Gii hn t 20 nhiu lon HDSL l vo khong t 0,5 n 0,6 dB, xu hn l 4,9 dB.
DSL Interferer 20 HDSL 20 FDM DMT upstream 20 CAP RADSL upstream Downstream 6,784 Mbps FDM DMT Margin (dB) 4.9 5.4 5.5

Bng 3.1: Tng thch ph vi knh chiu xung DMT 6,784 Mbps

Bng 3.2 cho thy gii hn ca b thu DMT ADSL 1,72 Mbps dng k thut FDM vi s hin din ca mt s nhiu lon trn mch vng th nghim 13,2 kft, 26-gauge. Gii hn ca knh chiu xung vi xuyn knh t 24 nhiu lon knh chiu ln DMT ADSL dng k thut FDM v t 24 nhiu lon knh chiu ln CAP RADSL tng ng 7 dB v 7,4 dB. Gii hn t 24 nhiu lon ISDN l khong 3 dB n 3,4 dB, xu hn l 4 dB. S nhiu lon t HDSL khng cn quan tm bi v HDSL khng c trin khai trn cc mch vng ln hn min CSA (Carrier Serving Area).

DSL Interferer 24 ISDN 224 FDM DMT upstream 24 CAP RADSL upstream

Downstream 1,72 Mbps FDM DMT Margin (dB) 4.0 7.0 7.4

Bng 3.2: Tng thch ph vi knh chiu xung DMT 1,72 Mbps

Tm li, mc d knh chiu ln CAP RADSL c mt bng thng ln hn mt cht so vi knh chiu ln DMT ADSL, nhng nng lng ngoi bng ca n th b hn so vi knh chiu ln DMT ADSL c xc nh trong T1.413. Vi mc suy hao ngoi bng 50 dB ca ph knh chiu ln CAP RADSL, s tng thch ph vi knh chiu xung DMT l ging vi knh chiu ln DMT ADSL. Trong mi trng hp, HDSL v ISDN c cc nhiu lon vi knh chiu xung ln hn knh chiu ln ca DMT ADSL hoc CAP RADSL. Cho nn CAP RADSL l tng thch ph vi T1.413 ADSL (xem hnh 3.37).

3.4.6

iu ch DMT (Discret Multitone)

DMT l mt phng php dng nguyn l phn chia tn hiu ng dy thu bao s, khi bng tn s dng c phn chia ra thnh 256 bng tn con (cc knh) vi mi bng tn l 4,325KHz. DMT s dng thut ton FFT (Fast Fourier transform) iu ch v gii iu ch tn hiu. Vic phn chia ph tn s ra thnh nhiu knh cho php DMT hot ng tt hn khi m cc b pht sng AM ang hin din. Vi mi knh, b iu ch s dng QAM. V s thay i s bit trn mi mu trong mt knh, m modem c th thch ng v tc . G.DMT v G.lite u s dng DMT. 122

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S khi c bn ca b pht DMT c cho trong hnh 3.38 v b thu DMT c cho trong hnh 3.39. B pht to ra v gi i cc mu DMT tc 1/T, vi T l chu k mu DMT. Trong mi chu k mu, d liu ng vo c a vo b m, v mi bit c ch nh hoc nh x vo mt trong N complex multi-level sub-symbols nh vo b m ha DMT. B pht DMT s thc hin qu trnh IFFT. Kt qu mt hm min thi gian c gi qua b bin i D/A v b lc ng dy.
Data input
Serial to parallel input data buffer 1

DMT symbol encoder

2 N

IFFT

D/A

Line filter

Output to line

N (complex) subchannel symbols

DMT symbols transmitted serially

Hnh 3.38: S khi c bn b pht DMT


1 Parallel to serial output data buffer

Line Filter A/D

Line

FFT

2 N

DMT symbol decoder

Data out

DMT symbols received serially

N (complex) subchannel symbols

Hnh 3.39: S khi c bn b thu DMT

DMT vn c dng iu ch linh hot, c bit i vi vic nh x cc bit vo trong cc sub-channel symbol. thc thi truyn dn tt nht, nh x phi c thc hin ph hp vi cc dung lng tin tc ca cc sub-channel ring bit. Chnh v vy cho nn n thng n nh s bit nhiu nht cho cc sub-channel vi SNR cao nht v ti thiu s sub-channel c s bit v SNR b nht.

Hnh 3.40: nh x cc bit vo DMT sub-channels

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3.4.7 iu ch CAP/QAM

CAP l mt bin i khng chun ca QAM. CAP chia bng tn s dng ra thnh ba bng tn. Bng tn t 0 KHz 4 KHz dng cho truyn dn POTS. Bng tn t 25 KHz 160 KHz dng cho knh chiu ln v bng tn 240 KHz 1,5 MHz dng cho knh chiu xung. V mt ton hc, CAP v QAM gn ging nhau. CAP v QAM kt hp trit sng mang. V sng mang khng mang thng tin nn vic trit sng mang khi pht v to li u cui l vic ph bin. Vic trit sng mang yu cu thm cc mch in trong cc thit b u cui QAM. QAM thit lp chm sao da trn hai gi tr ca tn hiu thu c l lch pha v bin . Mi im trong chm sao u xc nh lch pha, bin v th hin mt chui bit xc nh. CAP l mt QAM c bit vi chm sao quay t do (v khng c sng mang c nh chm sao). Mt phn t trong mch CAP c gi l hm quay s xc nh cc im ca chm sao QAM. V vy, CAP c to ra t QAM bng cch thm hm quay vo my thu v trit sng mang pha my pht. Transmitter Hnh v sau y cho thy cu trc l tng ca b pht QAM, vi tn s sng mang f0 v Ht p ng tn s ca b lc pht:

Hnh 3.41: B pht QAM

Trc khi chui bit c pht i, n phn ra thnh hai phn bng nhau: qu trnh ny to ra hai tn hiu c lp nhau. Chng c m ha ring bit nhau ging nh trong iu ch ASK. Mt knh (in phase) c nhn vi hm cosine, trong khi knh kia (in quadrature) c nhn vi hm sine. Vi cch ny hai tn hiu lch pha nhau 900. Hai tn hiu i qua b cng to thnh tn hiu pht i trn knh truyn. Tn hiu pht i trn knh truyn c tnh bng cng thc:

s(t ) =

[vc [n].ht (t nTs )cos(2f0 t ) vs [n].ht (t Ts ) sin(2f0 t )] n


=

(3.1)

Vi: Vc [n] v Vs [n] l cc in p p ng to ra t mu th n ca hm cosin v hm sin tng ng. Receiver B thu QAM thc hin qu trnh ngc li ca b pht. Cu trc l tng ca b thu QAM vi Hr l p ng tn s ca b lc thu c cho trong hnh sau:

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Hnh 3.42: B thu QAM

Tn hiu thu c nhn vi hm cosine, sine. Sau i qua b lc thng thp tch thnh phn in phase, in quadrature. By gi ch cn l gii iu ch ASK v hai tn hiu dng d liu c kt hp li nh ban u.

3.4.8

o th DSL
End to End Section

Service Provider RAS Gateway

ATM & IP Section ADSL Service

Transmission

Central Office ATM Data Network


DSLAM PSTN Network

Customer Premises Loop


POTS POTS Splitter Splitter ATU-R ATU ATU-R Modem Modem

Network Element

Manager

Hnh 3.43: Phn lp o th ADSL

Trong chng hai, phn 2.1.7 trnh by cc php o li cp. Phn ny s trnh by v cc k thut o cho h thng DSL. Phn lp o th: Cn c vo hnh 3.43 ta c th chia lp o th ADSL ra thnh cc lp nh sau: Lp 1: o th lp vy l , chnh l cc php o c trnh by trong 2.1.7. Lp 2: o th lp dch v ADSL. o th lp IP v lp ATM. o th end to end.

Qui trnh o th: Trung tm chm sc khch hng (TTCSKH) tip nhn danh sch yu lp t DSL. Danh sch c y cc thng tin nh sau: Tn c nhn/ php nhn ng k. 125

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


a ch ng k. H tn ngi lin h v in thoi lin h. Thu bao ny ang s dng ng dy in thoi loi no: ng dy in thoi s, ng dy ISDN, leased line, hoc lp t mt ng dy mi. Phn loi khch hng: C nhn ngi Vit Nam, C nhn ngi nc ngoi, Doanh nghip t nhn, Cng ty trch nhim hu hn, Vn phng i din, Lin doanh, Doanh nghip nh nc, C quan thng tin, i l internet, Doanh nghip nc ngoi, Lnh s qun, C quan ng/Nh nc, C quan hnh chnh, Qui trnh o th tun theo lu sau y:
Nhn danh sch cc thu bao t TTCSKH

Xc nh cp do i trm no qun l

Nhp m s cp ny vo chng trnh khai thc thu bao

N S NE, line? Y Gi danh sch cho o th

Tr h s cho TTCSKH

o th ko dy

Gi danh sch cho nhm kho st

Phi hp o kim vi NMS

Thc hin ng b

ng b? Y Kim tra tc ? Y Ghi nhn kt qu tt v gi cho b phn tin hc danh sch cc thu bao thc hin c N Y i cp? N

Hnh 3.44: Lu o th ADSL

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3.4.9 Lp t DSL (ch yu xem xt lp t ADSL).

3.4.9.1 u chuyn ti dn MDF


i vi thu bao c yu cu s dng thoi trn ng dy ADSL, m hnh chuyn dy c thc hin nh sau: Bc 1: G b on dy nhy c u t BLOCK INSIDE n BLOCK OUTSIDE (nu c). Bc 2: u on dy nhy mi t BLOCK INSIDE sang BLOCK POTS. Bc 3: u on dy nhy t BLOCK ADSL sang BLOCK OUTSIDE.
ide Block ins ide B c 1 Block outs ng da y thue bao B c2 Thoa i Block POTS DSLAM Block ADSL Thoa i + d lie u B c3

To ng a i

Hnh 3.45: u chuyn thu bao khi c yu cu s dng in thoi

i vi thu bao khng c yu cu s dng thoi trn ng dy ADSL, m hnh u chuyn dy c thc hin nh sau: Bc 1: G b on dy nhy c u t BLOCK INSIDE n BLOCK OUTSIDE (nu c). Bc 2: u on dy nhy mi t BLOCK ADSL sang BLOCK OUTSIDE.
To ng a i ide Block ins ide B c 1 Block outs ng da y thue bao

Thoa i Block POTS DSLAM Block ADSL Thoa i + d lie u

B c2

Hnh 3.46: u chuyn thu bao khi khng c yu cu s dng in thoi

3.4.9.2 Nhng yu t cn lu khi chn ng dy ADSL


Phn b cc dy ADSL trn cc si cp khc nhau ti thiu xuyn knh. Kim tra mi ni trn ng dy, cc mi ni phi bo m k thut.

