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Vol. 1, No. 3, 2012, ISSN 2167-6399 Copyright c World Science Publisher United States www.worldsciencepublisher.org

The numerical solution of third-order boundary value problems by the modiﬁed decomposition method Yahya Qaid Hasan

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, Thamar University Thamar, 87246, Yemen E-mail:yahya217@yahoo.com

**Abstract- In this paper, an eﬃcient modiﬁcation of Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is
**

introduced for solving third-order boundary value problems . A modiﬁed form of the (ADM) is applied to construct the numerical solution for such problems . The scheme is tested on one linear and two nonlinear problems. The obtained results demonstrate eﬃciency of the modiﬁed method.

**Keywords- Adomian decomposition method; Three-point boundary value problem.
**

MSC: 65L05

1

Introduction

There are few studies with regard to numerical solutions of higher-order boundary value problems in literature[5,6-8,16]. The proofs are made the existence and uniqueness of these kind of problems by [4]. Several types of boundary value problems solved by this method which had Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions through many works by Adomian [3,1],Adomian and Rach[2]. Recently, Deeba et al[7]used Adomian method for obtaining analytical and numerical solutions of Breatu equation. Wazwaz [10,11] employed Adomian method to solve boundary value problems with Dirichlet and Neumann conditions, and Wazwaz[12] presented a reliable algorithm for obtaining positive solutions for non linear boundary value problems. Wazwaz [13] has further justiﬁed the validity of using the decomposition method where mixed boundary conditions were used to obtain blow-up solutions. Wazwaz [14] presented numerical results of ﬁfth order boundary value problems for using the decomposition method by Wazwaz and 71

a comparison between the errors obtained by using the sixth-degree B-spline method. The results show that the decomposition method was more accurate and easy than B-spline method. In this paper, a new modiﬁcation of the (ADM) is proposed to overcome diﬃculties occurred in the standard (ADM) for solving three-point boundary value problems, namely, the modiﬁed ADM (MADM). Main idea of the MADM is to create a canonical form containing all boundary conditions so that the zeroth component is explicitly determined without additional calculations and all other components are also easily determined.

2

Analysis of the method

Consider the third-order boundary value problems(BVPs) of the form y (x) = f (x, y ), with boundary conditions y (a) = A, y (0) = B, y (b) = C, (2) (1)

the approximation n L (. (5) where the diﬀerential operators L are given as L(. (16) where An are Adomian polynomials that can be constructed by algorithm derived in [15].) = x x x (. No. and A. the component yn (x) can be determined respectively as y0 = A − aB − Ca2 Ba2 C −B 2 + + Bx + x. (15) 72 .n ≥ 0.) = x −1 −1 x(. pp. y ) is given continuous. (20) Example 1.)dxdxdx. (8) dx dx dx The inverse operators L−1 are deﬁned respectively as −1 yn+1 = L−1 An .). 3. Eq. a a a (13) B aC A C 2 y (x) = A+( − − )x+ x +L−1 (f (x. n ≥ 0. In an operator form.). b are real ﬁnite constants. y (0) = 1. y0 = A + Bx + ( yn+1 y0 = A + ( (18) L (.) = x a x −2 x 0 b Operating with inverse operator(9).(1) can be written as Ly = f (x. y (b) = C.) = a −1 x x x b x 2 x x −3 −2 0 x b x 0 x x(. − a2 a a2 = L−1 An . a 2 a 2 (14) The Adomian decomposition method deﬁnes the solution y (x) as the decomposition series + ∞ can be used to approximate solution of BVP. The exact solution is y (x) = (1 − x)ex .)dxdxdx. y ) = n=0 An . 1. y ) is expressed as an inﬁnite series of polynomials ∞ f (x. y (1) = 0.(20) becomes Ly = y − 3ex .(10). C.) = x −1 (3) where the components yn (x) will be determined recurrently. y (x) = n=0 yn (x). Through using Adomian decomposition method. y )). x (9) C B aC A − − )x + x2 . dx dx dx (6) d2 3 d −2 L(. y ).). In an operator form(7). or y (0) = A. (12) 2b C B A y (x) = A + Bx +( 2 − − 2 )x2 + L−1 (f (x. y )). y (0) = B. 2b 2b 2b (17) C B A 2 − )x . (7) dx2 dx d −1 d 2 d −1 L(.)dxdxdx. y )). 71-74. (19) After determination of speciﬁc number of the components yk .Vol. d 2 d −1 d x x (. The nonlinear f (x. (10) x a x Φn = (. (11) k=0 yk L (.(11) on (5) and using the boundary conditions(2).AITS. (4) where f (x.(3). 0 < x < 1.(4) respectively. n ≥ 0. 3 Numerical examples y (x) = y (x) − 3ex .) = x x x (. Consider the linear BVP y (0) = 0. B. yields Ca2 Ba2 y (x) = A − aB − + + Bx 2b 2b C −B 2 x + L−1 (f (x. linear or nonlinear function. y (a) = B. a. 2012 or y (0) = A.Yahya Qaid Hasan. (21) Applying the inverse operator (10)on (21) yields y = 4 + 3x + (3e − 7)x2 − 3ex + L−1 y. y (a) = C. a 2 a 2 −1 yn+1 = L An .

