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You are on page 1of 7

**ISSN 1818-4952
**

© IDOSI Publications, 2009

Corresponding Author: Dr. Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din, HITECH University Taxila Cantt, Pakistan

769

Solving Second-order Singular Problems Using He’s Polynomials

Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din, Muhammad Aslam Noor and Khalida Inayat Noor

Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract: In this paper, we use He’s polynomials for solving singular second-order differential equations.

The approach also introduces a transformation which is helpful to cope with the singularity behavior at

x = 0. The proposed algorithm is applied to the reformulated problems which gives the solution in terms of

transformed variable. The desired series solution is obtained by making use of the inverse transformation.

The suggested algorithm is tested on Emden-Fowler, white-dwarf, generalized Lane-Emden and some other

second-order singular differential equations.

Key words: Homotopy perturbation method • He’s polynomials • Emden-Fowler equation • white-dwarf

equations • Lane-Emden equation • second order nonlinear singular ODES

PACS: 02.30 Jr • 02.00.00

INTRODUCTION

The singular differential equations [1-6, 16, 17, 22,

25-29] arise in several physical phenomena in

mathematical physics, astrophysics, theory of stellar

structure, thermal behavior of a spherical cloud of gas,

isothermal gas spheres and theory of thermionic

currents. Several techniques including decomposition,

spline, finite difference, multi-integral, modified

variational iteration and variational iteration have been

applied for solving such singular equations, see [1-6,

16, 17, 22, 25-29] and the references therein. He [9-15]

developed and formulated homotopy perturbation

method (HPM) by merging the standard homotopy and

perturbation. The homotopy perturbation method

(HPM) has been applied to a wide class of diversified

physical problems, see [7-15, 18-21, 23, 24] and the

references therein. It is worth mentioning that He’s

polynomials which were introduced by Ghorbani et al.

[7, 8] are calculated from He’s homotopy perturbation

method (HPM). Inspired and motivated by the ongoing

research in this area, we use He’s polynomials for

solving second-order singular problems. It is also to be

highlighted, that we introduce a transformation

u(x) = xy(x) which is helpful to cope with the

singularity behavior at x = 0 which is a difficult

element in such problems. The proposed algorithm is

applied to the reformulated problems which leads the

solution in terms of transformed variable. The desired

series solution is obtained by implementing the inverse

transformation. The suggested algorithm is tested on

Emden-Fowler equation, white-dwarf equations,

generalized Lane-Emden equation and second order

nonlinear singular ODES.

HOMOTOPY PERTURBATION METHOD

(HPM) AND HE’S POLYNOMIALS

To explain the He’s homotopy perturbation

method, we consider a general equation of the type,

L(u) = 0 (1)

where L is any integral or differential operator. We

define a convex homotopy H(u,p) by:

H(u,p) (1 p)F(u) pL(u) · − + (2)

where F(u) is a functional operator with known

solutions ν

0

, which can be obtained easily. It is clear

that, for

H(u,p) 0 · (3)

we have

H(u,0) F(u), H(u,1) L(u) · ·

This shows that H(u,p) continuously traces an

implicitly defined curve from a starting point H(ν

0

,0) to

a solution function H(f,l). The embedding parameter

monotonically increases from zero to unit as the trivial

problem F(u) = 0, is continuously deforms the original

problem L(u) = 0. The embedding parameter p∈(0,1]

World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

770

can be considered as an expanding parameter [7-15,

18-21, 23, 24]. The homotopy perturbation method uses

the homotopy parameter p as an expanding parameter

[9-15] to obtain

2

i 2 3

i 0 1 3

i 0

u p u u p u p u p u ,

∞

·

· · + + + +

∑

L (4)

if p→1, then (4) corresponds to (2) and becomes the

approximate solution of the form,

i

p 1

i 0

f limu u

∞

→

·

· ·

∑

(5)

It is well known that series (5) is convergent

for most of the cases and also the rate of convergence

is dependent on L (u); see [9-15]. We assume that (5)

has a unique solution. The comparisons of like

powers of p give solutions of various orders. In sum,

according to [7, 8], He’s HPM considers the nonlinear

term N(u) as:

2

i 2

i 0 1

i 0

N(u) p H H pH p H ...

∞

·

· · + + +

∑

where H

n

’s are the so-called He’s polynomials [7, 8],

which can be calculated by using the formula

n n

i

n 0 n i n

i 0

p 0

1

H (u , , u ) N( p u ) , n 0,1,2,

n! p

·

·

∂ ¸ _

· ·

∂

¸ ,

∑

K K.

NUMERICAL APPLICATIONS

In this section, we use He’s polynomials for

solving various singular differential equations.

Numerical results are very encouraging.

