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Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography

Jan Mulkens ASML De Run 1110 5503 LA Veldhoven The Netherlands E-mail: Donis Flagello ASML 8555 South River Parkway Tempe, Arizona 85284 Bob Streefkerk ASML De Run 1110 5503 LA Veldhoven The Netherlands Paul Graeupner Carl Zeiss D-73446 Oberkochen Germany Abstract. Liquid immersion has been used for more than 100 years to increase the numeric aperture (NA) and resolution in optical microscopy. We explore the benefits and limitations of immersion technology in lithography. Immersion optical lithography has the potential to extend the resolution below 40 nm. The theory of immersion is decribed. Simulations show that a 193-nm immersion system at NAϭ 0.95 can double the depth of focus as compared to a dry system. Also, an immersion 193-nm system at NAϭ 1.05 has slightly more depth of focus than a 157-nm dry system at NAϭ 0.85. However, the exposure latitude at 193 nm is decreased due to the impact of polarization in imaging. Design schemes are presented to realize an immersion step and scan system. Two configuration approaches are proposed and explored. A localized shower type solution may be preferred over a bath type solution, because the impact on the step and scan platform design is significantly less. However, scanning over the wafer edge becomes the main design challenge with a shower solution. Studies are presented that look at the interaction of immersion fluids with the lens and the photoresist. Water seems to be a likely candidate, as it does not impact productivity of the step and scan system; however, focus and aberration levels need to be carefully controlled. For 157 nm, per-fluor-polyether (PFPE) materials are currently being studied, but their characteristics may limit the productivity of the exposure system. Further research on fluid candidates for 157-nm immersion is required. © 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
[DOI: 10.1117/1.1636768]

Subject terms: immersion; high numerical aperture; polarization; depth of focus; per-fluor-polyethers. Paper 014010 received Jun. 26, 2003; revised manuscript received Oct. 16, 2003; accepted for publication Oct. 16, 2003.



The use of immersion fluids in optics has been known for more than 150 years. In the late 1840s, Amici1 filled the space between the microscope objective and the cover glass with oil to enhance the image quality and brightness. Since the oil matched the index of refraction of both the objective and the cover glass better than air, there was a reduction in spurious reflections that enhanced contrast. Amici also experimented with other fluids, including water as the medium. However, it was not until 1880 that Abbe2 used a more carefully defined optical theory to specifically design microscopic objectives for immersion fluids. Immersion for use in lithography first appeared about 100 years later in the patent by Taberrelli and Loebach,3 where a fluid that is index matched to the photoresist fills the area between the lens and the wafer. In 1987 Kawata et al.4 presented an optical projection system that used an oil immersion fluid at an exposing wavelength of 453 nm. They were able to attain 160-nm isolated line features in Novalak photoresist using a research system based on an inverted microscope. The use of interferometric systems for detailed exploration in lithography is well known.5,6 Hoffnagle et al.7 in 1999 extended this technique for immersion to increase the working resolution. They demonstrated line/space imaging in deep ultraviolet ͑DUV͒ photoresist. Subsequently, Swit104 JM3 3(1) 104 – 114 (January 2004) 1537-1646/2004/$15.00

kes and Rothchild8 demonstrated interferometric immersion imaging at 157 nm. Until recently, there was no need to use immersionbased lithography systems for industry-wide use. In part, this is due to major advances in lens technology, such as aspheres, that have allowed for high-quality lenses to be made with NA of 0.85 and higher. Typically, the industry has used a modification of the Rayleigh criterion to define the industry progress of diminishing linewidth ͑LW͒ by change of optical parameters. In its most general form, for lines and spaces with a 1:1 ratio, the linewidth ͑or resolution͒ is given as, LWϭ k 1 ␭ ␭ ϭk1 , ␩ sin ␪ NA ͑1͒

where ␭ is the wavelength and ␪ is the limiting angle of the lens, as defined by the marginal ray in a medium ͑immersion͒ with an the index of refraction ␩. NA is the numerical aperture, and k 1 is related to the difficulty of the process and has a lower limit of 0.25 with partial coherent imaging. For dry imaging, i.e., ␩ ϭ 1, LW can be decreased by increasing NA or decreasing k 1 and/or ␭. Figure 1 shows how k 1 changes with the decreasing critical dimensions defined by technology resolution nodes. The insertion of new wavelengths ͑up to 193 nm͒ has been highlighted. We have
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͑3͒. ͑4͒ where k 3 is a process constant that has been introduced for high-NA .10 DOFϭ ␭ ϭ ␩ ͑ 1 Ϫ cos ␪ ͒ ␩ 1Ϫ 1Ϫ ͫ ͩ ␭ NA2 ␩2 ͪͬ 1/2 .and 157-nm wavelengths for both immersion ͑also called wet͒ and dry conditions. This rate must cease with the 193-nm technology. The size of the Airy radius is defined at k 1 ϭ 0. This metric strictly tracks the radius of the Airy disk as defined by the first null value..g. The refractive index for the immersion medium at ␭ ϭ 193 nm is ␩ ϭ 1. Figure 1 shows that for ␭ ϭ 365 nm. Microfab. 