NOTE: DO NOT CHANGE VALUES IN BLACK
1) DESIGN DATA AND SPECIFICATION
1.1.MATERIAL PROPERTIES:
Concrete : Grade C30 concrete ( section 9.3)
fc'= = 24 MPa ( fc' cylinder )
fc=0.4*fc' = 9.6 MPa
Ec=4800sqrt(fc') = 23,515 MPa
Reinforcement steel:
Grade 420 steel: For rebars diam. 20mm and above
fy = 420 MPa
fs = 165 MPa
Es = 200,000 MPa
Grade 300 steel: For rebars less than diam. 20
fy = 300 MPa
fs = 140 MPa
Es = 200,000 MPa
Modular ratio n =Ec / Es = 8.51 Use n = 9
Live Loading: (1) Design Truck : AASHTO HS20  44 live load+ 25% increment
(2) Design Tandem
Bearing Capacity(s)= 3.5 kg/cm
2
Allowable Bearing Capacity (1.5*s)= 5.25 kg/cm
2
1.2. REFERENCES: ERA BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL 2002
AASHTO STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES,1998 EDITION.
1.3.DESIGN METHOD: LRFD
2) LOADING
2.1. Dead Loads
2.1.1. From Superstructure
CLN
exterior girder interior girder
LEFT GIRDER SUPSTR. RIGHT GIRDER SUPSTR.
12 mtr. span 12 mtr. span
Exterior Interior Exterior Interior
Xsectional
(kN/m) 27.86 20.94 27.86 20.94
Diaphrams
middle(No.) 1 1 1 1
(kN) 4.86 4.86 4.86 4.86 Final level = 2410.76 m
ends(kN) 2.43 2.43 2.43 2.43 Found. level =2398.12 m
Support Wearing surf. = 0.10 m
Reaction(kN) 178.99 135.74 178.99 135.74 Girder depth = 0.95 m
REINFORCED CONCRETE COULMN PIER DESIGN FOR FIVE GIRDER
SUPERSTRUCTURE
®
´
±
´
´
±
±
´
±
´ ±~
±´´
.~
..±
´´±
±´´
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY2 of 20
2.1.2. Selfweight
0.25
L F
0.5
W
A
G
W
H
C E
D
B J
A B C D E F
1.00 9.00 0.00 1.00 9.59 1.00
G H J L W
1.1 0.00 3.00 9.35 1.00
Pier Cap w
1
(kN/m)=(A*L*F+2*0.25*0.50*F)*24/L= 24.64
Bracing w
2
(kN/m)=C*H*24= 0
Pier Column P(kN)=P/4*W
2
*E*24= 180.77
Summary of Dead Loads
178.99 135.74 135.74 135.74 178.99 (Left Supstr.)
178.99 135.74 135.74 135.74 178.99 (Right Supstr.)
c a a a a c
24.64
where
a
Lt
.= 2.00 m c= 0.675 m
a
Rt
.= 2.00 m c= 0.675 m
0
Enter
values for
dimensions
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY3 of 20
2.2 Live Loads
a) Design Truck Load : HS 2044 + 25% increment
P/4 P P P P
14ft
(4.267m)
P = wheel load = 1.25(71.20KN)= 89 KN
LONGITUDINAL ARRANGEMENT TRANSVERSE ARRANGEMENT
b) Design Tandem
P P P P
1.20m 1.80m
P = wheel load = 1/2*110KN = 55 KN
LONGITUDINAL ARRANGEMENT TRANSVERSE ARRANGEMENT
2.2.1 Dynamic Load Allowance
Section 3.13, the vehicular dynamic load allowance IM
IM = 33% There fore IM = 33%
The live loads shall be factored by 1+IM/100 = 1.33
A) Longitudinal Arrangement
case 1: Maximum Axial Load on pier
P/4 P P
4.267
x x= 0.46
R
p2
R
p1
R
p1
= 1.659 P
R
p2
= 0.174 P
Axial Load: R
p
=R
p1
+R
p2
= 1.833 P
Moment about CLN of pier: M
CL
= 0.341 P
case 2: Maximum Bending Moment
P P P/4
4.267
Rp1
R
p1
= 1.738 P
Axial Load: R
p
=R
p1
= 1.738 P
Moment about CLN of pier: M
CL
= 0.400 P
2.2.2 Transverse Load Distribution
In designing sidewalks, slabs and supporting members, a wheel load located on the sidewalk shall be 1 foot from the face of the rail.
Distribution Factor for Shear (Sec. 13.4: Table 137 & 138)
Exterior Girder:
Case1: One Design lane loaded
The lever rule is applied assuming that the slab is simply supported over the longitudinal beams (Table 138)
14  30ft
(4.267 9.144m)
6ft
(1.80m)
0.16
´
´
l
0
.
5
0
bw
0
. 2
0
0
. 2
0
0.25
0.20
0
. 4
0
0
. 9
0
0.15
d1
1.83 0.30
¯
d2
¯
0
.
2
5
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY4 of 20
P P TRWW= 10.3 m
1.83 SW= 1.5 m
a= 2.00 m
d1= 0.600 m
R
A
R
B d2= 0.770 m
d1 a  d1 d2 c= 1.15 m
no.of girders= 5
The distribution coefficient to the exterior girder for shear bw= 0.38 m
R
EX1
(shear) = 1/a*P*(a+d1+d2) = 1.685 P
Case2: Two or more design lanes loaded
The distribution of live load per lane for shear in exterior girder is determined according to the formulas given in Table 138.