Example 3.1 [29] Consider the following second-

order singular initial value problem

2 3

2

y y y 6 12x x x

x

′′ ′ + + · + + +

with initial conditions

y(0) = 0, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above

problem can be re-formulated as

2 3 4

u( x) u(x) 6x 12x x x ′′ + · + + +

Applying the convex homotopy

( )

( )

2

x x

0 1 2

2

0 1 2 0

2 3 4

0 0

u pu p u

u pu p u u (x) p dxdx

6x 12x x x

¸ _ + + +

+ + + · −

− + + +

¸ ,

∫ ∫

L

L

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

(0) 3 4 5 6

0

1 1

p : u (x) x x x x

20 30

· + + +

(1) 3 4 5 6 5

1

6 7 8

1 1 1

p : u ( x ) x x x x x

20 30 20

1 1 1

x x x

30 840 1680

· + + + −

− − −

(2) 3 4 5 6 5

2

6 7 8 7

8 8 9

1 1 1

p : u ( x ) x x x x x

20 30 20

1 1 1 1

x x x x

30 840 1680 840

1 1 1

x x x

1680 60480 151200

· + + + −

− − − +

+ + +

M

where p

i

s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is

given by

3 4

u(x) x x · +

and using the inverse transformation, the required series

solution is given by

2 3

y(x) x x · +

Example 3.2 [29] Consider the following second-order

singular initial value problem

2

2

y y 2(2x 3)y

x

′′ ′ + · +

with initial conditions

y(0) = 1, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x) the above

problem can be re-formulated as

2

u( x) 2(2x 3)u(x) 0 ′′ − + ·

Applying the convex homotopy

x x

0 1

2 2

0 1 2 2

0 0 2

u pu

u pu p u 1 p 2(2x 3) dxdx

p u

+ ¸ _

+ + + · − +

+ +

¸ ,

∫ ∫

L

L

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

771

(0)

0

p : u (x) x ·

(1) 3 5

1

1

p : u ( x ) x x x

5

· + +

(2) 3 5 5 7 9

2

1 3 13 1

p : u ( x ) x x x x x x

5 10 105 90

· + + + + +

(3) 3 5 5 7 9

3

7 9 11 13

1 3 13 1

p : u ( x ) x x x x x x

5 10 105 90

3 17 59 1

x x x x

70 630 11550 3510

· + + + + +

+ + + +

M

where p

i

s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is

given by

3 5 7 9 11 12

1 1 1 1 1

u(x) x x x x x x x

2! 3! 4! 5! 6!

· + + + + + + +L

and using the inverse transformation, the required series

solution is given by

2 4 6 8 10

1 1 1 1

y(x) 1 x x x x x

2! 3! 4! 5!

· + + + + + +L

and in the closed form

2

x

y(x) e ·

Example 3.3 [29] Consider the linear initial value

problem

5 4 2

8

y (x) y (x) xy( x) x x 44x 30x

x

′′ ′ + + · − + −

with initial conditions

y(0) = 0, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above

problem can be re-formulated as

( )

6 5 3 2

6

u( x) u( x) xu(x) x x 44x 30x 0

1 x

¸ _

′′ ′ + + − − + − ·

+ ¸ ,

Applying the convex homotopy

2 0 1 2

x x

0 1 6 5

0 0 0

3 2

1

du du du 6

p p

1 x dx dx dx

u pu p dxdx

u x x

x

pu 44x 30x

¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _

+ + +

+ ¸ ,¸ ,

+ + · −

¸ _ + − ¸ _

+ −

+ + − ¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,

∫ ∫

L

L

L

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

(0) 8 7 5 4

0

1 1

p : u (x) x x x x

98 78

· − + −

(1) 5 4 8 7 11

1

9 8 7

1 1 1

p : u (x) x x x x x

98 78 1660

1 1 1

x x x

11232 98 78

· − + − −

+ − +

(2) 5 4 8 7 11 9

2

8 7 14

13 11 11

1 1 1 1

p : u (x) x x x x x x

98 78 1660 11232

1 1 1

x x x

98 78 4331600

1 1 1

x x x

2560896 1660 11232

· − + − − +

− + +

− + −

M

where p

i

s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is

given by

5 4

u(x) x x · −

and using the inverse transformation, the required

solution is given by

4 3

y(x) x x · −

Example 3.4 Consider the following Emden-Fowler

equation

m n

2

y y ax y 0

x

′′ ′ + + ·

with boundary conditions

y(0) = 1, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above

problem can be re-formulated as

m n 1 n

u( x) a x u (x) 0

− +

′′ + ·

Applying the convex homotopy

n

x x

0 1 2 m n 1

0 1 2 2

0 0 2

u pu

u pu p u 1 p a x dxdx

p u

− +

¸ _

+ ¸ _

+ + + · −

+ +

¸ ,

¸ ,

∫ ∫

L

L

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

(0)