2 Depth of focus (DOF) as a function of NA using a generalized equation. there is an approximate doubling of the DOF for 193-nm wavelengths for the immersion case. the k 1 slightly lagged the decrease in Airy radius due to faster advances in NA.spiedigitallibrary. DOFϭ k 2 ␭ ␩ sin2 ␪ ϭk2 ␩␭ . and the theoretical limit of resolution will approach 35 nm. Eqs. Assuming ␩ ϭ 1. various resolution enhancement techniques evolved ͑e. where k 1 ϭ 0. As the thickness on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. ␭ ␭ effectiveϭ . NA2 ͑5͒ ␩ ͑2͒ Water immersion ( ␩ ϭ 1. For small NAs. thereby decreasing the linewidth and extending the existing wavelength generations. we need to examine the effect on depth of focus ͑DOF͒. Figure 2 shows the exact DOF as it relates to 193.37. The Airy radius will have a lower limit of 118 nm at ␭ ϭ 193 nm.3 for 157-nm imaging would result in an effective wavelength of 115 nm with a theoretical resolution limit of 29 nm. Microsyst. as the k 1 approaches the theoretical limit. Vol.. and the DOF is aproximated by Eq. the NA cannot go beyond 1. because the image is formed inside the photoreJ.95. With the introduction of 248-nm technology. ͑3͒ Lin11 has rewritten this equation as DOFϭ k 3 ␭ ␩ sin2 ͑ ␪ /2͒ . 1 k 1 as a function of the technology node.9 The subsequent photoresist chemistry must also be developed due to photopolymer wavelength selectivity and absorption. off-axis imaging͒. we can also allow ␩ Ͼ 1. January 2004 105 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography. The DOF benefit in immersion primarily occurs because the photoresist thickness tends to be much smaller than the resultant DOF.. otherwise the resolution will be limited to 50 nm for 193 nm. A wavelength change is required to extend the resolution. The NA and k 1 have boundary limits defined by physics for dry imaging. ͑3͒ and ͑4͒ reduce to the approximate and more familiar form. 3 No.61. the influence of the photoresist medium becomes more complex. It is only influenced by optics. Note that at values of NAϭ 0.. The constant k 2 is again related to the process difficulty and is often assigned a value of 2.25.437. and k 1 has a lower limit of 0. as it is only a constant based on the index of refraction. i. We use a generalized form of the DOF equation that is more exact for very high NA systems. not by resolution enhancement techniques that can influence the value of k 1 . the photoresist layer samples transverse slices of the image within the immersion medium. However.e. thicknessӶ DOF. Each data point represents a lens design and NA. The approximate form of the DOF equation would only indicate a 44% increase. 1. where the new wavelength is defined by.Mulkens et al. and k 1 decreases at a more rapid rate compared to the Airy radius. Fig. and the associated specifications of the material must be tightened as they scale with decreasing linewidth. and the NA can be increased beyond 1. and at ␭ ϭ 157 nm it is ␩ ϭ 1.61.. also plotted the resolution of the classical Rayleigh criterion. A new wavelength necessitates a complete lens redesign. defined by the half pitch. new lens materials must be developed due to optical dispersion. Simultaneous to a resolution improvement due to NA Ͼ 1. This can be seen as an effective wavelength change.3 nm. Microlith.437) at 193 nm would result in an effective wavelength of 134.: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography Fig. For an extremely thin photoresist layer.

Modern lithographic systems are based on reduction projector designs that can be assumed to follow Koehler illumination.z. if we used the term effective wavelength. they usually do not use the conventions given by Eqs. ͑6͒ and ͑7͒. All pupil coordinates are defined by the x . ˆϭ ␭ ␭ ␩ ˆϭ and NA NA ␩ .z ͒ϭ Although most commercial lithographic simulators use some form of Eqs.z ͒ 2␲ ␥z0 ˆ ␭ ͪ 2␲ ( ␣ x ϩ ␤ y ) d␣ d␤ . there is no benefit from immersion between wet and dry systems with the same NA. F is the thin film contribution within the photoresist depth z . ␣ 0 . with image coordinates given by x .␣0 . For example. ͑15͒ ␣ 2 ϩ ␤ 2 ϩ ␥ 2 ϭ 1. 1. z . ␤ 0 ).z ͒ 2␲ ␩␥z0 ␭ ͪ 2␲ ␩ ( ␣ x ϩ ␤ y ) d␣ d␤ . E͑ x. When thicknessӷ DOF the photoresist dominates the imaging and the DOF must be calculated using the refractive index of the resist. ␩ ͑13͒ ␤ max ϫ exp Ϫ i ϫ exp Ϫ i ͩ ͫ Ϫ ␤ max A͑ ␣.␣0 . y . Since the angular spectrum in the lens pupil must be real. E is the electric field within the film. the film term F needs to be modified so that the thin film indices are normalized to the immersion medium.␤0͒ϭ ͵ ͵ ˆ NA ˆ Ϫ NA ˆ NA ϫ exp Ϫ i ϫ exp Ϫ i ͩ ͫ ˆ Ϫ NA A͑ ␣. taking into account Fresnel losses and absorption.1 Modeling Immersion The basics of image formation with optical systems using immersion are not fundamentally different from a dry system. Additionally.␤0͒ϭ Furthermore. such that A is a lens pupil weighting function that includes the Fourier transform of the object shifted by the specific illumination coordinate. z . ͑8͒ This is comparable to an interface of vacuum with a medium. the law of refraction is given as. they are dependent on the ratio of indices between the media. The programs usually apply the limits of integration in Eq. Microsyst. ͑10͒ 2. y ... Therefore. The reflection and refraction coefficients remain unchanged by such normalization. current lithographic simulators need minor modification based on a renormalization of plane wave parameters.12 I͑ x.␥.. ␣ϭ␩ ˆ j␣ j and ␤ ϭ ␩ ˆ j␤ j .Mulkens et al. Using direction cosines.␤0͒F͑ ␣. ␣.␣0 . ͑6͒ where J is the effective source distribution given in the lens pupil with area S and pupil coordinates by the direction cosines ( ␣ 0 . and ␭ is the wavelength in vacuum. z direction cosines. i. y . y .e.1. y . The immersion fluid is water with with maximum angular extent of ␣ max and ␤ max .: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. Microfab. which allow the input NA and ␩ to exceed 1. in this limiting case.␣0 . E is given by a plane wave summation over the pupil.␤.e.. We can see that a normalization just gives ͑14͒ The equation is simplified.