R
EX2
(shear) = (0.60+de/3000) = 0.920 per lane de=cbw/2= 0.96 m
This factor is for one lane load which is equivalent to two lines of wheels, and thus multiplied by 2
R
EX2
(shear) = (0.60+de/3000) = 1.840 P
There fore, R
EX
(shear) in exterior girder is maximum of the above two values, R
EX1
or R
EX2
R
EX
(shear) = 1.840 P
Interior Girder:
Case1: One Design lane loaded
The distribution of live load per lane for shear in interior girder is determined according to the formulas given in Table 137.
R
INT 1
(shear) = 0.36 + S/7600 = 0.623 where 1100<=S<=4900
For two lines of wheels the distribution factor for shear in interior girder is: 6000<=L<=73000
R
INT 1
(shear) =(2P)(0.36+ S/7600) = 1.246 P S= 2.00 m
Case2: Two or more design lanes are loaded
The distribution of live load per lane for shear in interior girder
R
INT 2
(shear) = 0.20+(S/3600)(S/10700)
2
= 0.721 where 1100<=S<=4900
For two lines of wheels 6000<=L<=73000
R
INT 2
(shear) = 1.441 P Nb >= 4
S= 2 m
There fore, R
INT
(shear), in interior girder is maximum of the above two values, R
INT 1
or R
INT 2
R
INT
(shear) = 1.441 P
CaseI: One Design lane loaded
P P
a
R
A
R
B
R
A
= 1.685 P
R
B
= 1.246 P
a) For maximum Axial load case (from longitudinal arrangement case 1)
R
A
=R
P
*R
A
= 3.088 P = 274.81 kN
R
B
=R
P
*R
B
= 2.284 P = 203.26 kN
b) For maximum Moment case (from longitudinal arrangement case 2)
R
A
=R
P
*R
A
= 2.928 P = 260.63 kN
R
B
=R
P
*R
B
= 2.166 P = 192.78 kN
CaseII: Two or more design lanes are loaded
R
A
= 1.840 P R
B
= 1.441 P R
C
= 1.441 P R
D
= 1.441 P R
E
= 1.840 P
a) For maximum Axial load case (from longitudinal arrangement case 1)
R
A
=R
P
*R
A
= 3.372 P = 300.09 kN
R
B
=R
P
*R
B
= 2.641 P = 235.05 kN
R
C
=R
P
*R
C
= 2.641 P = 235.05 kN
R
D
=R
P
*R
D
= 2.641 P = 235.05 kN
R
E
=R
P
*R
E
= 3.372 P = 300.09 kN
b) For maximum Moment case (from longitudinal arrangement case 2)
R
A
=R
P
*R
A
= 3.198 P = 284.61 kN
R
B
=R
P
*R
B
= 2.505 P = 222.93 kN
R
C
=R
P
*R
C
= 2.505 P = 222.93 kN
R
D
=R
P
*R
D
= 2.505 P = 222.93 kN
R
E
=R
P
*R
E
= 3.198 P = 284.61 kN
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY5 of 20
b)Design Tandem
A) Longitudinal Arrangement
case 1: Maximum Axial Load on pier
P P
1.2
x x= 0.46
R
p2
R
p1
R
p1
= 0.941 P
R
p2
= 1.000 P
Axial Load: R
p
=R
p1
+R
p2
= 1.941 P
Moment about CLN of pier: M
CL
= 0.014 P
Moment about CLN of pier: M
CL
= 1.212 kN
case 2: Maximum Bending Moment
P P
1.2
Rp1
R
p1
= 1.904 P
Axial Load: R
p
=R
p1
= 1.904 P
Moment about CLN of pier: M
CL
= 0.438 P
Moment about CLN of pier: M
CL
= 38.97 kN
B) Transverse Arrangement (Distribution factors are same as Truck Load)
CaseI: One Design lane loaded
a) For maximum Axial load case (from longitudinal arrangement case 1)
R
A
=R
P
/2*R
A
= 89.93 kN
R
B
=R
P
/2*R
B
= 65.26 kN
b) For maximum Moment case (from longitudinal arrangement case 2)
R
A
=R
P
/2*R
A
= 88.23 kN
R
B
=R
P
/2*R
B
= 65.26 kN
CaseII: Two or more design lanes are loaded
a) For maximum Axial load case (from longitudinal arrangement case 1)
R
A
=R
P
/2*R
A
= 98.20 kN
R
B
=R
P
/2*R
B
= 76.92 kN
R
C
=R
P
/2*R
C
= 76.92 kN
R
D
=R
P
/2*R
D
= 76.92 kN
R
E
=R
P
/2*R
E
= 98.20 kN
b) For maximum Moment case (from longitudinal arrangement case 2)
R
A
=R
P
/2*R
A
= 96.34 kN
R
B
=R
P
/2*R
B
= 75.46 kN
R
C
=R
P
/2*R
D
= 75.46 kN
R
D
=R
P
/2*R
D
= 75.46 kN
R
E
=R
P
/2*R
E
= 96.34 kN
2.3. Wind Loads
Wind Load on structure  WS
2.3.1. Wind Load on superstructure  W
a) Transverse Direction W=50lb/ft
