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1. The approaches of price concept in economic theory.

The basis of price definition is the concept of value, which had been broached in various visions of certain schools of economic thinking, which we can separate by three main directions (theories): Theory of marginal utility Objective theory Subjective theory According to the first theory, value of a product is determined by the utility that consumers give to products they need, and the value of utility also depends on scarcity of the respective product. In other words, as Stanley Jevons has stated, goods have value not because they cost money, but because people attribute value to them because they need those products. Utility appears in the relation between goods and human needs. Economic goods do not have the amount degree of utility, and as such their value is determined not only by intensity of people’s needs but also of scarcity of products. The value represents two elements: subjective element - wants, and objective element - scarcity. The measure of price is the final degree of satisfaction of wants, which is reflected in marginal utility, which gives it such value. A particular mechanism of value formation is based on laws of supply and demand: demand depends on utility, and supply depends on scarcity (which determines the expense needed in order to obtain it). According to objective theory, value of a product is based on its scarcity, as well as labor costs carried out for making of such product. The relationship between labor, value and price has been shown by Adam Smith in “The Wealth of Nations”. He has pointed out that the price is based on labor efforts made in order to create a product. The objective theory also had been adopted by English classics W.Petty and D.Ricardo. D.Ricardo distinguishes between the value of use and value of exchange. The first value cannot create the other value, once most useful things (air, water) of their exchange value, and products with high exchange value (gold, diamonds) become less useful. Utility is a prerequisite of value, but a measure thereof. D.Ricardo defines the monetary expression of price, where prices mean the amount of money for which a product can be changed. K. Marx had assumed the theory of value from British classics, gave absolute significance to the role of value, in particular physical labor in creation of value. He denies the role of utility of products as a factor that determines value, utility being considered its premise. Labor represents the only real measure for appreciation and comparison of value of all products, and it constitutes the real price of products, while the amount of money defines its nominal price. Subjective theory states that the value, accordingly the price, is based on utility of goods. Predecessors of such theory were neoclassic, represented by L.Walras, C. Menger, etc. According to this approach, value is determined by marginal utility, and scarcity of the respective product. Regardless of volume of labor taken for obtaining an economic product, it gains value only to the extent that it is in demand in the market owing to its utility (utility and usefulness are not synonyms). They give the demand a key role in determining the exchange value and price. The higher is utility of the last consumed product the higher is value of such product. Therefore, we can state that supporters of the objective theory place themselves in the position of suppliers, willing to recover expenses incurred due to performed work, while supporters of the subjective theory support consumer interests, where price is an indicator of utility and scarcity of product, on the one hand and demand solvability on the other hand. A compromise between these two approaches had been supported by A. Marshall. His fundamental idea was that both supply and demand are involved in formation of the price. In conclusion we can mention that the price represents an amount of money that the buyer has to pay in exchange for a unit of economic good, the amount for transfer of ownership title on goods from one person to another.

2. Price functions, price system and its categories.
At macroeconomic level the price has the central role in operation of economic system in general, where it appears as an economic leverage on the mode of distribution of resources and all structures of the economic circuit must be integrated coherently. The price has a number of functions: a) function of measurement of social labor consumption; b) function of stimulation of production and goods circulation; c) function of distribution and redistribution of national revenue; d) function of a leverage of economic policy, which stimulates development of certain strategic industries. From macroeconomic perspective, the price is one of the most important decision-making areas because it contributes to balancing of supply with demand at the level of national economy, it allows to stimulate those who

intend to invest in certain industries and discourages underperforming market players, contributes to allotment of resources by criterion of efficiency, ensures distribution by economic criteria of obtained results. At microeconomic level the price also performs a number of functions, such as: a) measurement instrument – for measuring consumption of labor, raw materials, profit; b) function of guidance for economic entities regarding the purpose of resources utilization; c) function of determination of amount of product to be supplied in the market; d) function of assurance of income required for continuation of economic activity by the company; e) function of harmonization of interests of participants of exchange process; f) function of evaluation of expense incurred by the consumer in exchange for receiving the benefits arising from the product; g) function of informing the consumers on value of supplied product. Price System represents a totality of prices on the basis of which goods and services are exchange in the domestic and international market, as well as a totality of relations between them. There are three types of price systems: Regulated price system is based on unitary and coordinated settling of prices by the state. The market does not influence in any way on the level and dynamics of prices. As a result there are significant distortions in the economy that may trigger inflation and unrealistic prices. Free prices system means that free prices are formed under the influence of market factors. The decision on prices is taken by producers, and final price is set by negotiations between consumers and producers. Mixed price system means that price is formed by interaction of supply and demand under influence of market condition, and the state intervenes in case of imbalance, inflation hazard. The essential difference between centralized and free setting of prices is that in the first case the justification process takes place during the production process and in the second case – during sales under the influence of market factors. The right to make decisions on price belongs to the producer, and final price shall be set by negotiations. In the Republic of Moldova creation of a system of free prices has been commences by a Decree by the President of Republic of Moldova no. 256 dated 27.12.1991 “On liberalization of prices and tariffs and protection of the domestic market”. Presently the price system in the Republic of Moldova includes the following categories of prices; 1) by method of formation: a) free prices; b) regulated prices. 2) by area of application: a) wholesale prices (en-gros); b) purchase prices on agricultural products for needs of the state; c) Consumer prices: on food, non-food products, on services; d) prices in capital construction; e) interest (capital prices); f) salary (labor price); g) price on land and natural resources. Prices can be grouped by separate homogenous categories by many criteria: 1. criterion: formation: 1) free prices negotiated between economic entities; 2) prices regulated by authorities with the right to make decision on prices. 2. criterion: area of application: a. fundamental prices:  Producer’s prices: for purchase of raw materials, and wholesale prices in wholesale trade;  Vendor’s prices: en gross prices in wholesale commercial enterprises, and en detail prices in retail commercial enterprises;  Transfer prices: set for intermediary products traded within a company. b. functional prices:  supply prices: catalog, list, quotation, estimate prices;  record-keeping prices: average, forecasted, comparable, draft prices;  import-export prices;  actual prices: contract, exchange, auction, consumption;  world prices.

transport). Product reflects the quality. To summarize the stated above. brand etc. methods etc Promotion. Prices on goods are influenced by a number of economic. competition between manufacturers). • Competition. Price policy as an element of marketing policy. • technical advancements. merchandising. • existence of monopolies. • higher quality of goods. The value concept used in marketing is different from the one used in economic literature where this concept acquires two meanings: use value and exchange value. • economic instability. labor force. • high demand. special discounts and offers. size. 4. it can be quickly changed in comparison with other components of marketing mix. 3) semi-variable – prices limits are fixed within which prices can grow or fall. level and dynamics of prices: • Supply (amount of supplied goods. 2) prices without VAT included.). package. criterion: geographic area and time interval: 1) unified prices – prices in force throughout the country and during the entire year. Marketing is a totality of activities.are set at different levels in different areas. 2) fixed prices . 5. 4. • competition. taxes etc. methods and techniques that has the objective to study the consumers’ needs and their satisfaction with the products and services under the most favorable conditions. or during different seasons. mark. equipment. 2) differentiated prices . • higher tax rates. • higher labor productivity. . perspective directions and concrete practical actions referring to the enforcement of its potential according to market requirements characterizes marketing policy that constitute a promotion tool of this policy. The way a firm forms its activity development. there are the following main factors that influence the process of price formation.3. public relations. elasticity of demand to price changes).ups etc. Some factors cause price reduction. • low tax rates. Distribution reflects the distribution channels. 3. • Demand (consumer behavior. technical. • salary increase. • reduction of manufacture and sale costs. design. • Production costs. Price includes price charge at various stages of the economic life of the product.remain (by decision of authorities) at the same level over a long period of time. •development of products sales infrastructure without involvement of intermediaries. From marketing point of view price is the most flexible component of marketing mix. land. • higher monetary mass in circulation. and price changes regularly receive an immediate answer of the market.advertising. natural and other factors. • low efficiency of capital. other factors cause price to grow. The factors that influence the process of price formation. criterion: by the way of Value Added Tax Calculation: 1) prices with VAT included. Factors that determine price reduction: • increased output. sales. • high profits received by the company. • State regulation (inflation. criterion: by the way it reacts to changes of certain factors: 1) variable prices – change easily under the influence of factors. Factors that cause price growth: • output reduction. logistics (storage.

economy of transition. The objective: to keep its position on the market. Effects: as a response the competitors may reduce the price and attract the clients. Environment: uncertainty. certain measures and methods. Thus. Sales volume maximization The core: the good is produced in large quantities. to charge low prices in order to stimulate the supply. promotional communication. So. and when this variable may be controlled by the enterprise. Price is one of the most visible variables. substantial modification of product policy. Effects: fixed capital that is worn out and cannot be replaced. only price produces profit that allows cost’s coverage and profit gain. these strategies constitute the general way of marketing mix determination. When the firm’s objective is to obtain ceiling . the firm’s pr ofitability depends on the price charge. Effects: the further results are affected negatively. The objective: short-term economic and financial results are favored. Thus. 2. The objective: to obtain the effect of the economy of scale in production (the reduction of unit costs). The pricing policy comprises a correlated set of principles. but price decision should be coordinated carefully concerning product. the price establishes a complex submix that includes a number of price categories and forms used by the firm that considers their relationship. the price is reduced to the level suitable to other segments. Product’s promotion The core: high prices are charged for the products of high quality that have been accepted by the consumers. 5. deficit supply. and they are: 1. product. The objective: to gain high profits. The price place in marketing mix In comparison with other elements of the mix. This coordination is performed by placement and segmentation strategies chosen by the firm. 4. Price may be a major element of marketing maximum. According to the chosen market strategy. price acquires much flexibility. All other elements of marketing mix may create values for the consumers and the costs for the firm. as well as to product’s quality. The objective: to obtain maximum possible returns in each segment of consumers Effects: it leads to a good position of a firm on the market. norms. The price is a particular variable that has several features that define its state. the firm follows the objective of maintaining on the market that is assured by means of rigid control of the production cost level. when confronted with strong competition. Profit maximization The core: the price level is chosen that assures maximum current profit.Survival The core: a minimum price level is practiced (as a rule the costs are covered or an unessential profit is gained). being easily perceived by consumers. The graphical representation of the price place in marketing mix is the following: price – distribution. Environment: strong competition. When the sales volume is decreased. Effects: the further reduction of price may have negative effects over the sales volume. first. the intermediaries are offered commissions for the reached production volume. by means of which a firm defines its position regarding the price of its products to reach the objectives set at certain periods. the market type. 3. scientific researches. it is necessary to coordinate the price with other variables of marketing mix. the price change may refer to the modifications of goods and services quantity that might be paid by the buyer. the offered discounts. Market share maximization The core: the good is produced in large quantities and it is destined to the markets vulnerable to price. the price is charged according to the supply. consumers’ requirements are changing. clearance sale. the price seems to represent rather an element of cost than an element of profit for the consumers. lack of stability. The price allows the supplier to make the decisions from this domain more flexible. Environment: the launch of a new product (service). 6. distribution etc.From marketing point of view the use value of the made purchase is defined as a relation between the perceived profits (quality) furnished by consumers’ product and the totally perceived sacrifice by the consumers regarding the purchase and use of this product. the time or place of goods transfer. The objective: to cover the costs made while increasing quality. Maximum improvement of market advantages The core: a higher vulnerable price is charged for the product destined to particular consumers’ segments. unstable economic situation. promotion and distribution. minimum dividends. Effects: gaining leading position in quality. Anyway. Thus.