0

p : u (x) x ·

World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

772

(1) m 3

1

a

p : u( x) x x

(m 3)(m 2)

+

· −

+ +

(2) m 3

2

2

2m 5

2

a

p : u ( x ) x x

(m 3)(m 2)

a n

x

2(2m 5)(m 3)(m 2)

+

+

· −

+ +

+

+ + +

(3) m 3

3

2

2m 5

2

3

3m 7

2 3

a

p : u ( x ) x x

(m 3)(m 2)

a n

x

2(2m 5)(m 3)(m 2)

an(8n 3mn 2m 5)

x

6(3m 7)(5 2m)(m 3) ( m 2)

+

+

+

· −

+ +

+

+ + +

+ − −

−

+ + + +

M

where p

i

s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is

given by

m 3

2

2m 5

2

3

3m 7

2 3

a

u(x) x x

(m 3)(m 2)

a n

x

2(2m 5)(m 3)(m 2)

an(8n 3mn 2m 5)

x

6(3m 7)(5 2m)(m 3) (m 2)

+

+

+

· −

+ +

+

+ + +

+ − −

− +

+ + + +

L

and using the inverse transformation, the required

solution is given by

m 2

2

2m 4

2

3

3m 6

2 3

a

y(x) x x

(m 3)(m 2)

a n

x

2(2m 5)(m 3)(m 2)

a n(8n 3mn 2m 5)

x

6(3m 7)(5 2m)(m 3) (m 2)

+

+

+

· −

+ +

+

+ + +

+ − −

− +

+ + + +

L

It is quite obvious that m can not take the values

5 5

3, 2, , ,

2 3

− − − − L

Substitution of m = 0, n = 0 gives the solution as:

2

a

y(x) 1 x

3!

· −

for the equation

2

y y a 0

x

′′ ′ + + ·

For m = 0, n = 1, we obtain the exact solution

sin( ax)

y(x)

a x

·

for the equation

2

y y ay 0

x

′′ ′ + + ·

Similarly, for m = 0, n = 5, the exact solution

1

2

2

x

y(x) 1 a

3

−

¸ _

· +

¸ ,

is obtained. Moreover, for n = 0, the exact solution

m 2

a

y(x) 1 x

(m 3)(m 2)

+

· −

+ +

is obtained. Hence for n = 0, the exact solutions

5

2

4a

y(x) 1 x

35

· −

and

5

3

4a

y(x) 1 x

15

· −

are obtained for the values of

1

m .

2

· t

Example 3.5 [28] Consider the white-dwarf equation

2 3 2

2

y y (y C) 0

x

′′ ′ + + − ·

with boundary conditions

y(0) = 1, y′(0) = 0

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above

problem can be re-formulated as

3

2 2

2

u

u( x) x C 0

x

¸ _

′′ + − ·

¸ ,

Applying the convex homotopy

3

2 2

x x

0 1 2

0 1 2 2 2

0 0 2

u pu

1

u pu p u 1 p x C dxdx

x p u

¸ _

¸ _

+ ¸ _

+ + + · − −

+ +

¸ ,

¸ ,

¸ ,

∫ ∫

L

L

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

773

(0)

0

p : u (x) x, ·

(1) 3 2 3

1

1

p : u( x) x (C 1) x ,

6

· − −

(2) 3 2 3 2 4

2

1 1

p : u ( x ) x (C 1) x (C 1) x ,

6 40

· − − + −

(3) 3 2 3 2 4

3

5 2 7

1 1

p : u ( x ) x (C 1) x (C 1) x

6 40

1

(5(C 1) 14)(C 1) x

7!

· − − + −

− − + −

(4) 3 2 3 2 4

4

5 2 7

3 9

1 1

p : u (x) x (C 1) x (C 1) x

6 40

1

(5(C 1) 14)(C 1) x

7!

1

(339(C 1) 280)(C 1) x

3 9!

· − − + −

− − + −

+ − + −

⋅

M

where p

i

s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is

given as

3 2 3 2 4

5 2 7

3 9

1 1

u(x) x (C 1) x (C 1) x

6 40

1

(5(C 1) 14)(C 1) x

7!

1

(339(C 1) 280)(C 1) x

3 9!

· − − + −

− − + −

+ − + − +

⋅

L

and using the inverse transformation, the required

solution is given by

3 2 2 2 4

5 2 6

3 8

2

7 2 10

1 1

y(x) 1 (C 1) x (C 1) x

6 40

1

(5(C 1) 14)(C 1) x

7!

1

(339(C 1) 280)(C 1) x

3 9!