2
= 2.44 kN/m
2
Arm (m) A
i
Y
i
(m
3
)
Girder web & Curb = 21.84 2.68 58.53
Railing = 3.9 3.38 13.18
Posts = 1.32 2.96 3.90
27.06 75.61
F
WT
= 66.03 kN
Line of Action ÿ(about Pier Cap bottom) = 2.79 m
b) Longitudinal Direction W=12lb/ft
2
= 0.586 kN/m
2
F
WL
= 15.86 kN
ÿ = 2.79 m
Area (m
2
)
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY6 of 20
2.3.2. Wind Load on Live Load  WL
a) Transverse Direction: WL=100lb/ft= 1.49 kN/m
Length of exposed surface= 12.8 m
F
WLT
= 19.072 kN (6ft above the deck surface)
ÿ(about pier cap bottom) = 4.51 m
b) Longitudinal Direction: WL=40lb/ft = 0.596 kN/m
Length of exposed surface= 12.8 m
F
WLL
= 7.629 kN (6ft above the deck surface)
ÿ(about pier cap bottom) = 4.51 m
2.3.3. Wind Load on substructure
a) Transverse Direction: W=40lb/ft
2
= 1.955 kN/m
2
per linear meter = 1.955 kN/m
b) Longitudinal Direction: W=40lb/ft
Pier cap = 1.955 kN/m
Bracing = 0 kN/m
Columns = 1.955 kN/m
2.3.4. Forces of Stream Current,WA v = 5.6 ft/sec
2
, k=2/3
P = kv
2
= 20.907 lb/ft
2
= 1.02 kN/m
2
per linear meter = 1.02 kN/m
2.3.5. Breaking/Longitudinal Force,BR
Taken 5% of the live load in all lanes
(lane load w=9.3kN/m plus the concentrated load P=81.72kN for moment)
LF= 20.26 kN (6ft above the deck surface)
ÿ(about pier cap bottom) = 4.51 m
2.3.6 Seismic Force Effects,EQ
Earthquake zones: EBCS Zone 1
Site Coefficient: Type I = 1
Acceleration coefficient(A): = 0.06
The horizontal seismic force is the product of the site coefficient, the acceleration coefficient and the permanent loads
772.70 KN
Footing = 648.00 KN
Sum Wp = 1420.70 KN
Horizontal earthquake force F
H
= site coeff.*A* Wp = 85.24 KN
This force is transferred to the substructure at joints
The proportion of this load at the two levels is as in the following:
At bracing level = 0.00 KN
At pier cap level = 85.24 KN
3) STABILITY ANALYSIS
Assume a combined footing with dimensions(m):
Width W = 3 Length L = 9 Depth D = 1
3.1. CHECK FOR STRENGTH I =DL+(LL+I)+BR+WA
CaseI: One Design lane loaded
i) Dead Load
Superstructure
Left = 765.18 kN
Right = 765.18 kN
1530.35
Substructure
772.70 kN
Footing = 648 kN
1420.70
Total = 2951.05 kN
ii) Live Load
M
LONGT.
(kN/m) P (kN)
Pier cap,
Bracing & Columns =
M
TRANS.
(kN/m) about CL
Pier cap,
Bracing & Columns =
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY7 of 20
Case I: a) R
A
+R
B
= 478.08 a
avg
*R
A
= 549.62 M
CL
= 60.79
b) R
A
+R
B
= 453.41 " 521.27 " 71.15
Case II: a)R
A+B+C+D+E
=1305.34 a*(R
A
R
E
)= 0.00 2*M
CL
= 121.57
b)R
A+B+C+D+E
=1238.00 " 0.00 " 142.30
ii) Breaking/Longitudinal Force, BR
F
LF
= 20.26 kN M
LF
= 305.96 kNm/m
iii)Stream current Force,WA
F
TF
= 1.83 kN M
TF
= 1.64 kNm/m
A) Stability against OVERTURNING:
M
REST.
= 4426.58 kN/m
M
DRIV.
= M
LL
+M
BR
+M
WA
= 828.87 kN/m
S.F.= 5.34 > 2.0 OK!
B) Stability against BEARING PRESSURE:
case (a) case (b) case (a) case (b)
P
tot
(kN)= 3429.13 3404.46 4256.40 4189.05
M
T
(kN/m)= 549.62 521.27 0.00 0.00
M
L
(kN/m)= 60.79 71.15 121.57 142.30
e
T
=M
T
/P
tot
= 0.160 0.153 0.000 0.000
e
L
=M
L
/P
tot
= 0.018 0.021 0.029 0.034
145.08 144.23 166.65 165.69
< s
all OK!
C) Stability against SLIDING:
F
TDRIV
=F
TWA
= 1.83
F
LDRIV
=F
LBR
= 20.26
F
DRIV
=(F
TDRIV
2
+F
LDRIV
2
)= 20.34
F
RESIST
=SVtan f=SV*0.7= 2065.74
S.F.=F
REST.
/F
DRIV.
= 101.54 > 1.5 OK!
CaseII: Two or more design lanes are loaded
A) Stability against OVERTURNING:
M
REST.
= 3454.81 kNm/m
M
DRIV.
= M
BR
+M
WA
= 307.60 kNm/m
S.F.= 11.23 > 2.0 OK!
