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World Applied Sciences Journal 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

ISSN 1818-4952
© IDOSI Publications, 2009

Corresponding Author: Dr. Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din, HITECH University Taxila Cantt, Pakistan

769
Solving Second-order Singular Problems Using He’s Polynomials

Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din, Muhammad Aslam Noor and Khalida Inayat Noor

Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract: In this paper, we use He’s polynomials for solving singular second-order differential equations.
The approach also introduces a transformation which is helpful to cope with the singularity behavior at
x = 0. The proposed algorithm is applied to the reformulated problems which gives the solution in terms of
transformed variable. The desired series solution is obtained by making use of the inverse transformation.
The suggested algorithm is tested on Emden-Fowler, white-dwarf, generalized Lane-Emden and some other
second-order singular differential equations.

Key words: Homotopy perturbation method • He’s polynomials • Emden-Fowler equation • white-dwarf
equations • Lane-Emden equation • second order nonlinear singular ODES

PACS: 02.30 Jr • 02.00.00

INTRODUCTION

The singular differential equations [1-6, 16, 17, 22,
25-29] arise in several physical phenomena in
mathematical physics, astrophysics, theory of stellar
structure, thermal behavior of a spherical cloud of gas,
isothermal gas spheres and theory of thermionic
currents. Several techniques including decomposition,
spline, finite difference, multi-integral, modified
variational iteration and variational iteration have been
applied for solving such singular equations, see [1-6,
16, 17, 22, 25-29] and the references therein. He [9-15]
developed and formulated homotopy perturbation
method (HPM) by merging the standard homotopy and
perturbation. The homotopy perturbation method
(HPM) has been applied to a wide class of diversified
physical problems, see [7-15, 18-21, 23, 24] and the
references therein. It is worth mentioning that He’s
polynomials which were introduced by Ghorbani et al.
[7, 8] are calculated from He’s homotopy perturbation
method (HPM). Inspired and motivated by the ongoing
research in this area, we use He’s polynomials for
solving second-order singular problems. It is also to be
highlighted, that we introduce a transformation
u(x) = xy(x) which is helpful to cope with the
singularity behavior at x = 0 which is a difficult
element in such problems. The proposed algorithm is
applied to the reformulated problems which leads the
solution in terms of transformed variable. The desired
series solution is obtained by implementing the inverse
transformation. The suggested algorithm is tested on
Emden-Fowler equation, white-dwarf equations,
generalized Lane-Emden equation and second order
nonlinear singular ODES.

HOMOTOPY PERTURBATION METHOD
(HPM) AND HE’S POLYNOMIALS

To explain the He’s homotopy perturbation
method, we consider a general equation of the type,

L(u) = 0 (1)

where L is any integral or differential operator. We
define a convex homotopy H(u,p) by:

H(u,p) (1 p)F(u) pL(u) · − + (2)

where F(u) is a functional operator with known
solutions ν
0
, which can be obtained easily. It is clear
that, for

H(u,p) 0 · (3)
we have
H(u,0) F(u), H(u,1) L(u) · ·

This shows that H(u,p) continuously traces an
implicitly defined curve from a starting point H(ν
0
,0) to
a solution function H(f,l). The embedding parameter
monotonically increases from zero to unit as the trivial
problem F(u) = 0, is continuously deforms the original
problem L(u) = 0. The embedding parameter p∈(0,1]
World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

770

can be considered as an expanding parameter [7-15,
18-21, 23, 24]. The homotopy perturbation method uses
the homotopy parameter p as an expanding parameter
[9-15] to obtain


2
i 2 3
i 0 1 3
i 0
u p u u p u p u p u ,

·
· · + + + +

L (4)

if p→1, then (4) corresponds to (2) and becomes the
approximate solution of the form,


i
p 1
i 0
f limu u


·
· ·

(5)

It is well known that series (5) is convergent
for most of the cases and also the rate of convergence
is dependent on L (u); see [9-15]. We assume that (5)
has a unique solution. The comparisons of like
powers of p give solutions of various orders. In sum,
according to [7, 8], He’s HPM considers the nonlinear
term N(u) as:

2
i 2
i 0 1
i 0
N(u) p H H pH p H ...

·
· · + + +



where H
n
’s are the so-called He’s polynomials [7, 8],
which can be calculated by using the formula

n n
i
n 0 n i n
i 0
p 0
1
H (u , , u ) N( p u ) , n 0,1,2,
n! p
·
·
∂ ¸ _
· ·


¸ ,

K K.