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Chn dy thu bao c xuyn knh nh. Xuyn knh nh nht gia cc i thuc v cc b cp khc nhau v khc bc xon.

Hnh 3.47: Chn la i dy cho ADSL trong mt si cp

Hnh 3.47 cho thy 5 nhm cp c 5 i cp A,B,C,D,E c bc xon khc nhau. Xuyn knh ln nht s t cc i 2A, 3A, 4A v c cng bc xon. Xuyn knh t i 5A thp do tuy cng bc xon nhng khng thuc nhm cp li cch xa i 1A.

3.4.9.3 Lp t ti nh thu bao


(1) S lp t cc thnh phn thit b theo cu hnh G.DMT v G.Lite Ty theo cu hnh G.DMT hoc G.Lite m c cch lp t tng ng. Cc hnh v sau y cho thy cch lp t cc thnh phn thit b ADSL ti nh thu bao.

Hnh 3.48: Lp t cc thnh phn thit b cho cu hnh G.DMT

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To telephone company

Hnh 3.49: Lp t cc thnh phn thit b cho cu hnh G.Lite

(2) Lp t modem C th tm tt vic lp t modem ADSL qua cc bc chung nh sau: Bc 1: Thc hin cng vic kt ni Nu l external modem: c th c c giao tip Ethernet v USB. S dng giao tip Ethernet th dng cp ethernet (cp ethernet chun T568A/B) ni t cng ethernet trn modem n cng ethernet trn my tnh. S dng giao tip USB th dng cp USB (km theo thit b) ni t cng USB trn modem n cng USB trn my tnh. Nu l internal modem (modem card): thng thng kt ni vi my tnh qua giao tip PCI. Khi c th cm modem card vo khe PCI cn trng bn trong my tnh. Kt ni line in thoi n modem: i vi cu hnh G.DMT dng cp RJ-11 kt ni t cng RJ-11 (data wire) trn wall plate (tham kho hnh 3.48) n cng LINE trn modem. i vi cu hnh G.Lite, dng cp RJ-11 ni t cng MODEM trn ADSL Filter n cng LINE trn modem (tham kho hnh 3.49).

Bc 2: Cp ngun cho modem (i vi external modem). Bc 3: Ci t phn mm. Nu kt ni modem vi my tnh bng USB th thng thng phi ci t dirver cho modem. Cn kt ni vi my tnh bng ethernet th khng cn phi ci t driver cho modem. Ci t cc thng s cho ADSL: bt u ci t, trong ca s Microsoft internet explorer (i vi Win XP) nhp a ch trang web ca modem (a ch ny c cung cp trong ti liu hng dn s dng v ci t modem) vo address v enter vo giao din ca s ca trang web. Trong ca s ny thc hin cc yu cu theo ch dn. Trong cc bc thc hin ny, h thng yu cu ngi s dng nhp user name v password. Nu vic ci t thc hin y v ng, th ngi s dng c th truy cp c internet. 129

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

3.5

HFC V CABLE MODEM

3.5.1 Mng HFC


HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coaxial) l mt mng kt hp gia cp quang v cp ng trc to ra mt mng bng rng. HFC c s dng cho cable TV t thp nin 1990. S kin trc c bn ca mng HFC c cho trong hnh v sau y.

Hnh 3.50: Kin trc c bn mng HFC

Mng cp quang m rng t headend ch (master headend) n cc headend vng (regional headend), hubsite ca mng ln cn v sau cng l nt chuyn i quang-in (fiber optic node) phc v t 500 thu bao2000 thu bao mi ni. Master headend thng c cc antenna parabol v tinh thu cc tn hiu video trong khng gian cng nh cc lung IP. Mt s master headend cn bao gm cc thit b in thoi cung cp cc dch v vin thng n cng ng. Mt regional headend thu tn hiu video t master headend v thm vo cc knh ca chnh ph, knh gio dc, knh cng cng khi c php, hoc a vo chng trnh qung co. Fiber optic node c mt b thu pht quang bng rng c kh nng chuyn i tn hiu iu ch quang chiu xung n t headend ra thnh tn hiu in gi n thu bao, cng nh chuyn i tn hiu in n t thu bao ra thnh tn hiu quang cho chiu ngc li. Tn hiu in chiu xung gi n thu bao l tn hiu iu ch RF nm trong di tn t 50 MHz 1000 MHz. Cp quang ni optical node n headend hoc hub theo point-to-point hoc star topology hoc ring topology. Fiber optic node cng c mt reverse path transmitter gi thng tin t thu bao n headend. M tn hiu theo chiu ngc li ny c iu ch RF nm trong di tn t 5MHz42MHz, nhng khu vc khc t 5 MHz 65 MHz. Phn cp ng trc ca mng kt ni t 25 2000 thu bao (thng thng 500 thu bao) theo cu hnh dng cy v nhnh. Cc b khuch i RF c s dng khuch i tn hiu, b li suy hao do cp, v cc suy hao khc c nguyn nhn t chia cp hoc r cp. Cc cp ng trc trung k c kt ni n optical node v c dng ca coaxial backbone phn phi cc cp kt ni nh hn. Cc cp trung k cng ti ngun AC t 60V n 90V. Ngun AC ny cung cp cho cc b khuch i. T cc cp trung k, cc cp phn phi nh hn c kt ni n mt 130

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


cng ca b khuch i trung k ti tn hiu RF v ngun AC xung cc nhnh mng ring bit. Khi cn thit, cc b ko di dy vi cc b khuch i phn phi nh s khuch i tn hiu gi cng sut ca tn hiu TV mc m TV c th chp nhn c. Cc dy phn phi c mc vo cc b r nhnh t nhng im r ring bit dn n nh thu bao. Cc b r nhnh dn tn hiu RF v chn li ngun AC tr khi c cc thit b in thoi cn thit c ngun d phng an ton cung cp t h thng ngun cp ng trc. Cc b kt cui r nhnh vi cc im r nhnh ring bit thng s dng u ni loi F (tham kho 2.2.4). Dy r ni n nh thu bao, cn c ni t bo v h thng t nhng in p nhiu. Ty vo thit k mng, tn hiu c th i qua b chia n cng lc nhiu TV. Trng hp c qu nhiu TV kt ni, th cht lng hnh nh ca tt c TV trong nh rt xu.

3.5.2 Truyn dn trn mng HFC


S dng ghp knh phn tn s (frequency division multiplexing), nn mt mng HFC c th ti nhiu dch v khc nhau, bao gm truyn hnh tng t, truyn hnh s (HDTV-High Definition Television), truyn hnh theo yu cu (VoD-Video on Demand), video s c chuyn mch, in thoi, v truyn d liu tc cao. ng truyn hng ti v hng lui u dng chung mt cp ng trc, y l ng truyn hai chiu trn cng mt mng t headend/hub office n thu bao, v t thu bao n headend/hub office. Cc tn hiu chiu ti hoc chiu xung ti tin tc t headend/hub office n thu bao, nh l ni dung video, thoi v d liu internet. Cc tn hiu chiu lui hoc chiu ln ti tin tc t thu bao n headend/hub office, nh cc tn hiu iu khin STB, d liu cable modem, v thoi. Nh vy, mng HFC c cu trc l khng i xng. Nhng nm trc y, knh chiu lui ch c s dng cho mt vi tn hiu iu khin yu cu cc b phim, hoc cc tn hiu gim st trng thi. Cc ng dng ny i hi bng thng rt b. Sau ny cc dch v cng thm c a vo mng HFC, nh d liu internet v thoi, do knh chiu lui c s dng nhiu hn. Cable Multiple System Operators (MSOs) pht trin cc phng php gi cc dch v bng tn hiu RF trn cp quang v cp ng trc. Phng php nguyn thy truyn video trn mng HFC m cho n by gi vn s dng rng ri l iu ch cc knh TV tng t tiu chun, cng ging nh phng php s dng truyn dn cc knh truyn hnh qung b trong khng gian. Mt knh TV tng t chim bng thng 6 MHz. Mi knh c mt tn s trung tm lm sng mang (v d: knh 2 c tn s trung tm l 55,25 MHz), do khng c va chm gia cc knh lin k . Cc knh TV s to ra mt cch truyn video hiu qu hn bng cch dng m ha MPEG-2 hoc MPEG-4 trn cc knh QAM (Quadrature amplitude modulation).

3.5.3 IEEE 802.14


Nhm lm vic IEEE 802.14 c hnh thnh vo thng 11 nm 1994 chun ha lp vt l (PHY layer) v lp iu khin truy nhp a phng tin (MAC layer) cho cc h thng HFC.

MAC layer
H tr cc dch v cho connectionless v connection-oriented H tr QoS. H tr CBR, VBR, ABR. H tr cc dch v unicast, multicast, broadcast.

131

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp PHY layer


500 thu bao ti im thit k tham chiu. H tr sub-split (5 MHz40 MHz upstream), mid-split (5 MHz120 MHz upstream), v high-split (800 MHz1000 MHz upstream). S dng li tn s chiu ln. La chn iu ch QAM 64 cho chiu xung. QAM-64 vi 6 bit/Hz to ra 30 Mbps trong 6 MHz. iu ch QPSK c chn cho chiu ln chu ng nhiu ln. C mt vi knh chiu ln trn mt knh chiu xung.

C bn k thut iu ch s dng 5,12 Msymbols/second cho chiu xung v mt k thut iu ch s dng 1,28 Msymbols/second cho chiu ln. Tc bit ca nm k thut iu ch ny l: QPSK: 2 bits/symbol x 5,12 Msymbols/second = 10,24 Mbps. 16 QAM: 4 bits/symbol x 5,12 Msymbols/second = 20,48 Mbps. 64 QAM: 6 bits/symbol x 5,12 Msymbols/second = 30,72 Mbps. 256 QAM: 8 bits/symbol x 5,12 Msymbols/second = 40,96 Mbps. QPSK: 2 bits/symbol x 1,28 Msymbols/second = 2,56 Mbps

3.5.4 Kh nng bng thng


Ph knh chiu xung 550 MHz750 MHz. Ph knh chiu ln 5 MHz42 MHz. Ph 550 MHz750 MHz cho 33 knh 6 MHz. Ph 5 MHz42 MHz cho 20 knh 1,8 MHz.

Chiu xung:
QPSK: 33 knh FDM x 10,24 Mbps/knh = 337 Mbps. 16 QAM: 33 knh FDM x 20,48 Mbps/knh = 1013 Mbps. 64 QAM: 33 knh FDM x 40,96 Mbps/knh = 1351 Mbps.