3.2. CHECK FOR STRENGTH III =DL+WS+WA
a) Dead Load D
L
P
DL
= 2951.05 kN
M
TDL
= 0 kN/m
M
LDL
= 0.00 kN/m
c) Wind Load on Structures W
superstructure
F
TW
= 66.03 kN M
TW
= 883.72 kN/m
F
LW
= 15.86 kN M
LW
= 212.24 "
substructure
F
TW
= 37.50 kN M
TW
= 217.29 kN/m
F
LW
= 55.78 kN M
LW
= 420.01 "
Total
F
TW
= 103.52 kN M
TW
= 1101.01 kN/m
F
LW
= 71.63 kN M
LW
= 632.25 "
d) Wind Load on Live Load WL
s
max
(kN/m
2
) =(P
tot
/A)*
(1+6*e
T
/L+6*e
L
/W)=
Case I: Case II:
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY8 of 20
F
TWL
= 19.07 kN M
TWL
= 287.99 kN/m
F
LWL
= 7.63 kN M
LWL
= 115.19 "
e)Stream current Force,WA
F
TF
= 1.83 kN M
TF
= 1.64 kNm/m
A) Stability against OVERTURNING:
M
REST.
= 4426.58 kNm/m
M
DRIV.
= M
LL
+M
WS
+M
WA
= 633.89 kNm/m
S.F.= 6.98 > 2.0 OK!
B) Stability against BEARING PRESSURE:
P
tot
=P
DL
= 2951.05
M
T
=M
TDL
+M
TWS
+M
TWA
= 1102.66
M
L
=M
LDL
+M
LWS
+M
LWA
= 632.25
e
T
=M
T
/P
tot
= 0.374 OK!
e
L
=M
L
/P
tot
= 0.214 OK!
s
max
= 183.36
s
all OK!
C) Stability against SLIDING:
F
TDRIV
=F
TWS
+F
TWA
= 105.35
F
LDRIV
=F
LWS
= 71.63
F
DRIV
=(F
TDRIV
2
+F
LDRIV
2
)= 127.40
F
RESIST
=SVtan f=SV*0.7= 2065.74
S.F.=F
REST.
/F
DRIV.
= 16.21 > 1.5 OK!
3.3. CHECK FOR STRENGTH V =DL+(LL+I)+BR+WS+WL+WA
CaseI: One Design lane loaded
a) Dead Load D
L
P
DL
= 2951.05 kN
M
TDL
= 0 kN/m
M
LDL
= 0.00 kN/m
b) Live Load LL
P
LLI
M
TLL
M
LLL
Case I: 478.08 549.62 60.79
453.41 521.27 71.15
Case II: 1305.34 0.00 121.57
1238.00 0.00 142.30
c) Wind Load on Structures WS
superstructure
F
TW
= 37.50 kN M
TW
= 883.72 kN/m
F
LW
= 15.86 kN M
LW
= 212.24 "
substructure
F
TW
= 37.50 kN M
TW
= 217.29 kN/m
F
LW
= 55.78 kN M
LW
= 420.01 "
Total
F
TW
= 103.52 kN M
TW
= 1101.01 kN/m
F
LW
= 71.63 kN M
LW
= 632.25 "
d) Wind Load on Live Load, WL
F
TWL
= 19.07 kN M
TWL
= 287.99 kN/m
F
LWL
= 7.63 kN M
LWL
= 115.19 "
e)Breaking/Longitudinal Force,BR
F
TF
= 19.07 kN M
TF
= 287.99 kNm/m
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY9 of 20
f)Stream current Force,WA
F
TF
= 1.83 kN M
TF
= 1.64 kNm/m
A) Stability against OVERTURNING:
M
REST.
= 4426.58 kNm/m
M
DRIV.
= M
LL
+M
WS
+M
WA
= 1352.17 kNm/m
S.F.= 3.27 > 2.0 OK!
B) Stability against BEARING PRESSURE:
(b)case I: (b)case II:
P
tot
=P
DL
+P
LLI
= 3404.46 4189.05
M
T
=M
TDL
+M
TLL
+M
TBR
+M
TWL+MTWS+MTWA
= 2199.90 1678.63
M
L
=M
LDL
+M
LLL
+M
LBR
+M
LWL+MLWS+MLWA
= 818.60 774.55
e
T
=M
T
/P
tot
= 0.646 0.401 OK!
e
L
=M
L
/P
tot
= 0.240 0.185 OK!
s
max
= 241.05 253.97
> s
all OK!
C) Stability against SLIDING:
F
TDRIV
=F
TBR
+F
TWL+
F
TWS+
F
TWA
= 143.50
F
LDRIV
=F
LWS+
F
LWL
= 79.26
F
DRIV
=(F
TDRIV
2
+F
LDRIV
2
)= 163.93
F
RESIST
=SVtan f=SV*0.7= 2400.39
S.F.=F
REST.
/F
DRIV.
= 14.64 > 1.5 OK!
CaseII: Two or more design lanes are loaded
A) Stability against OVERTURNING:
M
REST.
= 4426.58 kNm/m
M
DRIV.
= M
BR
+M
WA
= 1352.17 kNm/m
S.F.= 3.27 > 2.0 OK!
C) Stability against SLIDING:
F
TDRIV
=F
TBR
+F
TWL+
F
TWS+
F
TWA
= 143.50
F
LDRIV
=F
LWS+
F
LWL
= 79.26
F
DRIV
=(F
TDRIV
2
+F
LDRIV
2
)= 163.93
F
RESIST
=SVtan f=SV*0.7= 2979.48
S.F.=F
REST.
