You are on page 1of 8

Transport Policy 10 (2003) 299–306 www.elsevier.

com/locate/tranpol

Scatters and clusters in time and space: implications for delivering integrated and inclusive transport
Julian Hinea,*, Margaret Griecob
a

Transport and Road Assessment Centre, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB, UK b Transport Research Institute, Napier University, Edinburgh,UK Received 1 February 2003; revised 1 June 2003; accepted 1 July 2003

Abstract This paper calls for a refinement in the literature on social exclusion/inclusion, and an alteration in the counterpart policy practices, in order to take account of ‘scatter’ and ‘cluster’ dimensions in the patterning of transport deprivation. Disaggregating social exclusion and inclusion data to enable the identification of scatters and clusters is key to the development of appropriate transport planning strategies. The degree to which lack of mobility is scattered or clustered can have profound implications for the ways in which time and space are treated by policy. q 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Scatter; Cluster; Transport

1. Introduction The extent to which interventions can be designed to overcome the consequences of a lack of mobility can have an impact on the ability of individuals to negotiate time and space (Hagerstrand, 1970; Appleyard and Lintell, 1969). In the UK patterns of car ownership mean that those on a low income, elderly, children certain ethnic minorities groups and to a lesser extent women will tend to experience systematic exclusion from facilities. The role of public transport provision in influencing the extent of social exclusion is considered highly significant (Hine and Mitchell, 2003; Grayling, 2002; Social Exclusion Unit, 2003). While improvement to the public transport accessibility of an area will go some way to addressing the transport inequalities experienced by some groups and individuals, it is important that the direct and indirect role of transport in the process of exclusion is made explicit. Providing people with access to opportunities does not necessarily guarantee they will be able to take advantage of them: indeed, there is a need for much tighter definitions in respect of what constitutes access. In this context, this paper considers the importance of new information technologies
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 44-28-903-662-68. E-mail address: jp.hine@ulster.ac.uk (J. Hine). 0967-070X/$ - see front matter q 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(03)00055-6

accompanied by demand responsive transport in accommodating the transport needs of scatters as well as clusters of the socially excluded.

2. Defining accessibility Traditionally accessibility has been defined as the ‘getat-ability’ of a destination (Hillman et al., 1973). It has also in the past gained connotations associated with car use ‘There are two main requirements for good accessibility. … vehicle users should be able to move from one part of a town to another—or beyond, in safety and with reasonable speed, directness and pleasantness from the ‘drivers eye view’ (Buchanan, 1963, p. 39). The integration of land use and transport is now a key policy objective, and it has meant the adoption of new techniques and approaches to measure accessibility. It is, however, clear that this policy is difficult to achieve (Hine et al., 2000a; Halden, 2002). Halden (2002) recently reviewed a range of work on accessibility and suggested that the definitions of accessibility included three key elements: † The category of people or freight under consideration. Each section of the population has specific needs and desires to be involved in defined activities.

