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Manner of articulation

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Manners of articulation

Obstruent Stop Affricate Fricative Sibilant

Sonorant Nasal Flap/Tap Approximant Liquid Vowel Semivowel

 

Lateral Trill

     

Pulmonic Ejective Implosive Lingual (clicks)

Linguo-pulmonic Linguo-ejective

 

Alliteration Assonance

lips. and other speech organs are involved in making a sound. [Help]  v  t  e Human vocal tract Articulation visualized by real-time MRI. jaw. which may not display correctly in some browsers. Often the concept is only used for the production of . manner of articulation describes how the tongue. In linguistics.  Consonance See also: Place of articulation This page contains phonetic information in IPA.

approximants (with only slight turbulence). there may be several manners. Historically. thereby changing the formant structure of speech sounds that is crucial for the identification of vowels. or blocked airflow).consonants. and vowels (with full unimpeded airflow). but phoneticians such as Peter Ladefoged consider them to be independent. sounds may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition. rather than just length. Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate between stops and fricatives. sibilants being the more common. but phonetically they are sequences of stop plus fricative. fricative consonants (with partially blocked and therefore strongly turbulent airflow). that is. and the sibilancy of fricatives. how closely the speech organs approach one another. Parameters other than stricture are those involved in the r-like sounds (taps and trills). However. Taps and flaps are similar to very brief stops. One parameter of manner is stricture. their articulation and behavior is distinct enough to be considered a separate manner. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner. For any place of articulation.[specify] . Contents         1 Stricture 2 Other parameters 3 Individual manners 4 Broader classifications 5 Other airstream initiations 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Stricture From greatest to least stricture. The reverse process is fortition. Other parameters Sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth. speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants (with occlusion. even though the movement of the articulators will also greatly alter the resonant properties of the vocal tract. and therefore several homorganic consonants.

Most languages have fricatives. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative. where there is occlusion (blocking) of the oral vocal tract. though not always. the two may be combined. and approximants are also found. if it is voiceless.  .Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs. All languages have stops. so the air flow stops completely. sometimes called spirant. a nasal occlusive. If the consonant is voiced. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel. sibilants. taps. Examples include English /f. Since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture. s/ (voiceless). The "ll" of Welsh and the "hl" of Zulu are lateral fricatives. but nasalized fricatives. Examples include English /m. Trilled affricates are also known. Fricative. Nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. Individual manners  Stop. Nasal. lateral flaps. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds. where there is continuous frication (turbulent and noisy airflow) at the place of articulation. When a sound is not nasal. a stop is completely silent. English sibilants include /s/ and /z/. z/ (voiced). though many have only an /s/. This can also be combined with other manners. Nearly all languages have nasals. as well as the release burst and its effect on the following vowel. creating a high-pitched and very distinctive sound. an oral occlusive. Fricatives at coronal (front of tongue) places of articulation are usually.    Sibilants are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the tongue toward the teeth. etc. Lateral fricatives are a rare type of fricative. where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of the tongue. the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. The shape and position of the tongue (the place of articulation) determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds. These are by far the most common fricatives. and no nasal air flow. the Indigenous Australian languages are almost completely devoid of fricatives of any kind. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d ɡ/ (voiced). /v. and lateral fricatives and affricates. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue. However. but air passes through the nose. n/. where there is occlusion of the oral tract. it is called oral. the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion. resulting in lateral approximants (the most common).

sometimes called a glide. In English. Other descriptions use semivowel for vowel-like sounds that are not syllabic. No language relies on such a difference. but are found in Welsh and Classical Greek (the spelling "rh"). in Standard Tibetan (the "lh" of Lhasa). Lateral approximants. Sonorants may also be called resonants. Trill. usually shortened to lateral. which begins like a stop. pronounced like a vowel but with the tongue closer to the roof of the mouth. Many linguists distinguish taps from flaps. is a type of approximant. though less common than fricatives. Trills and flaps. because they are sequences of stop plus fricative. restricting the word 'sonorant' to non-vocoid resonants (that is. but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own. In some languages. and also vowels) are called sonorants because they are nearly always voiced. but not vowels or semi-vowels). Voiceless sonorants are uncommon. nasals and liquids.  Broader classifications Manners of articulation with substantial obstruction of the airflow (stops. The word may also be used to cover both concepts. and the "wh" in those dialects of English that distinguish "which" from "witch". Affricate. in which the articulator (usually the tip of the tongue) is held in place. and some linguists prefer that term. These are prototypically voiceless. The English letters "ch" and "j" represent affricates. English /l/ is a lateral. but there is no consensus on what the difference might be. is a momentary closure of the oral cavity. The "tt" of "utter" and the "dd" of "udder" are pronounced as a flap in North American and Australian English. and the airstream causes it to vibrate. Approximant. These are found as elements in diphthongs. Affricates are quite common around the world. Flap. Manners without such obstruction (nasals. There are also lateral flaps. which have similar behavior in many languages. so that there is slight turbulence.     One use of the word semivowel. these form a class of consonant called liquids. Another common distinction is between occlusives (stops and nasals) and continuants (all else). Examples include English /w/ and /r/. are a type of approximant pronounced with the side of the tongue. there are sounds that seem to fall between fricative and approximant. where there are one or more brief occlusions. fricatives. often called a tap. but do not have the increased stricture of approximants. but voiced obstruents are extremely common as well. where there is very little obstruction. such as Spanish. liquids. affricates are considered to be both. The double "r" of Spanish "perro" is a trill. /w/ is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /u/. approximants. constitute a class of consonant called rhotics. . Together with the rhotics. and /j/ (spelled "y") is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /i/ in this usage. affricates) are called obstruents.

Clicks. central or lateral. which are glottalic egressive. but the lungs may be used simultaneously (to provide voicing). causing air to rush in when the forward occlusion (tongue or lips) is released. All ejectives are voiceless. That is. which are clicks released into either a pulmonic or ejective stop/fricative. the airstream is powered by an upward movement of the glottis rather than by the lungs or diaphragm. Voiceless implosives are also rare. Here the glottis moves downward. Other airstream mechanisms are possible. Clicks may be oral or nasal. and in some languages no air may actually flow into the mouth. meaning that the air flows outward. However. and occasionally fricatives may occur as ejectives. affricates. and another is often used to say "giddy up" to a horse. Sounds that rely on some of these include:  Ejectives.Other airstream initiations All of these manners of articulation are pronounced with an airstream mechanism called pulmonic egressive. Combinations of these. Stops. voiced or voiceless. Implosives. and is powered by the lungs (actually the ribs and diaphragm). but implosive affricates and fricatives are rare. which are glottalic ingressive. Here the back of the tongue is used to create a vacuum in the mouth. Implosive stops are not uncommon. They are extremely rare in normal words outside Southern Africa. which are lingual ingressive. in a single consonsant: linguo-pulmonic and linguo-glottalic (ejective) consonants. or at least transition from voiced to voiceless. stop or affricate. in some analyses.    . English has a click in its "tsk tsk" (or "tut tut") sound.