Chiu ln:
QPSK: 20 knh FDM x 2,56 Mbps/knh = 51 Mbps

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Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


3.5.5 Cable modem

3.5.5.1 Gii thiu cabe modem

133

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3.5.5.2 M hnh kin trc phn lp cable modem


Others ATM LLC Others ATM LLC

Headend MAC

Station MAC

Lp MAC

Upstream PHY

Downstream PHY

Upstream PHY

Downstream PHY

Lp vt l

Downstream channel 450 MHz750 MHz Upstream channel 5 MHz45 MHz

Knh

Hnh 3.51: Kin trc phn lp cable modem/headend

IEEE 802.14 xc nh m hnh tham chiu cho cable modem v b iu khin headend. Kin trc tham chiu l mt khi c nhiu tng cn xc nh kin trc phn lp. M hnh tham chiu l bng kin trc chi tit da trn xy dng cc thit b. M hnh kin trc phn lp cable modem/headend c cho trong hnh 3.51 v gm c: Knh (Channel). Lp vt l (Physical (PHY) layer). Lp MAC (MAC layer).

y ban IEEE 802.14 pht trin ba ti liu tiu chun. Cc ti liu ny c dng chun ha lp vt l. Ba ti liu l: M hnh knh cho chiu ln. M hnh knh cho chiu xung. S hi t cc c tnh k thut.

3.5.5.3 Ph cable modem


Ph tn s ca knh chiu lnh v chiu xung c v tr khc nhau nh ch ra trong hnh 3.52. Bng thng 400 MHZ t 50 MHz450 MHz c dng truyn cc tn hiu TV knh chiu xung, bao gm NTSC tng t, m thanh iu ch FM. Bng thng 40 MHz t 5 MHz45 MHz c dng cho cc knh s RF chiu ln. Mi knh c rng t 1 MHz6 MHz, v c kh nng ti bng thng s trong tm t 1,6 Mbps n 10 Mbps khi s dng k thut iu ch QPSK. Cc knh RF chiu ln c thit k truyn cc thng tin iu khin v d liu n headend. Mt s lng ln cc knh chiu xung nm trong bng tn 300 MHz gia 450 MHz v 750 MHz. Cc knh RF ny c dng pht qung b d liu v tin tc t headend n tt c trm thu. Ph tn s ca cable modem c cho trong hnh v sau y: 138

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


UPSTREAM DIGITAL 1 2 n DOWNSTREAM ANALOG DOWNSTREAM DIGITAL 1 2 3 m

5 45 50

450 750 MHz

Hnh 3.52: Ph RF ca cable modem

3.5.5.4 nh x ph ca cable modem


Truyn thng gia headend v cable modem c th t c tt nht nh m t trong hnh 3.53. Mt b thu cable modem (xem nh mt trm) c kt ni n tt c cc knh 6 MHz chiu xung (t knh 1 n knh m) ca ph. Cable modem phi c kh nng iu chnh bt c bt k mt bng tn no trong cc bng tn 6 MHz nhn d liu t headend. Ti kt cui u pht, cable modem cng phi c kh nng pht bt k mt knh chiu ln no trong t 1 n n knh chiu ln nh m t trong hnh v.
Downstream 450 MHz740 MHz
2 1 3 m


Headend
Station # 1

Station # 2

Station # x

Upstream 50 MHz45 MHz

1 3 n

Hnh 3.53: nh x ph Headend/station

i thoi gia cable modem v headend c khi to khi mt modem lp t vo. N t ng bt u lng nghe cc knh chiu xung, tm kim v ghi nhn thit b ca n. Mng p ng li bi vic ch nh cc knh chiu ln thch hp m trong n c th truyn d liu ca n. Ty thuc vo cu hnh ca headend m mt knh chiu xung thng thng c lin kt vi cc knh chiu ln. i thoi gia headend v cc station l do lp qun tr MAC chu trch nhim. Kh nng m mt station d v cu hnh cc cng vt l ca n trong h thng c tham chiu nh l frequency-agile cable modem.

3.5.6 POST trn HFC


Cu hnh POST trn HFC c ch ra trong hnh 3.54. Mt b chuyn mch hoc DLC c t ti headend. B iu khin headend nhn knh thoi t cc cable modem t ti nh thu bao v n thng qua DLC hoc b chuyn mch tin hnh x l. Nu headend c trang b DLC th cc trung k T1 truyn dn cc mch thoi s c kt ni n mt tng i class 5 gn dng x l cuc gi. 139

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

Headend

C O N T R O L

Trunk amplifier

Line amplifiers

ATM MUX

CO office Switch/ DLC

IP router T1 Internet

Optical node

ANI DS3/OC3
PSTN & BB/ATM

T1

Hnh 3.54: Headend vi cc kh nng POST v IP

Headdend cng c trang b y cc tnh nng ca tng i chuyn mch class 5, vi kh nng ny headend c th thc hin: Chuyn mch ni ht. Tnh cc. R tt cc ng truyn tng i ni ht v giao tip trc tip n cc ng truyn tng i ng di, do tit kim cc chi ph truy nhp cho khch hng.

Headend cng c th c trang b cc IP router iu khin cc dch v IP v lin kt vi mng internet. B iu khin headend s tch lu lng IP v chuyn giao n cho cc router x l. ATM MUX (cng l mt chuyn mch ATM) l mt nt truy nhp ATM kt ni cc truyn dn ATM n b chuyn mch ATM trong mng cng cng. B iu khin headend c th phn bit lu lng ATM, n l d liu, video hoc l cc dch v CBR. Din n ATM nh ngha giao tip ny l ANI.

3.5.7 An ton trong mi trng HFC

3.5.7.1 Gii thiu


An ton tr thnh mt ch rt quan trng k t khi pht trin internet. Hu ht tt c cc ng dng tng tc u yu cu mt mc an ton. Cc mc tiu cho an ton ni chung cp n ba i tng sau y: Nhng ngi s dng dch v (Users). Nhng ngi iu hnh qun l (Operators). Cc c quan chnh ph (Government agencies).

V phng din ngi s dng dch v, an ton c ngha l m bo tnh ring t, b mt, ton vn d liu, tnh cc chnh xc, kch hot v ngng kch hot dch v. V phng din ngi iu hnh qun l, an ton c ngha l ton vn d liu, c lp, gi gn danh ting v uy tn tt i vi cc khch hng, tnh cc chnh xc khng gian ln hoc la 140

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


gt, lm ng chc nng mng, v c trch nhim gii trnh khi dch v khng hot ng do s c. Tm li, chnh nhng nh cung cp dch v/iu hnh qun l mng cn s an ton gi gn cc hp dn trong kinh doanh ca h, cc ngha v ca h i vi cc khch hng v cng ng. V phng din cc c quan chnh ph, yu cu an ton hp l vi cc ch th, cc qui nh php lut, nhm m bo li ch ca cc dch v, cnh tranh lnh mnh, v bo v s b mt. Vi nhng vn t ra trn, trong din n ATM, mt nhm lm vic v an ton mng nh ngha mt b cc loi an ton gm nhng chc nng an ton ng dng cho khch hng, iu khin, v cc dch v. Cc chc nng bao gm: iu khin truy nhp. Xc thc. B mt d liu. Ton vn d liu.

3.5.7.2 An ton v b mt trong mng HFC


Cc vn an ton v b mt trong mng HFC khc nhau t nhng mng c kt ni dy theo im-im truyn thng. Trong trng hp ca cp ng, mng ny cung cp kt ni trc tip thu bao n mt mch ng dy ti tng i ni ht, vic nghe trm thc hin khng d dng nh i vi ng dy dng chung. Cc cuc in m ring t d nhin khng th b gim st bi ngi s dng nhng nh khc. Trong mt mng cp, vn an ton tr nn kh khn hn bi v c nhiu thu bao truy nhp vt l n cng mt ng dy. Nh trnh by trong phn trc, mng HFC hai chiu c cc truyn dn nhiu-n-mt v mt-n-nhiu trn cng mt trung k.

Cc yu cu an ton ti lp MAC
C gng to ra cc c ch an ton cho cc mng truy nhp a phng tin dng chung c th so snh vi cc mng truy nhp a truy nhp khng dng chung. Cc c ch an ton bao gm sau y: Xc thc (Authentication): Thu bao phi t xc nhn tnh hp l i vi mng truy nhp. Thu bao ny phi xc nh thit b thu bao no c quyn phc v v tha nhn i vi profile ca dch v. S phc tp ca qu trnh xc thc phi l ti thiu. i hi ny dn ra cc giao thc nhanh v i xng. Mt m (encryption): D liu ngi dng gia thu bao v giao din HFC phi c b mt. Bo v s pht li (Replay protection): Mng truy nhp phi c bo v ngn chn s pht li cc bng tin trc . Qun l kha (Key management): Duy tr b mt thng tin ngi s dng l then cht i vi bt k mng an ton no. S thun li i vi ngi s dng u cui (End user convenience): Cc chc nng an ton hot ng m khng i hi ngi s dng u cui thc thi cc hot ng h tr i vi an ton h thng.

141

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Tnh trong sut (Transparency): Cc chc nng an ton phi hot ng m khng lm gim i cp ca dch v (CoS-Class of Service) cung cp cho ngi s dng. Kh nng xut khu (Exportability): Cc mng truy nhp a phng tin c tnh chia s s s dng world wide. Rt nhiu quc gia c cc qui nh v s dng, nhp khu v xut khu cc hot ng an ton. Cc hot ng an ton phi tn trng trit cc qui nh v xut khu v nhp khu. Truyn d liu tin cy (Data transport reliability): Cc mng truy nhp a phng tin chia s phi c dung sai ca cc li bit sao cho ti thiu m rng li. Cc li bit ca mt ng truyn dn n phi khng l nguyn nhn lm cho cc khi bit b gin on do vic m rng li v hn. H thng phi khi phc ng b mt cch tc th sau khi c s gin on truyn dn d liu. An ton vt l (Physical security): An ton truy nhp a phng tin chia s phi khng l thuc vo cc phn t ca an ton vt l ngoi tr cc thuc tnh c trong cc loi mng HFC. Khi phc s an ton (Security recorvery): An ton mng truy nhp a phng tin chia s phi c thit k sao cho n c kh nng thit lp li cc thng tin bo mt (v d nh cc kha). Kh nng nng cp (Upgradability): Cc c ch an ton chn cho cc mng truy nhp a phng tin chia s phi cho php nng cp hay thay mi cc c ch an ton, cc thut ton, v cc m hnh an ton.

Mt m v gii mt m
Mt m v gii mt m c thc hin bng thut ton DES. Ch mt m s dng l CBC (Cypher Block Chaining). C mt s vn v k thut mt m cn bit nh sau: Mt m s dng phi c chng minh v cng nhn. Mt m phi c thc thi trn phn cng hoc phn mm. Mt m phi khng chim bng thng nhiu. D liu trc v sau khi mt m c kch thc nh nhau. Mt m phi c tr b. Gii mt m phi gii hn khuch i li. Mt m phi t ng b .