About 60% of all journeys made by people in this group are made by people on foot (Grayling. 3. Higher income groups make more journeys by car and tend to travel further (Hine and Mitchell. There are also differences amongst women in terms of the experiences of specific groups (e. 2002.g. Personal safety when using or trying to access transport infrastructure is also a major consideration for this group (DETR. more constrained opportunities for paid employment and a much greater likelihood of being engaged in part-time and/ or casual employment. 3. on the other hand. DETR. Women are also more reliant on walking and public transport than their male counterparts. In 1995/97. 2002. caring responsibilities and access to forms of travel (particularly access to cars). People living in households without cars used public transport for 25% of their journeys and compared to . compared to 25% for men. 1999. What is clear is that a reliance on observed measures of travel behaviour as an assessment of transport demand has been clearly inadequate (Hine.300 J. Indirect accessibility. 1992. In assessing the transport options. Overall men made 3. the design of the infrastructure can mitigate against the use of a local transport system.1. 1989). This defines how an individual could travel to reach the relevant facility. Hamilton and Jenkins (1992) cite a range of reasons why women should be considered more fully by transport planners for example: multiple roles and primary responsibility for child care and domestic work. In the UK. 2002. Hamilton et al. elderly and disabled people and children (Hine and Mitchell. Essentially these groups are those with traditionally lower levels of access to cars. people from households on low incomes make fewer journeys overall but about twice as many journeys on foot and three times as many journeys by bus as those households in the two highest income deciles (Grayling. 2001. As a consequence.. In current analyses. Taxi use and minicab usage are also higher amongst non-car owning households. According to Hine (2002) ‘Density can be increased by multi-tasking and the purchase of time. Hine. Hamilton and Jenkins. This comment also relates to the idea of trip suppression. Opportunities are defined in terms of the land use supply which would allow any individual to satisfy their desire to participate in the activity under consideration. usually local. Transport needs Those most likely to experience transport disadvantage are those on low incomes. households with cars. 1995. an idea that will be discussed later in this paper. Low income groups In the UK. Halden. older women. Although car is the main mode of travel for both men and women. patterns of employment. women living in rural areas and lone parents). 2002). refers to the extent to which individuals or groups can rely on neighbours or other support networks to access goods and facilities on their behalf subject to time and financial budgets. we need to rethink what is meant by accessibility and we also need to address and strike a balance between the role and impact on travel decisions of the perceived world as well as the directly measurable physical world. by asking others to undertake certain tasks or by using ICT’ (Hine. This is important. 1998). 2003). DETR. As with older people and the disabled. income. Donald and Pickup (1991) looked at the effect of deregulation on low income families in Merseyside and concluded that fare increases were the major contributor to reduced bus use in the area. 314). men travel much further (Hamilton and Jenkins. Public transport tends to be used less by those in higher income groups (DETR. 1992). 2003. the ‘density’ of time is not accounted for. 499). 2003). Overall. Public transport shows a similar age and sex pattern to walking. it is higher for men across all adult age groups. the small local area is of more significance to them as they live most of their lives bounded by the local shops. This difference in use was as much as seven times greater for those households without cars. Hine and Mitchell. Women Women have been identified as a group that experience exclusion in a number of ways as a result of poor public transport services (Grieco et al. p. we must address the indirect and direct role of transport accessibility. women. This has important implications for policy discussions and debates surrounding social inclusion/ exclusion. disabled women. men made about 4% more journeys per person per year than women. women from ethnic minorities. although evidence suggests that there is little difference between the average number of trips made by men and women. but in particular for non-car owning households that make up to 60% of households in the lowest income quintile. 2003). M. 1998). Grieco / Transport Policy 10 (2003) 299–306 † The activity supply point. Women with young children are perhaps hardest hit in this respect. 2002). Walking remains the dominant mode of transport for people from households on low incomes. Social Exclusion Unit. This section highlights the role that buses might play. 2000. (2000) point out that there are clear issues affecting women’s transport which relate to patterns of travel. In doing so. it needs to be recognized that all stages of each possible journey by each available mode must be taken into account (Halden. By ‘direct accessibility’ we mean the ability of individuals to plan and undertake journeys by public or private modes subject to time budget and cost.2. † The availability of transportation. p. For many women. school and bus stop. travelling 45% further on average. 30% of trips made on foot were women.

