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Train2Cert - Course [NGN Protocols] - Module 2

Prerequisites 1. Basics of information and communication technologies (ICT): networks architecture, networks components, networking skills; 2. Basics of OSI/ISO protocol stack; 3. Basic knowledge in the area of Next Generation Network concept (Module 1); Learning goals Main objective of this module is to acquire basic knowledge in the area of Next Generation Network architectures, its principles network components and evolutions steps. Key emphasis is put on architectures supporting transfer of the voice over IP networks. Trainee will also get basis of NGN architectures based on a Softswitch configuration as well as the architecture of IMS including characteristics of their individual components.

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Module 2 http://150.223.Course [NGN Protocols] .php/5/module2/module2.html Although the hybrid networks (PSTN/IN networks interworking with IP networks. only the development of new packet network architectures. the so-called VoP (Voice over Packet network) and especially VoIP (Voice over IP).254. This module deals with the issue of voice transfer over IP networks (networks using IP protocol). Other examples of VoP networks are ATM (VoATM) and Frame Relay (VoFR).05 . Some new components of this platform (e. such as Internet) offered a source of new services.59:1280/file.Train2Cert . the basis of VoP is mostly a managed IP network. Even if the majority of VoP technology suppliers have their own network architecture.g. There are several networks enabling voice or multimedia transfer by packets. 2 di 19 15/04/2010 16. gateways) allow provision of voice services over the packet network and its interworking with the existing telecommunication network (classical PSTN). made it possible to provide the integrated services of voice and data transfer over a single network.

Important part of VoIP architecture is connection between users which doesn’t use VoIP services and use only POTS services with VoIP users.59:1280/file.223. This is based on packet data networks using IP protocol mainly.html 1. The second one is IP backbone network. 1 base SIP architecture is depicted.Train2Cert .05 . whether is it SIP based architecture or H. Basically each VoIP architecture must have these three parts. known as Public Switched Telephone Network is an area of all existing POTS users. the first one is IP Access network which provides access to the service for user.323 architecture or another not standardized architecture.Module 2 http://150. 1: SIP based VoIP architecture 3 di 19 15/04/2010 16.php/5/module2/module2. Detailed information about these elements see Module 3 Unit 2 – SIP protocol.254.Course [NGN Protocols] .1 VoIP architecture Integrated VoIP architecture consists of three main network types. IP backbone network uses IP based architecture as well. Namely SIP User Agent. SIP server and SIP to PSTN gateway. Fig. Usage of these networks is decreasing nowadays. But a lot of providers use ATM of FR based networks as a backbone. On Fig. it ensures transport channels between all of points connected to the access network with provider’s elements of VoIP service. The third one network. VoIP architecture based on SIP protocol includes some specific elements. In sequence.

are used. including voice.Module 2 http://150. where it is transferred to sound by the reverse process. 2). presentation and application layers).php/5/module2/module2. 2: Voice sample and signalling transfer over the packet network 4 di 19 15/04/2010 16. transport and application layers) in contrast to 7 layers of the OSI reference model (physical. therefore. The network layer (IP layer) ensures the transfer of packets over the network. In this layer. The transport layer ensures the flow of data between two terminal nodes of the network – two communicating entities. input into RTP/UDP/IP packets and subsequently for example into the Ethernet frame.59:1280/file. The application or terminal equipment then inputs data.Train2Cert .05 .html 1. two protocols . The model of TCP/IP architecture has 4 layers (network interface.2 Voice transfer over IP networks Voice transfer over IP networks is usually connected with thinking about transfer by protocols of the TCP/IP architecture. into the RTP application protocol (description of the RTP protocol can be found in Module 3 Unit 4) and that one is input into the UDP datagram.TCP and UDP . and their routing in different network groupings respectively. switching. provides services with connection and receipt confirmation.Course [NGN Protocols] . which is transferred by IP packet to the target destination. Voice sample is. TCP enables reliable data transfer.254. transport.223. which is transferred over the LAN or WAN network. network. relation. The UDP protocol provides services without connection and without receipt confirmation (Fig. Fig.

he can employ the use of standards and finally to use commercially available standard server platforms. Separation here means that the same software platform can telco operator use for various physical transport media.Course [NGN Protocols] . although there are more modern architecture available nowadays (for example see Unit 3 .59:1280/file.IMS based architecture). Due to this fact it is not strictly standardized and we can see there several different attitudes of telco vendors how to provide some features. how to distribute components across network including distribution of functional entities inside control element plane. Components of softswitch based architecture you can see in Figure 3. naturally reflecting on massive development of VoIP protocol family and by telco providers demand to implement services more modern and more efficient way. This architecture was the first which drive was significantly motivated by telco vendors.223. Flexibility and scalability of this architecture allows for smaller and more innovative vendors to be specialized in just one function and another vendor in different ones.php/5/module2/module2. One of the major advantages of the softswitch architecture is separation of call set-up from the physical switching that is handled by the media gateways. it has build up philosophy of building of new NGN networks and validated principles and features of NGN architecture and its components towards its next evolution.html NGN architecture based on software switching technology (softswitch) can be supposed as first and unique evolution step in NGN. Knowledge of this architectural approach is important for understanding of next evolved architectures and principles. 3: Components of softswitch based architecture Media Gateway Controller/call agent/softswitch: generally serves as components for controlling of 5 di 19 15/04/2010 16. However.05 .Train2Cert .254.Module 2 http://150. Fig.