Vi cc nguyn tc trn, IEEE 802.14 kt hp k thut mt m vo h thng MAC sao cho truyn thng gia mt trm v headend c b mt v xc thc. Thc hin iu ny mt cch rt ro, s bit a ch ngi nghe trm v cc vn tht gi c t nhin trn mng cp truyn dn chia s. Qui trnh mt m c th tm tt nh sau: 142 Trao i kha (Key exchange): IEEE 802.14 ngh s dng giao thc trao i kha Diffie-Hellman cho HFC. Provisioning: Trong chc nng ny headend cho php thu bao ng k. Chng thc ID ca thu bao trong cable modem s c s dng xc nh tnh hp php ca thu bao. C

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


hai bc cn thit truy nhp cc dch v: ng k ID phn cng thu bao (certification number or serial number ca thit b) v s dng trao i kha b mt Diffie-Hellman. ng k (Registration): Trong chc nng ny, thu bao gi cc yu cu ID duy nht ca n cho headend. Headend quan tm n thu bao hp php mi ny (thng qua provisioning) s x l bng kha b mt trao i th ng k cho thu bao. Chng thc ID c s dng xc thc tnh hp php ca thu bao. Nu headend khng chp nhn ID ny coi nh vic ng k ca thu bao b tht bi. Trao i kha b mt Diffie-Hellman: Thut ton cho php hai ngi s dng trao i an ton mt kha dng mt m thng tin. Thut ton ch dng trao i kha khng dng mt m v gii mt m thng tin.

Thut ton Diffie-Hellman da trn tnh kh ca bi ton logarit ri rc trong trng c hn, so snh vi vic tnh ly tha trn cng mt trng. Gi s c hai ngi s dng l Alice v Bob. Trc tin, Alice v Bob tha thun mt s nguyn t ln p, v mt phn t nguyn thy g mod p. Alice v Bob c th tha thun hai s p v g trn mt knh cng khai. Cc bc ca thut ton c trnh by nh sau: Bc 1: Alice chn mt s nguyn ln ngu nhin x v tnh X=gx mod p ri gi X cho Bob. Bc 2: Bob chn mt s nguyn ln ngu nhin y v tnh Y=gy mod p ri gi Y cho Alice. Bc 3: Alice tnh: k=Yx mod p. Bc 4: Bob tnh: k=X y mod p. C hai gi tr k v k u bng nhau v bng gxy mod p. Nhng ngi tn cng kh c th tnh c gi tr k mc d bit c gi tr p, g, X, v Y. V thc hin php tnh logarit ri rc mod p khi phc x, y l rt kh. Do , k l kha mt m c Alice v Bob c th tnh ton mt cch c lp nhau. Vic chn p v g c th c nh hng ng k n mt ca h thng. S (p-1)/2 cng phi l s nguyn t. Cn lu chn n l s nguyn t ln.

V d: Alice v Bob tha thun chn p=23, g=2


Bc 1: Alice chn x=7, gi cho Bob X=27 mod 23=13 Bc 2: Bob chn y=4, gi cho Alice Y=24 mod 23=16 Bc 3: Alice tnh: k=167 mod 23=18 Bc 4: Bob tnh : k=134 mod 23=18 (trong v d trn ch minh ha thut ton v d tnh nn chn cc gi tr p, x, y nh. Trong thc t phi chn s p, x, v y l cc s ln). IEEE 802.14 khuyn ngh cc gi tr ca p, x, v y ti thiu bng 512 bit. Gi tr ti a cho php l 1024 bit.

3.6 TRUY NHP QUANG


3.6.1 Gii thiu
143

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Mng truy nhp quang (OAN-Optical Access Network) l mng truy nhp ch yu s dng cp quang lm phng tin truyn dn. Nhng u im ca mng truy nhp quang l: Dung lng ln. Kch thc v trng lng cp nh. Khng b nhiu in. Tnh bo mt cao. Tnh hnh th trng rt tt. Cht lng truyn dn tt. Tuy nhin mng truy nhp quang cng c mt s nhc im l: Vn bin i in quang: tn hiu in phi c bin i thnh sng nh sng v ngc li. Chi ph ca cc thit b bin i cao, cn c xem xt khi thit k mng. ng truyn thng: iu ny khng thch hp cho cc vng rng ni hay cc ni c a hnh phc tp. Yu cu lp t c bit do si ch yu lm bng thy tinh. i hi phi c k nng tt trong cng tc lp t v bo dng.

3.6.2 Cu trc mng truy nhp quang


Da trn cc khuyn ngh ca ITU-T v tiu chun c lin quan a ra cu hnh tham chiu v cc khi chc nng ca mng truy nhp quang.

3.6.2.1 Cu hnh tham chiu


Mng truy nhp quang dng si quang lm mi trng truyn dn ch yu. Thng tin trao i ca tng i chuyn mch v thng tin nhn c ca thu bao u l tn hiu in . Cn phi c bin i E/O (Electric/Optical) pha tng i v bin i O/E n v mng quang (ONU-Optical Network Unit) c th thc hin truyn dn tn hiu quang nh m t qua hnh v sau:
Thu bao in
E/O

Quang

Quang Si quang

O/E

in

Trm chuyn mch

Hnh 3.55: S khi mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 3.56 l v d ca mng truy nhp quang th ng (PON-Passive Optical Network) (hoc mng quang khng ngun), gm c 4 module c bn: OLT (Optical Line Terminal), ODN (Optial Distribution Network), ONU, v AF (Adaption Function). im tham chiu gm c: im tham chiu pht quang (S), im tham chiu thu quang (R), im tham chiu gia cc nt dch v (V), im tham chiu u cui thu bao (T), v im tham chiu gia cc ONU.

144

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Giao din bao gm: giao din qun l mng (Q3), v giao din gia thu bao vi mng UNI (User-Network Interface).

Nh vy c th pht biu mng truy nhp quang s dng chung cc giao din vi cc mng truy nhp khc.

3.6.2.2 Cc khi chc nng


H thng truyn dn truy nhp cp quang m nhim mt lot ng lin kt truy nhp v gm cc module: OLT, ODN, ONU, v AF.

Hnh 3.56: Cu hnh tham chiu mng truy nhp quang

(1) OLT (Optical Line Terminal) OLT cung cp giao din quang gia mng vi ODN, ng thi cung cp bin php cn thit truyn cc dch v khc nhau. OLT c th chia thnh dch v chuyn mch v dch v khng chuyn mch, qun l bo hiu v thng tin gim st iu khin n t ONU. T cung cp chc nng bo dng cho ONU. OLT c th lp t giao din tng i chuyn mch ni ht, cng c th lp t u xa. V mt vt l n c th l thit b c lp, cng c th nm trong mt thit b tng th khc. OLT gm n v trung tm, n v dch v, v n v chung to thnh, nh hnh v sau:
n v trung tm

Giao din ODN ODN Giao din ODN n v chung

Ghp knh truyn dn

Ni cho s

Giao din dch v

Mng li

Cp in

OAM

n v dch v

Hnh 3.57: S i khi chc nng OLT

Chc nng n v trung tm:


Ni cho s. 145

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Ghp knh truyn dn. Chc nng giao din ODN: Chc nng ny cn c vo cc loi si quang ca ODN cung cp cc giao din quang vt l, ng thi thc hin bin i in/quang v quang/in.

Chc nng n v chung:


Chc nng cp in: Chuyn i ngun in cung cp t bn ngoi thnh tr s in yu cu ca ni b. Chc nng OAM: Thng qua giao din tng ng, thc hin s vn hnh, qun l v bo dng i vi tt c cc khi chc nng v i vi qun l mng lp trn.

Chc nng n v dch v:


B phn dch v l u vo ca cc dch v. Yu cu cc dch v phi c tc s cp ca ISDN. C th m nhn ng thi hai dch v khc nhau tr ln.

(2) ONU (Optical Network Unit)

n v trung tm Ghp knh thu bao v dch v Ghp knh truyn dn Giao din ODN ODN

Thu bao

Giao din thu bao

n v dch v

Cp in

OAM n v chung

Hnh 3.58: S khi chc nng OLT

Chc nng n v trung tm:


Giao din ODN: Cung cp mt lot giao din quang vt l, ni vi ODN ng thi hon thnh vic bin i quang/in v in/quang. Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn: X l v phn phi thng tin.

Chc nng ghp knh thu bao v dch v: Tp hp v phn phi cc thng tin t/n cc thu bao khc nhau. Chc nng n v chung: Cp in v OAM, tnh cht chc nng b phn chung ging nh trong OLT.

Chc nng n v dch v: Cung cp chc nng ca thu bao, bao gm phi hp n x 64 Kbps v
chuyn i bo hiu . (3) ODN (Optical Distribution Network) Mng phn phi quang t gia ONU v OLT. Chc nng ca n l phn phi cng sut ca tn hiu quang. ODN ch yu l linh kin quang khng ngun v si quang to thnh mng phn phi ng quang th ng. Thng thng p dng cu trc hnh cy nh m t trong hnh sau: 146

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

S/R OPD ONU Lp


B ni linh hot u ni s quang B chia ng quang

L OPD

ng truyn quang OPD

R/S

OLT Lj ng truyn quang th j L1

Hnh 3.59: ng truyn quang trong ODN

ODN trong hnh trn c cu thnh bi cc linh kin ng truyn quang c s cp l p. Cc linh kin ny ni ng truyn quang, chia/ghp ng quang, truyn dn quang a bc sng v gim st iu khin ng quang, (4) AF (Adaption Function) AF ch yu cung cp chc nng phi hp ONU vi thit b thu bao. AF c th thuc ONU hoc c lp.

3.6.3 Topology v cc p dng ca truy nhp quang


C mt vi topology truy nhp quang c s dng p ng cho lu lng c tc cao trong mng truy nhp: hub and spoke, multidrop, ring, v mesh. Mng hub and spoke, d liu c th c tp hp li v gi i theo im-im bng cch s dng cc k thut knh n hoc a knh. Mi phng php c cc c trng ca n, c trnh by sau y.

3.6.3.1 Aggregated Point to Point Using a Single Channel per Optical Fiber
Chi ph ca cc channel card vi giao tip n thit b CPE hoc PoP/CO c th c gim xung trong trng hp khng c cc lin kt WDM. Cc chi ph qun l c th c gim xung nh vo cc k thut nh tc cu hnh bng phn mm v cc chn on ban u.

Hnh 3.60: Aggregated Point to Point

147

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

3.6.3.2 Aggregated Multichannel Point to Point


Cc lin kt WDM rng ln lm gim chi ph si quang, v cung cp gii php a knh mt cch hon ton tha ng cho cc lin kt mng truy nhp m khng c yu cu ghp knh bc sng vi mt s dng cao. N gn ging nh cc h thng a knh c trn ln vi knh n, cc lin kt im-im.