1425(C 1) 1

(C 1) x

5 11! 11436(C 1) 4256

· − − + −

− − + −

+ − + −

⋅

¸ _ −

+ − +

⋅ + − +

¸ ,

L

Example 3.6 [28] Consider the following generalized

Lane-Emden

m

n

y y y 0, n 0

x

′′ ′ + + · ≥

with initial conditions

y(0) = 1, y′(0) = 0.

Using the transformation, u(x) = xy(x), the above

problem can be re-formulated as

m

n 2 u

u( x) u( x) 0

1 x x

− ¸ _ ¸ _

′′ ′ + + ·

+ ¸ , ¸ ,

Applying the convex homotopy

( ) ( )

m x x

2 2

0 1 2 0 2 0 1 2

0 0

n 2 1

u pu p u 1 p u pu u pu p u dxdx

1 x x

¸ _

− ¸ _ ¸ _

′ ′′ + + + · − + + + + + +

+ ¸ , ¸ ,

¸ ,

∫ ∫

L L L

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of p

(0)

0

p : u (x) x ·

(1) 3

1

1

p : u( x) x x

2(n 1)

· −

+

( )( )

(2) 3 5

2

1 m

p : u ( x ) x x x

2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3

· −

+ + +

( )( )

( )

( )

2

(3) 3 5 7

3 2

2n 4 m (n 3)m 1 m

p : u ( x ) x x x x

2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3 48 n 1 (n 3)(n 5)

+ − +

· − +

+ + + + + +

( )( )

( )

( )

( )

2

(4) 3 5 7

4 2

2

2 2 2 2

8

3

2n 4 m (n 3)m 1 m

p : u ( x ) x x x x

2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3

48 n 1 (n 3)(n 5)

(6n 32n 34)m 97n 46n 630m (2n 16n 30)

x

384(n 1) (n 3)(n 5)(n 7)

+ − +

· − +

+ + +

+ + +

+ + − + + + + +

+

+ + + +

M

World Appl. Sci. J., 6 (6): 769-775, 2009

774

where p

i

s are He’s polynomials. The series solution is given by

( )( )

( )

( )

( )

2

3 5 7

2

2

2 2 2 2

8

3

2n 4 m (n 3)m 1 m

u(x) x x x x

2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3 48 n 1 (n 3)(n 5)

(6n 32n 34)m 97n 46n 630m (2n 16n 30)

x

384(n 1) (n 3)(n 5)(n 7)

+ − +

· − +

+ + + + + +

+ + − + + + + +

+ +

+ + + +

L

and the inverse transformation will yield

( )( )

( )

( )

( )

2

2 4 6

2

2

2 2 2 2

8

3

2n 4 m (n 3)m 1 m

y(x) 1 x x x

2(n 1) 8 n 1 n 3 48 n 1 (n 3)(n 5)

(6n 32n 34)m 97n 46n 630m (2n 16n 30)

x

384(n 1) (n 3)(n 5)(n 7)

+ − +

· − + +

+ + + + + +

+ + − + + + + +

+ +

+ + + +

L

For a fixed n = 0 and m = 0,1,2, we obtain the

following solutions respectively:

2

2 4 6 8

1

y(x) 1 x ,

2

y(x) cosx,

1 1 1 1

y(x) 1 x x x x

2 12 72 504

¹

· −

¹

¹

·

'

¹

¹ · − + − + +

¹

L

where x = 0 is just an ordinary point. Similarly, for

fixed n = 0.5 and m = 0,1,2, we get the following

solutions respectively:

2

2 4 6 8

2 4 6 8

1

y(x) 1 x ,

3

1 1 1 1

y(x) 1 x x x x ,

3 42 1386 83160

1 1 13 23

y(x) 1 x x x x .

3 21 2079 31185

¹

· −

¹

¹

¹

· − + − + +

'

¹

¹

· − + − + +

¹

¹

L

L

Finally for n = 1 and m = 0,1,2, we obtain the

following solutions respectively:

2

2 4 6 8

2 4 6 8

1

y(x) 1 x ,

4

1 1 1 1

y(x) 1 x x x x ,

4 64 2304 147456

1 1 1 13

y(x) 1 x x x x .

4 32 288 36864

¹

· −

¹

¹

¹

· − + − + +

'

¹

¹

· − + − + +

¹

¹

L

L

CONCLUSION

In this paper, we use He’s polynomials coupled

with a transformation which is helpful to cope with the

singularity behavior for solving various singular

differential equations. The desired series solution is

obtained by implementing the inverse transformation.

The suggested algorithm is tested on Emden-Fowler

equation, white-dwarf equation, generalized Lane-

Emden equation, second order nonlinear singular

ODES. Acknowledgment The authors are highly

grateful to Dr S. M. Junaid Zaidi Rector CIIT for the

provision of excellent research facilities and

environment.

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2

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