2.The strategy of high prices is used in the substantiation of prices for exclusively new products. owners’ equity and fixed capital profitability. It is based on the possibility of market segmentation according to the purchasing power of the customers (beginning with the segments destined to the richest customers to other segments). average profit and maximum profit for a certain period of time. it doesn’t favor competitors appearance in the branch and assures a reasonable profit calculated to invested capital (in western practice 8-10% profit to stockholders capital is considered to be normal). This strategy is considered to be the most appropriate because its application exclude “the price war”. Price strategy represents a set of methods used by the firm in order to achieve the objectives settled by pricing policy. These stages comprise the following activities: Gathering information The evaluation of production costs and their application means explaining the costs that directly influence production. strategic alternatives in prices substantiation. prices also decrease. Under the conditions of cut down production the unit costs should be reduced in order to avoid advantages through further price reduction and not to affect long-term financial results.profit. In the third case the maximization of long-term profit is obtained by adding a reasonable profit margin to unit cost. about the organizational structure and its activity projects. As you see the comparison of price strategies should be done according to the economic and financial analysis. that’s why it can use the policy of high prices whose objective is to recoup the investments immediately. it is necessary to compare the demand volume of costs increase in connection with various price levels. In the first case the objective is to obtain a considerable volume of short-term profit by the firms that have a sound position on the market or by the firms with vulnerable future. assets profitability. production costs. Strategic analysis The analysis of the firm’s financial situation means understanding the factors that influence net profit and the determination of the breakeven point. But it is important that this increase should be motivated by the investments volume used to increase products or to improve quality. The analysis of market segments comprises a number of measures that divide the market into segments according to certain categories of consumers who will show different reactions towards price in order to single out the possibility to charge differentiated prices. incomes. Giving details of financial objectives in order to obtain minimum profit. The determination of potential competitors means gathering information about competitive firm’s past activity. This strategy is efficient when the following conditions are respected: Increased current demand for the particular product is registered. the objectives of pricing policy are reflected by certain indicators as: sales volume. products’ quality and varieties. At this stage the firm is a monopolist. This operation assumes more variants of comparison. about the administration personnel. Thus. The evaluation of the State influence on price mechanism by means of legislation in price domain and tax policy domain Strategy formation The determination of final strategy considering all the above enumerated factors.The strategy of average prices is characteristic to the firms that have the objective to gain a long-term profit. In order to keep the clientele the price should correspond to the quality because the increased price promotes the image of the best quality. The firm’s price strategy comprises the following classifications: 1. the profitability of sales. strategic analysis and strategy formation. When the sales decrease. the application and the analysis of the costs that change when the production volume changes. At the same time the possibility to charge some agreement prices or prices differentiation are studied according to firms’ goodwill. The strategy is based on the idea that it is easier to lower the price than to rise it. The analysis of competition on a particular market. this margin assures economic and financial security of the firm. Further price discounts should be offered with great attention because the consumer may perceive lower prices as indicators of lower quality. Price strategy. The elaboration of a price strategy has three stages: gathering information. In the second case the same objective is obtained by price increase. product profit and global profit. . and the firm turns to other segments of customers. product profitability. 5. its objective is to foresee possible reactions of the competitors towards the price.

The strategy of false 9. These mark downs serve as a stimulus to buy goods from the same supplier: .3.5. There are also some risks that further increase in price won’t be accepted by the buyers and the firm will have to go on charging initial prices. 10. the second category – in price. 9. have more chances. increased sales are registered that recover invested capital. In those situations the firms have to identify strategic alternatives that can result into a combination of decisions concerning price and quality. 6. The strongest competition occurs between the products of different quality as we can see in table Interdependence between price and quality in the strategy quality-price.The strategy of connected prices. the buyer who transfers money within 10 days may get a 23% discount). Any firm deals with the problems of setting an average quality and price level to its product that is inferior or superior to them.3.both in quality and price and it pays attention to the balance between these two elements. When the product is recognized by the consumers. the third category.The strategy of low prices (the strategy of market cornering). the costs cannot be the same for a long period. It’s when the production price of the firm-leader is considered to be a given variable (in competitive market or oligopoly).The strategy of quality-price. 6 are menacing the previous strategies. The strategy of high 3. the first category being interested in quality.The strategy of psychological prices charged at a level less reduced than a round number that creates an illusion of lower prices (1.The strategy of unchanged prices. When the buyer purchases the goods in bulk. the firm turns to certain price rises.7 and 8 reflect a too high price in comparison with products’ quality. Quality High price Average price Low price High 1.The strategy of using price mark ups and mark downs comprises the following types -price mark up that results from a special client’s order. When charging these prices the firm considers selling prices and the exploitation expenses (technical services). determining negative reaction of the consumers.The strategy of 6. or 6 and 8. Cross competition may occur between the firms that apply one of strategies 2 and 7. Though such actions may influence negatively products’ quality.The strategy of burglary economy savings The problem of strategies quality-price becomes more serious when the economy of a country gets into (comes out of) a period of recession. who will feel deceived especially in strategy 7. the firms have to choose the best variant considering settled motivation and objectives as well as the consequences of each variant application. The firms. the discounts are more essential. In order to exclude price rise the firms apply to weight or size loss and so on.). the firm first charge low prices for unique products. that offer better quality goods at the same prices or at lower prices.The strategy of target prices is used by large corporations and it means prices and quantity changes according to market position under the condition of compulsory profit gain. Under the conditions of constant change of the prices for resources and raw materials. the consumers accept this strategy to the detriment of price rise. as they offer products of high or average quality and at average or lower price. the number of buyers decreases and their requirements turn to cheaper products. 7. In this case the firm strives for market cornering from the very beginning. The strategy of prices average value acceptable value Low 7.The strategy of following the leader. this fact will affect the firm’s financial results. -this type of discounts improves the liquidity degree of the supplier. excellent quality. In some cases the price may vary according to the quality or new technical characteristics. supplementary services offered or when the firm pays for the purchased goods in installments. The strategy of exception value superior value average 4. Strategies 2. 4. 5. Strategies 1. -mark downs for the purchase volume that is stated in percents regarding the total value of the purchased goods or depending on the number of the purchased units.The strategy of high 5.9 may be applied simultaneously by different firms in the same market on condition that there are three categories of consumers on each market. The implementation of this strategy should be carried out attentively because any mistake will not allow investments recoup. it assures returns rate and the reduction of the expenses connected to obtaining debit debts.The strategy of 2.The strategy of 8. 8. -price mark downs for cash payment (for example.99 etc. Strategies 4. That is why these strategies should be avoided or applied for a short period of time.

free of charge services. because the need. . and within 22-30 August-50%. for 26-35 units – 7% reduction etc. . For example. for the quantity of 1-15 units there are no reductions. For example.seasonal discounts may be from 10-15% to 50-75% . that is negotiated initially. -club reductions are offered to the members of various clubs. That’s why in many cases the price. For example. 6.discounts to devoted customers that may reach 15-30%. . Each product has a particular life cycle that comprises many stages or phases the product passes through. has disappeared. if during a certain period they have purchased a quantity over minimum limit. if they agree to offer discounts to the club members. It is used in selling cars. a specific promotional policy. They serve to improve the firm’s image and position on the market. . according to the stage that the product passes. At each stage of its life cycle the product needs a particular marketing policy. a particular price and distribution strategy. -discounts offered when using a unique package for two or more products. . if the product is purchased till 8 August. but there exists the risk of total clearance of stocks at that moment. Price formation in the lifecycle of the reduction is for purchasing a series of goods in the terms established earlier. The classic product life cycle has four stages: . the discounts will be 12% of value. low prices for McDonalds hamburgers within a month. it registers a certain price and gains a certain profit. the buyer will have 19% discounts. Negotiation practice in these countries show that the buyers don’t buy anything if they are not offered reductions in order to be honored. . -hidden reductions are offered to the clients as preferential credits. -the discounts applied in Arabic countries. At the same time. These cards permit 10-15% reductions and even more. For example. if the clients purchased to 1000 units per year. Anyway experience shows that the largest quantity of goods is sold during the first period of discounts. store and advertise their goods. or because a new product has appeared that meets the same requirements but at a higher level.special reductions when samples series are sold. -That kind of information suggests the buyer to wait till the reductions are more essential. it reaches a certain level of sales and certain costs. -discounts for the goods that are in great demand in order to stimulate more sales. For 16-25 units there is 5% reduction.the clearance sales of the goods that aren’t in demand. -dealer’s reductions are offered by the manufacturers to the permanent representatives and intermediaries. They are considered quality discounts.functional reduction is applied by the manufacturers to commercial units who sell. The life cycle of a product or the economic life of a product is the time period between the moment of new product launching on the market and the moment of its final withdrawal from the market. in Balkans countries and in Asia. toothpaste together with a toothbrush. free of charge models. from 1001 to 3000 units – 15% etc.special event discounts that are applied in case of a special event or an anniversary. national or international clubs issue and sell activity licenses to commercial units. from 9 till 21 August -30%. for which it was created. is artificially risen. For example. b) cumulative mark downs are offered to the clients.a) non-cumulative mark downs represent the reduction for the purchased quantity over the minimum lot. They pay a certain sum of money per year and for that they receive the club’s card that they use when purchasing goods and services. For example. tractors and so on and they can reach 15-20% from the retailing price.

In this stage. a company has three strategy options: . III. etc. Pricing: if consumer demand is high the price might be maintained at a high level. As such. Marketing costs may be high in order to test the market. and seek to build product awareness and to educate potential consumers about the product. and set up distribution channels. Some of the considerations in the introduction stage include: Product development: research and development of the basic technology and product concept. although new competitors are expected to enter the market. Pricing: prices may be reduced because of increased competition. sales volumes and sales growth are small. launch and promote the product. When competitors enter the market a company might be subject to price competition and increase its marketing expenditure. A company’s fixed costs are low because it is has well established production and distribution. developing the technology. A product will also normally be subject to little or no competition. a company will try to build brand loyalty and increase market share. A company might try to stimulate growth by changing their pricing strategy. ensuring trade mark protection. High-cost and low market share firms will be forced to exit the industry. Promotion: promotion will focus on emphasizing product differences and creating/maintaining a strong brand. the product has become obsolete.I. Distribution: distribution might be quite selective until consumer acceptance of the product can be achieved. This is the stage during which the market as a whole makes the most profit. and perhaps more favorable market prices. but ultimately the product will have to be re-designed. for example. additional features and support services added. preparing the product branding. Pricing: should penetration pricing or a skimming price strategy be used? A skimming price strategy might be appropriate where there are very few competitors. Promotion: promotion is aimed at a broader audience. The market for that product shrinks which reduces the amount of profit available to the firms in the industry. Substantial research and development costs may have been incurred. As sales decline. Firms in the market should be careful not to start a price war. When a product reaches maturity. The market introduction stage is likely to be a period of low or negative profits. If a product fails to become profitable it may need to be abandoned. Decline. A product enters into decline when sales and profits start to fall. IV. Profits might also be driven by cost reductions gained from economies of scale. thinking of the product idea. Promotion: marketing efforts are aimed at early adopters. although increased marketing expenditure might be needed to retain market share and fight increasing competition. marketing expenditure might be reduced. establishing sufficient manufacturing capacity. Profits are driven by increased sales volume (due to growth in market share as well as an increase in the size of the overall market). Since brand awareness is strong. enter the “Growth Stage”. sales growth slows and sales volume eventually peaks and stabilizes. Distribution: distribution channels might be added as consumer demand increases. determining the product features and quality level. Growth. and packaging updated. Distribution: distribution intensifies and incentives may be offered to encourage preference to be given over competing products. Competition in the Growth Stage remains low. determining the product features and quality level. There may be substantial costs incurred in getting a product to the market introduction stage. II. Expenditure on research and development is likely to be restricted to product modification and improvement. prices tend to drop due to increased comp etition. Some of the considerations in the Growth Stage include: Product improvement: product quality might be improved. A company might spend a lot of resources on promotion during the Growth Stage to build brand loyalty. develop a market for the product. The primary goal in the introduction stage is to establish a market and build consumer demand for the product. Some considerations for the mature product market include: Product differentiation: increased competition in the mature product market means that a company must find ways to differentiate its product from that of competitors. In the Growth Stage. it is important that products are carefully monitored to ensure that sales volumes start to grow. At the market introduction stage the size of the market. or customer tastes have changed. or replaced. Introduction. Strong branding is one way to do this. and perhaps research into improved production efficiency and product quality. Maturity. A company’s primary objective at this point is to defend market share while maximizing profit. A decline might occur because the market has become saturated. If the public gains awareness of a product and consumers come to understand the benefits of the product and accept it then a company can expect a period of rapid sales growth.