Hnh 3.61: Aggregated Multichannel Point to Point

3.6.3.3 Spatially Distributed WDM


Cu hnh multidrop. Thng dnh cho cc ng dng mng campus v riser.

Hnh 3.62: Spatially Distributed WDM

3.6.3.4 Arbitrary Mesh


148 Cc nt trong mng truy nhp cn s lin kt kt ni cc thnh phn thit b ca mng khch hng. Yu cu c cc lin kt WDM v khng WDM.

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

Hnh 3.63: Arbitrary Mesh

3.6.3.5 Link Protection

Hnh 3.64: Link Protection

3.7 TRUY NHP V TUYN C NH


3.7.1 nh ngha Truy nhp v tuyn c nh (FWA-Fixed Wireless Access) c nh ngha l t giao din nt dch v n b phn u cui thu bao, p dng phng thc v tuyn ton b hoc mt phn. Lin kt bng v tuyn c dng thay th cho cp hoc si quang truyn dn d liu v thoi. FWA c th c dng cho truy nhp internet nhanh v hi ngh truyn hnh. Thng tin c truyn i t mt trm pht n cc u cui c nh, khc vi in thoi di ng, thng tin truyn i t mt trm pht n cc u cui di ng. FWA thch hp cho truy nhp bng rng nhng ni m vic xy dng h thng cp quang hoc c s h tng khc kh khn hoc c chi ph ln. V d nh khu vc tha dn, t ngi s dng, khu vc i ni hoc sng h, .

3.7.2 Cc phng thc ng dng FWA


149

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


SW SW FP SW RSU RT DP CPE S

Dy chnh Phng thc ng dng 1 Phng thc ng dng 2 Phng thc ng dng 3

Dy phn phi

Dy thu bao

Hnh 3.65 : Cc phng thc ng dng FWA

Phng thc 1: Ton b on t tng i chuyn mch ni ht n u thu bao p dng phng thc truyn dn v tuyn . Tc l v tuyn thay th dy ng trc, dy phn phi, v dy dn ni vi thu bao. Phng thc 2: on t tng i chuyn mch ni ht n nt chia ng (im linh hot hoc im phn phi) p dng phng thc hu tuyn. Cn on nhp vo thu bao p dng phng thc v tuyn. Tc l v tuyn thay th on dy hu tuyn sau cng, lm dy phn phi v dy dn vo thu bao. Phng thc 3: on t tng i chuyn mch ni ht n nt chia ng p dng phng thc v tuyn, sau li dng phng thc hu tuyn cp quang, cp ng ni n thu bao. Tc l v tuyn thay th on dy ng trc hoc on dy ng trc v dy phn phi.

3.7.3 Phn loi FWA

3.7.3.1 Dng ton b FWA


Ant thu in thoi v tuyn c nh

Ant pht

Trm cui

Trm gc ant cao cng sut ln

on A

on B

o n C Nh cao tng

Hnh 3.66: T trung tm trm n u cui u dng FWA

150

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Loi ny mt s mt no l rt kinh t, tin li trong vic lp t, iu chnh, o th. Nhng h thng ny c phm vi ph sng ln, cho nn vi cng mt ti nguyn bng tn v cng mt k thut ghp knh a truy nhp th dung lng h thng tng i nh, s lng thu bao hn ch. Phng thc ny thch hp vi khu vc ngoi , vng ni v nng thn.

3.7.3.2 Dng FWA thay th on B v C


Ant thu in thoi v tuyn c nh

Ant pht

Trm Thit b v tuyn cui xa trm gc


PBX

on B

on C Nh cao tng

Hnh 3.67: Dng FWA thay th on B v C

Loi ny phn nhiu s dng h thng cng sut thp, phm vi ph sng trung bnh, tng ng khu vc rt nh. Dung lng thu bao trong trng hp ny c th gp 20 ln so vi trng hp th nht, nhng ch bng 1/5 ca khu vc cc nh. Thch hp vi khu dn c mi, khu vc nh vng cn ngoi , c quan ln, vng m, cng xng, cng trng, .

3.7.3.3 Dng FWA thay th on C


Ant thu in thoi v tuyn c nh

Ant pht Dy thu bao Thit b v tuyn trm Gc

on C Nh cao tng

Hnh 3.68: Dng FWA thay th on C

Loi ny p dng cho h thng cng sut thp, ch ph sng phm vi cc nh. H thng p dng cng ngh CT2, CT2+PACS, DECT, PHS, chi ph nghin cu ch to tng i thp. Dung lng thu bao ln nht trong 3 trng hp. Thch hp vi khu vc thnh th c dn s ng.

3.7.4 Cu hnh c bn FWA

3.7.4.1 p dng cng ngh chuyn dng


(1) Thit b kt ni u cui Cung cp giao din tiu chun u cui in thoi, fax. iu ch v gii iu ch cho thu bao. 151

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Ni vi giao din v tuyn thng qua trm gc. Dch v v chc nng m h thng chuyn mch c th cung cp cho thu bao u cui.
SNI I Um Trm gc B iu khin LE Trung tm iu hnh bo dng Trm gc Thit b kt ni nhiu thu bao UNI

Thit b kt ni mt thu bao

Hnh 3.69: Cu hnh c bn h thng FWA

(2) Trm gc iu khin thit b thu pht tin v tuyn phc v mt hoc nhiu khu vc nh ca cng mt a ch trm gc. Thng qua giao din v tuyn cung cp v c nh knh v tuyn gia cc thit b kt ni u cui thu bao c nh.

(3) B iu khin Cung cp giao din vi trm gc, pha mng v OAM. iu khin knh v tuyn v gim st o th trm gc, hon thnh chuyn tip ca tng i.

(4) Trung tm iu hnh bo dng Ph trch iu hnh v bo dng ton b thit b h thng truy nhp v tuyn c nh. Qun l mng v iu hnh mng li thng ngy. Cung cp s liu v thng k cho qun l v qui hoch mng.

3.7.4.2 p dng cng ngh viba im-a im


(1) Trm trung tm t cng vi tng i chuyn mch ni ht. Tt c trm thu bao trong h thng xem nh thit b thng tin thu pht viba.

(2) Trm chuyn tip Chuyn pht tn hiu gia trm trung tm vi trm thu bao. Ko di c ly gia trm trung tm vi trm thu bao.

(3) Trm thu bao 152 Thit b thu pht viba pha thu bao.

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


T trm thu bao n cc thu bao dng dy cp kt ni. Thit b u cui thu bao c th l my in thoi, fax, u cui s liu.
SNI UNI

Trm trung tm LE Trung tm iu hnh bo dng

Trm chuyn tip

Trm chuyn tip

Trm thu bao

Hnh 3.70: H thng truy nhp v tuyn c nh da vo Viba im-a im

3.7.5 Ch tiu k thut ca FWA

3.7.5.1 S dng tn s
1,8 GHz3,5 GHz: L on bng tn cao, suy hao nhanh, din tch ph sng nh, gi thnh ca linh kin ch to trm gc v my u cui cao, cho nn tng i thch hp cho thnh ph; cn nng thn v vng ni ho lnh xa xi th on bng tn ny khng thch hp. 800 MHz1 GHz: Bng tn ny thch hp cho nng trng, vng ni, sa mc. VHF: c im ging bng tn 800 MHz1 GHz. S thu bao tng i ln, gi thnh thit b thp, y l h thng FWA gi r.

3.7.5.2 Sp xp tn s
Sp xp tn s GSM/DCS - Tn s s dng: GSM: 905 MHz915 MHz, 950 MHz960 MHz. DCS1800: 1.710 MHz1.785 MHz, 1.805 MHz1.880 MHz. - Khong cch thu pht song cng: 45/95 MHz. - Khong cch tn s: 200 KHz. - Phng thc a truy nhp: TDMA. - S khe thi gian/sng mang: 8. - H s ghp knh: 9/12. CDMA - Tn s s dng: Bng tn 800 MHz: 824 MHz849 MHz, 869 MHz894 MHz. 153

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Bng tn 1.900 MHz: 1.850 MHz1.910 MHz, 1.930 MHz1.990 MHz. - Khong cch thu pht song cng: 45/80MHz. - Khong cch sng mang: 1,25 MHz. - Phng thc a truy nhp: CDMA. - H s ghp knh: 1.

3.7.5.3 Phm vi ph sng


Phm vi ph sng ca trm gc c xc nh theo khu vc s dng. rng ca khu vc ph sng ch yu ty thuc vo cng sut pht x v nhy my thu, cao v kiu antenna. Phm vi ph sng c th chia thnh khu vc ln, nh, cc nh. i vi khu vc ln, bn knh ph sng ln hn 5 Km, ln nht c th ti 55 Km. H thng c dung lng ln, thch hp trong thnh ph. Khu vc nh, bn knh ph sng trong khong 0,5 Km5 Km. Ch yu s dng vng ngoi v nng thn. Khu vc cc nh, bn knh ph sng khong 50 m, s dng ph hp khu vc c mt dn s tp trung.

3.7.5.4 Dung lng v dch v


Dung lng trm gc ty thuc vo phng thc a truy nhp v phm vi khu vc ph sng. Vi cng bn knh ph sng, tn s th dung lng h thng p dng cng ngh CDMA ln hn rt nhiu so vi p dng cng ngh TDMA v FDMA. Vi cng mt h thng do phi ph sng khu vc c rng khc nhau, s thu bao trn mi km2 tng theo qui lut hm m bc cao. H thng FWA hin nay ch yu cung cp dch v thoi, fax, dch v s liu v hnh nh cng ang pht trin.

3.7.5.5 Tn x
Tn x l s pht x ca mt hoc nhiu tn s no ngoi bng tn cn thit. Mc in pht x ca chng c th gim xung m khng nh hng n vic truyn thng tin.
Tr s gii hn mc in cng sut tn x Mc in tuyt i *1 (uW) 25 100 100 Mc in tuyt i *1(mW) 20 Mc in tng i *2 (dB) 60 40 50 Cng sut bnh qun pht x (W) >25 >25 >10 >10 96017.700 Bng tn (ch gii hn trn) (MHz) 235960

*1 nh ngha mc in tuyt i l cng sut bnh qun hoc cng sut nh tn x biu th bng (uW) hoc (mW).

154

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


*2 Mc in tng i l lng suy gim gia cng sut bnh qun tn x hoc cng sut nh tn x so vi cng sut nh pht x biu th bng (dB).

Bng trn l ch tiu tn x ca thit b truy nhp v tuyn c nh. Tr s ra trong bng ngoi mc in tuyt i c nh ngha theo cng sut bnh qun, cn c tr s mc in tuyt i c nh ngha theo cng sut bao nh ca h thng viba s.