Social Exclusion Unit.J. Grieco / Transport Policy 10 (2003) 299–306 301 about 7% of trips by public transport compared to 10% for women. These tasks often require complicated trip chaining (Turner and Grieco. Walking accounts for a large proportion of trips particularly for those in the 60 – 70 age group. (1978) found walking amongst elderly people to be the most frequent means of travel. Older people In the developed world. 1986. steps. 2001. Women make more shopping trips. Rosenbloom (1992) similarly found that trip rates were higher for older people aged 71– 75 and for those aged 85 with access to a car compared to those without drivers’ licences. Women also make more trips escorting family members to and from education. 1985. which requires the policy maker. ramps. Hopkin et al. however. Oxley and Alexander. 1998). traffic and crossing roads. it has come to be appreciated that people are living longer and the population of elderly people is living longer giving rise to substantial numbers of what is now classified as the old – old (Cohen. physical layout of infrastructure and design of vehicles. but after the age of 70 declines as the reduced ability to walk becomes a more important factor. which may in some cases be impossible by public transport due to the lack of suitable means of transport or the discrepancies between personal and transport schedules.94 for non-drivers in households with a car compared with 0. about older persons living in relatively affluent areas or zones who have no kin and who have limited mobility and income. 1991).76 for people in households without a car. Gaerling et al. as will become clear. 1978. Commuting and business trips account for greater differences between women and men in terms of numbers of trips taken annually. Car ownership increased the number of journeys per day to 1. 2000).4. 1992. They suffer because of a variety of reasons.. as well as sporting events. 1996). there appears to be clear evidence that women’s travel patterns are more complex than those of men (Rosenbloom.3. hills. Leake et al. whilst the number of trips for ‘personal’ business are more or less identical between women and men. DETR. Work has been undertaken that has identified the capabilities of the population (Martin et al. 1998). Disabled people Disabled people are a group that also feature in discussions surrounding the link between transport and social exclusion (Hine and Mitchell. The socially excluded are not only clustered together in areas or zones where transport is particularly bad or particularly inappropriate but are also scattered as a consequence of life circumstance. There is mixed evidence on whether women and men exhibit differences in the complexity of the trips which they make. Men are more likely to travel to visit pubs and clubs. the UK indices of local deprivation are precisely an areal or zonal measure. thus exacerbating the effect of exclusion. but. 1993). Bly. Rosenbloom (1989) showed that women often tend to make interconnected decisions about where they work and the need to escort children to education. Women travel more during off-peak times and less after dark (Hamilton et al. 1988). including: uneven pavements. 2000). Women are far more likely to work closer to home. and to walk to work. which limitations in mobility are already imposing. for example. Much of the focus on social exclusion and transport has been at the areal or zonal level—indeed. The restructuring of bus services to the edges of residential and commercial areas on main transport corridors could potentially have a profound effect on this group. There is. Other studies relating to the gender specific restrictions on time budgets experienced by women mean that a degree of trip chaining may be required. Think.. DETR. 2003). Social exclusion: clusters and scatters—the need to differentiate ‘Transport and social exclusion’ has been an area of growing policy interest and research within the United Kingdom (Hine and Mitchell. Car ownership is lower among older people and this is partly due to lower incomes amongst the retired (Lavery et al. location of stops. These reasons include: low incomes. One in five trips by women on public transport are made by the aged 70 and over age group (DETR. M. 2003.27 for drivers and 0. Other studies have identified the difficulties that older people have walking. (1998) pointed out that the associated time pressures and stress caused by multiple and potentially conflicting demands (particularly salient for those without recourse to the use of a car) can bring with them additional adverse health effects. they find it difficult to access public services (GLAD. 1989). 1988). 2001. 2002.. this may also be linked to the lack of availability of adequate transport to enable them to take advantage of opportunities outwith the immediate local area (Reid-Howie Associates. carrying bags (Hopkin et al. This work has also been extended to look at these capabilities in relation to bus use (Oxley and Benwell. In the US and a number of other countries (including studies in France and the Netherlands).. planner and researcher to think beyond the areal or neighbourhood perspective. Mitchell. 2000. . 4. DETR. 3. 1994).. Life cycle stages have a consequence for mobility and accessibility. Public transport use was greatest for those aged 17 –20 and over 70. Such older persons not only have limited direct accessibility to services and facilities but also have limited indirect accessibility (Grieco. Hine. Older people use the car less than other age groups and as a result bus use is higher. 2000. a dimension of social exclusion and transport. 1998). Work undertaken by System 3 (1998) showed that women took substantially more trips on foot and by public bus than men. 3.