␤. and 106 ͑9͒ J.spiedigitallibrary. We can illustrate this by examining the imaging equation. January 2004 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography. not the absolute values. where a medium of index ␩ is placed above a photoresist surface.z. ␣ 2 ϩ ␤ 2 р 1. ͑11͒ Equation ͑7͒ can now be recast as E͑ x.2 Simulations We examine a number of case studies comparing ␭ ϭ 193-nm and ␭ ϭ 157-nm dry imaging to ␭ ϭ 193-nm immersion imaging using a commercial lithography simulator. ␭ ͬ where the subscript j refers to the layer involved. We note that normalization Eqs. 3 No. ͑9͒ and ͑10͒. ͑7͒ ␩ ␣ ϭ ␩ j ␣ j and ␩ ␤ ϭ ␩ j ␤ j .org/terms . Vol. ͑11͒ and ͑13͒ can also be seen as defining an effective set of parameters that need to be calculated as a group. The limitations in these programs are easily overcome by normalization using the refractive index of the immersion medium. ␤ 0 ͒ ͉ 2 d ␣ 0 d ␤ 0 . 2. The image into a photoresist and film stack with partial coherent illumination can then be written as10. ␩ ␥ z 0 is the focus term describing the shift of the top surface of the photoresist stack located at z 0 . ˆ ␭ ͬ ͑12͒ ͵͵ S J ͑ ␣ 0 . we can assume a transverse electric ͑TE͒ polarization state and an aberration-free lens. PROLITH™ version 7. Hence. ␤ 0 ͒ ͉ E ͑ x .␤0͒ F͑ ␣. i. it needs to be applied to a reduced set of refractive indices at a reduced NA.␤. y . ͑7͒ from Ϫ NA to ϩ NA . Microlith.. This term has been previously derived12 and describes the electric field propagation through the photoresist.␤. Snell’s law remains unchanged.␤. related by. which is our desired normalized form. For the purposes of this argument. 2 Imaging Benefits NAϭ ␩ ␣ maxϭ ␩ ␤ max . The refractive index of each film is normalized to give ␩ ˆ jϭ ͵ ͵ ␣ max Ϫ ␣ max ␩j . This allows the use of plane wave decomposition in the description of imaging.

3 No. Since the Fresnel losses are lower. J.3. ␩ ϭ 1..Mulkens et al. and annular illumination using ␴ outerϭ 0. while for the 157-nm case the maximum angle is closer to 31 deg.. there is a strong influence of k 1 and polarization. Three cases are examined pertaining to k 1 ϭ 0. To do a fair comparison. Microfab. and the aforementioned normalization scheme is used for the immersion . Vol. the maximum angle is 38 deg. There is a linear response of limiting resolution to decreasing NA ͑or CD͒. 65-nm periodic lines ͑duty cycleϭ 50%) are simulated using ␭ ϭ 193 nm. In addition. ͑3͒. Figure 4͑a͒ show the results for 55-nm periodic lines. the information content that enters the lens will not change.325.: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography Fig. a 157-nm model was created based on the 193-nm models with some adjustments for an increased absorption that these materials exhibit.30. and Fig. For the 193-nm case. The DOF shows an improvement with the immersion case. NAϭ 0.spiedigitallibrary. the NA is chosen such that both wavelengths have the same ␭/NA ratio. Under this assumption. Since the NA has not changed.95 dry case: (a) process windows for Ϯ 10% CD specification. ͑3͒.. The equivalent for the 157-nm case is a dry lens at NAϭ 0. Both sets of process windows have similar results with minor exceptions. This insures that the spatial frequency components and k 1 are the same.3.2. This is probably due to a difference of the maximum angle in the photoresist. 0. Microsyst. Unpolarized illumination seems to be limited to about 50 nm with NAϭ 1. and 0. 45-nm features can be well resolved using NAϭ 1. the EL shows a slight decrease. NAϭ 1. Figure 3͑b͒ presents this data as a percent exposure latitude ͑EL͒ versus DOF using an elliptical process window boundary. 3 Simulation results for 65-nm periodic lines. The immersion scenario shows an increase in maximum DOF of approximately 2 ϫ . This will cause loss of contrast due to polarization components interfering at wafer level.95. where the polarized illumination is parallel to the direction of the lines and is representative of TE or s polarization.05 with a water immersion fluid. Figure 3͑a͒ shows the exposure-defocus contours assuming a critical dimension ͑CD͒ tolerance of Ϯ 10%.3 ␮ m. January 2004 107 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography.35 for NAs ranging from 1. Microlith. 1. comparing the NAϭ 0. The exposure offset between dry and wet is a direct result of refractive index matching that occurs with immersion. slightly more with the 55-nm lines. Figure 5 illustrates this by plotting DOF versus CD for periodic lines and spaces ͑50% duty cycle͒ using annular on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. 4͑b͒ show the results for 80-nm periodic contacts. The DOF improvement of 193-nm immersion over 157-nm dry is expected from the previous results using Eq.95.05 to 1. Figure 3 shows a simulation comparing process window results for an immersion ͑or wet͒ lens and no immersion ͑or dry͒ lens.and 157-nm wavelengths.95 wet (or immersion) case with the NAϭ 0. ␴ innerϭ 0. we assume that they will approach a comparable performance level as 193-nm photoresist materials. For the 193-nm case. We analyze two different feature sizes for a comparison between 193.75. However.10 The image resolving capability of immersion lithography at 193 nm is examined by simulating the limiting resolution. the coupled power into the photoresist increases. defined by the available DOF at 3% exposure latitude. and (b) exposure latitude as a function of DOF. The higher resolution limit is mainly caused by a contrast degradation associated with an orthogonal or TM polarization component present in unpolarized illumination.85.3 using polarized illumination. We note that the EL does not change substantially. especially as the k 1 approaches 0. All simulations use vector imaging with a calibrated photoresist model based on 193-nm experimental results. Assuming that the limiting resolution is defined by DOFϷ 0. This is close to the value that would be obtained using Eq.437. This will result in simlar contrast ͑at optimum focus͒ and EL. We have simulated both the unpolarized and polarized illumination case. thereby lowering the needed exposure to achieve a nominal CD. Although 157-nm photoresists are in the early stages of development.