3.8

VSAT

3.8.1 Gii thiu


VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) l h thng trm v tinh mt t hai chiu vi ng knh a antenna nh hn 3 m (hu ht cc antenna c ng knh t 75 cm n 1,2 m). Tc d liu VSAT trong khong t bng hp n ti a Mbps. VSAT truy nhp n cc v tinh a tnh chuyn tip d liu t cc trm mt t nh xa (terminals) n cc terminal khc (trong cc cu hnh mesh) hoc trm ch mt t hubs (trong cc cu hnh star). VSAT thng thng c s dng truyn dn d liu bng hp (gii quyt cc vn point of sale: credit card, polling, RFID data; SCADA) hoc d liu bng rng (cung cp kh nng truy nhp internet qua v tinh cho nhng khu vc xa, VoIP, video). VSAT cng c s dng truyn thng lu ng (vi phased-array antennas) hoc truyn thng hng hi (Inmarsat, BGAN).

3.8.2 Cu trc c bn ca VSAT

Hnh 3.71: Mng VSAT c bn

H thng VSAT bao gm mt b thu pht v tinh, hub trung tm hoc mt trm ch mt t, v cc VSAT xa. u cui VSAT c kh nng nhn v pht cc tn hiu thng qua v tinh n cc VSAT khc trong mng. Ty thuc vo cng ngh truy nhp c s dng m cc tn hiu c th c gi i thng qua v tinh n hub trung tm hoc gi trc tip n cc VSAT.

155

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


3.8.3 K thut truyn dn ca VSAT
H thng VSAT p dng nhiu cng ngh mi v truyn dn s nh m ha ngun tin, m ha knh tin, sa sai, iu ch FSK.

3.8.3.1 M ha ngun tin


PCM l phng thc m ha c bn ca truyn dn thoi. Xut pht t mc tiu nng cao hiu sut s dng bng tn, h thng VSAT p dng m ha thoi ADPCM lm cho tc thng tin gim i mt na n 32 Kbps. Hin nay cht lng thoi ca ADPCM c th t c yu cu ca mng in thoi cng cng.

3.8.3.2 M ha knh v sa sai


M ha knh l vic gim hiu sut s dng rng bng thng t c yu cu t s S/N thp, t gim yu cu h s phm cht i vi trm thu hoc yu cu cng sut pht i vi trm pht. H thng VSAT mong mun gim nh ti a kch thc antenna v gim gi thnh ca cc trm nh, v vy p dng ph bin m ha sa sai hng i (FEC). H thng VSAT thng p dng m ha FEC v gii m viterbi.

3.8.3.3 iu ch v gii iu ch
H thng VSAT thng s dng phng thc iu ch BPSK hoc QPSK. BPSK l mt la chn thch hp cho h thng VSAT lm gim gi thnh cc trm nh, nng cao tin cy hot ng.

3.8.4 Topology ca VSAT


Ty thuc vo lu lng yu cu cho cc ng dng u cui m mng VSAT c cc topology khc nhau. Cc topology ca VSAT l Star topology v Mesh topology.

3.8.4.1 Star topology

Hnh 3.72: Kin trc two-way Star VSAT

Star topology c s dng ph bin trong h thng VSAT. Star topology c mt trm mt t trung tm cn gi l hub. Thng thng antenna ca hub c ng knh t 6 m11 m. Trm hub ny iu khin, gim st v thng tin vi mt nhm nhiu trm VSAT. Tt c cc trm VSAT ch lin lc thng tin qua trm hub. Nh vy cu hnh ny thch hp cho cc ng dng d liu mang tnh tp trung, v d: cc t chc ln, cc ngn hng vi cc yu cu x l d liu tp trung. 156

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

3.8.4.2 Mesh topology


Mesh topology gm cc trm VSAT thng tin lin lc trc tip vi nhau m khng thng qua trm hub. Trm hub trong mesh topology ch thc hin cc chc nng gim st v iu khin. Cu hnh ny thch hp cho cc ng dng thoi. Cu hnh ny cng chp nhn trin khai cc lin kt tc cao theo im-im.

Hnh 3.73: Kin trc two-way Mesh VSAT

Trn thc t c nhng ng dng i hi phi c s kt hp cc topology khc li vi nhau, khi ta c hybrid topology. Trong cu hnh ny, mt phn mng hot ng theo star topology, phn mng khc hot ng theo mesh topology.

3.8.5 Cng ngh truy nhp ca VSAT


Cc phng thc a truy nhp thng dng trong h thng VSAT gm:

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA). Pre-Assigned Multiple Access (PAMA). Frequency-Time Division Multiple Access (FTDMA).

3.8.6 Cc ng dng VSAT trn th gii

3.8.6.1 VSAT IP ti Vit Nam


Dch v VSAT IP l dch v VSAT s dng h thng thng tin v tinh bng rng iPStar cung cp cc dch v vin thng trn nn giao thc IP. Thit b gn nh (ng knh antenna t 0,75 m1,2 m; thit b trong nh nng 1,7 kg), d lp t. Thi gian cung cp dch v nhanh chng, tin cy cao, t chu nh hng ca thin tai. VAST IP l phng tin lin lc l tng cho nhng vng su, vng xa, bin gii, hi o.

157

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

Hnh 3.74: H thng VSAT IP

Cc ng dng chnh ca VSAT IP: in thoi, Fax, Internet bng rng, knh thu ring, truyn hnh hi ngh ...

Hnh 3.75: Cc ng dng ca VSAT IP

Cc li ch m VSAT IP dnh cho khch hng:


a dch v: Vi VSAT IP, ngoi dch v in thoi, khch hng c c hi s dng cc ng dng ch c dch v bng rng nh truy cp Internet tc cao, truyn hnh hi ngh, o to t xa ... Cc ph hp l: VSAT IP s dng nhng cng ngh vin thng mi nht gim ti a chi ph cung cp dch v. Phm vi phc v: Dch v c cung cp ti c cc vng su, vng xa, ni bin gii, hi o vi nhng a hnh phc tp nht. Bo mt thng tin: Thng tin ca khch hng c m bo an ton khi s dng dch v VSAT IP.

3.8.6.2 VSAT for the World Bank and Africa Virtual University (AVU)
(1) Cc dch v ca AVU 158 Video Broadcasting (DVB/MPEG2/4). Video Streaming (DVB-IP). High Speed Internet Access (two-way). Multicast Data Download.

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Voice/Telephony (VoIP). Videoconference (web based). Cc dch v trn y do hub iu khin v c kt ni n cc mng cng cng. (2) Topology ca AVU

Hnh 3.76: Topology ca AVU

3.9

H THNG THNG TIN V TINH DI NG V KHNG DY

3.9.1 Gii thiu


H thng thng tin v tinh di ng gm u cui di ng, v tinh, v trm mt t. thc hin ph sng ton cu, phi c mt h thng nhiu v tinh. S lng v tinh ty thuc vo cao qu o v mc ch s dng. Ni chung qu o cng cao th s lng v tinh cng t. Thng tin v tinh di ng c th phn ra thnh cc h thng sau y: H thng GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit) H thng Big LEO (Low Earth Orbit) H thng Little LEO H thng MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) 159

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


GEO: GEO cch xch o 22.282 dm (35.786 Km). Qu o ca GEO l quan trng bi v n cho php mt v tinh di chuyn theo mt qu o so vi tri t l c nh. GEO ch cn ba v tinh l bao ph ton cu tr hai vng Nam cc v Bc cc v cc truyn dn c th c tip nhn thng qua cc antenna c nh. LEO: Cc v tinh LEO c th c phn chia thnh Big LEO v Little LEO. Little LEO cung cp nhn tin, in thoi t bo, v cc dch v nh v.
H thng LEO c qu o cch tri t khong 100 dm300 dm (Khong 160,9Km428,8Km). Tn hiu i t trm mt t n LEO v quay v trm mt t mt khong 20 ms40 ms. S dng v tinh LEO, khch hng c th thc hin cuc gi in thoi hoc truy cp internet bt k u trn tri t, so snh vi dch v t bo n ch bao ph khong 20% khu vc Bc M. bao ph ton b b mt tri t, LEO i hi nhiu v tinh hn GEO. Mt vi d n h thng v tinh LEO cn n trn 200 v tinh, cc d n ny c chi ph tng vt. V nh th cng ngh v tinh LEO khng c nhng li ch nh cng ngh GEO. LEO c ba th trng mong i l: dch v in thoi truyn thng nng thn, dch v di ng ton cu, v dch v bng rng quc t.

MEO: MEO di chuyn xung quanh tri t cao 6.000 dm12.000 dm (khong 9.656Km19.312Km). Thi gian m tn hiu thc hin mt chu trnh mt t 50 ms150 ms. Cc v tinh MEO c mc bao ph mt t nhiu, rng hn cc v tinh ca LEO nhng c chu trnh tn hiu (ring trip) ln hn.
MEO thng c s dng kt hp vi cc h thng v tinh GEO.

3.9.2 Qu o

Hnh 3.77: Qu o v tinh

3.9.3 Cc h thng v tinh di ng

3.9.3.1 INMARSAT
Inmarsat c thnh lp nm 1979 nhm phc v cho ngnh cng nghip hng hi bng cch u t pht trin thng tin v tinh cho cc ng dng qun l tu bin, cu nn, v an ton. 160

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Hin nay Inmarsat hot ng theo h thng v tinh ton cu v do cc nh cung cp dch v c lp s dng. Inmarsat m rng phm vi phc v cc truyn thng trn t lin, di ng v hng khng. Mi v tinh Inmarsat bao ph 1/3 b mt tri t. Mt cuc gi c thit lp t my in thoi v tinh di ng Inmarsat s xc nh v chn mt trong cc v tinh Inmarsat, trong khi trn mt t cc antenna c kch thc ln n nhn cc tn hiu n t v tinh, v cc tn hiu ny c nh tuyn n mng in thoi. Trng hp cuc gi n khch hng Inmarsat, qu trnh cng din ra nh th nhng vi chiu ngc li.

Hnh 3.78: H thng Inmarsat

Ty thuc vo mc ch s dng khc nhau h thng Inmarsat chia ra lm cc tiu chun nh sau: Inmarsat mini-M.: Dch v ph bin nht ca Inmarsat, c thit k khai thc cng sut chm im (spotbeam power) ca cc v tinh Inmarsat-3. Cc my in thoi Inmarsat mini-M th h sau c thit k gn nh hn, nng khong 2 Kg kch thc c bng mt notebook computer v c th s dng trn bin, t lin, xe c.