Employment was one of the casualties of the pressure to upscale: new technologies with their distributed characteristics enable activities that previously could only have been accomplished in large scale premises to be undertaken once again within the local domain. a better fit between bus routes. Where the socially excluded are scattered or dispersed. M. 2000b).. Low levels of individual direct accessibility can be compensated for by social capital structures. It becomes clear that servicing the transport needs of the socially excluded who are clustered in a particular neighbourhood. community transport and subsidised services.. age. 2003). buses routing around the needs of low mobility passengers is a capability of the new information age. Crisis might be a job interview event or a sickness event or some other non-routine journey. however. albeit indirect. which provide for enhanced indirect accessibility. provide a booking system or intelligent reservation system which permits the pick up and drop off at home and organise this in a way which is cost effective at the community level. 1993. mass transport has very clear peaks and troughs within the duration of a day: removing vehicles which are operating at under capacity in the mass system during the troughs would enable such vehicles to be used as full load vehicles in a responsive mode. The socially isolated. 1995) revealed a high incidence of the borrowing of time between households with neighbours assisting one another in shopping and child care tasks. Work undertaken in Liverpool (Grieco. zone or area is a different prospect in servicing the transport needs of the socially excluded who are also socially isolated in terms of their immediate neighbourhood. 1992. home banking. the regulating authority for passenger transport in Newcastle. In reflecting on the difficulties experienced by those on low income and those with restricted mobility in accessing civic resources.. The Angus Transport Forum (ATCO. shopping and the ordering of medication to be delivered and also in improving their mobility by the utilisation of information technology to provide transport on demand. it becomes clear that different categories of the socially excluded will have different transport needs (Hamilton et al. The use of such reallocated vehicles for unsocial work shift journeys provides one example of a viable ‘transport and social exclusion’ tool.302 J. which has . marital circumstance. make use of the information technology characteristics now available to ensure the fit between a neighbourhood and its transport service. Where the socially excluded are clustered. ethnicity. Rethinking the fit between scale. The mobility of those socially close to an individual requiring services equates to improved accessibility. New information technologies can readily collect together information on persons with low mobility wishing to make similar journeys. current transport arrangements often fail to meet very real life needs with the national pattern of the withdrawal of secured or subsidised services since privatisation of the bus sector remaining unresearched and uncharted (Hine and Mitchell. has under the provisions of the Urban Bus Challenge of 2001 organised the resources for the development of a demand responsive service in the Lemington area of west Newcastle—this project does not. Grieco / Transport Policy 10 (2003) 299–306 1995)—low income households often compensate for the lack of income to buy services by making use of relational resources (friends. cannot easily obtain assistance in accessing resources—illness may mean that shopping cannot be done or medication obtained or escorts obtained for making journeys through dangerous spaces. bus times and vehicle types and measured areas of deprivation can accomplish much— though it should be noted that even where the socially excluded are clustered. Lavery et al. 2001. 2000. whether by disability. travel and communications in the age of congestion must certainly be on the agenda and there is some evidence that a more serious consideration of demand responsive transport is beginning to take hold in the British policy environment. 1986). ICT technology can cut across old boundaries even in respect of the interface between mass and responsive transport systems. Very often different providers operate in isolation. however. Passengers moving towards buses was a irremovable feature of past technical ages. One of the problems at a local level is the ability of operators to agree and coordinate an operational framework. it is important to reflect on the extent to which this is the outcome of modern urban design—design which in the attempt to cut costs through increases in scale placed critical services outside of local neighbourhoods. Responsive transport is very important in the context of crisis journeys. the Forum has paid attention to developments in Finland and in Italy. The combination of poor accessibility with low levels of mobility and low levels of sociability intensifies social exclusion. There is a clear need for increased coordination of school transport. Thinking of transport in terms of achieving a real time match between available fleets of vehicles and the travel purposes of the socially excluded through the capabilities of the new information technologies provided a very different perspective on what is possible within existing budget constraints. Routing ‘intelligent reservation’ vehicles so as to enable youth to arrive at work on time would be a useful addition to the new deal. There is then a difference between mass and responsive transport provisions. new information technologies can play an important part in lessening the negative impacts of their reduced physical accessibilities by providing online services such as home working. This would bring down the costs of provision. Nexus. kin) to assist in meeting their survival needs. For example. Bly. The same technologies which could be used to accommodate the needs of the least mobile can be used in ensuring that work seekers receive appropriate transport support to maintain and sustain their space in the workplace (Hine et al. Hine. 1998) has been developing such a form of flexible transport organisation in Scotland: in developing this new form. GLAD. By identifying the difference between direct and indirect accessibility.