Laminar flow conditions are preferred. i. In addition.1 Fluid Candidates In the time of Abbe. this results in a film thickness D of Ͻ 12 mm. 3 Technology Challenges 3. Vol.e. For water at 193 nm. Since the scanner throughput is often proportional to the optical transmission. Simulation is based on dense lines and spaces using 193 nm and annular illumination ( ␴ outerϭ 0.Mulkens et al. 5 Limiting resolution defined by DOF measured at 3% exposure latitude. Early experimental work on immersion fluids by Switkes et al.95. 108 J. many fluids are not transparent. Therefore. Microsyst. However.. the only requirement for the imaging fluid was to match the refractive index of the last element of the objective lens. Table 1 lists the currently known material parameters for water and PFPE. ␴ innerϭ 0.: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography Fig. and (b) 80-nm periodic on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. ␮ ͑16͒ Fig. January 2004 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography. today’s high-precision step and scan systems have more critical needs that the liquid must fulfill. Following the importance of the refractive .. for 157 nm.14 proposed using water for 193 nm and per fluor polyether ͑PFPE͒ materials for 157 nm. the risk of contamination of the optics’ outer surface caused by the immersion fluid irradiation stresses the importance of radiation resistance required of the fluids. we need to insure that the absorption of the fluid is minimized. 1. since they result in more predictable behavior. Microlith.spiedigitallibrary. 4 Comparison between 157-nm dry imaging and 193-nm wet imaging at identical k 1 : (a) 55-nm periodic lines.13. we estimate that the loss in transmission due to the fluid film should not exceed 10%.. the 10% requirement limits the immersion film thickness to a maximum of 700 ␮m using the best-known absorbance number for PFPE. the fluid transmission and the viscosity ͑␮͒ or dynamic viscosity ␮/␳ are important ͑␳ is the fluid density͒. However. At wavelengths of 193 and 157 nm.14 The film thickness not only plays a role in the fluid transmission but also in the hydrodynamics of the fluid film.75). RecritϾ D *␳ *V . 3 No. Microfab. A critical Reynolds number (Recrit) exists that characterizes a laminar flow condition.

3. where V is the scan speed. The observed degradation rate is 15% transmission loss per million pulses.05 – 1 Pa s ϳ 1500 – 2000 kg/m3 15 – 30 mN/m Fig. the movement of the wafer stage should not result in high shear forces on the projection lens. a deposition was found that was not easily cleaned with various solvents and cleansing agents. Fig. 3 No.001 Pa s 998 kg/m3 72 mN/m PFPE @ 157 nm 0.1 Bath configuration The bath concept assumes that the water is enclosed and moves freely in some sort of container. transient flow. Simultaneous to the laminar flow requirement. 6 Spectral transmission of a CaF2 plate in a Fomblin .64 – 6/cm ϳ 1. Fig. the time constants related to movements for this concept are large. January 2004 109 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography. The calculation is done using FLUENT™. where A is a characteristic surface of the liquid film.2. Using water parameters and assuming Rcritϭ 1000.2 3. 9 presents the decay of the shear stress on the lens after a transient step of the wafer stage. a computational fluid dynamics simulation package. Some designs showed long relaxation times in the order of seconds. Table 2 lists the relevant stage performance parameters used in this evaluation. If we assume the same F crit value. we studied the dynamic flow aspects and the implications for the scanner platform.. Parameter Absorbance [base 10] Refractive index dn /dT Dynamic viscosity Density ␳ Surface tension ␥ Water @ 193 nm 0. we find film thickness numbers of 1 to 2 mm and a scan speed of almost 500 mm/s for only a few mN disturbance forces.: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography Table 1 Physical parameters of fluid candidates. before and after being radiated with 157-nm light. The wafer is placed in a bath that is placed on the wafer stage. J. This requirement can be written as F critϾ A *␮ *V . At 157 nm.spiedigitallibrary. on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. limiting the usable fluid thickness.37 — ϳ 0. 8 The shower configuration for liquid containment. the best absorption number known for PFPE material is an order of magnitude higher than we have with water at 193 nm. and oscillating flow impact.43 ϳ 100 ppm/K 0.Mulkens et al. On inspection of the element surface. Microlith. on an optically flat CaF2 lens element. but also the viscosity is much higher.. We examined the effects of the left and right boundaries by calculating the splashing and movement of the fluid on the walls of the wafer stage. and the bottom part of the lens is dipped in the fluid.035/cm ϳ 1. Vol. Only the area between the lens and wafer is locally filled with immersion liquid by nozzles that are placed around the optical area. Figure 6 shows that the spectral transmission of the CaF2 plate dramatically decreases in a Fomblin environment after being radiated with 157-nm light pulses of 1 mJ/cm2 . As an example. Analysis was done by looking at stationary flow. Equations ͑16͒ and ͑17͒ can be used to yield an optimum fluid thickness and a maximum scan speed for the wafer stage. Not only is the absorption much higher. Ongoing research on 157-nm immersion liquids should target liquids that have absorption and viscosity numbers that are at least a factor of 5 lower than currently estimated for PFPE. Figure 8 illustrates the shower configuration. Microfab. 1. This indicates that high viscosity has the potential to limit throughput with an immersion scanner for 157 nm. Fig. In addition to these results.. Figure 7 illustrates the bath configuration. water has good radiation resistance at 193 nm. D ͑17͒ We evaluated the contamination risk of a PFPE material. the maximum allowed scan speed will be less than 50 mm/s. This highlights the fact that lens contamination for 157-nm immersion may be an issue and will require further investigation. For both concepts. 7 The bath configuration for liquid containment. This will severely impact the system throughput.15 Since there is a relatively large volume of the fluid in the container. Fomblin. Liquid Containment Two basic concepts are being explored for the liquid containment in the scanner systems: the bath configuration and the shower configuration.