Hnh 3.79: Inmarsat mini-M mobile phone TT-3060A

Inmarsat-GAN.: Gii thiu cui nm 1999, h tr cc dch v mng ton cu (GAN-Global Area Network), gm c thoi 4,8 Kbps, fax v d liu tc cao (ti a 64 Kbps), ISDN, IPDS (Inmarsat Packet Data Service), truy nhp internet, truy nhp e-mail, hi ngh truyn hnh.

Hnh 3.80: Inmarsat-GAN TT-3080A

161

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


Inmarsat R-BGAN.: c gi thiu ngy 18 thng 11 nm 2002, cung cp cc lin kt internet siu tc, tch hp intranet v cc ng dng thng mi nh e-mail, web browsing, truyn file, cc mng ring o v thng mi in t.

Hnh 3.81: Inmarsat R-GAN Hughes 9101

3.9.3.2 MSAT
Mng MSAT m rng cc dch v modem c nh, di ng, thoi khng dy, fax, v d liu. Mng MSAT chia ra thnh cc h thng sau y: H thng MSAT di ng: L h thng thng tin v tinh di ng hon chnh dng cho thng mi trong iu kin di chuyn, trn cc phng tin i li. h thng h tr cc dch v thoi, e-mail, internet.

Hnh 3.82: MSAT mobile satellite phone

H thng MSAT c nh: H thng v tinh c nh ca Infosat d dng lp t ti cc v tr c nh hoc tm thi, cn lp t dy t chng st. Cc c tnh ca h thng c th c lp trnh trn handset.

Hnh 3.83: MSAT fixed satellite phone

H thng MSAT hng hi: H thng v tinh hng hi ca Infosat h tr cc dch v thoi, truyn d liu, fax trong mi iu kin thi tit, trn i dng xa b hng trm dm.

162

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

Hnh 3.84: MSAT marine satellite phone

H thng MSAT hng khng: H thng v tinh hng khng cung cp truyn thoi s c tnh bo mt, cc cuc gi khng th b d tm t cc my d n gin.

Hnh 3.85: MSAT aeronautical satellite phone

3.9.3.3 ARIES
ARIES l mt d n quan st tri t u tin ca ngi c c thit k v hot ng trong h thng LEO. V tinh mang vo khng gian mt b cm bin siu quang ph c th xc nh cc vt liu trn b mt tri t. D n ARIES c hnh thnh bi T chc nghin cu khoa hc v k ngh thuc khi thnh vng chung bao gm Vng Quc Anh v mt s quc gia c lp v ph thuc (CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organizations).

3.9.3.4 ELLIPSO

Hnh 3.86: Qu o cc v tinh ELLIPSO

Cc v tinh ca ELLIPSO c qu o bao ph tp trung Bn cu Bc, v dn s th gii v t lin tp trung ch yu Bn cu ny. ELLIPSO kt hp v b sung hai chm sao v tinh Borealis v Concordia v trin khai trong cc giai on nh sau: vi 4 v tinh, sau thm 3 v 163

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


tinh trin khai trong chm sao v tinh Concordia bao ph phm vi t 50 v Nam n 50 v Bc, chim khong dn s Th gii. Sau thm chm sao v tinh Borealis hai mt phng qu o ellipse vi mi mt phng 5 v tinh tng dung lng v bao ph hon ton trn 50 v Bc.

3.9.3.5 IRIDIUM
IRIDIUM l nh cung cp duy nht cc gii php truyn thng thoi v d liu qua v tinh di ng ton cu. IRIDIUM bao ph ton b tri t (bao gm c i dng, hng khng v hai vng Bc cc v Nam cc). Chm sao IRIDIUM bao gm 66 v tinh LEO v cc v tinh lin kt cho. Chm sao v tinh hot ng theo cu hnh mng mesh v l chm sao v tinh thng mi ln nht th gii. Dch v ca IRIDUM thch hp cho cc ngnh cng nghip hng hi, hng khng, chnh ph/qun i, khn cp/nhn o, khai thc m, d bo, phng tin lu thng,

Hnh 3.87: H thng IRIDIUM

3.9.3.6 ORBCOMM
ORBCOMM l cng ty dn u v truyn thng d liu ton cu tp trung dnh ring cho cc truyn thng M2M (Machine-to-machine). ORBCOMM cung cp cc dch v truyn thng hai chiu trn ton th gii thng qua mng ton cu bao gm 30 v tinh LEO v c s h tng mt t vi gi cc thp, tin cy. Cc sn phm ca ORBCOMM c lp t trn xe ti, xe moc, xe la, xe container, thit b vn ti nng, thng cha nhin liu lng, ng h tin ch, ng dn, tu bin, . H thng c th gi v nhn cc bn tin ngn trong khong t 6 byte n vi Kbyte gn vi thi gian tht (near Real-time), cho php ngi s dng truy nhp thng tin c tnh cht quyt nh mt cch tc thi, thng thng t cc khu vc vt ra ngoi kh nng tip cn ca cc h thng mt t. H thng ORBCOMM c ba thnh phn:

164

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp


space segment: Gm mt chm sao 30 v tinh vi 6 mt phng qu o cch mt t t 435dm550 dm (khong 700 Km885 Km), bao ph ton b th gii. Cc v tinh ny c kch thc tng i nh (42 inch x 6 inch (trc khi trin khai)), nh hn 453,6 Kg. V tinh c cung cp bng tn VHF v UHF, hot ng cc bng tn 137 MHz150,05 MHz v 400,075 MHz400,125 MHz. ground and control segment: Bao gm 30 trm gateway mt t (GES-Gateway Earth Station). Chng gi v nhn cc tn hiu n cc v tinh. C 5 trung tm iu khin gateway (GCCGateway Control Center) x l lu lng bn tin v gi n i thng qua cc trm gateway mt t n cc v tinh hoc cc mng truyn thng mt t tng ng. Trong 5 GCC c 2 trung tm iu khin mng (NCC-Network Control Center) iu khin, phn tch, gim st hot ng ca cc v tinh ORBCOMM.

GES-Gateway Earth Station

GCC-Gateway Control Center

NCC-Network Control Center

subscriber segment: l b thu pht v tinh u cui dng gi/nhn cc bn tin gia cc thit b ti sn v v tinh.

M100 Small and Smart ORBCOMM Modem with GPS

M200 ORBCOMM Marine Telematics Platform with GSM/GPRS and GPS

DS300 ORBCOMM satellite transceiver with on-board application processor, power conditioning circuitry, battery charger and digital/analog IO's.

3.9.3.7 GLOBALSTAR
GLOBALSTAR l h thng vin thng v tinh LEO do Loral Coporation v Qualcom Inc. sng lp nn. Mc tiu ca GLOBALSTAR l c gng lp y khong h gia cc h thng truyn thng khng dy trn mt t vi cc ph thp, cc dch v vin thng s cht lng cao. H thng GLOBALSTAR c thit k p ng cc dch v thoi s di ng cho nhng thu bao di chuyn ra ngoi vng bao ph ca in thoi di ng t bo. Chm sao v tinh: Mi v tinh GLOBALSTAR gm c mt antenna, thn hnh thang (trapezoidal body), hai dn pin mt tri (solar array), v mt ng h t (magnetometer), hot ng cao 876 dm (1.414 Km). Cc v tinh c t trong 8 mt phng qu o vi mi mt phng qu o c 6 v tinh nghing mt gc 500, bao ph b mt tri t t 700 v Bc n 700 v Nam. Chm sao v tinh GLOBALSTAR bao gm 48 v tinh LEO, thm 4 v tinh trong qu o d phng.

165

Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp

Hnh 3.88: V tinh GLOBALSTAR

Khi c mt cuc gi thc hin, mt vi v tinh truyn i tn hiu ca ngi gi bng cng ngh CDMA n a v tinh ca gateway thch hp. Cuc gi c nh tuyn ni b qua h thng vin thng mt t. Cc gateway l mt b phn tch hp ca GLOBAL ground segment. Trong bao gm cc trung tm iu khin cc hot ng mt t (GOCCs-Ground Operations Control Centers), cc trung tm iu khin cc hot ng v tinh (SOCCs-Satellite Operations Control Centers) v mng d liu GLOBALSTAR (GDN-GLOBALSTAR Data Network). Gateway: Mi gateway c qun l bi nh cung cp dch v ti ni t gateway . Mi gateway nhn cc truyn dn t cc v tinh trong qu o, x l cc cuc gi v chuyn mch cc cuc gi ny n mng mt t thch hp. GOCC: C nhim v lp k hoch v iu khin vic s dng cc v tinh bi cc u cui gateway v lin kt vi SOCC. Cc GOCC lp ra lch truyn thng cho cc gateway v iu khin s phn b ngun ti nguyn cho mi gateway. SOCC: Qun l chm sao v tinh GLOBALSTAR. SOCC theo di, iu khin cc qu o v tinh, v cung cp cc dch v T&C (Telemetry & Command) cho chm sao v tinh. Cc v tinh GLOBALSTAR pht lin tc d liu o c t xa v cc kt qu nhit v cc trng thi hot ng trn v tinh. GDN: Lin kt mng, trong cung cp cc tin ch lin kt rng ln cho cc gateway, GOCCs v SOCCs. Chm sao v tinh GLOBALSTAR

Hnh 3.89: Chm sao v tinh GLOBALSTAR

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Kh nng bao ph ca GLOBALSTAR

Last updated August 16, 2006

Hnh 3.90: Voice and Dial-up Data Coverage Map

3.9.4 Cc bng tn trong h thng thng tin v tinh di ng

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3.9.5 LMDS

3.9.5.1 Gii thiu


LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service) l mt cng ngh khng dy c nh (fixed wireless), bng rng hai chiu, c thit k tch hp video, thoi v truyn d liu tc cao. Cc dch v ca LMDS gm: Truy nhp internet tc cao. Truyn file a phng tin thi gian thc. Truy nhp t xa n cc mng cc b kt hp. Xem truyn hnh tng tc (interactive video). Xem truyn hnh theo yu cu (VoD). Hi ngh truyn hnh. in thoi. LMDS hot ng cc bng tn 22,7 GHz28,35 GHz, v 29,1 GHz29,25 GHz.

Hnh 3.91: H thng LMDS

L (Local): Cc c tnh lan truyn ca cc tn hiu gii hn trong khu vc ca mt cell n. M (Multipoint): Cc tn hiu truyn theo phng thc im-nhiu im hoc qung b; ng truyn khng dy quay v t thu bao n trm gc l ng truyn dn im-im. D (Distribution): S phn b cc tn hiu trong bao gm ng thi lu lng thoi, d liu, internet, v video. S (Service): Ng c quan h thn thin t nhin gia nh khai thc v khch hng; cc dch v cung cp thng qua mng LMDS hon ton ph thuc vo s chn la ca nh khai thc.