5. mobility and the previously socially excluded is possible. In reality. A new relationship between accessibility. The new information technologies open up the prospect of the integration of public. private and voluntary sector transport resources in providing assistance to citizens in crisis transport circumstances. which integrated a suppressed journey analysis. Learning the journey path in circumstances of crisis is expensive and risky—the hospital appointment is missed or the job lost. lobbied and advised government and policy makers under the caption or title of ‘The New Transport Realism’ (Goodwin. CfIT. Currently. This paradigmatic movement has correctly drawn attention to the problems of environment and congestion associated with the use of the private car most particularly in heavily congested urban space. New technical developments permit of Demand Responsive Transport solutions to the current crisis in low income public transport provision: through demand responsive transport essential journeys can be made and not foregone.. 2003). 1992). 1991). Currently. Taxis are already a familiar mode for ‘crisis journeys’ and taxi vouchers are available to the lowest income quintile (DfT. Demand responsive transport: a new technical possibility Although there are now many examples of demand responsive transport systems within the international environment (Stahl. policy concern with modal shift (the pressure to reduce the use of the private car towards the increased use of public transport) has resulted in an overdominance of the perspective which ignores the present transport failure to ensure provision for low income travel needs. M. Through the combination of intelligent search and demand responsive transport. Work on suppressed journeys has focused on the impact of urban motorways on travel patterns (Urban Motorways Project Team. this work does not often translate into practice. the literature on demand responsive transport systems is relatively weak indicating that the policy significance of demand responsive transport for the reduction of social exclusion/inclusion has largely gone unrealised (go to Mobirouter—demand responsive transport for information on the technical aspects of demand . 1991). 1973a. the recognition that there is suppressed demand for the car has not been matched by the recognition that there is also a suppressed demand for public transport journeys. 1991. pedestrian trips (Hine. Realism in transport policy cannot be one-dimensional and current modal shift policy in the UK has neglected highly pertinent and rapidly emergent dimensions such as the advent of at home and in journey electronic information access and visible public service failure in the transport and health domain where the dependence on old information technologies in respect of organisation/client interaction exacerbate failure (Holmes et al.. 2002).J. Michaels and Weiler. 1973b). exploring and developing a better pattern of transport provision to meet the real journey needs of the whole community. The new information technologies are well suited for installation in the domestic environment: networked terminals. to policy frameworks and to transport practice. The new information technologies enable the charting. Using a social accounting approach. This information capability in the domestic environment opens up new scheduling capabilities and can restore local information in the neighbourhood environment (Grieco. current journeys simply to make appointments or to engage with other aspects of social administration which are presently transacted on a face to face basis could be reduced and where journeys are essential could be made by demand responsive transport. May et al. The remainder of this paper investigates this new relationship in terms of the required changes to methodology. 1980). 2002. the case for the provision of demand responsive transport systems would be overwhelming in cross-sector terms. health journeys not made can result in cancellation of appointments with large administrative costs in the health service and the worsening of health of those foregoing journeys so that the intersection between health provision and patient takes place at a much later and costly stage. 1995. been more concerned with moving the individual and household out of the private car than with investigating. 6. Suppressed journey analysis: real transport planning There has been a major social movement within the British transport policy sector which has interacted. 1974). The conclusion stresses the need to rethink the coordination of time – space interactions within the framework of the new electronic information and collective scheduling framework. In the UK. However. Transport researchers and transport policy makers have been insufficiently focused on the consequences of a networked society for the total reorganisation of transport and travel. Moudon et al. 2002). web capability mobile telephones. it is likely that bus services as opposed to taxi services will incur a higher cost per socially included journey (LEK Consulting.. such as health.. 1998). Grieco / Transport Policy 10 (2003) 299–306 303 to be made. 1974. Section 7 recognises that physical social scatters can now be transformed into electronic clusters creating sizeable new policy constituencies. web access through the domestic television set. There is a body of work that has addressed trip suppression and latent demand. for the disabled and elderly (Lan. 1980. plus work on travel demand of low income population (Yukubousky and Politano. plus work on latent demand for public transport (Morris and Alt. Hine. on purely financial terms. recording and archiving of suppressed journey patterns and a determination of the extent to which socially necessary journeys. It has. however. 2000). Metaxatos et al. Banister. 2002. are being suppressed.