/F
DRIV.
= 18.17 > 1.5 OK!
3.4. CHECK FOR EXTREME EVENTI =DL+(LL+I)+WA+EQ
CaseI: One Design lane loaded
a) Dead Load D
L
P
DL
= 2951.05 kN
M
TDL
= 0 kN/m
M
LDL
= 0.00 kN/m
b) Live Load LL
P
LLI
M
TLL
M
LLL
Case I: 478.08 549.62 60.79
453.41 521.27 71.15
Case II: 1305.34 0.00 121.57
1238.00 0.00 142.30
c)Stream current Force,WA
F
TF
= 1.83 kN M
TF
= 1.64 kNm/m
d)Seismic Force Effects,EQ
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY10 of 20
At bracing level = F
TF
= 0.00 kN M
TF
= 0.00 kNm/m
At pier cap level = FT
F
= 85.24 kN M
TF
= 817.47 kNm/m
At bracing level = F
LF
= 0.00 kN M
LF
= 0.00 kNm/m
At pier cap level = FL
F
= 85.24 kN M
LF
= 817.47 kNm/m
A) Stability against OVERTURNING:
M
REST.
= 4426.58 kNm/m
M
DRIV.
= M
LL
+M
EQ
+M
WA
= 1340.38 kNm/m
S.F.= 3.30 > 2.0 OK!
B) Stability against BEARING PRESSURE:
(b)case I: (b)case II:
P
tot
=P
DL
+P
LLI
= 3404.46 4189.05
M
T
=M
TDL
+M
TLL+
M
TEQ+
M
TWA
= 1340.38 819.12
M
L
=M
LDL
+M
LLL+
M
LEQ+
M
LWA
= 888.62 959.78
e
T
=M
T
/P
tot
= 0.394 0.196 OK!
e
L
=M
L
/P
tot
= 0.261 0.229 OK!
s
max
= 247.32 239.52
> s
all OK!
C) Stability against SLIDING:
F
TDRIV
=F
TEQ+
F
TWA
= 87.07
F
LDRIV
=F
LEQ+
F
LWA
= 85.24
F
DRIV
=(F
TDRIV
2
+F
LDRIV
2
)= 121.85
F
RESIST
=SVtan f=SV*0.7= 2400.39
S.F.=F
REST.
/F
DRIV.
= 19.70 > 1.5 OK!
CaseII: Two or more design lanes are loaded
A) Stability against OVERTURNING:
M
REST.
= 4426.58 kNm/m
M
DRIV.
= M
LL
+M
EQ
+M
WA
= 819.12 kNm/m
S.F.= 5.40 > 2.0 OK!
C) Stability against SLIDING:
F
TDRIV
=F
TEQ+
F
TWA
= 87.07
F
LDRIV
=F
LEQ+
F
LWA
= 85.24
F
DRIV
=(F
TDRIV
2
+F
LDRIV
2
)= 121.85
F
RESIST
=SVtan f=SV*0.7= 2979.48
S.F.=F
REST.
/F
DRIV.
= 24.45 > 1.5 OK!
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER STABILITY11 of 20
®
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´´±
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CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER LOADING SUMMARY12of 20
SUMMARY OF LOADS
DL(Lt.Sup.) 178.99 135.74 135.74 135.74 178.99
DL(Rt.Sup.) 178.99 135.74 135.74 135.74 178.99
LL(HL93) F
LLRt
F
LLCt
F
LLCt
F
LLCt
F
LLLt
F
WLt
= 19.07 F
WLl
= 7.63 F
LF
= 20.26
F
Wt
= 66.03 F
Wl
= 15.86
0.675 a a a= 2 a 4.51
24.00 2.79
F
EQT= 85.24 M
LONGT
F
EQL= 85.24
M
TRANS
2.73 2.73
5.295
0
F
EQT= 0.00 F
EQL= 0.00
F
Wl
= 1.96
0.00 (bracing)
1.96 (pier cap)
F
Wt
= 1.96 F
Wt
= 1.96 4.80
F
WAt
= 1.02 F
WAt
= 1.02
1.6 6.15 1.6
HL93/ case I: a) 274.81 89.93 203.26 65.26 0.00 0.00 549.62 179.86 60.79 1.21
Design
Tandem b) 260.63 88.23 192.78 65.26 0.00 0.00 521.27 176.45 71.15 38.97
case II: a) 300.09 98.20 235.05 76.92 235.05 76.92 0.00 0.00 121.57 2.42
b) 284.61 96.34 222.93 75.46 222.93 75.46 0.00 0.00 142.30 77.95
M
LONGT.
(kN/m) F
Rt
(kN) F
Ct
(kN) F
Lt
(kN) M
TRANS.
(kN/m)
CDSCoCWCE
Pier section capacity analysis
Ultimate facored loads from load combinations(from STAAD)
M
ux
= 361.51
M
uy
= 119.38
Nominal moment strength of the section in the direction of the x and y axis(from STAAD)
M
nx
= 8253.79
M
ny
= 1179.11
Ø= 0.65
M
ux
+ M
uy
< 1.0
ØM
nx
ØM
ny
0.223 < 1.0 OK!