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3.9.5.2 Kin trc LMDS


Kin trc mng LMDS bao gm bn phn: Trung tm iu hnh mng (NOC-Network Operations Center), c s h tng cp quang, trm gc (Base Station), v CPE. NOC: Bao gm thit b h thng qun tr mng (NMS-Network management System) dng qun l cc vng rng ln mng khch hng. C nhiu NOC lin kt vi nhau. C s h tng mng cp quang: Mng cp quang thng thng l mng SNET vi cc ng truyn OC-12, OC-3, v DS-3; thit b tng i ni ht (O-Central Office); cc h thng chuyn mch IP v ATM; v cc lin kt vi mng internet v PSTN. Base Station: Bao gm giao tip kt cui quang; cc chc nng iu ch v gii iu ch; v thit b thu pht viba. CPE: Cu hnh ca CPE bao gm: thit b viba lp t bn ngoi v thit b s trong nh cung cp iu ch, gii iu ch, iu khin, v chc nng giao tip CPE. CPE bt tay vi mng bng cch dng cc cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia thi gian (TDMA), a truy nhp phn chia tn s (FDMA), hoc a truy nhp phn chia m (CDMA). Cc giao tip CPE hot ng y cc lnh vc: tn hiu s, mc 0 (DS-0), POTS, 10BaseT, unstructed DS-1, structed DS-1, frame relay, ATM25, serial ATM over T1, DS-3, OC-3, v OC-1.

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T VIT TT
2B1Q A/D ABR ADPCM ADSL AF AMI AN ANI ANSI APON ASK ATM ATM PVC ATM SVC ATU-C ATU-R AVU AWG BCC BER BGAN BISDN BPSK BRA BRI CAP CATV CBC CBR CCP CDMA CO CP 170 Two Binary One Quaternary Analog/Digital Available Bit Rate Adaptive Differential PCM Asymmetrical DSL Adaption Function Alternate Mark Inversion Access Network Access network Interface American National Standards Institute ATM Passive Optical Network Amplitude Shift Keying Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM Permanent Virtual Circuit ATM Switched Virtual Circuit ADSL Transmission Unit - Central office ADSL Transmission Unit - Remote Africa Virtual University American Wire Gauge Bearer Channel Connection Bit Error Rate Broadband Global Area Network Broadband ISDN Binary Phase Shift Keying Basic Rate Access Basic Rate Interface Carrierless Amplitude/Phase Modulation Cable Television Cypher Block Chaining Constant Bit Rate Cross Connection Point Code Division Multiple Access Central Office Consolidation Point

CPE CPU CRC CSA D/A DAMA DAVIC DCS DECT DES DLC DMT DOCIS DP DSL DSLAM DSU DTE DVB DVD EA EF EI EIA EIA EMI ETSI FCC FCS FD FDM FDMA FEC FEP FEXT FFT

Customer Premises Equipment Central Processor Unit Cyclic Redundancy Check Canadian Standards Association Digital/Analog Demand Assigned Multiple Access Digital Audio Visual Council Digital Cross-Connect System Digital Ehanced Cordless Telecommunications Data Encryption Standard Digital Loop Carrier Discret Multi Tone Data Over Cable Interface Specification Distribution Point Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subcriber Line Access Multiplexer Digital Subscriber Unit Digital Terminal Equipment Digital Video Broadcasting Digital Video Disc/Digital Versatile Disc Extension Address Envelope Function Envelope Information Electronic Industries Association Electronic Industries Alliance Electromagnetic Interference European Telecommunications Standadrs Institute Federal Communications Comission Frame Check Sequence Feeder Distribution Frequency Division Multiplexer Frequency Division Multiple Access Forward Error Correction Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Far End Crosstalk Fast Fourier Transform 171

FITL FM FP FSK FSM FTDMA FTP FTS FTTB FTTC FTTCab FTTH FWA GAN GCC GDN GEO GES GOCC GPON GPRS GSM HBO HC HDSL HDTV HFC IC IDC IDN IE IEEE IETF IFFT ILEC IP 172

Fiber In The Loop Frequency Modulation Flexible Point Frequency Shift Keying Finite State Machine Frequency-Time Division Multiple Access Foiled Twisted Pair Feeder Transmission System Fiber To The Building Fiber To The Cure Fiber To The Cabinet Fiber To The Home Fixed Wireless Access Global Area Network Gateway Control Center Globalstar Data Network Geostationary Earth Orbit Gateway Earth Station Ground Operations Control Center Giga bit Passive Optical Network General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile Home Box Office Horizontal Cross-connect Very high speed DSL High Density Television Hybrid Fibre Coaxial Intermediate cross-connect Insulation Displacement Connections Integrated Digital Network Information Element Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Inverse FFT Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier Internet Protocol

IPDS ISDN ISDN-BA ISP ITU Kbps LAN LAP-D LAPV5-EF LE LEO LLDN LMDS MAC MAC SWG MAU MC MCSN MDF MEO MFA MoD MPEG MPEG-PS MPEG-TS MPLS MUTOA NCC NEXT NID NID NT NT1 NT2 NTSC OAM

Inmarsat Packet Data Service Integrated Sevices Digital Network ISDN-Basic Access Internet Sevice Provider International Telecommunication Union Kilo bit per second Local Area Network Link Access Protocol-Channel D LAPV5-Envelope Function Local Exchange Low Earth Orbit Local Line Distribution Network Local Multipoint Distribution Service Media Access Control Media Access Control layer SWG Multi-Access Unit Main cross-connect Multimedia Cable Network Systems Main Distribution Frame Medium Earth Orbit Multi-Fibre Agreement Movies on Demand Moving Picture Expert Group Moving Picture Expert Group Program Stream Moving Picture Expert Group Transport Stream Multi Protocol Label Switching Multiuser Telecommunications Outlet Assemblies Network Control Center Near End Crosstalk Network Integrated Device Network Interface Device Network Termination Network Termination type 1 Network Termination type 2 National Television Standards Committee Operation Administration & Maintenance 173

OAN ODN OLT ONT ONU OPD OSI OTDR PACS PAMA PBX PC PCM PCS PE PHY PHY SWG PMD PON POP POTS PSK PSTN PVC PVC PVR QAM QoS QPSK RADSL RBB rDS RF RFID RJ RSU 174

Optical Access Network Optical Distribution Network Optical Line Temination Optical Network Termination Optical Network Unit Optical Path Distribution Open System Interconnection Optical Time Domain Reflectometer Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Pre-Assigned Multiple Access Private Branch Exchange Persional Computer Pulse Code Modulation Personal Communications Service Polyethylene Physical Physical layer SWG Polarization Mode Dispersion Passive Optical Network Post Office Protocol Plain Old Telephone Services Phase Shift Keying Public Swiched Telephone Network Permanent Virtual Circuit Polyvinyl Chloride Networked Personal Recorder Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Rate Adaptive DSL Residential Broadband Remote Digital Section Radio Frequency Radio Frequency Identification Register Jack Remote Subcriber Unit

RSU RT S/FTP S/STP S/UTP SCADA SCTE ScTP SDH SDSL SDV SFEXT SN SNEXT SNI SOCC SONET SP STB STP SVoD SW SWG TA TDM TDMA TDR TE1 TE2 TIA TIR TMN TP TP-PMD TV

Remote Switching Unit Remote Terminal Screened Fully shielded Twisted Pair, Screened Foiled Twisted Pair Screened Shielded Twisted Pair Screened Unshielded Twisted Pair Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Society of Cable Television Engineers Screened Twisted Pair Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Symmetric DSL Switching Digital Video Self FEXT Service Node Self NEXT Service Network Interface Satellite Operations Control Center Synchronous Optical Networking Sevice Provider Set Top Box Shielded Twisted Pair Subscription Video on Demand Switching Sub Working Group Terminal Adapter Time Division Multiplexer Time Division Multiple Access Time Domain Reflectometer Termination Equipment type 1 Termination Equipment type 2 Telecommunication Industry Association Total Internal Reflection Telecommunication Management Network Transition Point Twisted Pair- Physical layer Medium Dependent Television 175

UHF UNI USB USOC UTP VBR VCR VDM VDSL VHF VoD VOM VSAT WDM WiMAX

Ultra High Frequency User Network Interface Universal Serial Bus Universal Service Order Code Unshielded Twisted Pair Variable Bit Rate Video Cassette Recorder Video Dialing Module Very high speed DSL Very High Frequency Video on Demand Volt Ohm Meter Very Small Aperture Terminal Wavelength Division Multiplexing Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

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TI LIU THAM KHO


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http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/research/fibre/intro2fibre.htm
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http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/T/TC.html http://uuhsc.utah.edu/eng/design/section10-3.htm http://www.siemon.com/us/company/case_studies/jdedwards/jdedwardspics.asp http://www.delmar.edu/Courses/ITNW2313/topology.htm http://fcit.usf.edu/network/ http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/r/ringtopo.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring_network http://www.firewall.cx/topologies.php http://www.interfacebus.com/Design_Connector_Modems.html http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/isdn.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISDN http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/isdn.htm http://www.cellsoft.de/telecom/v5.htm http://www.protocols.com/pbook/v5.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Subscriber_Line http://www.tutorialreports.com/networking/broadband/dsl/components.php?PHPSESSID=1f6627cabab 58191ce485aff3c2682ff http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/dsl.htm http://net3.argreenhouse.com:8080/dsl-test/Help/SM_paper.pdf http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/spectral_compat/topic10.html http://www.nextep.com.au/upload/DSL_Modulation_Techniques.pdf http://www.cs.tut.fi/tlt/stuff/adsl/node22.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrierless_Amplitude_Phase_Modulation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_fibre-coaxial http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/atm/ftp/atm_rbb/sld019.htm http://www.cable-modems.org/tutorial/ http://www.pts.se/Archive/Documents/EN/FWA.pdf http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/vikram/tech/vsattut.html#4 http://www.isr.umd.edu/~michalis/El_Comms.pdf http://www.vti.com.vn/showCat.asp?CatID=37 http://event-africa-networking.web.cern.ch/event-africanetworking/cdrom/African_Virtual_University/AVU-Final_Report_part1-1.pdf http://event-africa-networking.web.cern.ch/event-africanetworking/cdrom/African_Virtual_University/AVU-Final_Report_part1-2.pdf http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall99/Coffey/GEO.HTM http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall99/Coffey/LEO.HTM http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall99/Coffey/MEO.HTM http://www.sss-mag.com/pdf/1mss.pdf http://www.alphatelecom.ru/inmarsat/engindex.htm 178

http://www.infosat.com/services/msat/ http://www.tec.army.mil/tio/ARIES.htm http://www.ellipso.com/overview/architecture.html http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp http://www.orbcomm.com/ http://www.aerospace-technology.com/projects/globalstar/ http://www.globalstar.com/en/satellite/ http://www.wcai.com/lmds.htm http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/lmds/topic01.html

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