it has been stated that a product may have a life cycle between 5-15 years. There are products that have a longer life cycle. including public ones. Among the methods of life cycle extension there are new modifications of a new market. Imperfect competition (monopoly. The price policy of a production and/or a merchandising company is strongly linked and dependent on its competitors’ activity on the target market. on the good’s characteristics and price.  The degree of products’ diversification. According to some statistics that have been carried out at the global level.  The degree of production factors’ fluidity – production factors’ usage and orientation towards the domains that ensure a high efficiency. and sell possibly to a loyal niche segment of the market. The classification and the features of market types. move manufacturing to a low cost jurisdiction). export. Distribution: distribution becomes more selective.1 Types of competition and market structures of nowaday economies Entrance Number of on the Examples of producers and market / Marketing methods and economic sectors products’ Pricing power barriers to commercial advertising where prevails this differentiation entry the usage type of competition degree market PERFECT (PURE) COMPETITION Many producers. Today there is a tendency of general reduction of the life cycle determined by fast rhythm of scientific technical progress. and liquidate the remaining inventory or sell the product to another firm. via a combination of several factors:  Amount and power of economic agents – on which the dimensions of supply and demand depend. Price: prices may be lowered to liquidate inventory. physical. between existing market chemical etc. no similar products price is formed by the barriers to (identical from the equilibrium value entry the quality. or maintained for continued products. unique goods that do not have Exchange market or auctions with no commercial advertising besides the collective association Especially in agriculture Impossible or very difficult Complete control. reduce marketing expenditure. Some considerations for a declining market include: Product consolidation: the number of products may be reduced. the main types of competition are: Pure competition. A company should be aware of the following aspects regarding its competitors: Who are the competitors? What strategies do competitors use? What are competitors’ objectives? Which are their cornerstones and weaknesses? How do they react to challenges on the market? The competition determines a certain market structure (competitive structure).  Fluidity (flexibility) of the market – producer’s possibility to have a direct contact with any customer/buyer. the possibility of every customer/buyer to choose freely their suppliers. natural resources. According to these factors. monopsony. the Easy. Reduce the cost of manufacturing (e. Harvest: continue to offer the product. 7. others have a shorter life cycle. Promotion: Expenditure on promotion is reduced for products subject to the Harvest and Divest strategies. Consider whether there are new markets in which the product might be sold. Channels that are no longer profitable are phased out.g.  Market’s transparency – information on market and exchange elements. point aggregate demand and of view) aggregate supply MONOPOLY One producer. monopolistic competition) Table 3. oligopoly. by growing demand of the consumer and the diversification of consumers’ requirements. . and surviving products rejuvenated. Divest: Discontinue production. sometimes with state’s interventions Commercial advertising with the only goal to increase the demand on Services’ rendering. oligopsony. Does not exist.Hold: maintain production and add new features and find new uses for the product.

Price features on a perfectly competitive market: A value fixed by the equilibrium between supply and demand. and all buyers are willing and able to buy at the market price. make new investments. The quantity produced by a company within a perfectly competitive market results from the condition that assures the maximal profit: Q optimal → MR=MC. computers etc. 8. The optimal price size on a perfectly competitive market on the shortrun is given by the following relation: PES = AR = MR = MC On the long-run. with a lower degree. due to the advantageous price. The peculiarities of price formation in perfect competition.substitutes the market and for product’s promotion military products MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION Many producers (sellers) with differentiated products and services Commercial advertising to attract customers by products’ quality.1). aluminum. or new companies enter the market. without influencing the market. that does not change as the quantity produced and supplied by each manufacturer apart changes. A given value. The equilibrium and price formation on a perfectly competitive market are achieved in the point where demand curve intersects the supply curve PE → D=S. the manufacturers update their production capacities. originality Various industries. some chemical products Difficult Differentiated oligopolies Small number of producers with differentiated. non homogeneous products Partial control. services. exclusiveness. A value accepted by both – sellers and buyers. P D1 S1 S2 S3 P1 P2 P3 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q . with diversified products. which results in a supply that satisfies the demand on the market (figure 3. merchandise Relativel y easy Low and very low OLIGOPOLY (DUOPOLY) Homogeneous oligopolies (pure oligopolies) Small number of producers with homogeneous products which are not substitutes Partial control taking into consideration the reaction of competitors Commercial advertising for crowding out competitors. taking into consideration competing companies’ reactions that produce substitutes Difficult Cars. Pure competition presumes the situation where all manufacturers are willing to sell their products at the market price. and customers’ attraction through emphasizing the advantages Commercial advertising to attract customers through emphasizing products’ novelty and quality Steel.

When charging the price. Discrimination prices can appear depending on the place where those are used. Thus. who paid lower price. placement. has to fulfill the following conditions in order to make the strategy efficient: the market should be segmented. There are 3 types of price discrimination: Perfect discrimination (the first degree) . -there are barriers to entry for other producers (patents. The methods of price establishing under the conditions of monopoly are: Dimensioning the production volume in the condition of profit maximization and price establishing according to the existing demand (achieving the maximum possible profit from each consumers’ segment): Pm>(MC=MR) Pm=(MC=MR) Pm<(MC=MR) 2) Production volume maximization (protection from potential competitors): Pm=ATC Pm<ATC 3) Managing on equilibrium (stocks’ liquidation): Pm=ATC 4) Price discrimination that is practiced by selling the same products at different prices on different markets in order to increase sales. achieving a final equilibrium. for a long period of time the force of competition occurrence determines not only the price of the product or the quantity changed under the conditions of balance. If in a competitive market the economic agent accepts the price as given and the demand curve is parallel to the axe X. if there is a sufficient number of firms in the branch. licenses etc).a situation when the price is adjusted exactly to the amount the customer is able to pay. the monopolist’s price is fixed. the monopolist may manipulate the supply’s volume only if he is a unique supplier of the product in the market. If a relatively high price was required for all seats in the theatre. on one side. but also the number of companies in the branch 9. Monopoly belongs to that type of markets and it has the following characteristics: -the product is manufactured by a single firm. the front rows would be full. to resell the product at higher price. Discrimination prices can be used in different time periods as a consequence of demand for a good that has different intensities in time (day. which is different at each consumer. the price will reach the level of average costs. Differences in price appear also due to different intensity of demand. it occurs when small quantities of goods are bought. Otherwise.Figure 3. we can conclude that the most favorable branch for price discrimination is the services’ rendering branch. that chooses this variant. For example: the seats in a theatre are differently priced although they required the same installation expenses. there shouldn’t be any possibility for the buyer. their profit will equal zero and these firms will be called marginal firms. product. According to these conditions. Discrimination between consumers is based on the intensity of demand. by the rule of the first arrived. -the product cannot be substituted.1. on the other side. Different prices solicited for different variants of the given product assert at the moment when different price levels are demanded for different versions of that good. short-term equilibrium price will decrease. the firm. and the others – empty. The basic elements that determine the price differences are the consumer. The use of this discrimination type . the spectators would consider fair to fill the seats according to the time of their arrival. No matter in what form price discrimination occurs. but for which the changes made on the good are not enough to substantiate the difference in price. and on the different information that consumers have. Imperfect competition is a feature of the markets where the producers have more freedom in price charge than in perfectly competitive markets. Long-term equilibrium on a perfectly competitive market As a consequence. imposed and controlled by the monopolistic firm and the demand curve in this case is negatively sloped. season). For example. The peculiarities of price formation in absolute monopoly. for telephone calls lower tariffs are charged in the evening than in the daytime or different tariffs are charged in week-ends from the ones charged in weekdays. and time. The relation that reflects the optimal price size on a perfectly competitive market on the long-run is: PEL < PES Long-term balance occurs when aggregate demand equals aggregate supply. and consumers’ segments should present different demand intensities for the same product.

 Barriers to entry. In a short period of time the firm will choose its production volume under the conditions of equality MC=MR. Monopolistic competition is situated between two market types: competition and monopoly. For a long term the b alance of the competitive monopolistic firm has two features: The product’s price. The peculiarities of price formation in monopolistic competition.  homogeneous supply (homogenous / pure oligopolies).  differentiated supply (differentiated oligopolies). It is replaced by products’ differentiation. transport expenses and the elasticity of different demand on corresponding markets. and. the situation when the buyers have the possibility to choose the product they want. Negative consequences of the “price war”: The price advantages on competitors do not last (are short-term). The price used within the price war becomes a “comparison” price for consumers. this fact will bring out zero profit.  interdependence. price cartels’ formation. the presentation of a new product that has original.  uncertainty. Abraham Frois said about monopolistic competition: ”Monopolistic competition has Thus. attitude of war – “price war” triggering. he obtains a temporary monopolistic position over this product. The distortion of the psychological barrier between price and quality. 10. trying to determine the customers to pay the maximum price and to obtain all the consumers’ surplus 1. Price behavior within oligopoly conditions is determined by the following behavior of companies: attitude of peace – agreements regarding zones of influence. on one hand. The second degree discrimination occurs when the monopolistic firm charges different prices for different quantities of goods being aware of the demand curve for each category of consumers and trying to obtain a part of consumer’s surplus. especially by means of advertising. and it will charge the price according to the evolution of the demand curve. but due to the fact that the demand curve is negatively sloped. which studies the individuals’ strategic behavior. taking into consideration the distance. charging higher prices in the home market and lower prices in foreign markets in order to make the firm more competitive in export domain. This is dumping price used in international trade. The main features of oligopolies are:  Few sellers / producers. as in monopolistic competition. It offers the possibility to destroy the competitors and to get leading position on the corresponding market. The peculiarities of price formation in oligopoly. the use of constructive materials or under a new brand.requires the monopolistic firm to know the demand for its goods and services of each consumer apart. and the sellers may impose the price and even the quantity by means of the policy of new products lines. and the practiced level of prices. The third degree discrimination occurs when different prices for the sale of the same product on different markets or in different locations are fixed. The use of dumping price is a part of unfair competition. As one of the . is higher than MC. MR is lower than the price. monopolistic competition has all the premises of perfect competition except one: products’ homogeneity. The discrimination may occur among native and foreign consumers. innovative qualities. This situation presumes the sale of a product on a foreign market at the price lower than the price of the same product in home market. the “Game Theory” can be used. If the producer has succeeded to attract the buyers by individual peculiarities of his good. due to new material presentation. The differentiation may occur: Objectively: the product will be different. The customers become sensible to price and further increases may result in a decrease in demand. In order to determine some of the possible moves that can be performed by companies within an oligopolistic market. New competitors’ appearance through the acquisition by other entities of the production capacities that belonged to the companies that had exited the market. 11. Free entry to the market and respectively a large number of firms make the price equal to ATC as in perfectly competitive market. on the other hand Subjectively: the product will be presented as a specific one. The firm’s profit will be the same as of the monopolistic firm.

2) =120 leis The usage of the method “cost=plus” when determining the price by the firm corresponds to the objective of obtaining a satisfactory long-term income level. This example reflects the idea that each firm tries to maximize the profit and that is why it is more attractive to reduce the price in order to improve sales results. According to SNC 3 “The structure of consumptions and expenses of a firm”. as all the necessary information is of inner use. total consumptions are divided into: Variable consumptions (VC) are those consumptions that change according to production volume.). The State establishes limits or limits the size of particular consumption articles and of the profitability of some products. It is recommended to the prices with a reduced competition level. the unit price will be: P=100 + (100×0. to which a profit margin is added that corresponds to the effort made and the risk taken. 2. etc. Direct consumptions concerning compulsory social and medical insurances. Direct consumptions concerning work remuneration. It is considered equitable both for the producers and for the consumers. that is in the basis of price determination. The margin has to be measured so that it shouldn’t be attractive for new competitors to enter the market. regardless of production volume variation or business activity of executive personnel. on the longrun. Cost and price have common economic nature. Direct consumptions of materials. Direct consumptions (DC) are the consumptions that may be assigned directly to a particular product. However.unitary profit margin For example: if ATC constitutes 100 leis and Mp-20%. They are represented by: 1. represents the consumptions that are assigned to finished product and rendered services. Total consumptions (TC) reflect the resources used to produce the goods and to render services in order to obtain profit. it is better that the firms coordinate their actions. product ion cost. the returns’ difference is obvious. At the same time the problem of price determination imposes the usage of marginal cost (MC) that is defined as additional cost charged for the production of an additional unit MC = ∆ TC / ∆ Q Methods of costing based on the cost are: The method of total cost The essence and way of application: total costs are established through the sum between direct and indirect consumptions (or fixed or variable consumptions). At the end of a business year production indirect consumptions are distributed according to a particular distribution basis (the quantity of produced goods. . 12. the assurance of an adequate profitability level. thus. The usage of this method in longterm substantiation of the prices has certain advantages such as simplicity. the other part being composed of profit. within the practical exercise of the game theory each participant tries to identify the strategy that would allow him to obtain the maximum gain or to minimize losses. this reduction allows obtaining a higher profit for a short period of time. mark-ups. Indirect consumptions (IC) are the consumptions that cannot be directly identified for a particular product. At the same time cost represents the biggest part of a product value. The structure of total consumptions may be represented in two ways: -depending on the way of assignment to the production.characteristics of an economic decision is its substantiation in the conditions of uncertainty. executed work volume and rendered services volume. -depending on the evolution when modifying production quantity. both expressing the consumption of social work. 3. According to the second criterion. The relation of costing is: P =ATC + (ATC x Mp) where: ATC-average total cost Mp. According to the first criterion the consumptions are divided into direct and indirect consumptions. The methods of price determination based on cost. Advantages This method is simple. material consumptions. not necessarily maximum level. Fixed consumptions (FC) are those consumptions that stay constant within a particular scale of modifications. VAT. If one of the firms charges a lower price. excises.