CONTENTS
STABILITY OF THE WHOLE STRUCTURE
LOADING SUMMARY
ANALYSIS RESULT
BEAM & COLUMN SECTION DESIGN RESULT
FOOTING DESIGN
RC PIER FOOTING DESIGN15 of 20
RC FOOTING DESIGN FOR COLUMN PIER
Loading Case Summary
Group Fy(kN) Mx(kNm) Mz(kNm) Fy(kN) Mx(kNm) Mz(kNm) Fy(kN) Mx(kNm) Mz(kNm)
I 1620 67.55 97.65 1030 69.42 34.08 1550 67.6 36.38
II 1690 67.55 96.59 1130 69.42 35.49 1640 67.6 34.65
III 1030 344.71 13.4 660.74 355.76 15.17 1000 345 80.75
V 1710 111.61 53.72 1080 119.64 17.32 1670 112 99.62
E.EVE. I 1100 351.76 73.18 668.84 361.51 119.37 922.1 352 156.99
Bearing Capacity = 3.5 kg/cm
2
= 350 kN/m
2
Allowable Bearing Capacity = 5.25 kg/cm
2
= 525 kN/m
2
Design Constants
Concrete : Grade C30 concrete ( section 9.3)
f'c= = 24.00 Mpa
fc= (0.4*f'c) = 9.60 "
Reinforcement steel:
Grade 420 steel: For rebars diam. 20mm and above Mpa
fy = 420 MPa "
fs = 165 MPa
Es = 200,000 MPa
Grade 300 steel: For rebars less than diam. 20
fy = 300 MPa
fs = 140 MPa
Es = 200,000 MPa kN/m
2
FyR x R FyL
6.15
3.075
y
f(m)= 1.00 D=
x 1
B C
x
W=
z 3.0
A D
B= 9.00
Self Weight W (kN)= 648
Location of Resultant R & Eccentricity e
Group I II III V E.EVE. I
x(m)= 3.046 3.062 3.010 3.033 2.742
ex(m)= 0.029 0.013 0.065 0.042 0.333 < B/6 OK!
ez(m)= 0.049 0.046 0.388 0.077 0.396 < W/6 OK!
smax= 200.460 208.129 225.077 223.538 249.022 < sall OK!
Design Load = 249.02 kN/m
2
ex= 0.013 m ez= 0.046 m V=Fy1+Fy2+Fy3+W= 5108 kN
sA=V/A(16*ex/B+6*ez/W)= 204.95 kN/m
2
sB=V/A(16*ex/B6*ez/W)= 170.14 "
sC=V/A(1+6*ex/B6*ez/W)= 173.42 "
sD=V/A(1+6*ex/B+6*ez/W)= 208.23 "
Depth Determination
1. Punching Shear (Art. 8.15.5.6.2)
v=V/bo*d bo=p(f+d)
design shear stress v < vcp=0.166f'c'
f'c= 24.00 Mpa
vcp= 0.81 N/mm
2
813.23 kN/m
2
Vact=PcolPsoil= 958.46 kN where Pcol= 1690 kN
trial d= 0.934 m
Vres=vcp*bo*d= 4614.95 Vres Vact OK!
davil=DF/2CLR CR= 0.934 m davil d OK!
Right leg Center Leg Left Leg
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER FOOTING DESIGN16 of 20
2. Wide Beam Shear
a. In the Short Direction
s1=P/A(1 + 6*ez/W)= 149.99 kN/m
2
d
s2=P/A(1  6*ez/W)= 180.38 "
trial d= 0.934 m
s3= 150.66 s1 s3 s2
Vact= 89.29 kN
bc ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load= 3.0
0.166(1+2/bc)= 0.277 < 0.332 take 0.277
vcb=0.166(1+2/bc)f'c0.332f'c= 1.36 N/mm
2
1355.38 kN/m
2
Vres=vcb*B*d= 11393.36 kN Vres Vact OK!
b. In the Long Direction
FyR= 1690 FyC= 1130 FyL= 1640
1.425 MzR= 96.59 MzC= 35.49 MzL= 34.65
q2 q3 q5
q4 q1
q1=s1*W=P/A(1 + 6*ex/B)*W= 499.85 kN/m q3= 492.62 kN/m
q2=s2*W=P/A(1  6*ex/B)*W= 491.26 " q4= 498.4903
q5= 495.5556
a= 860 g= 600
b= 697 h= 144
c= 707 i= 338
d= 707 j= 149
e= 666 k= 538
f= 828
Vmax= 860.00 kN corresponding triangle leg = 1.79 (from STAAD)
Vact= 171.04 kN trial d = 0.934 m
Vres=vcb*W*d= 3797.79 kN Vres Vact OK!
davil d OK!
SFD & BMD(max) Diagram ordinates(from STAAD)
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CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER FOOTING DESIGN17 of 20
3. Flexure
a. In the Short Direction
Bottom :
Using F = 32 mm and
Clear cover = 50 mm
davil=DF/2CLR CR= 0.934 m
beff=coln width+2(1/2*d)= 1.93 m
Loading
FyR= 1690 MxR= 67.55 FyC= 1640 MxC= 69.42 FyL= 1640 MxL= 67.55
Right Center Left
ez(m)= 0.0400 0.0423 0.0412 1
smax=Fy/beff*W(1 + 6*ez/W)= 314.56 306.59 305.95
smin=Fy/beff*W(1  6*ez/W)= 267.99 10.95 259.38
qmax=smax*beff= 608.37 kN/m qmax q1= 578.34 qmin
qmin=smin*beff= 518.30 " 608.37 518.30
Mxx= 299.18 kNm
The moment for design is therefore,
Mfact. = 299.18 kNm/m
The cracking moment given by :
Ig =bh
3
/12 = 2.5E+11 mm
4
Mcr =frIg/yt = 1543.18 KNm/m yt= 500 mm
fr = 0.63*sqrt(fc') = 3.086357076 MPa
The amount of reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the
lesser of :
 1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and the
modulus of rupture, fr, of the concrete.
