You are on page 1of 11




0il palm replanting is normally carried out after a period of about 25 to 30 years economic life span. Replanting provides an opportunity for the estate to make improvement on the present system such as accessibility for mechanization and re-alignment of road, drain intensity, planting density, and it also can solve the harvesting problem, low yield and prevailing prices of palm product. Replanting is one of the practical strategies to improve oil palm productivity. It provides opportunities for estate to rectify any physical problems or shortcomings that had been encountered in the past and to carry out some improvement for the present system such as planting density, accessibility for mechanization re-alignment of roads, drainage system and etc. The policy of zero burning practice currently adopted in the replanting of oil palm plantation is a good example towards the development of more sustainable practices based on nutrient supply and organic residues management. 2. ESTATE EXPERIENCE AND FIELD VISIT OBSERVATION

At my working place, Negri Sembilan Oil Palms Berhad, Ladang Ibam have 2,150 hectare and overall age of palms was 21 to 22 years already that was planted on the year 1989 & 1990. We had decided to do the replanting last year for two fields for a year and another two blocks for this year and so on. The field that we selected for replanting (the first two field for replant) because of the yield production is already low and problem for harvesting and transportation. We were started replanted two fields at last year about 212 heactare. For this year, we had done for chipping to another two fields and now on, we are doing the terracing, road, boundary before we start to replant the seedling. Our estate also adopted the zero burning practices. Form my experience to carrying out and preparation for replanting, we must follow all the key practices to ensure high management efficiency comply with environment legislation and best growth and productivity of the new generation of palms. The practices that we have to follow are:a) b) c) d) Planning Procedures Felling and Shredding Tillage Road Construction

The estate manager have to prepare the replanting blueprint and discuss with the PA on the following field operations. primarily based on the group‟s age profile for sustainnable yield. Methods of felling and clearing Establish direction of planting rows.e) Terrace Construction f) Construction of chamber/platforms g) Drains construction h) Water Conservation i) Lining j) Holing k) Transportation and Distribution of seedlings l) Planting m) Legume cover crop (LCC) n) EFB mulching 3. make control possible. It is to ensure that fields are equal size and pattern stand per hectare. vi. the planning will make us to focuses attention on objective. Soil and water conservation Construction of terraces for contour plantings in the hilly areas. That is because. will brings economy into operations. Method or policy in Ganoderma infected area. bole and other materials. iii. Perimeter Survey Carraying out the perimeter survey is to ensure that the replanting area is done on the right time. helps motivation to us and also planning helps decision-making. The planning is important before the job was started. ii. intensity and sizes. vii. Arrangements of remnants of shredded trunk root mass. Planning with Plantation Advisor (PA) The replanting programme will be formulated by a commitee headed by Head. a) i. plantation upstream. Field planting . v. Planting materials requirement and nursery establishment to be determined at least one year ahead of the date of planting. SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION Planning Procedures Planning Planning is the chalking out of a course of action to achieve a specific objective. Construction of conservation terraces and moisture conservation pits. Construction of New Drains To ensure how the drain layout. To planting the leguminous covers. iv.

For the Ganoderma prone area. The size of the bole pits are 2m (L) x 2m (W) x 1.75m from the road for mechanical access. which has a major effect on the air quality and visibility given the extent of the area undergoing replanting. Department of Enviroment (DOE) prohibit burning to avoid excessive release of smoke. b) Felling and Shredding Felling the old stand was carried out using an excavator fitted with a chipping bucket. Shredded materials should be stacked within the pre-lined stacking rows. Each excavator is capable of felling and felling and shreadding 150 – 220 palms per day. this is done as felling and shredding operation proceed.To target and proposed month of planting and also the stand per hectare. For inland or undulating area. The chipping bucket „s cutting edge was made of high tensile carbon steel to ensure effective shredding. c) Tillage In coastal and inland or undulating areas. The palm trunk and fronds are chipped and shredded to pieces of about 5 . R&D advice to be sought on an additional inputs on soil tillage. 4.10 cm thick across at 45O to 60O end angle to allow rapid decomposition of the residues. Bole tissue and bulk of root mass should be completely removed at the time of felling. the shredded materials should be stacked at every alternate avenue. This ultimately results in better conservation and protection of the top-soil from erosion and surface run off. the shredded materials should be spread out thinly in the inter terrace-slopes.27m wide. The bole pits should be left open for inspection by the management team before closing. In the situation where the preparation of new terraces is necessary. the shredded material should be stacked into the CECT. the materials can be pushed to the new inter-terrace areas. which comprises family palm trunk and fronds.2m (D) for the Ganoderma area and 2m (L) x 2m (W) x 1m (D) for NonGanoderma area. The chipped and shedded materials are spread evenly at about 3-4m width to avoid thick pile formation. d) Roads Construction . the palms are planted on straight line. The stacking rows are to end 4. Zero burning of oil palm biomass at replanting is environment friendly. In contour planting. The deposition of palm residues. 2 rounds of plouging and 1 round of harrowing at 30cm deep to be carried out in all non-stacked area. contributes significantly to the much needed organic matter for highly weathered tropical soils. due to the supply of organic matter and maintenance of low soil temperature apart from conserving soil moisture. For the coastal area. The shredding operation normally commences from the basal end of the palm trunk.