8 20 60 . Table 1. (22) 3 yn+1 = L−1 e−x An . y (1) = . 2012 Using Adomian decomposition for y (x) as given in(15)we obtain ∞ ∞ The components yn (x) can be recursively determined by using the relation y0 = 1 + x + (e − 1) 2 x. 71-74. Example 3. Numerical results calculated with ﬁrst three components are listed in Table 2. 0 < x < 1. is very useful with only ﬁrs four components. Numerical results calculated with ﬁrst three components are listed in Table 3. (25) Applying the inverse operator (11)on (25) yields 1 3 1 y = 1 + x( − ) + x2 − L−1 ex y 2 . In an operator form(6). 3. x + L− 1 2 n=0 n=0 ∞ ∞ Using Taylor series of ex with order 9.Yahya Qaid Hasan. Let us consider the following nonlinear BVP: y (x) = e−x y 2 (x).(24) becomes Ly = −ex y 2 (x). e 2 2 Using Adomian decomposition for y 2 (x) as given in(15)we obtain 1 3 1 yn (x) = 1 + x( − ) + x2 − L−1 ex An . e 2 2 yn+1 = −L−1 ex An . (23) Applying the inverse operator (9)on (23) yields (e − 1) 2 y =1+x+ x + L−1 e−x y 2 . . No. 2 n ≥ 0.(22) becomes Ly = e−x y 2 (x). The numerical solution. yn (x) = 4+3x +(3e − 7)x − 3e + L n=0 2 x −1 n=0 yn . subject to the boundary conditions 1 y (0) = 1. Example 2. n ≥ 0. e 2 2 n=0 n=0 The components yn (x) can be recursively determined by using the relation 1 1 3 y0 = 1 + x( − ) + x2 . .AITS. This in turn given y0 = 4 + 3x + (3e − 7)x2 − 3ex . 2 Using Adomian decomposition for y 2 (x) as given in(15)we obtain (e − 1) 2 yn (x) = 1 + x + e−x An . The components yn (x) can be recursively determined by using the relation y0 = 4 + 3x + (3e − 7)x2 − 3ex . y (1) = e. Consider the nonlinear BVP y (x) = −ex y 2 . ∞ ∞ y (0) = 1. Eq. y (0) = 1. Using Taylor series of e−x with order 9. y (0) = 1. e The exact solution is y (x) = e−x . In an operator form(8). 73 . Eq. The exact solution is y (x) = ex . (24) n ≥ 0. 0 < x < 1. y1 = 3 + 3x + ( 59e 267 2 2x − )x + 20 40 3 x4 e 7 + + ( − )x5 − 3ex . pp. yn+1 = L−1 yn .Vol. 1.

Chandrasekhar . M. Singapore. Math. [6] S. Comput. 48(1993)63-75. 41(2001)1237-1246. Math.AITS. Comput. 71-74. 159(2000)125-138. 1(2000)17-24. However. The MADM does not require us to calculate the unknown constant which is usually a derivative at the boundary. 1994. Math.The modiﬁed Adomian decomposition method for solving linear and nonlinear boundary-value prblems of tenth-order and 12th-order. Appl. J.S. J.Advances in Computational Mathematics and its Applications 3 (2012) 64-75. Comput. it has diﬃculties in dealing with boundary conditions for solving three-point boundary problems. Blow-up for solution of some linear wave equations with mixed nonlinear boundary conditions. Math. A reliable algorithm for obtaining positive solutions for nonlinear boundary-value problems. San Diego. This goal has been achieved in the new modiﬁed ADM. 1. CA. Numr. J.Vol. [2] G. Boundary value porblems for high-order diﬀerential equations. [10] A. MA. M. 74 . [7] E. 123(2001)133-140. they require additional computational work since all boundary conditions are not included in the canonical form. Appl.P. Our fundamental goal is to create the canonical form containing all boundary conditions. M. [3] G. it is concluded that MADM is very eﬀective algorithm which provides promising results with simple calculations. N. Math. Apli. Kluwer. Adomian . Math. [13] A. 1986. Solving Frontier problems of physics: The decomposition method. 118(2001)327-342. Showri Raju Y. Advances in Computational Mathematics and its Applications. Int.NY. M. 3. Comput.An algorithm for solving boundary value problems . Many approaches have been presented to overcome these diﬃculties. Comput. However.dalb. From the results in illustrative examples. Appl. Computer Math. [4] R.Wazwaz.Wazwaz. [12] A. Analytic solution of nonlinear boundary value problems in severl dimensions. World Scientiﬁc.Finite-diﬀerence methods for the solution of special eitht-order boundary value problems.Evaluation of singular inte. Quintic B-spline Collocation Method for Eighth Order Boundary Value Problems.Modiﬁed Adomian decomposition method for second order singular initial value problems.A new algorithm for solving boundary for higher-order integrodiﬀerential equations.Wazwaz. Deeba . [5] A.A new algorithm for calculating Adomian polynomials for nonlinear operators. J. Appl.Rach R. Panjaa and B.Yahya Qaid Hasan.1986. 174(1993)118127. [14] A. Boston. pp. New york. 1 (2012) 47-52. Man. Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability. [11] A. 2012 4 Conclusions ADM has been successful for solving many application problems with simple calculations. A. M. References [1] G. Appl.grals using Daubechies scale function.Wazwaz. 1(2012) 94-99. Int. Agarwal .J. [9] M. 1981.The numerical solution of ﬁfthorder BVP by the decomposition method. M. Nonlinear stochastic operator equations. Advances in Computational Mathematics and its Applications. 136(2001)259-270.Wazwaz. [15] A. Dover. [8] Kasi Viswanadham KNS. Nonlinear Sci. Simul. No. Xie . Khuri and S. [16] Yahya Qaid Hasan. 111(2000)33-51.Anal. Boutayeb .Wazwaz. Physics. Comput. Acadmic Press. M. Adomian . H.Twizell . Adomian .

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