Besides the area of reinforcement shall not be less than the minimum shrinkage and temprature reinforcement.
Reinforcement
Mu = 1851.81 KNm/m
Design moment, Mu = 1851.81 KNm/m
As = Mu / ( Ø fy (d  a/2 ) ) where Mu= 1851.81 KNm/m
a = As*fy / ( 0.85 * fc' b ) Ø = 0.90
b= 3000 mm
Assume a = 36 mm fy= 420.00 N/mm2
As = Mu / ( Ø fy (d  a/2 ) ) = 5,302 mm2 fc'= 24.00 N/mm2
a = As*fy / ( 0.85 * fc' b ) = 36 mm D= 1000 mm
diam= 16 mm
cover = 50 mm
d= 942 mm
Required As = 5302 mm2/m
Spacing = 114 mm
Use F 16 mm @ 114 mm for width= beff
Provide As = 5,301.9 mm2/m
According to section 5.10.8, the area of reinforcement for walls and footings in each direction shall not be less than :
As = 0.0015Ag
Use As,min=0.0015*b*d= 4239 mm
2
/m S = 142.29 mm
Use F 16 mm @ 142 mm for the rest
rmax = 0.75*rb = 0.75*0.85*b1*(fc'/fy)*600/(600+fy) b1= 0.85
= 0.0182 fc' = 24 N/mm2
rprovided = As/bd = 0.0019 << rmax fy = 420 N/mm2
OK !!
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CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER FOOTING DESIGN18 of 20
b. In the Long Direction
Bottom :
Mmax = 600.00 kNm/m
The cracking moment given by :
Ig =bh
3
/12 = 2.5E+11 mm
4
Mcr =frIg/yt = 1543.18 KNm/m yt= 500 mm
fr = 0.63*sqrt(fc') = 3.086357076 MPa
The amount of reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the
lesser of :
 1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and the
modulus of rupture, fr, of the concrete.
Besides the area of reinforcement shall not be less than the minimum shrinkage and temprature reinforcement.
Reinforcement
Mu = 1851.81 KNm/m
Design moment, Mu = 1851.81 KNm/m
As = Mu / ( Ø fy (d  a/2 ) ) where Mu= 1851.81 KNm/m
a = As*fy / ( 0.85 * fc' b ) Ø = 0.90
b= 3000 mm
Assume a = 36 mm fy= 420.00 N/mm2
As = Mu / ( Ø fy (d  a/2 ) ) = 5,313 mm2 fc'= 24.00 N/mm2
a = As*fy / ( 0.85 * fc' b ) = 36 mm D= 1000 mm
diam= 20 mm
cover = 50 mm
d= 940 mm
Required As = 5313 mm2/m
Spacing = 177 mm
Use F 20 mm @ 177 mm for width= beff
Provide As = 5,313.4 mm2/m
According to section 5.10.8, the area of reinforcement for walls and footings in each direction shall not be less than :
As = 0.0015Ag
Use As,min=0.0015*b*d= 4230 mm
2
/m S = 222.81 mm
Use F 20 mm @ 222 mm
Use F 20 mm @ 177 mm
Provide As = 5,313.4 mm2/m
rmax = 0.75*rb = 0.75*0.85*b1*(fc'/fy)*600/(600+fy) b1= 0.85
= 0.0182 fc' = 24 N/mm2
rprovided = As/bd = 0.0019 << rmax fy = 420 N/mm2
OK !!
Top :
Mmax = 149.00 kNm/m
The cracking moment given by :
Ig =bh
3
/12 = 2.5E+11 mm
4
Mcr =frIg/yt = 1543.18 KNm/m yt= 500 mm
fr = 0.63*sqrt(fc') = 3.086357076 MPa
The amount of reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the
lesser of :
 1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and the
modulus of rupture, fr, of the concrete.
Besides the area of reinforcement shall not be less than the minimum shrinkage and temprature reinforcement.
Reinforcement
Mu = 1851.81 KNm/m
Design moment, Mu = 1851.81 KNm/m
As = Mu / ( Ø fy (d  a/2 ) ) where Mu= 1851.81 KNm/m
a = As*fy / ( 0.85 * fc' b ) Ø = 0.90
b= 3000 mm
Assume a = 36 mm fy= 420.00 N/mm2
As = Mu / ( Ø fy (d  a/2 ) ) = 5,313 mm2 fc'= 24.00 N/mm2
a = As*fy / ( 0.85 * fc' b ) = 36 mm D= 1000 mm
diam= 20 mm
cover = 50 mm
d= 940 mm
Required As = 5313 mm2/m
Spacing = 177 mm
Use F 20 mm @ 177 mm for width= beff
Provide As = 1,771.1 mm2/m
According to section 5.10.8, the area of reinforcement for walls and footings in each direction shall not be less than :
As = 0.0015Ag
Use As,min=0.0015*b*d= 4230 mm
2
/m S = 222.81 mm
Use F 20 mm @ 222 mm
Use F 20 mm @ 177 mm
Provide As = 5,313.4 mm2/m
Checking maximum steel area
rmax = 0.75*rb = 0.75*0.85*b1*(fc'/fy)*600/(600+fy) b1= 0.85
= 0.0182 fc' = 24 N/mm2
rprovided = As/bd = 0.0019 << rmax fy = 420 N/mm2
OK !!