It is useful to construct the road first (before terracing) and slightly above the terraces to allow the road runoff water to flow to the terraces. Roadside drains are normally not constructed along the feeder roads as they hamper future harvesting operation.The lay-out of road to be determined by the manager. On the terraced area. effective road gradient and erosion control. where it maybe necessary to double the lenght. The road system on non-terraced area (<5O slope) with straight planting is 160m intervals (20 palms) for collection roads and 320m (40 pamls) for main roads. There are no rigid rules on the road alignment as it could be considered an art of designing. The following criteria must be taken into consideration when planning the design of the estate:    Roads must tie up with mechanization Roads must be functional Roads must be “all-weather” . it is necessary to construct roadside drains along the main roads of low lying areas where the excavated drain spoil is used to raise up the road surface before gravelling. The length of roads required is generally about 100-120m per ha but can increase considerably on difficult terrain. collection roads generally vary between 16-22 palms apart. The road network in hilly areas usually consists of road cutting through as many terraces as possible but at a gradient not steeper than 10% and the alignment should be preferably done from the top of the hill for better visibility. A good all-weathered-road system is vital for effective mechanization. Road formation on flat or hilly areas by the bulldozers forms the initial operation of the communication system network design and is carried out in conjunction with the mechanical stacking in flat areas and terracing in hilly areas. Factors such as optimum road density. However.

this technique is excellent for erosion control in that there are two tiers of terraces. Besides allowing mechanization of operations even in the early stage. We had tried recently constructed these bunds from uncut soil as they are not washed away. we do hope it will gain acceptance in the very near future. ii) Double Terraces These are terraces constructed in two tiers in areas between 10-20` gradient. Double terracing allows mechanization and this concept has not been widely practiced but with more emphasis on mechanization. Terrace width must cater for mechanization. Improves crops recovery or productivity Protect roads . Each terrace is spaced every 30m apart and about 3m wide. The Mechanical terracing is an expensive but it has numerous of advantages to our development:- 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Conserve soil Conserve water Prevent or reduces fertilizer wash Easier accessibility for field operations. Slope assessments should be made before any terracing and lining work is considered.5m and are constructed in terrain of more than 20` gradient.e) Terrace Construction On INLAND or undulating area. sometimes are constructed in between palm rows along the contour. To facilitate mechanization and to improve soil or water conservation mechanical terrace-paths. The cut is deeper at about 20` gradient to check erosion as well as to conserve water. i) Conservation Terraces Normally these are constructed in terrain between 5-10` gradient. Stop bunds of about 1m wide are constructed every 30m apart along the terraces to prevent lateral erosion. planting pattern and terracing needs are usually determined by the degree of slope present.5m to 4. The top terrace is the planting row while the bottom terrace is for the movement of vehicles. The straight line planting system is used in areas with these terraces. The total width is the same as that of any single terrace. iii) Single Terraces These are the traditional terraces of various widths ranging from 3. to check the flow of water.

g) Drains construction The best time to resolve any drainage problem is at the time of land preparation. On wide ravines. the system of foothill drains regularly channeling water into one or more main drains has been found to be superior to other system such as „herring bone‟ drainage pattern. . An excavator is normally used to construct the drains. it must be correctly located at the foothill and the not near foothill to be fully effective. Narrow ravines can be drained easily with a central main drain but occasionally scupper drains lead to water from localized low spots are required.7) f) Facilitates Construction of chamber/platforms Construction of a chamber/platform at the planting row with a compacted height of 30-45cm may be required in areas where the water table is high (areas to be confirmed by the manager). A depth of 60 – 90 cm is normally sufficient but the widht has to take into account the water flow down the hills. For the foothill drain.

or poor soil structure and texture and hilly areas.An important aspect of drain construction is that the density and size of drains are dependent on the volume of water to be removed. undulating and hilly. collection and subsidiary drains are as follow:Type Main Collection Subsidiary ii) Top Width (cm) 300 200 100 Bottom Width (cm) 100 60 30 Depth (cm) 200 100 75 For coastal and acid sulphate soil. The type and size to be considered are as the following:i) General cross sectioned dimensions of main. texture and etc. . Terrain condition – flat. The factors that can be implemented are as follow:i. iii. Rainfall – total and distribution of rainfall. h) Soil & Water Conservation It is an important role in oil palm establishment and growth especially in areas receiving high rainfall. the drain dimension are as follow:Type Main Collection Subsidiary Top Width (cm) 240 180 90 Bottom Width (cm) 120 60 45 Depth (cm) 180 135 60 * The subsidiary drains standard practice is 1 drain to every 4 rows of oil palms. ii. the drain dimension are as follow:Type Main Collection Subsidiary Top Width (cm) 240 180 105 Bottom Width (cm) 120 60 45 Depth (cm) 180 135 60 iii) For peat area. Soil type – structure. soil type and depth of water-table.