a good has a cost that is higher than the price that can be obtained. in which sales volume changes influence cost and profit modifications. if it was produced. This method is efficient in determining potential results when accepting supplementary order. and. For the first time it was used by some firms in the USA an was named “direct costing”. At the same time this method has some disadvantages: Demand and good’s utility for consumers aren’t taken into consideration.average direct consumptions Mp.average variable consumptions ADC. The elasticity of demand is not taken into consideration. marginal costing) The essence and way of application: profit margin is added to average consumptions variable or direct one. the unit price will be: P=80+40=120 leis The method of partial cost is widely used in highly. The way.unitary profit value For example: if AVC represents 80 leis and the tax for a unit is 40 leis (considering it sufficient to cover fixed consumptions. sales income is equal to total costs registered to produce a particular good. Accordingly. The relation of costing is: P=AVC+ (AVC×Mp) or P=ADC+ (ADC+Mp) where AVC. When taking strategic decisions the entrepreneur tries to solve the problem of quantities that are to be produced and offered on the market. The method of partial cost (Direct costing. is established in the same manner. the profit would be zero. In Europe this method got the name of “marginal cost”. Unitary share margin that is also called contribution per unit represents the result obtained from the sale of a product unit after unitary variable costs repayment and it includes the sum between operational profit and unitary fixed costs. This method requires the control of the quantities produced to eliminate the influence of fixed costs on tax margin.It is efficient for exclusively new products or for the production with distinct differences between existing ranges. This method is used in the countries with developed economy because of the following advantages: The size of fixed consumptions or indirect consumptions do not spread over production cost. considering inflation. average variable costs are considered price minimum limit. it is recovered through the size of margin added to AVC (ADC). It implies current costs and not long-term costs. where AFC.average fixed consumptions unitary Pf. at crucial point. financial management uses the method of Breakeven Point. at a certain level of cost. In order to find the breakeven point three methods are used: Equation method TR=VC+FC+Pf As the profit in the breakeven point equals zero.developed countries. AVC or ADC are flexible according to production volume. Price substantiation according to the parameters cost-volume-profit. There exists the risk of not selling the whole quantities of production for which total costs are being determined. Possible advantages concerning higher price practice are not used depending on consumers’ solvency. The price size doesn’t correlate sales volume. the seller increases losses by increasing production. having the same nature. 13. If an activity. if it was sold at a certain price level. At the first sight the idea seems simple: the things demanded will be produced in the quantities that may be sold. Analysis BEP is the determination of the quantity that. At the same time this method has some disadvantages: It is more oriented towards supply than towards demand. sau P*Q=(AVC*Q)+FC Considering this equation the breakeven point may be determined in physical units: QBEP in physical units=FC (Price-AVC) The method of contribution margin. for this point: TR=VC+FC. assuring profit gain). But this decision of the producer isn’t convenient in all the situations.profit margin or tax margin that represents the sum between average fixed costs and expected profit Mp= AFC+ unitary Pf. When analyzing the parameters cost-volume-profit. .

-it determines the usage degree of production capacity in connection with the profit volume. constant or variable. The disadvantages of BEP method -in order to determine the potential price. -it estimates the sales volume necessary to obtain the estimated profit. each unit sold in excess will bring profit. The graphic of the dependence between the parameters cost-volume-profit The crossing point between total return (TR) and total cost (TC) shows the production quantity that assures zero profit. production volume is used that. maximum amount of total consumptions and expenses may be projected. -the demand for the produced good isn’t taken into consideration. and then QBEP of the product is determined. accordingly QBEP in physical units=FC/CPU The method of graphical representations C Zona profitului VC TC Zona pierderilor FC QBEP Figure 1. -it calculates the sales volume at which the firm will have neither profit nor losses. The advantages of BEP method consist in the fact that: -it estimates the influence of the factors on the deviation of operational profit size. If the firm produces more goods. The exceeding of the effective sales volume (or a planned one) over the sales volume from the breakeven point is represented by the security indicator (Is) that shows how much sales volume can be reduced without risking suffering losses. -it explains the choice of the best variant of decision taking. -it records the relation between production dynamics and cost dynamics. in its turn. Simultaneously. it should reach the value of sales income. first there are established fixed total costs of each type of the product according to the contribution in sales volume. -it establishes the level at which the production becomes profitable.sales volume in unit necessary to obtain estimated or planned profit. If the firm produces a quantity smaller than QBEP.effective or planned quantity of sales The analysis of the breakeven point serves the basis in planning estimated profit from operational activity.CPU=Price-AVC or CPU=AFC+Pf. Is=Qef(plan)-QBEP. depends on price level. . . -it determines the security indicator. Pf estimated-the amount of estimated profit. where Qef(plan). Method BEP is also useful when establishing minimum value of the sales price that is determined according to the sales volume data and the level of the consumptions and expenses. QPf estimated=(FC+Pf estimated)/(P-AVC) or QPf estimated=(FC+Pf estimated)/CPU where QPf estimated.

14. Germany. if a parameter’s weight is 35%. Elasticity coefficient method. Combining analysis of the parameters according to their importance and interdependence. The factors that should be taken into consideration at the moment of price fixing are: The structure of demand according to consumers’ number and purchasing power. Increasing the usage value and maintaining cost level. utility assigned. The methods of price determination based on demand are: Technical analysis of value. then for this parameter the consumer will pay 35% of the price of the good. The effective price level (demand price) that the consumer is willing to pay according to his / her purchasing power.-it is based on the idea that everything. in the design stage. Maintaining the usage value at the same level and cost diminishing. medium. the method spread in France. at different price elasticities of demand. or the weight of each parameter within the entire usage value. The positioning of the price of the respective product by the consumers according to the scale: high. elasticity of demand. with 25%. The information on prices and quality of similar products that consumers have. and the associated production costs decreased. and to new ones. Due to these successes. The analysis of value can be performed both to existing products. The result consists in a range of positive or negative decisions. . is sold. This method appeared in the period of the Second World War.D. expressed by the functions’ grading coefficient. possibility of their grouping into segments. England. The correlation between price and quality. in 1959 the American Society of Value Analysis was founded. For price substantiation can also be used techniques of determination of importance coefficients (grading) of usage value parameters based on the matrix of parameters’ interaction. in 1964 Miles estimated that already 10% of American industry used the analysis of value. or if the price is high – the manufacturer is famous). The companies that use methods based on demand aim at the potential value of the good which might be assigned by the consumer. and in the beginning of 70 it also reached some of the former socialist countries. that are reflected in their price. on average. Within 4 years. experiments and so on. is followed. Soon. -it presents real data only when the price is constant regardless sales volume. ensuring an optimal relationship between the usage value of the goods and the costs incurred in order to produce and sell them. and Japan. Methods of price determination based on demand are founded on the principle of the “perceived value approach” – the start-up point for pricing is represented by the utility degree of the goods. Miles defined the analysis of value as „a creative activity. Italy. a higher efficiency might be achieved as a consequence of value analysis in the design stage. entrusted to be in command of a team working on implementing of this method in order to look for constructive solutions alternative to the company’s products. at the degree of utility represented by that good for the consumers. With the help of the matrix the importance of each parameter of the usage value can be assessed according to the total function of the product. or life of the product”. Price determination based on demand. 1) TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF VALUE By means of technical analysis of value. when General Electric Company from USA successfully analyzed the possibility of substitution of some traditional scarce materials. However. or low prices. according to which the importance degree of each parameter for the user is determined. namely: Increasing the usage value and cost diminishing. while 75-80% of costs are determined by the decisions made at that stage. or emergency of acquisition. For example. intended to eliminate unwanted costs. Miles. Practical accomplishment takes place through testing. that is produced. without diminishing the quality of the products. The exercise of this method implies 3 different stages: Specifying the parameters and their description within the total usage value. and at the possibility to substitute the consumed products. surveys. The founder of the method is L. Estimating the solutions of dimensioning the grading coefficients. the team succeeded in constructive modifying of 230 products. Increasing usage value together with a light increase of costs. existence of substitutes. costs that have no influence on the functions. Within the analysis of value can be chased and achieved certain directions. or by the producer’s fame and price assigned by the consumers (for example – if a high price is charged the good is of high quality. quality.

.. the coefficient of correlation (k) is determined as the ratio between a parameter of the new product (An) and the same parameter of a standard products (Ae). Price correlation implies comparison performance. If the new product implies expenses with supplementary endowment. The relation between technical parameters of those two products expresses the relation between the prices of those two products. Ae Be Ce An Bn Cn K GSA  GSB  GSC. Np where: GS is the parameters’ share in the total usage value (that is determined by the help of the matrix of parameters’ interaction).The results can be verified by the relation D = n x ( n – 1 ) / 2. Price correlation may take place through many methods. wool cloths. is used to determine the price of the new product: Pn = Pe x K. . where n is the total amount of parameters. glass products. mirrors. Third step: fixing the price applying the profit margin to average variable costs: P=AVC(1+Mpke). the value given by certain parameters common to both products.. When one parameter is used for correlation. to which new products may be compared regarding their price substantiation and charge. windows.. purses. Price adjustment to competition. Second step: determining the profit margin according to the price elasticity of demand: Mpke=-(1)/(Ke+1). K K An Ae When more parameters are correlated.... the correlation of prices for new products. 15. A price schedule isn’t recommended to those products whose number of assortments is smaller and prices suggestions take place once or twice a year. which will represent the basis for the establishment of new products and similar products that exist on the market both in terms of the usage value and in terms of the economic efficiency obtained both by the producer and by the user... The coefficient of correlation. They are generally used in the industry of ready-made clothes because of a very large number of existing assortments and models. Pe-the price of the standard product. shirts. knitwear goods for women. which has been determined by one of the above-mentioned methods. as follows: The correlation through the comparison of the usage value parameters is used for those products whose price is determined by the usage value. that means constructive elements totally new in comparison with the standard product. The necessary condition of the correlation success is the right choice of the standard products. Ae Be Ce K An / Ae  Bn / Be  Cn / Ce  . Standard products are similar products that are domestically produces or imported. Price schedules are also used to charge the price for some cotton. the coefficient of correlation can be determined in 3 ways: An Bn Cn x x . pottery etc. The advantage of the method consists in determining the profit margin and the price according to the coefficient that expresses the sensibility degree of consumers on the target-market at the price level. leather gloves. 2) ELASTICITY COEFFICIENT METHOD First step: estimating the price elasticity of demand (Ke) on the target market. according to the elements that are basic in this correlation. Np – the number of compared parameters. as well as tissues these are made of. where: Pn-the price of the new product. they will be added to the correlated price: Pn = Pe × K + ChDS where: ChDS – expenses on supplementary endowment The correlation within a price schedule is used for those groups or subgroups of products that have a very large variety of products and possible assortments.

if this practice maintains harmony within the sector. and the diversity of merchandising conditions. If the correlation element is the average cost. including those ones that will be put into production in the future. x0 . not only the prices applied on the market will be taken into consideration. p0 . In case the parameter of the new product falls into an existing series of parameters. there is a correlation through interpolation: p  p0  p1  p 0 x  x0  x1  x0 p1  p 0 x  x1  x1  x 0 In case the parameter of the new product continue the series. excise etc. Pricing within a series will be made by adding the growth ratio to the price of the previous assortment (P2=P1+r.the price of the assortments that neighbor the new assortment. industrial devices etc. taps. Prices series may be used when establishing supply prices of the products of construction industry (bearings. x1. current market price is used. picking and updating data. and then the growth rate is determined (r): Pn – P1 r = -----------n–1 where: Pn-the price of the last assortment. and / or functional differences. there is a correlation through extrapolation: p  p1  where p1. analyzing and adjusting the obtained price according to the product’s merchandising possibilities etc. xn. n-the number of the of the series’ terms. several price remedies are applied. At price fixing. but also the differences in products’ quality. The application sphere of this practice spreads over competition markets of some homogeneous products. assembly elements. etc.Price schedules are differentiated due to the fact that they take the form of a table where prices are already calculated for the whole assortment or for the dimensions of the same product or groups of products. usually. also taking into consideration the tendencies in price evolution on the national and international plans. Prices’ adjustment to competition represents a decision where price is considered a given unit and not an action variable. P1-the price of the first assortment of the series. In order to elaborate a price schedule it is necessary to find two essential parameters (the first and the last element of the series). oligopoly markets of differentiated goods when the firms practice “peace policy” or when they follow the leader. The justification of using this method refers to the following aspects: if measuring real costs is impossible (or difficult). In the process of price computing. coasted tubes. the general form of the schedule will be: Assortment ATC 1 ATC1 2 ATC2 = ATC1 + r 3 ATC3 = ATC2 + r n-1 ATC(n-1) = ATC(n-2) + r n ATCn The correlation within series of prices includes the price of the new product into the series of the existing prices according to the dimensions or other parameters accepted as the basis to establish the supply price. VAT. namely: identifying and ensuring sources of information on production costs and prices applied by competitors.the parameters of the three assortments (the new assortment and the two assortments that neighbor the new assortment). The correlation within the schedule can be performed on any structural element of price (cost.). performing prices’ calculation and their adjustment according to constructiv e. Pricing according to competitors’ prices implies passing several stages. that is supposed to recover the cost and generates a profit that is similar to the profit of the firms that produce the same good. if demand behavior versus price change can be found out. as well as any other information regarding the respective product.). the markets of raw materials.). as follows: .