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER
PIER CAP DESIGN19 of 20
1) DESIGN DATA
1.1.MATERIAL PROPERTIES:
Concrete : Grade C30 concrete ( section 9.3)
fc'= = 24 MPa ( fc' cylinder )
fc=0.4*fc' = 9.6 MPa
Ec=4800sqrt(fc') = 23,515 MPa
Reinforcement steel:
Grade 420 steel: For rebars diam. 20mm and above
fy = 420 MPa
fs = 165 MPa
Es = 200,000 MPa
Grade 300 steel: For rebars less than diam. 20
fy = 300 MPa
fs = 140 MPa
Es = 200,000 MPa
Modular ratio n = Ec / Es = 8.51 Use n = 9
2) DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Design Loads:
(from STAAD)
M
u(maxve)
= 772.94 kNm
M
u(max+ve)
= 25.69 kNm
Pier Cap Section:
b= 1000 h
h= 1000
b
The cracking moment given by :
Ig =bh
3
/12 = 83,333,333,333.33 mm
4
Mcr =frIg/y
t
= 514.39 KNm/m y
t
= 500 mm
fr = 0.63*sqrt(fc') = 3.086357076 MPa
The amount of reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the
lesser of :
 1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and the
modulus of rupture, fr, of the concrete.
Besides the area of reinforcement shall not be less than the minimum shrinkage and temprature reinforcement.
Reinforcement
Mu = 772.94 KNm/m
Design moment, Mu = 772.94 KNm/m
As = Mu / ( Ø fy (d  a/2 ) ) where Mu= 772.94 KNm/m
a = As*fy / ( 0.85 * fc' b ) Ø = 0.90
b= 1000 mm
Assume a = 45 mm fy= 420.00 N/mm2
As = Mu / ( Ø fy (d  a/2 ) ) = 2,205 mm2 fc'= 24.00 N/mm2
a = As*fy / ( 0.85 * fc' b ) = 45 mm D= 1000 mm
diam= 20 mm
cover = 40 mm
d= 950 mm
Required As = 2205 mm2/m
Use 8 F 20 both for top and bottom
r
max
= 0.75*r
b
=0.75*0.85*b1*(fc'/fy)*600/(600+fy) b1=
0.85
= 0.0182 fc' = 24 N/mm2
r
provided
= As/bd = 0.0023 << r
max fy = 420 N/mm2
OK !!
CDSCoCWCE
RC PIER
PIER CAP DESIGN20 of 20
3) DESIGN FOR SHEAR
Shear strength
Design of cross sections subject to shear shall be based on
Vu < = ØVn = Ø (Vc + Vs ) Ø = 0.900
where Vu = factored shear forces at the section
Vn = the nominal shear strength, determined as the lesser of Vn = Vc + Vs or Vn=0.25*fc'*bv*dv
Vc = the nominal shear strength provided by the concrete, determined by:
Vc = 0.083*b*SQRT(fc')*bv*dv, where b= 2.00
Vs = the nominal shear strength provided by the shear reinforcement
Vs = Av*fv*d / s
Shear strength provided by concrete
Shear stress provided by concrete
vc = 0.083*b*sqrt(fc') = 0.813 (MPa )
The shear strength carried by concrete,Vc=vc*bw*d= 0.813 bw*d (N)
Shear strength provided by shear reinforcement
Where the factored shear force, Vu, exceeds shear strength ØVc, shear reinforcement shall be provided to satisfy
the equation, Vu < = ØVn = Ø ( Vc + Vs )
When shear reinforcement perpendicular to the axis of the member is used
Vs = Vu/Ø  Vc = Av*fy*d / s
There fore, spacing of shear reinforcement, s, is :
S = Av*fy*d / Vs = Av*fy*d/(Vu/ØVc)=Av*fy*d/(Vu/Ø  0.813*bw*d )
Minimum shear reinforcement ( Eq.12.34 )
Av = 0.083*sqrt(fc')*bw*S / fy fc' = 24 MPa
Smax = Av*fy / ( 0.083*sqrt(fc')*bw ) fy = 300 MPa
Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement Av =diam.12= 226 mm2
If Vu < 0.10*fc' * bw * d, S <= 0.8d <= 600mm 0.10*fc' * bwd= 2280 Mpa
If Vu >= 0.10*fc' * bw * d, S <= 0.4d <= 300mm
Sections located less than a distance d from support may be designed for the same shear as that omputed at a distance d
Vu
(KN)
d
(m)
Vc =
vc.bw.d*10

3
(KN)
Vs=Vu/Ø 
Vc
(KN)
0.10*fc'*bw
*d
(KN)
Smax1
(mm)
Smax2=
Av*fy/(0.083*
sqrt(fc')*bw)
(mm)
Spacing by analysis
S=Av*fy*d/
(Vu/ØVc)
(mm)
Spacing
provided
(mm)
802.36 950.000 772.57 118.94 2280.0 600 167 541.99 160
CDSCoCWCE