and 4 mm than with the bath concept. If a film thickness of 1 mm is assumed. A disadvantage of the shower concept is the scan of the shower over the wafer edge. 3. and 2. This results in the lowest shear forces on stage and lens. Bubbles can absorb or scatter the light. Either the bath has to be emptied prior to the wafer handling step. Two different cases are considered: 1. as they cause local changes in focus and spherical aberrations. but will increase the complexity of the shower-wafer stage configuration. A tolerance analysis showed that the sensitivity to both of these changes increases with NA and film thickness. this will become more critical. The top view shows the lateral temperature gradient of the thin boundary layer. the temperature control must be maintained below 100 mK. a fluid supply occurs from all sides. A water flow is chosen that corresponds with a uniform velocity at the on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. the fluid flow should be parallel with the scanning direction. The off-axis wafer metrology actions for wafer alignment and wafer leveling can be either in a dry or wet environment. Bubbles can be formed in the liquid film by devolution of dissolved gas or by cavitation. It is expected that it is easier to maintain high throughput with the shower concept Fig. Both Integrating a bath solution in a step and scan system requires special design considerations for the wafer handling sequence. In case 1. Proper geometry choices can reduce this problem. In addition. The resulting aberrations from these temperature profiles are acceptably low. Calculations were performed to evaluate the temperature distribution in the optical exposure area.Mulkens et al. we limit our evaluation to water at 193 nm. However.15 To date. .1 Temperature The dn / dT value for water at 193 nm has been measured recently by NIST. hence. there is no conflict with wafer alignment and wafer leveling sensors. the fluid is continuously injected either parallel or opposite to the scanning movement.. The optical exposure slit area only sees a small part of the fluid film.3 Optical Effects From an optical perspective. Parameter Maximum stage speed Acceleration Bath dimensions Shower dimensions Fluid height Value 250 mm/s 10 m/s2 square 350ϫ 350 mm round 150 mm 1. and thus impact photoresist exposure and flare. The shower concept only has fluids in the optical area. In the latter. 1. there is a risk of recirculation zones in the fluid. the dominant effects will be focus shift of the imaging plane and a change of spherical aberration. It is assumed that the space is initially completely filled with water.: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography Table 2 Stage boundary parameters used in fluid calculations. which may result in changing pressure forces on the lens. 2. it has the potential to reduce overhead times caused by filling and emptying the bath. and only a 1-nm change in spherical aberration is allowed. however. Microfab. Therfore. Two effects have been studied: temperature and bubbles. The former is important.. significant redesigns in the alignment and leveling sensor system are required. Clever design solutions for the wafer edge are needed to overcome this problem. Microsyst. Microlith. Starting with a homogeneous temperature change. In the side view of the fluid film.. water is only injected into and removed from the space between the lens and wafer. In case 2.2. For this analysis. The results are presented in Fig. January 2004 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography. the ability to control temperature will also depend on other parameters.3. 3. since radiation-induced heating of fluid and wafer will result in refractive index changes and possibly aberration changes.1. Vol. the optical quality of the fluid film will have extreme consequences for imaging. 110 J. 10. The impact on focus and image distortion due to the gradient was calculated to be Ͻ 10 nm focus shift and Ͻ 2 nm image distortion. 3. little data is available for the 157-nm fluids based on PFPE. or the wafer handling needs to be done in a partly wet environment. For very high NA lenses. short-term temperature fluctuations can be problematic. We derived the temperature stability requirement for a water immersion system operating at a wavelength of 193 nm and a lens NA of 1. In the exposure system. 9 Calculated shear stress as function of time after stage movement of a 300-mm wafer stage bath filled with water. This irregularity or discontinuity may result in undesired fluid leakage or bubble inclusion.2 Bubbles One of the risk items associated with imaging through a liquid will be bubbles. only a 200. a focus shift can be easily corrected by repositioning the wafer stage on a per wafer basis. The small fluid volume ensures small time constants for filling and relaxation.2 Shower configuration In the shower configuration. the immersion fluid is seen as part of the last lens element of the projection 300-␮m thin boundary layer shows a temperature gradient perpendicular to the optical axis. PROSTAR™. 3 No. such as the fluid refreshment rate. A more detailed thermal analysis was performed using another computational fluid dynamics software package. stationary solutions have been calculated with FLUENT™. 3.

