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# Advances in Intelligent Transportation Systems (AITS

)

Vol. 1, No. 3, 2012, ISSN 2167-6399 Copyright c World Science Publisher United States www.worldsciencepublisher.org

The numerical solution of third-order boundary value problems by the modiﬁed decomposition method Yahya Qaid Hasan
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, Thamar University Thamar, 87246, Yemen E-mail:yahya217@yahoo.com

Abstract- In this paper, an eﬃcient modiﬁcation of Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is
introduced for solving third-order boundary value problems . A modiﬁed form of the (ADM) is applied to construct the numerical solution for such problems . The scheme is tested on one linear and two nonlinear problems. The obtained results demonstrate eﬃciency of the modiﬁed method.

Keywords- Adomian decomposition method; Three-point boundary value problem.
MSC: 65L05

1

Introduction

There are few studies with regard to numerical solutions of higher-order boundary value problems in literature[5,6-8,16]. The proofs are made the existence and uniqueness of these kind of problems by [4]. Several types of boundary value problems solved by this method which had Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions through many works by Adomian [3,1],Adomian and Rach[2]. Recently, Deeba et al[7]used Adomian method for obtaining analytical and numerical solutions of Breatu equation. Wazwaz [10,11] employed Adomian method to solve boundary value problems with Dirichlet and Neumann conditions, and Wazwaz[12] presented a reliable algorithm for obtaining positive solutions for non linear boundary value problems. Wazwaz [13] has further justiﬁed the validity of using the decomposition method where mixed boundary conditions were used to obtain blow-up solutions. Wazwaz [14] presented numerical results of ﬁfth order boundary value problems for using the decomposition method by Wazwaz and 71

a comparison between the errors obtained by using the sixth-degree B-spline method. The results show that the decomposition method was more accurate and easy than B-spline method. In this paper, a new modiﬁcation of the (ADM) is proposed to overcome diﬃculties occurred in the standard (ADM) for solving three-point boundary value problems, namely, the modiﬁed ADM (MADM). Main idea of the MADM is to create a canonical form containing all boundary conditions so that the zeroth component is explicitly determined without additional calculations and all other components are also easily determined.

2

Analysis of the method

Consider the third-order boundary value problems(BVPs) of the form y (x) = f (x, y ), with boundary conditions y (a) = A, y (0) = B, y (b) = C, (2) (1)

the approximation n L (. (5) where the diﬀerential operators L are given as L(. (16) where An are Adomian polynomials that can be constructed by algorithm derived in [15].) = x x x (. No. and A. the component yn (x) can be determined respectively as y0 = A − aB − Ca2 Ba2 C −B 2 + + Bx + x. (15) 72 .n ≥ 0.) = x −1 −1 x(. pp. y ) is given continuous. (20) Example 1.)dxdxdx. (8) dx dx dx The inverse operators L−1 are deﬁned respectively as −1 yn+1 = L−1 An .). 3. Eq. a a a (13) B aC A C 2 y (x) = A+( − − )x+ x +L−1 (f (x. n ≥ 0. In an operator form.). b are real ﬁnite constants. y (0) = 1. y0 = A + Bx + ( yn+1 y0 = A + ( (18) L (.) = x a x −2 x 0 b Operating with inverse operator(9).(1) can be written as Ly = f (x. y (b) = C.) = a −1 x x x b x 2 x x −3 −2 0 x b x 0 x x(. − a2 a a2 = L−1 An . a 2 a 2 (14) The Adomian decomposition method deﬁnes the solution y (x) as the decomposition series + ∞ can be used to approximate solution of BVP. The exact solution is y (x) = (1 − x)ex .)dxdxdx. y ) = n=0 An . 1. y ) is expressed as an inﬁnite series of polynomials ∞ f (x. y (1) = 0.(20) becomes Ly = y − 3ex .(10). C.) = x −1 (3) where the components yn (x) will be determined recurrently. y (x) = n=0 yn (x). Through using Adomian decomposition method. y )). x (9) C B aC A − − )x + x2 . dx dx dx (6) d2 3 d −2 L(. y ).). In an operator form(7). or y (0) = A. (12) 2b C B A y (x) = A + Bx +( 2 − − 2 )x2 + L−1 (f (x. y )). y (0) = B. 2b 2b 2b (17) C B A 2 − )x . (7) dx2 dx d −1 d 2 d −1 L(.)dxdxdx. y )). 71-74. (19) After determination of speciﬁc number of the components yk .Vol. d 2 d −1 d x x (. The nonlinear f (x. (10) x a x Φn = (. (11) k=0 yk L (.(11) on (5) and using the boundary conditions(2).AITS. (4) where f (x.(3). 0 < x < 1.(4) respectively. n ≥ 0. 3 Numerical examples y (x) = y (x) − 3ex .) = x x x (. Consider the linear BVP y (0) = 0. B. yields Ca2 Ba2 y (x) = A − aB − + + Bx 2b 2b C −B 2 x + L−1 (f (x. linear or nonlinear function. y (a) = B. a. 2012 or y (0) = A.Yahya Qaid Hasan. (21) Applying the inverse operator (10)on (21) yields y = 4 + 3x + (3e − 7)x2 − 3ex + L−1 y. y (a) = C. a 2 a 2 −1 yn+1 = L An .