competition) assumes a detailed analysis of endogenous and exogenous factors in correlation with firm’s objectives in the following stages: Stage 1: Objectives’ setting Any economic agent has to set his objectives. It is used in perfectly competitive market or in oligopoly where the market price is a given variable. after sale services. The main methods of prices’ adjustment to competition are: Adjustment according to average price in the branch. Price offers are put into envelopes that are opened during negotiations. as well as the total production cost according to the quantities produced. It is necessary to set them in advance and not only after getting the order. are determined. and vice versa. then price decision may have promotional objectives.remedies for the assignment of differences between quality parameters of the given product. There are 3 aspects: The awareness of market (demand) size supposes gathering information about potential consumers’ segments. their purchasing power. If the market is characterized by the existence of numerous sellers with a high degree of substitution. the seller will have little elasticity in prices determination and will have to align his prices to competitors’ prices. remedies for the estimation of differences of delivery conditions. no seller will be able to influence substantially the price. etc. The most difficult thing within this stage is that data are very difficult to obtain. price elasticity of demand. Stage 2: The analysis of market situation This analysis has to establish superior the limit for price decision based on the demand of a good and on the competition nature. Adjustment according to the market leader’s price.) and about the legislation regarding the price domain. Stage 3: Cost determination Direct and indirect consumptions. will align the prices to be competitive and to resist competition. remedies related to expressing internal expenses in a foreign currency (in case of import and export). The decision on price entails consumptions’ and expenses’ structure knowledge. requirements emergency. In this situation it is necessary to determine the type of the market leader which means to determine whether he has a dominant position or he is an orientation guide for other competitors. In the second case. wish to maintain the price level correlated to average market price level hoping that this price covers the cost.). accepted by sellers and buyers. the economic agent has to understand the role of prices determination in his activity. the objectives of price policy will be aimed . market share and production volume. that use this adjustment. fixed and variable costs. and those of the standard assortments. Price determination based on the balance between cost. Secondly. Increases in price made by market leaders will be followed by increases in price of the competitors. etc. The awareness of market prices means gathering information about a series of the elements connected to marketing factors (payment terms. This strategy is mostly used in exports. the number of the possibilities of price determination depends on the competition nature. that have a reduced market share or that have recently entered the competition. In this case the seller will try to differentiate the product by design. Tender is a price offer of the firm that considers possible prices charged by competitors. The contract is offered to the firm that offers minimum price level that sometimes may be even lower than cost level. tax and duty system. price decision may be limited to marginal prices. He must have a definite idea of what he wants to obtain through manufacturing and selling some products on the domestic and international market. The firms agree on price level. demand. demand and competition (Model 3 “C”). The awareness of competition first supposes the identification of direct and indirect competitors. etc. Price determination objectives are closely linked to marketing policy objectives. Price cartel. if projection and launching of high-quality products is desired. Price tender. In the first case. The firms. the firm has to register rather low costs in order to impose low price on the market. season. clearing. It is used when more firms compete to get a particular contract. quality. beer or wine etc. A direct competitor is selling a similar product. Usually price tenders are announced by the State in order to execute some works. service. 16. smaller firms. If the market is dominated by several big competitors. discounts. model. assurance. When a great weigh in consumptions’ structure belongs to fixed consumptions. as well as knowledge of their different behavior according to changes in production volume. For example: if the production and merchandising objective is to use production capacity excess. The process of pricing according to model “3C” (cost. The competitors have to practice the same prices level. especially data concerning price. an indirect competitor is selling a substantially different product assigned to the same consumer or to the same use (coffee or tea.

As a result. The accompanying letter may include such information as: the advantages of the product in comparison with competitors’ products. Many offers are sent by telex. if he accepts the price and if he wants to make an order. When a great weight in consumptions’ structure belongs to variable costs. A written offer should be accompanied by attractive advertising materials. whereafter will result the amount of profit or loss. As far as sales cover fixed consumptions. average cost of the product. other advantages of payment terms etc. By means of increasing the difference between average variable consumptions and price. if after the decrease there will be a possibility to increase the price etc. When the seller elaborates a price structure. each marginal unit of the product sold will generate increases in profit. but also by setting the price structure according to the market conditions. clear and concise description of the fixing the price level that will ensure total revenue that will cover the fixed consumptions and managing demand according to the maximal production capacity. fax or Internet. the company disposes of a price reserve and can practice prices that are lower than the market price. by turns. taxes and duties from price structure. They indicate sharing by exporters and importers of costs and responsibilities regarding transportation. an option would be examining the possibilities to enter other outlets. the price components: VAT. These conditions form the basis of price quotation. he can negotiate specific delivery conditions with the buyers. It is possible to send a blank or an accompanying letter. After the establishment of the final price level. Sistemul de preţuri ce a existat pînă în 1991 s-a caracterizat prin următoarele neajunsuri: . fixed consumptions’ recoup and inc reases in profit will be pursued. before it takes such a decision. For example: in case of exports. according to merchandizing conditions. as supply price starts from the market price. namely: how the competitors would react. it is necessary to clarify certain aspects. many delivery conditions have been established by International Chamber of Commerce and named “INCOTERMS”. etc. Prices can be established according to costs. The nature of the offers is different in various cases. In this case the regressive method is recommended. insurance expenses and expenses on customs formalities. The role of cost analysis is not limited just by the fixing supply price. Stage 5: The presentation of price offer By the price offer the economic agent supplies a potential buyer the exact price level and delivery terms in which he is ready to deliver the goods. or by summing price elements. respective recording documents are drawn up. the period of the offer’s validity. the date of delivery. profit margin. if some costs were not omitted. But. In case the difference between the market price and costs is lower or even negative. if other suppliers with more favorable transportation or space conditions can be found etc. Some economic agents send their offers in a special blank that includes an acceptance card that a potential buyer may fill in and send back. minimum and maximum quantities of the goods that may be ordered. are there reserves for cost decreasing. expenses. inflation rate. in order to make the buyer accept the offer. A special attention should be paid to possible delivery conditions or to production sales both on domestic and international markets. a non-competitive price can be charged while the market condition for the given good is not taken into consideration. Stage 4: The determination of price structure and level (or limit) The determination of price structure and level is performed in order to estimate the profit that the firm may get by selling its products. If the difference between the market price and cost is bigger. 17. the price policy will be aimed at covering these consumptions and increasing per unit contribution margin. In this case. if a smaller price would not generate doubts regarding the product’s quality. the company should answer a set of questions like: would the market accept a higher price. At this stage the method of price determination is chosen. Price reform in the Republic of Moldova. A price offer should contain: thanks for soliciting the respective good. from which are figured out. delivery terms and additional costs included in the price. excise tax (depending on the product). and supplementary factors are considered as well: market risk. allowances offered by dealers.

necuprinderea în costurile de producţie şi în preţuri a unor cheltuieli justificate economic (cheltuieli cu descoperirea rezervelor geologice. telecomunicaţii). folosirea unui sistem fiscal care să combată evaziunea şi specula. tutun. la producţia de primă necesitate pentru consumul populaţiei. Etapa 2 a întrodus schimbări esenţiale în mecanismul formării preţurilor cu amănuntul care. № 256 din 26-12-1991 „Cu privire la liberalizarea preţurilor şi tarifelor şi protecţia socială a populaţiei „ şi a inclus 4 etape: Etapa I – prima subetapă între 2 ianuarie – 31 octombrie 1992. menţinând sau accentuând dezechilibrul. Pe linia creşterii ofertei. №185 din 4 noiembrie 1993. clasificarea lor pe elemente şi articole de calculaţie. produse lactate. ulei vegetal. produse de panificaţie. protecţia mediului înconjurător. Au fost instituite plafoane de preţuri la resurse energetice. Astfel. concretizate în existenţa unor unităţi. 4. s-au liberalizat preţurile la unele produse din carne. legume. 5. Cheltuielile de fabricaţie şi desfacere a producţiei. lapte şi ouă). Etapa II – 30 septembrie 1993 până la 22 mai 1994. Etapa IV – de la 1 ianuarie 1998. conform contractelor interstatale în cadrul CSI.M. activităţi. unele fiind subevaluate iar altele supraevaluate în raport cu acestea. a doua subetapă între 1 noiembrie 1992 şi 29 septembrie 1993. În procesul de tranziţie o ţară se află în faţa unei opţiuni fundamentale în ceea ce priveşte preţurile. Adaosul comercial aplicat de unităţile de desfacere nu depăşea 20%. unităţi. medicamente. Din 15 februarie 1992 s-au eliminat subvenţiile la mezeluri fierte. metale preţioase. dar care nu asigură echilibrul dintre cerere şi ofertă. costul real al apei şi al reparaţiilor la fondul locativ etc. zahăr. animale şi păsări. stimu larea atragerii economiilor băneşti şi acordarea. ori se acceptă întroducerea unui sistem nou de preţuri care va asigura acest echilibru. În cadrul primei etape erau reglementate preţurile la producţia importată.). ceea ce a condus la rezultate necorespunzătoare. menţinerea neschimbată a preţurilor pe perioade mari. struguri. la producţia monopolurilor naturale (energetică.M. cota plafon 30% (pentru celelalte mărfuri în afară de mărfurile de lux) şi cota liberă (pentru mărfurile de lux). A fost schimbată baza de dimensionare a adaosului comercial: dacă la prima etapă ea constituia preţul cu ridicata a mărfii. la etapa a doua – preţul de livrare. crearea unui sistem de preţuri specific economiei de piaţă a început odată cu Decretul Preşedintelui R. de împrumuturi agenţilor economici. preţul cu ridicata majorat cu suma impozitelor indirecte. O altă soluţie ar fi creşterea importurilor. adoptat prin Hotărârea Guvernului №340 din 2 iunie 1993. sfecla de zahăr. zahăr. în scopul protecţiei pieţei . la serviciile de transport. Cota plafon de 20% adaos comercial a fost înlocuită cu 3 nivele a cotei: cota -plafon 20% (pentru 25 tipuri de produse de primă necesitate). respectiv.M. neţinându -se seama de raportul cerereofertă. În R. Pe linie de cerere pot fi următoarele soluţii potenţiale: reforma monetară. În vederea echilibrării cererii cu oferta se poate acţiona şi în direcţia manipulării cererii sau ofertei. Din anul 1993 s -a redus lista produselor agricole pentru care statul garanta preţuri minimale. în lipsa unor preţuri bazate pe acţiunea legii cererii şi ofertei nu se putea afirma cu precizie ce activităţi sunt sau nu rentabile şi nu se putea orienta corect nici procesul de dezvoltare şi restructurare a economiei naţionale etc. serviciilor). 2. Prin Decretul Preşedintelui R. în afară de preţul de livrare şi adaos comercial includ deja cheltuielile de transport şi dobânda pentru credite bancare. paralel cu realizarea unor rentabilităţi exagerate la alte produse. sare. iar din 15 octombrie 1992 au fost liberalizate preţurile la unele produse alimentare (ulei. activităţi şi produse nerentabile. pe seama lor. formarea rezultatelor financiare erau determinate de Regulamentul “Cu privire la structura cheltuielilor de fabricaţie şi desfacere a producţiei (lucrărilor. îndepărtarea nivelului preţurilor interne faţă de preţurile externe. şi anume: ori se acceptă practicarea unor preţuri relativ mici şi stabile. Etapa III – 23 mai 1994 – 31 decembrie 1997. carne).1. îndepărtarea preţurilor de nivelul real al costurilor. incluse în preţul de cost şi modul de formare a rezultatelor financiare ale întreprinderilor”. floarea soarelui. 3. chirie. dar ea prezintă dezavantajul reducerii rezervelor valutare a ţării. de evoluţia costurilor de producţie sau a preţurilor externe. acestea aplicându-se doar la grâne cu excepţia porumbului (iniţial fiind fixate preţuri minimale la cereale. singura modalitate pentru aplanarea dezechilibrelor dintre cerere şi ofertă a rămas să fie liberalizarea preţurilor. trebuie acţionat în vederea creşterii producţiei.

