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# MEC VE 101

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Semiconductor Devices – Physics & Technology Time: 3 hours Answer all questions Each question carries 25 marks. 1. (a) A semiconductor has Eg=1.4eV and Nc=Nv. It is doped with 1015 cm-3 donors, ED=0.07eV below EC. If EF is 0.35eV below EC, calculate ni, n0, and p0 at 350K.[6] (b) In an abrupt P+N junction, the N region length is much smaller than diffusion length (l<<Lp). For this short diode, derive the expressions for the excess carrier concentration and the diode current. [12] (c) A semiconductor device is required to operate at a maximum temperature of 150C. Would Si doped with 1015 cm-3 arsenic be useful for this application? Will Ge doped with 1015 cm-3 antimony be useful? Explain with reasons. [7] OR 2. (a) We generally think that the minimum conductivity (max resisitivity) is for an intrinsic semiconductor (with ni carriers). However, this is not exactly true. Show that the minimum conductivity occurs when n0=ni (µp/µn)0.5 [6] (b) In a P+N junction, the N-doping Nd is doubled. How does this affect the following parameters? Indicate increases/decreases and very briefly explain why. (i) Junction capacitance, (ii) Built-in potential, (iii) BV, (iv) Ohmic losses [6] (c) In an abrupt P+N junction, the N region doping is given by N d(x)=Gxm . Assume that the depletion region is negligible in the P+. The depletion region extends from the junction at x=0 to x=W in the N region. (i)From Gauss’s law, show that the peak electric field Epk = -qGW(m+1)/ε(m+1) (ii) Show that the junction capacitance per unit area is given by Cj= where Vo is the built-in potential and V is the applied potential. [13] Total marks: 100 _________________________________________________________________________

(a) A symmetrical P+-N-P+ transistor is connected as a diode in 3 different configurations as shown below. [9] (b) Design an N-channel MOSFET using a 0. VDmax= 5V. channel mobility=500 cm2/V-s. Given: W/L =20. V = -0. Given: φms = -0. channel mobility=200 cm /V-s. Also. What are the issues and how they are addressed? [5] . which of these connections is most appropriate as a diode? Why? [8] + V _ + V _ P+ P+ N (i) P+ P+ N (ii) ) + _V Calculate the drain current for this MOSFET at (i) V = -5V. [12] (iii) G D G D 2 (b) Calculate the VT of a Si P-channel MOSFET with an N+ poly silicon gate. V = -5V . Sketch the δp(xn) in the base region for each case and explain how you got it.5um technology. IDsat (at VG=VD=5V) =20mA. tox =50Α.1V and at (ii) V = -5V.3eV. Qf =5x1011 qC/cm2.8V. Now calculate the dose and type of threshold adjust implant required to change the VT to -1V. (a) Calculate the VT of a Si P-channel MOSFET with an N+ poly silicon gate. Given: φms = -0.2eV. it is given: φms = -1. Qf =1x1011 qC/cm2. The design specs to be met are: VT = 0. Nd =1018N cm-3. Qf =2x1011 qC/cm2.1eV. Nd =1018 cm-3.3. [10] (c) Write a short note on base transport factor and emitter efficiency. Is this an enhancement P+ or depletion mode transistor? P+ (c) Write a short note on parasitic bipolar transistor in a MOSFET. For this technology. tox =200Α. tox =50Α. How can one improve these? [6] OR 4.

[4] (c) What is etching selectivity? Do we prefer low or high selectivity? Why? [5] (d) Explain at least two methods by which SiO2 is deposited. This wafer is subjected to a 1100C anneal for 30 minutes. Compare them. For any parameter not given. [4] (c) An N type silicon wafer doped 1015 cm-3 has a 0. Calculate the surface concentration after this anneal. Explain the issues and how this can be resolved. Use the table given for rate constants. [8] (d) What type of implant damage annealing will you use if you want shallow junctions? Explain.1 µm thin P+ layer doped 1019 cm-3 on top of it. General: Use tables given below for oxidation and diffusion coefficients . [8] (b) Give at least one application for plasma etching and RIE. [8] (b) Why do we need low K dielectrics? Give some examples of low K films. [5] OR (a) Calculate the time required to grow 1000A of silicon dioxide using dry oxidation of silicon at 1000C. Use the table given for rate constants [8] (b) How does the Deal-Groove model compare to experimental results? Where does it deviate and give possible reasons for the same. Compare them.5. [4] (a) What are the different types of optical lithography printing methods? Explain each with advantages and disadvantages.2 µm thin N+ layer doped 1019 cm-3 on top of it. [8] OR (a) Describe briefly the newer lithography techniques. [8]. [5] (c) A P type silicon wafer doped 2x1015 cm-3 has a 0. 6 7 8 . assume appropriate values and state your assumptions. (a) Calculate the time required to grow 5000A of silicon dioxide using wet oxidation of silicon at 1000C. Explain each with advantages and disadvantages. This wafer is subjected to a 1050C anneal for 1 hour. [8] (c) Explain at least two methods by which silicon nitride is deposited. [9] (b) Compare and contrast plasma etching and reactive ion etching. Calculate the surface concentration after this anneal [8] (d) Write a brief note on ion implantation channelling.