The matching of passengers. efficient journey making and fleets within such a system is a new technical possibility. M.com/moorparkexploreclub. toll and other market tools may be with us for some time to come but the new information technologies clearly create a space for the use of more equitable tools for the rationing of travel and transport in the search for a better environmental and less congested urban life. In the United Kingdom. policy makers and researchers. As we have seen in this paper.vtt. In a policy world where congestion charging and road pricing expands as a policy measure. new tools and technologies are available for matching individuals with journeys they wish to make—the use of demand responsive transport in a networked society can enable public. transport operators have been at the hub of public transport provision with the old technologies of fixed routes and set schedules and within this framework it was difficult for community transport to provide superior provision. It was easier to identify journeys made and assume or neglect the time – space scheduling and coordination of those journeys made: investigating the barriers to journey making and the consequent levels of suppressed journeys were beyond the data collection and analysis capabilities of planners. communities of protest make use of electronic adjacency to declare their needs for better transport provision and these protests are highly visible playing their own part in the recording of public service failure. http://www. households.geocities. Grieco / Transport Policy 10 (2003) 299–306 responsive transport http://www. org/.mobisoft. Barriers generated by old market structures and institutions and regulations which supported these market structures stand in the way of the level of transport integration that is possible through the new technical matching capabilities of community technologies and community information platforms. Older persons can find escorts for physical 7. This community experiment demonstrated the potential for previously individualised experiences of social exclusion to be grouped.. however. Social scatters and electronic clusters The point is a simple one: physical social scatters can now be transformed into electronic clusters creating sizeable new policy constituencies (Grieco et al. Hine.fi/English/ Products/MobiRouter/Brochure). the development of online transport fora (http://www. In the meantime. private and volunteer transport resources to be more fully integrated. 8. the societal dependence on market and price as mechanisms for allocating societal resources can be seen as a feature of a world without the coordinatory potentials for the organising of collective and social behaviour now available through the new information communication technologies. collected and transmitted to policy makers and transport operators. however.goneat. in the North East of England the process of community documentation of transport needs has already begun with . Identifying community needs and aggregating individual preferences in real time was impossible under old technology conditions for transport operators and communities alike.com/whattransport): an online community monitoring of public transport provision which took place in fall 2001 received in excess of 6000 web hits over the week of the event. the pressures for demand responsive transport are likely to grow and community transport forums and forms of provision develop. The advent of new information technologies create a basis upon which the suppressed journey analysis which has failed to emerge in orthodox transport policy and land use planning will emerge out of the visible electronic actions and transactions of those who have been poorly served historically by transport services. tracking and archiving information on scheduling decisions and routines of individuals. Extending demand responsive transport systems to mainstream users would de-stigmatise and upgrade the quality of services provided: for such movement to mainstream provision to occur. There are locations where thinking has moved further forward to towards this progressive model—Finland and Italy lead the field (go to Demand responsive transport—Finland for further information www.304 J. it does. 2000). researching.geocities. The tendency has been to view demand responsive transport as a mode which is appropriate for social groups with impaired physical mobility and very often such demand responsive transport systems operate on the basis of telephone bookings and are greatly oversubscribed thus providing very low reliabilities for the bulk of their users. communities and organisations were not viable.htm). It is also indicative of the role new information technologies could play in enabling communities to aggregate their transport needs and organise provision on a demand responsive model to meet these needs. it would be necessary to move demand responsive transport onto an intelligent reservation system to provide the necessary flexibility from the perspective of both passenger and fleet management systems. Rethinking the scheduling of time – space interaction There is need to rethink the coordination of time – space interactions within the framework of the new electronic information and collective scheduling framework. Controlling urban congestion by price. private and volunteer transport fleets. Transport planners and operators can build this dynamic into effective and efficient transport policy and increasingly are likely to do so as the information networked character of society is better appreciated. Traditionally.fi/aut/kau/projects/sampo/drts. Fleet management systems can now be operated through the Internet and enable the integration of public. http://www. require a reorganisation of transport and a change of paradigm. The new information technology changes all of this: the identification and organisation of transport needs in real time is now a possibility. Under old technological conditions. Indeed.