8 20 60 . Table 1. (22) 3 yn+1 = L−1 e−x An . y (1) = . 2012 Using Adomian decomposition for y (x) as given in(15)we obtain ∞ ∞ The components yn (x) can be recursively determined by using the relation y0 = 1 + x + (e − 1) 2 x. 71-74. Example 3. Numerical results calculated with ﬁrst three components are listed in Table 2. 0 < x < 1. is very useful with only ﬁrs four components. Numerical results calculated with ﬁrst three components are listed in Table 3. (25) Applying the inverse operator (11)on (25) yields 1 3 1 y = 1 + x( − ) + x2 − L−1 ex y 2 . In an operator form(6). 3. x + L− 1 2 n=0 n=0 ∞ ∞ Using Taylor series of ex with order 9.Yahya Qaid Hasan. Let us consider the following nonlinear BVP: y (x) = e−x y 2 (x).(24) becomes Ly = −ex y 2 (x). e 2 2 Using Adomian decomposition for y 2 (x) as given in(15)we obtain 1 3 1 yn (x) = 1 + x( − ) + x2 − L−1 ex An . e 2 2 yn+1 = −L−1 ex An . (23) Applying the inverse operator (9)on (23) yields (e − 1) 2 y =1+x+ x + L−1 e−x y 2 . . No. 2 n ≥ 0.(22) becomes Ly = e−x y 2 (x). The numerical solution. yn (x) = 4+3x +(3e − 7)x − 3e + L n=0 2 x −1 n=0 yn . subject to the boundary conditions 1 y (0) = 1. Example 2. n ≥ 0. e 2 2 n=0 n=0 The components yn (x) can be recursively determined by using the relation 1 1 3 y0 = 1 + x( − ) + x2 . .AITS. This in turn given y0 = 4 + 3x + (3e − 7)x2 − 3ex . 2 Using Adomian decomposition for y 2 (x) as given in(15)we obtain (e − 1) 2 yn (x) = 1 + x + e−x An . The components yn (x) can be recursively determined by using the relation y0 = 4 + 3x + (3e − 7)x2 − 3ex . y (1) = e. Consider the nonlinear BVP y (x) = −ex y 2 . ∞ ∞ y (0) = 1. Eq. y (0) = 1. Using Taylor series of e−x with order 9. y (0) = 1. e The exact solution is y (x) = e−x . In an operator form(8). 73 . Eq. The exact solution is y (x) = ex . (24) n ≥ 0. 0 < x < 1. y1 = 3 + 3x + ( 59e 267 2 2x − )x + 20 40 3 x4 e 7 + + ( − )x5 − 3ex . pp. yn+1 = L−1 yn .Vol. 1.