1994 faţă de 1993 cu 587%. Ori de câte ori formarea liberă a preţurilor nu este posibilă sau recomandată. indexarea veniturilor pe baza indicelui mediu de creştere a preţurilor şi tarifelor. Metodele controlului indirect: cotele de impozitare. normele de stabilire a preţurilor. controlul asupra masei monetare. După 1994 s -a făcut simţită tendinţa spre stabilizare a nivelului preţurilor. şi mai uşoară în perioadele de stabilitate economică. 1993 faţă de 1992 cu 1320%. Există două metode de intervenţie a statului în materie de preţ (schema 5. cu atât necesitatea şi eficienţa controlului statului. Efectele negative s -au manifestat prin rata înaltă a inflaţiei. medicamente. în situaţia fundamentării deciziilor cu privire la preţ.a. are loc liberalizarea preţurilor la majoritatea produselor alimentare şi tarifelo r în transport. iar altele reduse de 1.7%. în luarea deciziilor de preţ intervine statul.5 – 3 ori. 10%. 1997-1996 cu 112%. intervenţia statului în domeniul preţurilor a fost prezentă în toate timpurile. limitarea marjei de profit. conform căruia a fost schimbat modul de calcul al venitului.3%. stabilirea normelor de amortizare ş. Specialiştii apreciază că a avut loc o liberalizare graduală a preţurilor. sau în timp de război etc. declararea preţurilor şi tarifelor ş. În cadrul economiei de piaţă. 1998-1997 cu 108%. Etapa IV a început cu întroducerea Codului fiscal (titlurile I şi II) din 1 ianuarie 1998. se ridică nivelul preţurilor reglementate de stat pentru a reduce dotările din buget.7%. s-a considerat că a avut loc o terapie de şoc. datorită caracterului său de noutate pentru cetăţenii obişnuiţi cu preţuri mici şi relativ stabile. Din 10 ianuarie 1994 prin Decretul Preşedintelui №220 în structura preţului de import. Potrivit datelor oficiale pînă la momentul actual 20% de preţuri sunt reglementa te în mod direct de stat. În general.3%. alocaţii de stat pentru copii etc. oferta dificitară la unele produse importante pentru economie şi populaţie. Implementarea standardelor naţionale de contabilitate a întrodus modificări substanţiale în clasificarea şi calculul costurilor. a fost implementat accizul. prin adaosuri la salarii şi pensii. lapte. cu influienţă negativă asupra cererii şi a nivelului de trai al populaţiei. şi anume: penuria de resurse de materii prime şi energie. în afară de taxe vamale şi TVA de 20%. urmând ca din 6 decembrie 1993 unele cote să fie anulate. . 18. Au fost eliminate ori reduse cotele impozitelor indirecte la un şir de mărfuri. 30%. 50% şi 70%. Cu cât piaţa reală este mai îndepărtată de concurenţa perfectă. utilizarea a plafoanelor rentabilităţii de 25% şi 50% şi clasificarea agenţilor economici monopolişti. Întervenţia statului în stabilirea. Astfel. 1999-1998 cu 143. precum şi datorită proporţiilor modificărilor de preţuri. plafoanele de preţuri. sistemul de remunerare a muncii. blocarea preţurilor. precum şi diferite organisme a statului. 2000-1999 cu 118.interne. ca element al preţului de import a fost implementat tariful vamal cu cotele de 5%. Implementarea titlului III al Codului fiscal din 1 iulie 1998 a intervenit cu schimbări în termenii de plată a TVA şi în modul de calcul al adaosului comercial. Pentru anul 2003 rata creşterii IPC a constituit 115. sunt puşi înainte de toate agenţii economici. S -a revenit la metoda anterioară prin aplicarea cotei adaosului comercial la preţul cu ridicata fără TVA. a intervenţiei lui asupra preţurilor este mai mare. De rând cu aceste.a. Liberalizarea preţurilor a atras după sine şi adoptarea unor măsuri de protecţie socială: acordarea unor compensaţii. care vând şi cumpără mărfuri materiale şi nemateriale. Au intervenit schimbări substanţiale în formarea preţurilor la mărfurile întreprinderilor monopoliste: aplicarea înregistrării preţurilor şi argumentarea prin nota explicativă a intenţiei de modificare a lor. în 1992 faţă de 1991 IPC a crescut cu 1208. reglarea cheltuielilor de stat. politica de creditare. Prin adoptarea Legii “Cu privire la preţul normativ al pământului” se garantează un nivel minim al preţului de vânzare pentru posesorii de terenuri agricole. protejarea producţiei autohtone de concurenţa străină. 1996-1995 cu 124%. 1995 faţă de 1994 – 130%.4% şi 2001 faţă de 2000 cu 106.1) Metodele controlului direct: stabilirea administrată a preţurilor. combaterea unor situaţii de monopol sau oligopol. precum şi al concurenţei neloiale. însă. dirijarea şi urmărirea evoluţiei preţurilor este determinată de mai multe situaţii sau cerinţe economice. însărcinate să asigure echilibrul economic şi financiar la nivel macro. Prin amestecul în procesul formării preţurilor se urmăreşte asigurarea unei stabilităţi economice şi protecţii sociale. reducerea puterii de cumpărare a banilor şi a nivelului de trai a populaţiei. fiind mai intensă în perioadele de criză economică. În cadrul etapei 3 au fost liberalizate preţurile la pîine. satisfacerea unui minim de cerinţe şi interese. declin economic. The necessity of prices regulation. celelalte 80% fiind considerate preţuri libere.

În afară de agenţii economici şi Parlament. Moldova №845-XII „Cu privire la antreprenoriat şi întreprinderi” specifică că: întreprinderile au dreptul să stabilească de sinestătător preţurile (tarifele) la produsele fabricate. aşteptând înlăturarea restricţiei de preţ. Astfel de metode se folosesc pentru susţinerea preţurilor produselor agricole şi agroalimentare. efectuiază calculul indicilor de preţ şi publică informaţia respectivă. Legea R. vânzarea preferenţială a produselor în funcţie de unele criterii subiective. lucrările şi serviciile prestate. Preţul fixat în mod autoritar de către stat poate să apară ca preţ maxim. să se completeze. apariţia pieţei negre. exercită controlul asupra respectării legislaţiei antimonopol. lipsită de conţinut. Pentru a fi stimulativ acest preţ trebuie să fie cel puţin la nivelul preţului de echilibru rezultat de jocul cererii şi ofertei. reduce cantitatea oferită de producători. Ca rezultat. . urmăreşte corelarea veniturilor populaţiei cu evoluţia preţurilor bunurilor de consum şi elaborează acte normative referitoare la protecţia socială a populaţiei. fie prin achiziţii propri i. 2. superior preţului de echilibru. ceea ce înseamnă că preferinţele subiective ale vânzătorilor şi cumpărătorilor sunt înlocuite cu hotărârea organelor de stat de a asigura procurarea în mod egal de către toţi consumatorii a unei cantităţi fixe dintr -un bun. Ministerul Economiei promovează politica statului în domeniul formării preţurilor. bazate pe relaţii personale sprijinite pe contraprestaţii. a negocierii preţurilor. Stabilirea preţului minim deasupra preţului de echilibru determină apariţia unui excedent de ofertă faţă de cerere. piaţă pe care bunurile se vând ilegal. Metodele reglementării directe presupun controlul nemijlocit din partea statului asupra nivelului sau a unor elemente structurale a preţului. 20. vânzarea produselor cu aglomeraţie ceea ce presupune pierderi de timp pentru consumatori. promovează concurenţa loială. exercită controlul modificărilor în structura pieţelor de mărfuri. supravegherea circulaţiei pachetelor mari ale hârtiilor de valoare. dacă aceştea nu găsesc produsele ieftine pe piaţă. La fel. timp. la un preţ mult mai superior celui maxim impus de către organele de stat. Direct prices regulation methods. prin limitarea nivelului marjei de profit sau a adaosului c omercial 1. combustibilului şi resurselor energetice. The institutions authorized to take decisions in prices formations. stimulează consumul şi sporeşte cantitatea cerută de produs. preţ minim sau ca preţ subvenţionat. raţionalizarea consumului de produse pentru care există deficit pe bază de tichete sau bonuri. Preţul maxim este inferior preţului de echilibru. dar practicarea acestui preţ modifică volumul cererii şi ofertei. fie prin stimularea exporturilor etc. Agenţia Naţională de Protecţie a Concurenţei care se ocupă cu promovarea concurenţei şi acordă consultaţii Guvernului în ce priveşte actele normative referitoare la preţ. ale materiilor prime de bază. stabileşte preţurile produselor subvenţionate şi face propuneri de acte normative în domeniul preţului. asigură organizatoric şi metodologic procedeele de determinare a preţurilor. care nu sunt de acord să -şi vândă produsul la un preţ mai mic şi pot recurge la stocarea producţiei respective. Departamentul Statistică organizează supravegherea statistică a nivelului preţurilor. Producătorii se vor afla în situaţia de a acorda anumite facilităţi (rabaturi) cumpărătorilor pentru a-şi spori volumul vânzărilor. La fel.Aceste două metode nu trebuie să se neglijeze. controlul asupra formării preţurilor. care dacă ar fi contabilizat şi adăugat la preţul de cumpărare al mărfii ar putea rezulta un preţ mult mai mare decât preţul care s -ar fi creat pe piaţa liberă. poate să apară penuria de produse iar protecţia consumatorilor devine una formală. Preţul minim se foloseşte pentru a stimula dezvoltarea şi creşterea producţiei în unele sectoare şi este. ceea ce face ca efectele dorite de stat prin stabilirea unor preţuri scăzute să fie anihilate. competenţe decizionale privind preţurile mai au: Ministerul Finanţelor cu departamentele şi direcţiile de resort îndeplineşte măsuri privind supravegherea concurenţei. Această situaţie poate crea o serie de consecinţe: protecţia consumatorilor prin practicarea unor preţuri mai mici. statul controlează administrativ preţurile prin blocarea lor. Ministerul Muncii şi Protecţiei sociale. În asemenea situaţii se recomandă ca statul să adopte măsuri prin care să asigure condiţii de desfacere a surplusului de ofertă. Organele administraţiei publice locale efectuiază reglementarea preţurilor şi controlul asupra disciplinei preţurilor în limitele competenţelor sale. controlul asupra atragerii investiţiilor străine de proporţii mari. de regulă. iar eficienţa folosirii lor depinde de luarea unor măsuri în vederea reglării veniturilor consumatorilor. ci din contra. fie prin acordarea unor facilităţi fiscale sau de credit producătorilor sau cumpărătorilor. 19.