1607-1620. Holmes. Hine.htm#1) though it is a body of evidence on time – space coordination rarely considered by the transport profession. Transport Studies Unit. Aldershot. L. Personal Travel Factsheet 9.. 1989... D.P. London.. Department for Transport. Cohen. Transportation Planning and Technology 15 (2/4). In: Imrie. J. M. Organising in the Information Age. S.. Hine.. Buchanan. Jenkins. Hoyle. J. Growing older.. University of Sussex. Transport deprivation and marginalisation of people with a handicap. DETR. 84 –101. Paper presented to the Transport Statistics User Group. Donald. 1986. J. DETR. TSO. DETR. 2000. OECD. K.. M. 11757–11770. Using technology to overcome the tyranny of space: information provision and wayfinding in urban studies 37 (10).. J. 313–324. Lawrence & Wishart. 1970. 1996. Town. Transport Disadvantage and Social Exclusion.litrix. AA Foundation for Road Safety Research. Pickup. Widespread access to electronic means of communication can permit the building into such partnering systems of checks and controls on participation in order to ensure the safety of such systems (Turner et al. Aldershot. L. scattered pilgrims came together on collective journeys to places of inspiration and worship—our evidence on journey planning and aggregation can be found in as ancient a text as the prologue to Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (http://www. Henderson. London. The Public Transport Gender Audit.. Gower Press. London. Focus on Personal Travel. Young People and Crime on Public Transport. Davey. Proceedings of Seminar J Transport for People with Mobility Handicap. Traffic Barrier: The Impact of Traffic on Pedestrian Behaviour. employment and social exclusion: changing the contours through information technology. Cleary. Aldershot.. Transport Realities and Planning Policy.. Hamilton. J.. Belgium. T. A. Grieco. Hamilton. 1998. Using planning to manage transport demand: a survey of Scottish experience.. University of Oxford. M. .. If these figures prove to be typical. Antwerp. R. In: Clayton. D. D. F. wish to travel. London. New information technologies can convert circumstances of previously physical isolation into electronic sociable clusters: it is a new circumstance for transport policy and transport planning and a future. 1993. which has yet to be met with a rethinking of transport possibilities and practices. No major study of online social coordination and scheduling of travel and sociability has yet been undertaken but the volume of local information traffic on European community nets as compared with the use of the technology for non-local activities is significant: the statistic for the Valencia Infoville experiment was that 85% of traffic was internal and only 15% of the information traffic directed outside of the locality. 1992. Urban Studies. M.P. Better for everyone? Travel experiences and transport exclusion..org. S. 319–322. 2002. Grieco. Latent Demand and Transport Deprivation Concepts. London.). Transport Reviews 22 (4). ATCO.. 2002. Whipp.. (Ed. 331 –347. McKenna.. London. Angus transport forum aims to improve public transport awareness. GLAD. 4. 4. TRRL Laboratory Report LR850. In: Roberts. Gillholm.... (Ed. Grieco.. P.. M. 1719– 1722. Transport and Road Research Laboratory... Transport: The New Realism.P.P. Commission for Integrated Transport. Local Environment 5 (1).. D. Pickup. J.. T.. The effects of local bus deregulation in Great Britain on low income families: the case of Merseyside. The matching potentials of the new information technologies create the opportunity for an increased level of social exchange (relocalisation) within neighbourhoods where social exchange had been declining (Grieco. 2003.. A. 1998.G. pp. London.W. Rye.. HMSO.). 2002... DETR. Goodwin. Lintell. The ‘journeyless’ search for transport resources can increase access to real journeys but may also greatly reduce the need for such journeys. Hosking.atco. the appropriate aggregation of individual journey preferences into sociable journey forms should not be a policy goal which is beyond our reach. J. Women and transport. L. Jenkins... Grieco / Transport Policy 10 (2003) 299–306 305 journeys through journeyless electronic search for partners. Computer simulations of consequences of time pressure for activity/travel choices.. All Change: A Consumer Study of Public Transport Handicap in London. J. J. T.. Ashgate. Intelligent urban development: the emergence of wired government and administration. Travel Sickness... Grieco. Community Development Journal 30 (4). C. 1963.. A comment on the limitations of transport policy. Unpublished PhD Thesis. 1973.. 1995. Greater London Association for Disabled People. 1969. J. 2000. 2000.. (Eds.. References Appleyard.. DETR. P. September 9–13. Hulse.. Local Work. Mitchell.. Public Subsidy for the Bus Industry. R. Gaerling.J. World Conference of Transport Research. Gender.. 2002.W. Travel by Taxi and PHV in GB..uk/news/news972/angus.. Transport and social exclusion.B. Hillman. K. Special Issue on The Barrier Free City: Possibilities and Prospects 38 (2). 2000): the ability to coordinate online expands the opportunity to coordinate physical travel and social activities. K.. Montgomery. Proceedings Seminar F at PTRC 20th Annual Meeting. J. M. 2000). Papers.. P. Transport and Employment. 2000. Time pressures and low income families: the implication for ‘social’ transport policy in Europe.. M.. January. Scott. Urban Studies 37 (10). Transport Policy 9. D. Whalley. 2000a. London. R. Using accessibility measures to integrate land use and transport policy in Edinburgh and Lothians. Lan. Social Exclusion and the Provision and Availability of Public Transport...htm Banister. Hopkin. pp. Hine. M. M. Hine. 2001. I.). 499– 511. Historically. Hine. London. Hine. Grieco..com/canterby/cante001. 1991.. 127–140. The Mobility of Old People: A Study in Guildford. Available at http://www. Heriot-Watt University. 1978.. 1992. New Scientist 151 (2021).. 1991. J. L. London. Traffic in Towns. Regional Science Association. J. 1995. The environmental quality of city streets: the residents’ viewpoint. F. Sharp. 1991... J. PEP. Binnie. Hine. Latent travel demands for the transport handicapped in Taipei.. (Chapter 6). CfIT. 33– 55. TSO. 2003. I. 1999. Mitchell. In the information age.R. Hamilton. the globalisation of information technology has also resulted in the enhancement of processes of relocalisation. Measurement and Policy Relevance. T. Turner. L. Swan.. Crowthorne. P. Older Road Users: The Role of Government and the Professions. 1998. Grayling. Halden. July 1998.. 2002. Lavery. R. L. Ashgate. Hagerstrand. S. D. Robson. Hanna. Bly. January. Journal of the American Planning Association 35. What about people in Regional Science?. Basingstoke. Hine. O.P. W. 1980.. Transport. 2000b. Greying population stays in the pink.