NUMERICAL APPLICATIONS

In this section, we use He’s polynomials for
solving various singular differential equations.
Numerical results are very encouraging.
Example 3.1 [29] Consider the following second-
order singular initial value problem

2 3
2
y y y 6 12x x x
x
′′ ′ + + · + + +

with initial conditions

y(0) = 0, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above
problem can be re-formulated as

2 3 4
u( x) u(x) 6x 12x x x ′′ + · + + +

Applying the convex homotopy

( )
( )
2
x x
0 1 2
2
0 1 2 0
2 3 4
0 0
u pu p u
u pu p u u (x) p dxdx
6x 12x x x
¸ _ + + +

+ + + · −

− + + +
¸ ,
∫ ∫
L
L

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

(0) 3 4 5 6
0
1 1
p : u (x) x x x x
20 30
· + + +

(1) 3 4 5 6 5
1
6 7 8
1 1 1
p : u ( x ) x x x x x
20 30 20
1 1 1
x x x
30 840 1680
· + + + −
− − −


(2) 3 4 5 6 5
2
6 7 8 7
8 8 9
1 1 1
p : u ( x ) x x x x x
20 30 20
1 1 1 1
x x x x
30 840 1680 840
1 1 1
x x x
1680 60480 151200
· + + + −
− − − +
+ + +
M


where p
i
s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is
given by

3 4
u(x) x x · +

and using the inverse transformation, the required series
solution is given by

2 3
y(x) x x · +

Example 3.2 [29] Consider the following second-order
singular initial value problem

2
2
y y 2(2x 3)y
x
′′ ′ + · +

with initial conditions

y(0) = 1, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x) the above
problem can be re-formulated as

2
u( x) 2(2x 3)u(x) 0 ′′ − + ·

Applying the convex homotopy

x x
0 1
2 2
0 1 2 2
0 0 2
u pu
u pu p u 1 p 2(2x 3) dxdx
p u
+ ¸ _
+ + + · − +

+ +
¸ ,
∫ ∫
L
L


Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p
World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

771

(0)
0
p : u (x) x ·

(1) 3 5
1
1
p : u ( x ) x x x
5
· + +

(2) 3 5 5 7 9
2
1 3 13 1
p : u ( x ) x x x x x x
5 10 105 90
· + + + + +

(3) 3 5 5 7 9
3
7 9 11 13
1 3 13 1
p : u ( x ) x x x x x x
5 10 105 90
3 17 59 1
x x x x
70 630 11550 3510
· + + + + +
+ + + +
M


where p
i
s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is
given by

3 5 7 9 11 12
1 1 1 1 1
u(x) x x x x x x x
2! 3! 4! 5! 6!
· + + + + + + +L

and using the inverse transformation, the required series
solution is given by

2 4 6 8 10
1 1 1 1
y(x) 1 x x x x x
2! 3! 4! 5!
· + + + + + +L

and in the closed form

2
x
y(x) e ·

Example 3.3 [29] Consider the linear initial value
problem

5 4 2
8
y (x) y (x) xy( x) x x 44x 30x
x
′′ ′ + + · − + −

with initial conditions

y(0) = 0, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above
problem can be re-formulated as

( )
6 5 3 2
6
u( x) u( x) xu(x) x x 44x 30x 0
1 x
¸ _
′′ ′ + + − − + − ·

+ ¸ ,


Applying the convex homotopy

2 0 1 2
x x
0 1 6 5
0 0 0
3 2
1
du du du 6
p p
1 x dx dx dx
u pu p dxdx
u x x
x
pu 44x 30x
¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _
+ + +

+ ¸ ,¸ ,

+ + · −

¸ _ + − ¸ _
+ −

+ + − ¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,
∫ ∫
L
L
L


Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

(0) 8 7 5 4
0
1 1
p : u (x) x x x x
98 78
· − + −

(1) 5 4 8 7 11
1
9 8 7
1 1 1
p : u (x) x x x x x
98 78 1660
1 1 1
x x x
11232 98 78
· − + − −
+ − +


(2) 5 4 8 7 11 9
2
8 7 14
13 11 11
1 1 1 1
p : u (x) x x x x x x
98 78 1660 11232
1 1 1
x x x
98 78 4331600
1 1 1
x x x
2560896 1660 11232
· − + − − +
− + +
− + −
M


where p
i
s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is
given by

5 4
u(x) x x · −

and using the inverse transformation, the required
solution is given by

4 3
y(x) x x · −

Example 3.4 Consider the following Emden-Fowler
equation

m n
2
y y ax y 0
x
′′ ′ + + ·

with boundary conditions

y(0) = 1, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above
problem can be re-formulated as

m n 1 n
u( x) a x u (x) 0
− +
′′ + ·

Applying the convex homotopy

n
x x
0 1 2 m n 1
0 1 2 2
0 0 2
u pu
u pu p u 1 p a x dxdx
p u
− +
¸ _
+ ¸ _

+ + + · −

+ +
¸ ,
¸ ,
∫ ∫
L
L


Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

(0)
0
p : u (x) x ·
World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

772

(1) m 3
1
a
p : u( x) x x
(m 3)(m 2)
+
· −
+ +


(2) m 3
2
2
2m 5
2
a
p : u ( x ) x x
(m 3)(m 2)
a n
x
2(2m 5)(m 3)(m 2)
+
+
· −
+ +
+
+ + +