state care în cadrul dezvoltării economice au trecut prin procese inflaţion iste acute. influenţează nivelul preţurilor. fondul de pensii.3. cu multe verificări sau analize pe trepte ierarhice. În al treilea rând. unele servicii prestate de instituţii de stat sunt elaborate metodologiile de determinare a costului şi a preţului (tarifului). Mărimea subvenţiei este egală cu diferenţa dintre preţul normal (preţ ce asigură recuperarea costului şi permite obţinerea unui profit rezonabil pentru ramura respectivă) şi preţul garantat de stat. lapte şi alte produse de primă necesitate. 1. SUA ş. Moldova pentru produsele petroliere. politicii monetar creditare. la rândul său. Limitarea marjei de profit pentru agenţii economici producători şi a adaosului comercial pentru agenţii economici ce se ocupă cu desfacerea mărfurilor. din care pînă la 15% revine agenţilor economici importatori şi pînă la 25%-farmaciilor. respectiv.). în special din agricultură. Statul foloseşte controlul indirect prin intermediul politicii fiscale. în R. . În dependenţă de situaţia concretă. Preţul subvenţionat presupune acoperirea pierderilor pe care le pot înregistra întreprinderile. prin reglementarea cheltuielilor de stat şi a sistemului de remunerare a muncii. Atitudinea faţă de subvenţie a agentului economic este una negativă comparativ cu veniturile proprii obţinute prin preţ. Este folosită în perioade caracterizate prin o rată înaltă a inflaţiei în vederea asigurării unei stabilizări. lapte. altele reducând volumul profitului iar celelalte reprezentând ad aos la preţ. 5% intermediarul şi 15% unitatea de desfacere cu amănuntul). Pentru produsele destinate copiilor adaosul comercial total trebuie să constituie 20% la preţul producătorului (de ex. Unităţile comerciale nu includ adaos comercial mai mare de 20% pentru pîine. Subvenţionarea este caracteristică anumitor perioade. La formarea preţului la medicamente se admite aplicarea unui adaos comercial de pînă la 40%. taxele şi contribuţiile ce influenţează în mod direct sau indirect preţul îndeplinesc următoarele importante funcţii economice şi sociale: servesc drept surse de bază pentru completarea veniturilor bugetare. şi nu de cauze subiective. Au fost folosite preţuri subvenţionate la pîine. Blocarea (îngheţarea) preţurilor reprezintă menţinerea preţurilor la unele tipuri de produse pe ntru o anumită perioadă de timp. În structura preţului impozitele. 4. a resurselor naturale. stabilite de stat. Moldova se limitează marja de profit în mărime de 25-50% pentru produsele fabricate de agenţii economici monopolişti. Este de subliniat că subvenţia se acordă de la buget numai pe bază de documentaţie. În R. Conform legislaţiei în vigoare. Indirect prices regulation methods. taxele şi contribuţiile sunt reflectate neadecvat. apă. În R. 20-25% pentru tutun. Statul foloseşte metodele directe şi atunci când impune o metodologie unică de determinare a costului şi a preţului. care reprezintă adaos la preţ. Impozitele.a. Astfel subvenţia pentru acoperirea pierderilor asigură rambursarea costului de producţie ce reese din anumite cause obiective.a. chiar dacă producătorii primind subvenţia şi -au acoperit în întregime cheltuielile. Prin intermediul metodelor indirecte statul tinde să asigure echilibrul dintre cerere şi ofertă în vederea majorării lente a preţurilor în cadrul întregii economii. Legătura dintre preţ şi impozitul pe venitul persoanelor juridice se reflectă prin faptul că ultimul se determină în funcţie de mărimea profitului care. gaze naturale. Însă este greu de presupus că pierderile au fost determinate în întregime de cause obiective. În al doilea rând. ca urmare a practicării a preţurilor mai scăzute. În componenţa cheltuielilor generale şi administrative care se deduc din profit se includ contribuţiile pentru asigurările medicale. rata inflaţiei. taxa pentru folosirea drumurilor. reglarea preţurilor poate avea caracter antiinflaţionist. 21. unele fiind incluse în cost. sau ar fi obţinut în plus şi profit. taxa pentru apă ş. este necesară în unele situaţii concrete şi prezintă unele avantaje şi dezavantaje. În corespundere cu prevederile SNC №3 în componenţa consumurilor directe privind retribuirea muncii (respectiv în structura costului) se includ CAS. A fost utilizată în Franţa. Cea mai mare influenţă asupra preţurilor o au impozitele indirecte. prin practicarea unor preţuri neacoperitoare nu sunt stimulaţi producătorii în creşterea producţiei resurselor respective. Politica fiscală. iar consumatorii resurselor nu sunt cointeresaţi în economisirea şi valorificarea superioară a acestora. 5. până la momentul actual se subvenţionează tarifele pentru transportul de călători de către Regia de Transport Electric urban. prin participarea la procesul de distribuire şi redistribuire a venitului naţional influenţează veniturile diferitor pături sociale a populaţiei. influenţează producţia în sensul lărgirii sau restrângerii ei. situaţia nu este similară acelei când prin preţurile încasate şi -ar fi acoperit operativ aceste cheltuieli. depinde de nivelul preţului. Moldova s-au acordat subvenţii de la buget pentru acoperirea pierderilor unor întreprinderi. fondul de stat de plasare în câmpul muncii şi alte impozite şi taxe în conformitate cu legislaţia în vigoare (impozitul pe bunurile imobiliare.

103 titlul III al Codului Fiscal. cota 8% pentru pâine şi produse de panificaţie. se divizează în: a) taxa specială. c) taxa compensatorie. Taxele vamale sunt plăţi obligatorii. precum şi a unei părţi din valoarea mărfurilor. ţn baza valorii tranzacţiei cu marfă similară. pe vânzarea anumitor grupe de produse.2% din valoarea mărfurilor) .a. produsele din tutun. se aplică sub forma cotelor procentuale asupra valorii mărfii. 15% din valoare. În funcţie de modul de percepere taxele vamale se clasifică în următoarele categorii: ad-valorem. prin metoda de rezervă. blănuri naturale. b) taxa antidumping. reprezentate de bunurile care dăunează sănătăţii şi de produsele considerate de lux. serviciilor prestate care sunt supuse impozitării pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova. în baza costului unitar al mărfii. Aplicarea taxelor vamale asupra mărfurilor importate determină majorarea preţurilor lor şi sporeşte competitivitatea mărfurilor din ţara importatoare. specifice.a.Conform prevederilor titlului III al Codului Fiscal. organizaţiilor internaţionale. Ele îndeplinesc două funcţii principale: protecţionistă. cota 0 pentru livrările de curent electric. dacă sunt lezate interesele sau apare pericolul cauzării prejudiciilor materiale producătorilor autohtoni de mărfuri identice sau similare ori apar piedici pentru organizarea sau extinderea în ţară a producţiei de mărfuri identice sau similare. În RM se folosesc 4 cote TVA: cota standard 20%. TVA este un impozit general de stat care reprezintă o formă de colectare la buget a unei părţi a valorii mărfurilor livrate. pe cifra octanică etc). se stabilesc ca mărime absolută pentru 1 unitate de marfă. dar nu mai mult de 20$ pentru o tonă (nu se aplică în RM). care. bijuterii. Spre exemplu. serviciilor impozabile importate în Republica Moldova. Taxele vamale urmează a fi delimitate de comisioanele vamale. au fost utilizate subvenţii. parfumuri. de regulă. care implică primele două categorii. la rîndul ei. pe gradul de concentraţie. cota 5% pentru gazele naturale. în baza valorii calculate a mărfii. Regitrul tuturor mărfurilor care se supun taxelor vamale reprezintă Tariful vamal. combinate. exceptională. Accizele sunt taxe speciale de consumaţie şi se aşează. articole din cristal ş. care nu au natură de impozit şi se referă la plăţi pentru efectuarea procedurilor vamale (reprezintă 0. Conform titlului IV al Codului Fiscal accizul este un impozit general de stat stabilit pentru unele mărfuri de consum. aplicată în scopul protejării mărfurilor de origine indigena la întroducerea pe teritoriul vamal a mărfurilor de producţie străina în cantităţi şi în condiţii care cauzează sau pot cauza prejudicii materiale considerabile producătorilor de mărfuri autohtoni. percepută în cazul întroducerii pe teritoriul vamal a unor mărfuri la preţuri mai mici decât valoarea lor în ţara exportatoare la momentul importului. alte produse şi grupe de produse: cafea. precum şi pentru activitatea în domeniul jocurilor de noroc. în R. Valoarea în vamă a mărfii întroduse pe teritoriul vamal se determină prin următoarele metode: în baza valorii tranzacţiei cu marfa respectivă ori în baza preţului efectiv plătit sau de plătit. fie ca o cotă procentuală care se aplică asupra bazei de impozitare. exportul de mărfuri ş. lapte şi produse lactate. derivatele sale şi orice alte băuturi alcoolice. Moldova se plătesc accize pentru: alcoolul etilic alimentar. livrări prevăzute de art. în baza valorii tranzacţiei cu marfă identică. direct sau indirect. care este legată de protecţia producătorilor autohtoni. Accizele se calculează: fie ca o cotă fixă în lei sau în Euro pe unitatea de masură specifică (de exemplu pe litru. funcţia fiscală. dacă sunt lezate interesele sau apare pericolul cauzării prejudiciilor materiale producătorilor autohtoni de mărfuri identice sau similare ori apar piedici pentru organizarea sau extinderea în ţară a producţiei de mărfuri identice. la producerea sau la exportul cărora. producţia vegetală şi animalieră în stare proaspătă. produsele petroliere. aplicate importului şi exportului de mărfuri. autoturisme. De exemplu. care se manifestă în rolul taxelor vamale de a asigura venituri bugetare (în RM ponderea TV în veniturile bugetare constituie 2-3%). aplicată în cazul întroducerii pe teritoriul vamal a mărfurilor. pentru mărfurile destinate reprezentanţelor diplomatice.

discriminatorii sau diferenţiate. Cheltuielile salariale se includ în componenţa costului. indicative. fiindcă majorarea nivelului preţurilor la resursele tehnice şi materiale determină creşterea imediată a costului. Politica monetar-creditară. şi anume: A: În cazul înţelegerilor secrete concertate pentru ofertanţii le licitaţii (oferte trucate) se poate folosi: examinarea pe termen lung a nivelurilor preţurilor de ofertă la licitaţii consecutive pentru a observa creşterea sau reducerea inexplicabilă a lor. resurse energetice sunt nevoite să apeleze la credite. ori raporturile dintre cele două categorii de comercianţi. ele se referă la preţuri. la condiţiile şi formele de vânzare. Prin practicarea unor preţuri impuse se urmăreşte fixarea. Interacţiunea dintre preţ şi masa monetară se manifestă prin apariţia fenomanului inflaţiei. Preţurile discriminatorii sunt interzise. majorarea poverii fiscale. 3. supravegherea firmelor membre a cartelului.a. Competition protection and antimonopoly policy. . Sistemul de remunerare a muncii. analiza unei serii de oferte ale aceluiaşi ofertant poate dezvălui necorespunderea dintre costuri şi preţuri. De ex. sunt interzise de lege. Interdependenţa dintre preţ şi credit se manifestă prin faptul că creditul influenţează cantitatea de bani aflaţi în circulaţie. Între preţ şi inflaţie există o intercondiţionare reciprocă. preţurile fiind atât cauză. inclusiv a contractelor de licenţă cu partenerii străini. Întreprinderile ce nu sunt în stare să se achite cu furnizorii pentru materie primă. Şi preţurile diferenţiale în general. nefiind justificate de diferenţe dintre costuri. Băncile comerciale vor înregistra un deficit de lichidităţi şi vor ridica rata dobânzii. vânzările la preţ redus sau sub nivelul costurilor etc. emisiune monetară fără acoperire 4. negocierea exclusivă ş. de regulă. examinarea cotaţiilor de preţ înaintate de aceleaşi firme pentru diferite licitaţii succesive pentru identificarea paralelismului de preţ care ar putea exista între unele din ele. cât şi efect al inflaţiei. B: Impunerea preţului de revânzare este uşor de detectat deoarece preţurile sunt. Ce ţine de principalele măsuri restrictive de protecţie a consumatorilor. O variantă a preţurilor impuse este cea a preţurilor recomandate. materiale. dar şi datorită creşterii numărului de credite nerambursate la timp. ceea ce determină creşterea sau reducerea preţurilor. Pentru asigurarea funcţionării eficiente a pieţei din cadrul sectoarelor în care au loc comportamente îndoelnice se impune utilizarea unor mijloace de detectare a practicilor anticoncurenţiale. creşterea preţurilor stimulează relaţiile creditare. Reglementarea cheltuielilor de stat. limitarea sau controlul preţurilor într -un anumit stadiu. Finanţarea deficitului bugetar se poate face prin mai multe modalităţi. Nivelul şi formarea preţurilor are o importanţă deosebită în realizarea actului de vânzare cumpărare şi în asigurarea unei concurenţe loiale. pot fi detectate prin examinarea sistematică a contractelor încheiate între producători şi distribuitori. Dacă băncile nu dispun din start de sumele solicitate. C: Cumpărarea legată. deoarece determină autonomia comercianţilor în raport cu producătorii. care au legătură şi influenţează nivelul preţurilor în economie: vânzarea de obligaţiuni guvernamentale cu o dobândă atrăgătoare pentru creditori. examinarea localizării licitanţilor câştigători într -o serie de licitaţii succesive. deoarece generează condiţii de vânzare diferite pentru aceleaşi produse şi mai ales avantaje acordate după facturare. modul de încheere a înţelegerii între firme. Cele mai frecvente modalităţi de a influienţa raporturile de concurenţă prin preţ constau î n practicile de preţuri impuse sau recomandate. 22. de referinţă sau dialog. are loc creşterea costului creditului. D: Detectarea cartelurilor necesită cunoaşterea mediului de funcţionare a acestuia şi a problemelor cu care se confruntă care pot apărea sub 3 aspecte: atragerea tuturor firmelor în cartel.2. imprimate pe ambalajul produsului iar uniformitatea preţurilor între diferiţi comercianţi angrosişti sau detailişti poate arăta faptul că preţurile sunt fixate de producător şi că ele nu se formează liber. precum şi concurenţa dintre comercianţi din aceeaşi reţea sau piaţă. examinarea succesiunii în care întreprinderile depun ofer te câştigătoare la licitaţii întru elucidarea înţelegerilor secrete de licitaţie. influenţa salariului asupra preţurilor se regăseşte prin cererea de bunuri şi servicii. La fel. afectând raporturile dintre producători şi comercianţii en-gros sau en-detail.