This will result in a localized nonuniform exposure of the photoresist. and density. and the bubble will become unstable and dissolve into the fluid. removal will be more difficult. r ͑19͒ ͩ ͪ 2*Po ␳ 1/2 . as this is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature..: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography Fig. 3 No. ͑18͒ For water. J. Microlith. the bubble’s size can be calculated using the relation derived by Young-Laplace. the bubble will have an internal pressure that matches the vapor pressure of the liquid. It can be derived16 that the critical speed V crit depends on pressure P 0 and the fluid density: V critϭ ⌬ Pϭ 2 *␥ .org/terms .Mulkens et al. Microfab. However..spiedigitallibrary. January 2004 111 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography. The impact on the optical performance depends on the bubble size. whereas for larger bubbles at the micrometer size. the critical speed is ϳ 14 m/s. The lifetime of bubbles in solution is expected to depend on the bubble size and surface tension of the fluid. Microsyst. causing microuniformity effects in the image. Equation ͑19͒ can be used to estimate the critical radius for water. Since the viscosity and the specific mass of PFPE is greater than water. 17͒ to a few hundred/cm3 ͑Ref. if a bubble is formed in a high viscosity fluid. At a critical on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. under atmospheric pressure. Careful design of the local shower and fluid supply system should keep the local speed below the critical level. Vol.. effects need to be considered in the design of the liquid containment and liquid handling system. If the bubble size is on the order of the wavelength. The use of degassed liquids prior to injection hinders bubble formation. Commercially available degassing units need to be integrated in the liquid supply system of the exposure system. If we consider a gas bubble inside a static liquid. Smaller bubbles will have a higher pressure differential. bubbles will behave as particle contamination behaves in today’s existing dry exposure systems. The effect of bubbles on the exposure microuniformity depends on their distance d from the wafer. The resultant critical bubble radius r ϳ 2 ␮ m. 10 Temperature distribution of a water film in a shower-type immersion solution. light will scatter and increase the stray light.16 where r is the bubble radius. The literature reports that for degassed water. Local high speed is created by strong pressure gradients inside the fluid. 11 Microbubble-induced nonuniformity as function of the relative distance of the bubble to the wafer. Although the physical description of bubbles and their temporal behavior is very complex. Figure 11 Fig. bubble density varies from only a few bubbles/cm3 ͑Ref. 1. and ⌬ P is the pressure difference between the internal volume and the external volume of the bubble. a first-order estimation can be done using simple scaling laws. location. light will be partially obstructed and redirected. with a vapor pressure of 2640 Pa ͑at 22°C) and outside pressure of ϳ 100 kPa. the risk for bubble formation is smaller in the 157-nm case than it is in the 193-nm case. 18͒. In this region. ␥ is the surface tension. Cavitation is the formation of bubbles by the boiling of a fluid as a hydrofoil travels through it with speed higher than a critical speed.

resulting in large track length and high price. 1. 13 Cross section SEM pictures comparing resist line quality using: (a) no post soak. and postexposure soak experi- ments were done using ArF resist exposures on a NA ϭ 0. 3 No. the mass of optical material will increase. This assumes NAϭ 1.and 157-nm wavelengths. 3. 14 Optical design example of a 1. we also found some combinations that showed incompatibilty with immersion at 193 nm.1 NA refractive projection lens for 193-nm immersion with water.4 Photoresist Whereas in current exposure systems the photoresist material has an air interface. Microlith. open immersion exposures were done using a 193-nm test bench. Although for moderate NAs... After the exposure. Microsyst. All exposures were done with 193 nm. Figure 12 shows results obtained with a postexposure soak experiment using 100-nm dense and isolated lines exposed in a commercial ArF photoresist as a baseline. in the immersion system the fluid will interface with the photoresist material. We conclude that there is no significant loss in line quality for this existing ArF photoresist. Clearly microbubble prevention should be a key item for the shower design. Figure 14 shows a 193-nm design example19 with a maximum numerical aperture of 1. we verified the line profiles and line roughness by examining the images with a CD scanning electron microscope ͑SEM͒. immersion lenses are less complex than dry lenses.: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography Fig. shows the impact on the local exposure uniformity plotted as function of radius and distance.5 Immersion High NA Optical Design At Carl Zeiss. The issue of nanobubbles will not be fully settled until suitable immersion imaging systems are available for experimental investigation. In both series of experiments. 12 193-nm immersion resist postsoak experiment. To evaluate 193-nm resist compatibility with water. If we estimate that the microuniformity should be Ͻ 1% to prevent serious imaging impacts. we notice that the lower partial coherence illumination is more succeptable to uniformity problems.. we did not observe significant problems with many photoresist and fluid combinations. Additionally.1 using various partial coherence levels of the illuminator with circular illumination. Vol. showing CD of 100 nm isolated and grouped lines as functions of water soak time.Mulkens et al. Similar independent work done by resist suppliers has confirmed that most ArF photoresists are compatible with water immersion. depending on the location of their formation and lifetime. There is a concern that the photoresist can contaminate the fluid or the fluid can contaminate the resist. the wafers were soaked in dionized ͑DI͒ water. 3.1). on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. 13. are also a concern. and (b) a post soak of 20 min. Nanobubbles. The result demonstrates that this resist showed less than 3-nm CD change when being soaked in DI water. The projection performance of this design is equivalent to the state-of-the-art dry lenses. The pictures of the cross sections for the wet and dry situation are compared in Fig. the complexity will scale exponentially. while not discussed in this work.75 Micrascan™ step and scan . Microfab. Consequently. maximum aperture immersion designs for projection lenses have been calculated for various configurations using 193. January 2004 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography.spiedigitallibrary. The latter may affect the quality of the images. Although the Young-Laplace equation may indicate that nano-sized bubbles will dissolve in water. where the soaking time was varied from 0 to 20 min. Fig. The Fig. it is expected that for very high NA lenses (NAϾ 1. they still may have an effect on imaging.1. 112 J.