. V. . J. 2003..R. Yukubousky. Pedestrian location identification tools: identifying suburban areas with potentially high latent demand for pedestrian travel. In: Grieco. Matlick.gov. HMSO.. Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled People. Oxley. Aldershot. Trip chaining behaviour. Parry. Oxley.S. 1988. London. transport and the new deal: the social policy implications of gendered time. Hodgson..D. N. System 3. Hopkinson. Stahl. Politano.. Department of Environment. 1974. Presented at the Social Policy Association conference. 1992. HMSO.R. Transportation Research Record 1818. Australian Transport Research Forum. 2000.. 1998. M.D. 597–607.. Grieco.. Disability and Mobility in London—A Follow Up to the London Area Travel Survey.. London. Grieco / Transport Policy 10 (2003) 299–306 Reid-Howie Associates. A.. Alt. Soot.. Pergakes.. Obtaining Best Value for Public Subsidy for the Bus Industry. 1989... Report of the Urban Motorways Project Team to the Urban Motorways Project Team.. S. 1723–1734. 1973a. Youth and Low-Income Population. Benwell. 1974. Report of the Urban Motorways Project Team. Urban Motorways Project Team. White. Mobility: indicator or determinant of aging and impairment?. NY.M..cfit. Sen. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. Morris. Central Research Unit. Transportation Research Record 1626. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. R. Crowthorne.. P... The provision of community responsive public transportation in urban areas. P. OPCS Surveys of Disability in Great Britain: Report 4 Disabled Adults: Services. Social Exclusion Unit. J.. Gower Press.. 149–158.uk/research/psbi/lek/ index. A.. LEK Consulting. Main Findings..G. et al. A. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.). Hess. 2000. Albany. 1992. 160–167. T. N. Michaels. Planning Research Unit. London. Weiler. P. L. Rosenbloom. M. R. Gender. S. A.. July 1998. Alexander. Women and Transport: Moving Forward. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons. An Experimental Study of the Use of Buses by Elderly and Disabled People. TRRL Research Report RR33. 1991. May. Mitchell. Crowthorne. Transportation Needs of the Mobility Limited. An Ergonomic Study of Pedestrian Areas for Disabled People. Meltzer. Turner. Making Connections: Transport and Social Exclusion. Gender. Rosenbloom. Transport and Employment. Holmes. S. M.M. Contractor Report CR 184. (Eds. J.htm Martin. Transport and Employment. Turvey. Latent demand for urban public transport. C. P. Social Exclusion Unit. Travel Patterns in Scotland 1997: Results of an analysis of Travel Diaries. transport and travel. A.. Department of Environment. P. Transport Research Laboratory. 1994. Hine. M. Leake. A.. Lincoln. G. Intelligent urban development: an introduction to a participatory approach.. M. 1980. Latent Travel Demand of the Elderly. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. J. Pedestrian Trip Analysis. The Measurement and Prediction of Pedestrian Numbers. 2002.. 1998. Available at http://www. Interim Findings. F.. Making Connections: Transport and Social Exclusion. SEU.G.. TRRL Research Report RR137..M. Edinburgh.....306 J.. London. Scottish Office. 1998. SEU. May. Turner. Crowthorne.B. Contractor Report 149. A. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. I. 94–101. USA.V. J. 1985. Transportation planning process for linking welfare recipients to jobs. B.G. 1973b. 1988. 2002. J.. Lyon 31st May to 3rd June. 2002. Hull House Association. Features on Buses to Assist Passengers with Mobility Handicaps. Urban Studies 37 (10). 1991.. Lyon. New York State Department of Transportation.R. Edinburgh. Crowthorne. pp. Urban Motorways Project Team. TRL PR34.. Office of Population Census and Surveys. Technical Paper Number 3. Moudon. Dijohn. Thakuriah. Jarzab. H. J. Metaxatos..