(3) m 3
3
2
2m 5
2
3
3m 7
2 3
a
p : u ( x ) x x
(m 3)(m 2)
a n
x
2(2m 5)(m 3)(m 2)
an(8n 3mn 2m 5)
x
6(3m 7)(5 2m)(m 3) ( m 2)
+
+
+
· −
+ +
+
+ + +
+ − −

+ + + +
M


where p
i
s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is
given by

m 3
2
2m 5
2
3
3m 7
2 3
a
u(x) x x
(m 3)(m 2)
a n
x
2(2m 5)(m 3)(m 2)
an(8n 3mn 2m 5)
x
6(3m 7)(5 2m)(m 3) (m 2)
+
+
+
· −
+ +
+
+ + +
+ − −
− +
+ + + +
L


and using the inverse transformation, the required
solution is given by

m 2
2
2m 4
2
3
3m 6
2 3
a
y(x) x x
(m 3)(m 2)
a n
x
2(2m 5)(m 3)(m 2)
a n(8n 3mn 2m 5)
x
6(3m 7)(5 2m)(m 3) (m 2)
+
+
+
· −
+ +
+
+ + +
+ − −
− +
+ + + +
L


It is quite obvious that m can not take the values

5 5
3, 2, , ,
2 3
− − − − L

Substitution of m = 0, n = 0 gives the solution as:

2
a
y(x) 1 x
3!
· −
for the equation
2
y y a 0
x
′′ ′ + + ·

For m = 0, n = 1, we obtain the exact solution

sin( ax)
y(x)
a x
·

for the equation
2
y y ay 0
x
′′ ′ + + ·

Similarly, for m = 0, n = 5, the exact solution

1
2
2
x
y(x) 1 a
3

¸ _
· +

¸ ,


is obtained. Moreover, for n = 0, the exact solution

m 2
a
y(x) 1 x
(m 3)(m 2)
+
· −
+ +


is obtained. Hence for n = 0, the exact solutions

5
2
4a
y(x) 1 x
35
· −
and
5
3
4a
y(x) 1 x
15
· −

are obtained for the values of
1
m .
2
· t

Example 3.5 [28] Consider the white-dwarf equation

2 3 2
2
y y (y C) 0
x
′′ ′ + + − ·

with boundary conditions

y(0) = 1, y′(0) = 0

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above
problem can be re-formulated as

3
2 2
2
u
u( x) x C 0
x
¸ _
′′ + − ·

¸ ,


Applying the convex homotopy

3
2 2
x x
0 1 2
0 1 2 2 2
0 0 2
u pu
1
u pu p u 1 p x C dxdx
x p u
¸ _
¸ _
+ ¸ _

+ + + · − −


+ +
¸ ,
¸ ,
¸ ,
∫ ∫
L
L


Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p
World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

773

(0)
0
p : u (x) x, ·

(1) 3 2 3
1
1
p : u( x) x (C 1) x ,
6
· − −

(2) 3 2 3 2 4
2
1 1
p : u ( x ) x (C 1) x (C 1) x ,
6 40
· − − + −

(3) 3 2 3 2 4
3
5 2 7
1 1
p : u ( x ) x (C 1) x (C 1) x
6 40
1
(5(C 1) 14)(C 1) x
7!
· − − + −
− − + −


(4) 3 2 3 2 4
4
5 2 7
3 9
1 1
p : u (x) x (C 1) x (C 1) x
6 40
1
(5(C 1) 14)(C 1) x
7!
1
(339(C 1) 280)(C 1) x
3 9!
· − − + −
− − + −
+ − + −

M

where p
i
s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is
given as

3 2 3 2 4
5 2 7
3 9
1 1
u(x) x (C 1) x (C 1) x
6 40
1
(5(C 1) 14)(C 1) x
7!
1
(339(C 1) 280)(C 1) x
3 9!
· − − + −
− − + −
+ − + − +

L


and using the inverse transformation, the required
solution is given by

3 2 2 2 4
5 2 6
3 8
2
7 2 10
1 1
y(x) 1 (C 1) x (C 1) x
6 40
1
(5(C 1) 14)(C 1) x
7!
1
(339(C 1) 280)(C 1) x
3 9!
1425(C 1) 1
(C 1) x
5 11! 11436(C 1) 4256
· − − + −
− − + −
+ − + −