and H. Fomblin. Patent No. This has the potential to limit the productivity of the exposure system.Mulkens et al. Immersion 193-nm lithography at NA ϭ 1. as the higher NAs will suffer a loss in exposure latitude due to the TM component of TM polarized light. Orlando. The angle between the beams is given as the NA. and the unpolarized condition. P. Hoegaerts. Imaging simulation studies show that gains of approximately 2 ϫ in DOF can be achieved with water immersion for 193 nm over a dry lens with a similar NA. Further research on fluid candidates for 157-nm immersion is required.2 with coherent illumination. However. on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. Also. as previously illustrated in Fig. 2. For example. and increasing the NA further will result in image reversal for TM. as well as smaller slit sizes. more complex 2-D structures may either necessitate double-exposure technology with linear polarization. both having their advantages and disadvantages. Shulepov from Philips. and W. the chemical interaction effects with the lens and the photoresist are not seen as major problems.’’ Microelectron. To keep lens dimensions and lens prices acceptable. Immersion lenses will enable the extension of 193. Microlith. At 193 nm. 3 No. 31–36 ͑1989͒. and D. Development has been started to identify design solutions for an exposure system. Specifically.164 ͑1982͒.org/terms . however. and pressure gradients should be low enough to avoid cavitation. The detrimental influence of TM polarization on the imaging may require the illumination to be polarized at very high NAs (NAϾ 1). J. scanning over the wafer edge becomes the main design challenge with a shower solution. Temperature control is crucial for focus and aberration stability. whereas the latter negatively affects the system’s cost of ownership ͑COO͒. because the impact on the step and scan platform design is significantly less. 188 –190.05 may also be used as an alternative to 157-nm lithography at NAϭ 0. Janik. Ulrich at Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen. field sizes smaller than the current 26 mm may need to be considered.S. J. PFPE materials are currently being studied. The use and type of polarization will strongly depend on the device layout. van Santen. Yen.. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank C. The contrast within the resist will drop to 0 at NAϭ 1. Although wafer edge scanning is not a problem with the bath solution.. Loebach. Pergamon Press.7. 3.: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography Fig. S. Taberelli and E. Microfab. Imaging at very high NA values will require that polarization effects need to be taken into account as well. Bijlaart. 4. For 157-nm immersion lithography. Bradbury. the TM case will have a contrast that decreases by the cosine of the angle between the beams. C. de Jager. Vliegenthart from TNO. transverse magnetic ͑TM͒. Hoogendorp from ASML Veldhoven. this material shows higher absorbance and higher viscosity characteristics. Since the unpolarized condition is the average of the TE and TM polarization. R. one of the materials we examined closer. pp. The contrast is calculated inside a photoresist of index ␩ resistϭ 1. Kolesnychenko. and S. Derksen. W. This approximates imaging dense lines with an alternating phase mask using a small partial coherent illumination. J. Eng. S. O. McAfferty from ASML Wilton. This is graphically illustrated in Fig. Microsyst. 9. Evolution of the Microscope. gate layers or line/space layers in a unidirectional orientation will benefit greatly from linear polarization that is orientated parallel to the lines.346. careful attention must be paid to polarization issues. Vol. U. ‘‘Optical projection lithography using lenses with numerical apertures greater than unity. Looptra. A. However. H. Optical System Design. A critical area of concern is the impact of the water film on the optical performance. the metrology systems and wafer handling systems need to be modified to work in liquids. January 2004 113 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography. A local shower type solution may be preferred over a bath type solution. E. E. This will place new demands on the polarization requirements for optical projection systems. A uncleanable deposition on the CaF2 window shows a transmission decrease of 15%/million pulses. but compared to water with 193 nm. water as an immersion fluid will probably not put significant limitations on the productivity of the step and scan system.and 157-nm lithography below 45 nm and possibly below 35 nm. Degassing is required. Oxford ͑1967͒. Kawata. former will result in major changes of the scanner platform. this component shows an image reversal at NAϾ 1. A. and the fluid supply system needs to assure a bubble-free film. Mandigers. 4. E. 1. reacts with 157-nm light. 5. such as the need to maintain the polarization integrity throughout the imaging field. the unpolarized case will also suffer from an image degradation that increases with NA. References 1. FL ͑1983͒. Kingslake..85.spiedigitallibrary. 15 Contrast of two beams interfering within photoresist film of index 1.2. I. Sewell. Although the TE case will have maximum interference resulting in a contrast of 100%. and W. 15 for three polarization conditions: transverse electric ͑TE͒. H. Academic Press. H. Lof. 4 Conclusion Immersion lithography opens a new optical extension option for both 193 as well as 157 nm. Two configuration approaches are possible. Carter. and M. or more complex polarization schemes with optical proximity correction ͑OPC͒ used with single exposures.7 as function of NA using a two-beam interference assumption. Smith.

