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An articulation (joint) is a point of contact between bones, between cartilage and bone, or between teeth and bones. What determines a joint’s function? A joint’s structure determines its function(s). Name the four factors that influence the range of motion allowed at any particular joint? 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. tightness of fit between bones precise manner in which the bones fit together tightness of the tissues that bind the bones of the joint together position of the ligaments, muscles, and tendons surrounding the joint

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION Name the structural classification of joints and give a brief description of each. Fibrous – There is no joint cavity. the bones are held tightly together by dense fibrous connective tissue. Cartilaginous – There is no joint cavity. The bones are held together by a bridge of cartilage. Synovial – There is a joint cavity present. the bones are held together loosely by a surrounding capsule of connective tissue and by various ligaments.


FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION Name the functional classification of joints and give a brief description of each. Synarthrosis – This is an immovable joint. Amphiarthrosis – This is a slightly movable joint. Diarthrosis – This is a freely movable joint.

These are not an integral part of the fibrous capsule. Synovial fluid – Synoviocytes.B. most synovial joints have accessory ligaments as well. It is composed of synoviocytes. STRUCTURE OF A DIARTHROSIS Describe each of the following components of a synovial joint: Joint cavity – The distinguishing anatomical feature of a diarthrosis is the synovial (joint) cavity. secrete synovial fluid into the joint cavity for lubrication of the articular cartilages and the nourishment of the cartilage cells. uniting the two bones by forming a sac-like structure that incorporates the ends of each bone. Articular capsule – The sleeve-like articular capsule surrounds the joint. areolar tissue. Describe each of the following: Accessory ligaments – In addition to the ligaments formed by thickenings of the fibrous capsule. 62 . but does not bind the bones together. It is formed of dense irregular connective tissue that blends with the periostea of the two bones and provides flexibility with resistance to dislocation. intracapsular – Intracapsular ligaments lie within the articular capsule and bridge the two bones. Articular cartilage – There is articular cartilage (hyaline type) that covers the surfaces of the bones at their point of articulation. a fluid-filled space that separates the articulating bones. They are excluded from the joint cavity by wraps of the synovial membrane. lining the inside surface of the synovial membrane. inner layer – The inner layer of the articular capsule is the synovial membrane. outer layer – The outer layer of the articular capsule is the fibrous capsule. DIARTHROSES (FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS) 1. extracapcular – Extracapsular ligaments lie outside the articular capsule and bridge the two bones. and adipose tissue.

These factors. in turn. 4. Identify these five factors. or articular capsule and bone. They serve to: 1. 2. ligament and bone. they are found between skin and bone. What are bursae? Associated with may synovial joints are synovial membrane-lined.Describe the articular discs (menisci) of cartilage found in the knee and shoulder joints. 2. these pads lie between the articular bone surfaces in addition to the articular cartilages and are attached to the fibrous capsule by ligaments. synovial fluid-filled sacs called bursae. muscle and bone. give more stability to the joint by giving a better fit between the bones. determine the type and extent of motion that is possible at the joint. and 3. 1. Where are they found? Bursae are strategically located between moving parts. What are their functions? Inside the shoulder and knee joints are pads of fibrocartilage called the articular discs (menisci). 2. 3. In general. CONTACT AT A DIARTHROSIS Several factors contribute to keeping the articular surfaces of bones in a synovial joint in contact. structure or shape of the articulating bones strength and tension of the joint ligaments arrangement and tension of muscles around the joint apposition of soft parts hormones (relaxin) 63 . What is their function? Their function is to reduce the great amounts of friction that are generated between moving parts during various motions. tendon and bone. 5. direct the flow of synovial fluid to areas with greatest friction. allow the ends of the articulating bones to fit more closely together.

SPECIAL MOVEMENTS AT DIARTHROSES List the five pairs of special movements allowed by diarthroses and give a brief description of each. Circumduction – Circumduction movements are those in which the distal end of the bone moves in a circle while the proximal end remains relatively fixed in position. Lateral rotation is just the opposite. Hyperextension – Hyperextension continues the extension movement beyond the anatomical position. In medial rotation the anterior surface of the bone or extremity rotates towards the midline. Flexion – Flexion decreases the angle between the two articulating bones. MOVEMENT AT A DIARTHROSIS Identify each of the four major movement types allowed by synovial joints and give a brief description of each. 4. Adduction – Adduction refers to movement towards the body’s midline. Rotation – Rotation movements are movements of a bone in a single plane about its own longitudinal axis. Gliding – Gliding movements are the most simple.3. Examples would be those joints between the carpal bones and those between the tarsal bones. Abduction – Abduction refers to movement away from the body’s midline. There are five. Angular – Angular movements are those in which the angle between the articulating bones changes. This is really a combined movement of flexion-extension and abductionadduction. The shoulder joint and hip joint are capable of circumduction. The ribs glide on the vertebrae and the clavicle glides on both the sternum and the scapula. One surface moves back-and-forth and/or side-to-side over another without angular or rotary motion. 64 . Extension – Extension increases the angle between the articulating bones.

Elevation vs depression – Elevation is an upward movement of a body part. 65 . The shoulders can also be protracted. The mandible and the shoulder do these movements. Dorsiflexion vs plantar flexion – Dorsiflexion involves bending the ankle in the direction of the dorsum (top) of the foot. Inversion vs eversion – Inversion is the movement of the sole of the foot inward (medially) so that the soles face each other. Retraction is the opposite movement. Plantar flexion is bending the ankle in the direction of the plantar surface (sole) of the foot. as in standing on your toes. Eversion is movement of the sole outward (laterally) so that the soles face away from each other. Protraction vs retraction – Protraction is a movement forward on a plane parallel to the ground. as in thrusting the mandible forward. as in trying to stand on your heels. while depression is a downward movement. Supination vs Pronation – Supination is a movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned anteriorly (anatomical position). Pronation is the movement that turns the palm posteriorly.