Trading prices are the prices at which the products are sold by specialized commercial units. excises amount is added to the producer’s price without VAT. Sunt admise doar în cazul produselor perisabile. national production unit or importer and mark-up for retail sales. the net price of the producer includes the cost of production and the profit margin. este necesară existenţa unui cadru legislativ şi organizarea unui control din partea statului prin organele de specialitate. The excises are calculated : As a fixed share in MDL. În R. Prejudiciile cauzate de un agent economic unui alt agent economic sau altor persoane prin încălcarea prezentei legi urmează să fie reparate. The peculiarities of price determination in commerce. 23. pentru încălcarea legislaţiei cu privire la protecţia concurenţei. Producer price shall be calculated by production units.Vânzările cu preţ redus sau în pierdere sunt forme promoţionale de vânzare şi sunt interzise atunci când au ca scop eliminarea concurenţilor. the gross retail price includes the net retail price and VAT Commercial addition for wholesale and retail sales is meant to cover marketing costs and provide for the unit a certain profit. 2. a vânzărilor pentru lichidarea unor stocuri sau pentru vânzările în anumite perioade speciale (lansarea produsului. Ca rezultat. aniversări etc. Wholesale prices are used when selling products in large quantities by commercial societies that specialize in whole selling: The net wholesale price includes the price of producer. Retail price are used when selling products in small quantities shall be calculated by commercial units specializing in the disposal of the goods by the piece: the net retail price include the net producer price. Această metodă s-a arătat a fi neefectivă fiindcă întreprinderile sunt cointeresate nu în reducerea preţurilor. demodate. the gross wholesale price includes the net wholesale price and VAT. De asemenea. expoziţii. Potrivit prevederilor articolului 23 a Legii menţionate mai sus. factorii de decizie din autorităţile administraţiei publice poartă răspundere în conformitate cu Codul cu privire la contravenţiile administrative. Moldova se practică limitarea cotei de adaos comercial pentru agenţii economici ce se ocupă de realizare.). agenţii economici şi conducătorii lor. The relationships of these categories of marketing prices differ as the retailer commercial unit is or is not registered as a VAT payer PP. în conformitate cu Codul civil. 3. national production unit or importer and mark-up for wholesale sales. O condiţie esenţială pentru asigurarea protecţiei consumatorilor împotriva practicilor abuzive ale concurenţei o constituie transparenţa pieţei şi informarea acestora asupra preţurilor şi a condiţiilor de vânzare. evenimente cultural-sportive. or in EUR per specific unit of measurement (per liter. de agentul economic care le-a cauzat. ci în sporirea volumului de cheltuieli. There are 3 categories of trading price 1.producer’s price ATC RM retail mark-up WP wholesale price PM profit margin RP retail price WM wholesale mark-up The determination of marketing prices when the retail commercial unit is registered as a VAT payer: PP without VAT = ATC*(1+PM) PP with VAT = PP without VAT * (1+VAT share(cota tva) ) WP without VAT= PP without VAT * (1+ WM share) WP with VAT= WP without VAT*(1+VAT share) RP without VAT =WP without VAT * (1+WM share) RP with VAT= RP without VAT (1+VAT share) The determination of marketing prices when the retail commercial unit is not registered as a VAT payer: PP without VAT = ATC*(1+PM) PP with VAT = PP without VAT * (1+VAT share(cota tva) ) WP without VAT= PP without VAT * (1+ WM share) WP with VAT= WP without VAT*(1+VAT share) RP without VAT= WP with VAT + (1+RM) If the product is in the list of goods that are the subject to excises . se reduce activitatea investiţională şi veniturile fiscale nu înregistrează creşteri semnificative. or by personal shops that sell production units. concentration degree) In this case the price will be determined this way: PP without VAT= ATC*(1+PM) PP without VAT with excise = PP without VAT +excise Excise = excise share at the absolute size / Production quantity . The gross price of the producer includes the net price and the VAT.

statul neavând mijloacele financiare necesare. cum ar fi cei climatici şi de structură naturală a solului. În ţările dezvoltate. conduce la o reducere a preţului de la P la P1. acţionează o mare varietate de factori extraeconomici. Pământul. Preţul la pământ reprezintă suma de bani ce se plăteşte pentru cedarea drepturilor de proprietate al unei persoane fizice şi/sau juridice asupra unei suprafeţi de teren altei persoane în baza actului de vânzare -cumpărare. ele practicându-se la grâul achiziţionat pentru rezervele de stat. Şi anume. se impune necesitatea intervenţiei statului prin asigurarea unui preţ garantat producătorilor agricoli. ca şi oricare bun economic. o reducere a producţiei de la Q la Q2 conduce la o creştere a preţului de la P la P2. În situaţia unei pieţe ce este caracterizată prin cerere elastică creşterea producţiei cauzează creşterea încasărilor (veniturilor producătorilor) de la OP1AQ1 la OP2CQ2. The peculiarities of prices charge for soil and natural resources. ceea ce face necesară întervenţia organelor de stat preţ privind organizarea unui sistem de susţinere al producătorilor agricoli prin intermediul unui şir de metode: În primul rând. Sfera de aplicare a preţurilor garantate s-a redus în R. Vom demonstra acest lucru în felul următor: 1. O creştere a producţiei de la Q la Q1. iar în al doilea caz veniturile producătorilor agricoli sunt mai mici.. b) în caz de penurie se intervine în sens invers. punând pe piaţă cantităţile necesare de la Q2 la Q la acelaşi preţ. precum şi cei economici legaţi de procesul muncii. Faţă de aceste fluctuaţii. În al treilea rând. evitarea pericolului creării unei supraproducţii cronice (fig. şi invers. În ţările puţin dezvoltate. în anii cu recolte bune preţurile produselor agricole scad. Prices substantiation for agricultural products. costurilor şi preţurilor.2) Se consideră nivelul producţiei normale Q şi preţul normal P. determinând reducerea veniturilor producătorilor agricoli. O particularitate însemnată în agricultură este denumită ca „efectul King” după numele celui care l-a definit şi explicat (Gregory King) încă din sec. Invers. statul decide stabilizarea preţului astfel: a) cumpără sau stochează excedentele create de la Q la Q1 la preţul P. subvenţionarea producţiei agricole nu se poate înfăptui. Încă o modalitate de susţinere a producătorilor agricoli este limitarea suprafeţelor agricole şi scoaterea lor temporară din circuit. 6. mai mult decât în orice alt sector productiv.PP with VAT = PP without VAT with excises * (1+VAT share) As a percentage share that is applied to the tax basis. Se aplică pe larg în SUA unde fermierul primeşte de la stat un venit mediu anual respectiv suprafeţei care nu a fost semănată 25. În domeniul producţiei agricole.M. adică recuperarea a unei părţi de cheltuieli din fonduri special create de către stat. Preţul garantat este preţul la care statul se obligă să achiziţioneze produsele de importanţă naţională şi în acest fel se asigură o anumită stabilizare a preţurilor. este o marfă care se vinde şi se cumpără pe piaţa factorilor de producţie. The way of price determination will be different depending on the way of excise calculation PP without VAT= ATC*(1+PM) PP without VAT with excise = PP without VAT +excise Excise=excise share*PP without VAT PP with VAT = PP without VAT with excises * (1+VAT share) When the product passes through other stages of selling the following price will be PP including excise: WP without VAT=PP without VAT with excise * (1+WM) 24. când cererea este elastică 2. Obţinerea de venituri mici crează. unde agricultura are o contribuţie minimală în PIB. la rândul său. când cererea este inelastică Din figură se vede că în ambele cazuri creşterea producţiei de la Q1 la Q2 determină reducerea preţului de la P1 la P2. de investiţii etc. King lămureşte acest paradox prin caracterul inelastic al cererii la produsele agricole. o problemă socială manifestată prin migrarea populaţiei de la sat la oraş şi toţi aceşti factori determină fluctuaţii mari în nivelul producţiei. El este influienţat de următorii factori: . O altă modalitate de susţinere este acordarea subvenţiilor de la buget unor producători aflaţi în condiţii de producţie mai nefavorabile de climă şi sol.XVII. ceea ce nu este pe departe un stimulent pentru investiţii. se practică pe larg subvenţionarea producţiei agricole prin preţ. unde agricultura asigură cca 60% din PIB. sprijinirea producătorilor agricoli se poate înfăptui prin politica de creditare cu dobânzi reduse şi prin utilizarea unei politici fiscale preferenţiale.

as well as comparison prices. implying the specialists of various professional training (economic. fiind aleasă ca varianta ce oferă venitul maxim. and the results of labour are sold directly and at short intervals. ea fiind insensibilă la variaţia preţului. In the Republic of Moldova until 2002 the method of estimate price indexation was used. silvicultură. sporirea cererii de produse agricole determină sporirea cererii de terenuri agricole.a Preţurile la resursele naturale includ preţurile la apă. gradul de amenajare ş. stabilirea cărora ţine de prerogativa Departamentului de protecţie a mediului. mărimea şi evoluţia rentei. Natural factors etc. this makes prices be affected by funds immobilization during inactive periods. They are the following: Sheer volume. On the other hand. 26. because each item supposes a new process of substantiation. resurse minerale (revizuite anual de Bugetul de stat) şi preţurile terenurilor ocupate de păduri. Variations of the relation between demand and supply of labour force of certain qualifications (according to the phase of works) influence the costs by means of salary costs. sometimes very large volume. preţ indexat în fiecare an de Legea Bugetului şi care poate varia în dependenţă de regiune. 2002 the estimate prices have been determined according to the prices for the resources used. Starting with January the 1 st. Drept urmare. cu numărul de persoane disponibile să facă investiţii în agricultură. Seasonal character of different working conditions during cold periods and even the whole year (rains. rata dobânzii – achiziţia unui lot de pământ presupune o investiţie deaceea. That’s why we cannot set unique prices for more items. high temperatures). the construction company determines supply price on the basis of individual estimate norms. its size was established on the basis of statistics data. ecologic). If in industry production activity is even in time and space. Potrivit Legii R. Item’s location supposes the distance from the premises of construction -assembly society. each economic agent has the right to elaborate his own norms and to determine supply price depending on real cost and profit margin. construcţii. preţul la pământ evoluiază în raport cu cererea. №1308-XIII din 25-07-1997 “On the normative price and the mode of land selling -buying” este stabilit preţul normativ al pământului. the calculated prices were corrected by a coefficient specific to the construction sector. Prices substantiation in this branch is much more complex. which means that the size of all consumption articles represents their real value and this gives the possibility to calculate the cost of construction at any phase. The peculiarities of prices determination in construction-assembling.each item will differ from others according to the beneficiary’s order.cererea şi oferta de terenuri agricole – limitarea naturală a pământului conferă ofertei un caracter rigid. of construction works. the preparation of the piece of ground under construction. dacă rata dobânzii este mai mare ca eficienţa aşteptată de la utilizarea lotului respectiv. . The norms calculated in 1984 were transferred to current prices by applying indices to each article of cost. There have been elaborated an Instruction concerning the determination of the estimate price in constructions-assemblies and the Norms of estimate that are recommendations. including demolitions and compensations payment. if necessary. ridicându -le preţul. investitorul va prefera plasarea banilor la bancă. This price is negotiated by the construction companies. The unique character of the works. influenţând cererea la terenurile agricole. posibilitatea folosirii alternative a pământului: agricultură. that leads to very high prices for constructions. The level of this price is compulsory for the items financed by budget. in construction production activity is influenced by a series of supply factors. When determining some centralized data. and the beneficiary or investor determines its value according to new norms of estimate. According to new norms.M.