M. Microsyst. D. Sanchez.’’ EIPBN Conf. S. GallagherWetmore.. B 17͑6͒. K. and S. Rothschild. and A. and F. 2997–3003 ͑1992͒. SPIE 5040. 869– 875 ͑1994͒. after which he started to work at Philips Netherlands in Glass Technology. J. Lin.. Kunz. AZ. 19. and in 2002 he was elected ASML fellow. Zaidi and S. T.’’ J. M. W. ‘‘Immersion liquids for lithography in the deep ultraviolet. Vac. ‘‘Impact of wavefront errors on low k 1 processes at extreme high NA. 106. including high NA imaging systems. F. ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index and the thermo-optic coefficient for water around 193 nm. J. and D. Cambridge University Press. Donis has degrees in Imaging Science. ‘‘Liquid immersion deep-ultraviolet interferometric lithography. He concentrates on the optical imaging issues associated with ultra high NA optical lithography. Res. 53– 64 ͑1996͒. 3306 –3309 ͑1999͒. Vol. 1͑1͒. 1. where he started to work on contamination and temperature control development. 15. January 2004 Downloaded From: http://nanolithography.. He was lead engineer in the development of the 193nm and 157nm technology development. 13. ‘‘The development of dioptric projection lenses for DUV lithography. Williams. Burnett and S. 16815–16824 ͑2001͒. 119–130 ͑2003͒. P. UK ͑1995͒. Since 1999 he has been active with the development of 193 nm scanners. SPIE 5040. 3 No. Heil. R. A. Currently Jan works on immersion lithography.’’ . E. 690– 699 ͑2003͒.’’ Proc. Since 1995 he is working for the lithographic optics division where he was working on system metrology including interferometry and aerial image based techniques. D.’’ Proc.’’ J. and R. Rothschild. Hinsberg.Mulkens et al. Kaplan. R. Sci. Technol.. Microfabr. 6. Donis Flagello has worked within the photolithography field for over 22 years. ‘‘Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean. Houle. 11. Opt. C. Microsyst. Lowisch. 8. T. SPIE 2197. Rosenbluth. He is currently working at ASML’s Technology Development Center in Tempe. F. J. aberration and lens metrology. and K. Microlithogr. Jan Mulkens obtained his master degree in Physics from Eindhoven University of Technology in 1991. D. Vac. He has publications specializing in many aspects of image formation. Donis joined ASML in 1994 where he worked on aberrations and their relationships to lithographic features that are used in high volume chip production. from the ASML PAS 5500/ 900 up until recently the ASML PAS 5500/ 1150C. He has contributed to 14 scientific articles and 25 patents. Baek.D.. Brueck. J.’’ J. Sinta. Milster. ¨ upner is principal scientist at Carl Paul Gra Zeiss SMT AG. Kunz. from the University of Arizona in Optical Science. 2002. Boston. D. ‘‘Multiple exposure interferometric lithography.’’ Proc. 14. Hoffnagle. 10. 114 J. ‘‘The k 3 coefficient in nonparaxial ␭/NA scaling equations for resolution. In the same year he started at Carl Zeiss at the eye care division developing thin film coatings. 12. Microlith. 1742–1749 ͑2003͒. Krukonis. R.’’ Proc. Microfab. Geophys. H. Garreis. 18. B 19͑6͒. where he holds the title of ASML Fellow. V. He received his master degree in Physics from Karlsruhe University of Technology in 1992. 36͑34͒. 8944 – 8951 ͑1997͒. H. Flagello. Milster. R. Switkes. G. A. E. and immersion lithography. depth of focus. Rothschild. Rostalski. Y. D. J. G.. A. A 13. 16. Terill et al. ‘‘High-numerical aperture effects in photoresist. ‘‘Extending optics to 50 nm and beyond with immersion lithography.: Benefits and limitations of immersion lithography 5. R. M. Batchelor. Technol. Flagello.’’ J. Hudyma. on 03/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.. where he leads the system engineering imaging group. ‘‘Theory of high-NA imaging in homogeneous thin films. Soc. R. B 10͑6͒. M. Am.spiedigitallibrary. 9. He joined ASML in 1992 and has been actively involved in development and realization of the AERIAL illumination system. Switkes. 7. Flagello and A. Physics and Optical Science and holds a Ph. P. Switkes and M. R. J. Technol. Sinta.. Yeung. Flagello and T. M. ‘‘Immersion lithography at 157 nm. R. Brennen. M. 2003.’’ J. His present work field is system engineering. Sci. M. M. Graeupner. J. Opt.’’ IODM Conf. Gohnermeier. He is heads the imaging group and actually leads the immersion lithography optics development. Vac. Ulrich. In 2000 he was awarded the ASML IP award. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics.’’ Appl. 7–12 ͑2002͒. Paul has contributed to several papers in the area of optical lithography and holds more than 10 patents. Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics. He joined ASML in 1989. optical system modeling and simulation. MA ͑1967͒. H. 2353–2356 ͑2001͒. ‘‘Lithographic tolerances based on vector diffraction theory. SPIE 5040. W. Oxford University Press. Bob Streefkerk graduated in Applied Physics at the Technical University Delft in 1985. B. 17. Rosenbluth. M.