Lining stakes to be feet high and coloured to enable for distant viewing. k) Transportation and Distribution of seedlings . The pattern of lining should be in tringular. j) Holing Planting hole to be dug mechanically where possible post-hole digger or by manually. the systematic irrigation and harvesting. Holes should be dug in 15 cm deeper than height of the polybag so as to assist initial root penetration. Planting holes of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm dimension should be dug with a 46 cm Auger.32 7.92 Distance between planting points (m) 8. the distances between palms on the terrace are closer and vice versa. to give each palm has the same access to nutrients. 100m tape. The straight lining is usually use in flat area. Must provided a lining gang consists of about 6 people that has been trained and equipped.53 8. The general considerations for lining that we have to remember is an alignment. lining pegs (painted red or white) of 1.i) Lining Lining is usually commence soon after completion of land preparation or 1 – 2 months prior to seedlings being planted in the plantation.62 7.2 meter height. wire cable marked with suitably bullets.84 9. The exact direction and location of the planting rows should be determined during the pre-lining exercise. In this system. The main objective of lining is to determine the planting point of seedling and the other objectives are to provide an evenly spaced of palms. The equipment and material should be use or prepare in lining are prismatic compass. efficient transportation and to ensuring high yield in the future. It should be in a general North-South direction. This will enable optimization of sunlight. When two terrace are far apart. water and sunlight and to achieve optimum stand per hectare. The relation between the planting rows and the planting points distances varies according to the stand per hectare required as shown in the table below:Distance between planting rows (m) 7. An alignment should be parallel to irrigation canal and perpendicular to roads. the distance between are adjusted to obtain the required SPH.14 Stand per Hectare 160 148 136 The terrace lining also can use the Violle Lining System.

The loader must holding to the polybag or the seedling base to prevent damages to its leaf or shoot. The benefit of planting legume cover crop are:- . the establishment of legume cover crop gave a significant and economically higher yield compared to palms with natural covers. The supervisor must record the number of seedlings taken out from the nursery and must received in the field at the same quantity. it must be handled carefully. Before planting the oil palm seedling.Palms should be „rocked‟ at least 2-4 weeks before planting. Unloading and distributed close to the planting holes. The seedling must placed into the planting hole by carefully. m) Legume cover crop (LCC) In oil palm plantation. Partially. an each of planting hole must be applied with 500 g of Rock Phosphate. Oil palm seedlings should be planted immediately after the lining and holing had been done. During loading and trasporting the seedling. l) Planting Planting is carried out within 2 months after felling and shredding. Calapogonium Caeruleum (CC) and Mucuna Bracteata (MB). The four type of legume cover crop are Calapogonium Mucunoides (CM). Slit the bottom of the polybag using a sharp knife or blade. The supervisor also must record all the rejected or culled and planted of the seedling in the field for every day. fill the hole with soil and compact it. Pueraria Javanica (PJ). put it in stable or hefty.

LCC Type PJ MB n) EFB mulching Flat/Undulating Area 6 kg/ha 1 plant/palm Terrace Area 4 kg/ha 1 palnt/palm Mulching of palms with empty fruit bunch (EFB) is after planting. To improve soil fertility through decomposition of organic matter.5 kg/ha ii) Pueraria Javanica (PJ) Mix Mucuna Bracteata (MB). The recommended LCC seedling mixture planted rates per hectare are as follow:a) Pueraria Javanica (PJ) Mix Calapogonium Caeruleum (CC) LCC Type PJ CC Flat/Undulating Area 4 kg/ha 2 kg/ha Terrace Area 3 kg/ha 1. The advantages of mulching EFB are:Increasing vegetative vigor and subsequent yield through expected improvement in soil physico-chemical properties ii. . Soil moisture regime iii. Root growth and a concomitant reduction in surface wash iv. To prevent growth of noxious weeds iv. To improve soil structure and texture ii. Mulch around the palm base with up to 2 rings of EFB at around 25 bunches. Leaching and soil surface temperature contributed to creating a conductive environment for good palm establishment i.i. recycling of soil nutrient and nitrogen fixation. To reduce breding site v. To minimize soil erosion iii.

5. all the key practices should be followed to ensure high management efficiency comply with environmental legislation and best growth and productivity of new generation of palms. Ladang Ibam Chin Teck Plantation Sdn Bhd. Gemima Estate . CONCLUSION The aim of good development of land preparation on replanting. i. REFERENCES Sime Darby Plantation Sdn Bhd.PD Management and staff/ workers NSOP. ii.4. iii. The expenditure cost in this replanting proses are very high but the return in the future is surely high due to high yield and good guality of FFB. Ladang Salak.