¸ _ −
+ − +

⋅ + − +
¸ ,
L


Example 3.6 [28] Consider the following generalized
Lane-Emden

m
n
y y y 0, n 0
x
′′ ′ + + · ≥

with initial conditions

y(0) = 1, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above
problem can be re-formulated as

m
n 2 u
u( x) u( x) 0
1 x x
− ¸ _ ¸ _
′′ ′ + + ·

+ ¸ , ¸ ,


Applying the convex homotopy

( ) ( )
m x x
2 2
0 1 2 0 2 0 1 2
0 0
n 2 1
u pu p u 1 p u pu u pu p u dxdx
1 x x
¸ _
− ¸ _ ¸ _
′ ′′ + + + · − + + + + + +


+ ¸ , ¸ ,
¸ ,
∫ ∫
L L L

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

(0)
0
p : u (x) x ·
(1) 3
1
1
p : u( x) x x
2(n 1)
· −
+


( )( )
(2) 3 5
2
1 m
p : u ( x ) x x x
2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3
· −
+ + +


( )( )
( )
( )
2
(3) 3 5 7
3 2
2n 4 m (n 3)m 1 m
p : u ( x ) x x x x
2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3 48 n 1 (n 3)(n 5)
+ − +
· − +
+ + + + + +


( )( )
( )
( )
( )
2
(4) 3 5 7
4 2
2
2 2 2 2
8
3
2n 4 m (n 3)m 1 m
p : u ( x ) x x x x
2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3
48 n 1 (n 3)(n 5)
(6n 32n 34)m 97n 46n 630m (2n 16n 30)
x
384(n 1) (n 3)(n 5)(n 7)
+ − +
· − +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + − + + + + +
+
+ + + +
M

World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

774

where p
i
s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is given by

( )( )
( )
( )
( )
2
3 5 7
2
2
2 2 2 2
8
3
2n 4 m (n 3)m 1 m
u(x) x x x x
2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3 48 n 1 (n 3)(n 5)
(6n 32n 34)m 97n 46n 630m (2n 16n 30)
x
384(n 1) (n 3)(n 5)(n 7)
+ − +
· − +
+ + + + + +
+ + − + + + + +
+ +
+ + + +
L


and the inverse transformation will yield

( )( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 4 6
2
2
2 2 2 2
8
3
2n 4 m (n 3)m 1 m
y(x) 1 x x x
2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3 48 n 1 (n 3)(n 5)
(6n 32n 34)m 97n 46n 630m (2n 16n 30)
x
384(n 1) (n 3)(n 5)(n 7)
+ − +
· − + +
+ + + + + +
+ + − + + + + +
+ +
+ + + +
L


For a fixed n = 0 and m = 0,1,2, we obtain the
following solutions respectively:

2
2 4 6 8
1
y(x) 1 x ,
2
y(x) cosx,
1 1 1 1
y(x) 1 x x x x
2 12 72 504
¹
· −
¹
¹
·
'
¹
¹ · − + − + +
¹
L


where x = 0 is just an ordinary point. Similarly, for
fixed n = 0.5 and m = 0,1,2, we get the following
solutions respectively:

2
2 4 6 8
2 4 6 8
1
y(x) 1 x ,
3
1 1 1 1
y(x) 1 x x x x ,
3 42 1386 83160
1 1 13 23
y(x) 1 x x x x .
3 21 2079 31185
¹
· −
¹
¹
¹
· − + − + +
'
¹
¹
· − + − + +
¹
¹
L
L


Finally for n = 1 and m = 0,1,2, we obtain the
following solutions respectively:

2
2 4 6 8
2 4 6 8
1
y(x) 1 x ,
4
1 1 1 1
y(x) 1 x x x x ,
4 64 2304 147456
1 1 1 13
y(x) 1 x x x x .
4 32 288 36864
¹
· −
¹
¹
¹
· − + − + +
'
¹
¹
· − + − + +
¹
¹
L
L


CONCLUSION

In this paper, we use He’s polynomials coupled
with a transformation which is helpful to cope with the
singularity behavior for solving various singular
differential equations. The desired series solution is
obtained by implementing the inverse transformation.
The suggested algorithm is tested on Emden-Fowler
equation, white-dwarf equation, generalized Lane-
Emden equation, second order nonlinear singular
ODES. Acknowledgment The authors are highly
grateful to Dr S. M. Junaid Zaidi Rector CIIT for the
provision of excellent research facilities and
environment.

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