media mixing. echo cancellation.254.59:1280/file. 6 di 19 15/04/2010 16. fax messages management. conference bridge.).Module 2 http://150. perform all function related to media physical transport between different networks. media processing functions (transcoding. Call Centre service or IP Centrex service. billing. It provides Media Resource Functions (tones detection. etc.html communication relations of users and other network components.php/5/module2/module2. Media Server: provides functionalities allow interaction between calling party and application using end-point device. compressions. Media Gateway: operate within transport plane. network signaling. also includes more functionalities in terms of user web interface. etc. and other logical functions.Train2Cert .) and Media Control Functions – control of media functions (voce message play management. tones processing and management of information transport Trunking gateways: interface between the PSTN/PLMN and VoIP network Residential gateways: provide traditional analog (RJ11) interface to VoIP network Access gateways: provide traditional analog or PBX interface to VoIP network Signaling network: provide change of signalization systems between PSTN or PLMN network to VoIP network Application Server: it is obviously implemented to perform functionalities specific to certain service. For example it can provide specific videoconferencing service. end-points management. perform specialized service logic call control. provides call routing. etc.05 .Course [NGN Protocols] . speech synthesis and recognition.223. jitter managing).

Train2Cert .html The initiative of organization institutions 3GPP within the specifications of UMTS architecture (3GPP within the UMTS architecture 5/6 [2]) has defined two domains: Circuit switching domain. 7 di 19 15/04/2010 16. The packet switching domain extends the existing GSM network and other mobile 2nd generation (2G) networks by the CDMA-based access. designed in the framework of the packet switching domain is called IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem).php/5/module2/module2.5 generation.223.59:1280/file.Course [NGN Protocols] . telephony and IP-based message sending. it is becoming one of the reference concepts for the fixed networks as well. Packet switching domain. As it was one of the first concepts on which all the standardisation institutions agreed and which conformed to the NGN principles. The subsystem for supporting multimedia services. while the packet switching domain extends the abilities of the GPRS and other systems of 2. IMS is based on the IP architecture for multimedia and it was placed as a supporting network element to provide standardised and universal services for mobile users.254.Module 2 http://150.05 .

Usage profiles work much like templates. which was originally standardized by the IETF. For example. 4: SIP in IMS HSS 8 di 19 15/04/2010 16. the 3GPP discovered that there were gaps between the SIP.html 3.59:1280/file.1 3GPP The 3GPP adopted SIP [1] (described in Module 3 Unit 2). The IMS SIP usage profile is the most important in the telecommunications industry. Note that all SIP interfaces are shown in orange and specify the name of the interface between two adjoining entities. and provide a varied.24.229 standard [3]. this is what IMS SIP did.php/5/module2/module2. In time.Module 2 http://150. such as extended call control. you can define a usage profile can be defined. as initially defined by the IETF. To use SIP. Fig. each of which are described in the Module 6 that follow. The usage profile used by IMS SIP is actually the most appropriate for NGN networks. and the features that were required to provide full support for IMS networks.254. SIP is not a protocol designed for a specific network or application.Course [NGN Protocols] . extend the functionality of SIP on IMS networks.Train2Cert .05 . the 3GPP subsequently defined dozens of new SIP extensions that are specific to IMS networks. Because SIP did not address all the requirements of IMS networks.223. IMS SIP extensions. The figure below illustrates a typical IMS network [4]. the AS uses the ISC interface. By definition. There are numerous IMS SIP extensions. flexible environment for application development in which you can easily develop an application suited to your particular requirements can be easily developed. these extensions comprise the IMS SIP protocol. which is defined in the 3GPP TS. In effect. Collectively. as it affects the entire telecom industry and not only mobile networks. presence and instant messaging.

HSS) may also behave as a proxy or as a user agent as defined by RFC 2543 [5] interacts with Services Platforms for the support of Services 9 di 19 15/04/2010 16. or a roaming subscriber currently located within that network operator’s service area.223. I-CSCF Interrogating Call State Control Function (I-CSCF) performs the following functions: is the contact point within an operator’s network for all connections destined to a subscriber of that network operator.Course [NGN Protocols] . in abnormal conditions it may terminate and independently generate SIP transactions is discovered using DHCP during registration or the address is sent with PDP context activation may modify the URI of outgoing requests according to the local operator rules (e.e.php/5/module2/module2. HSS handles the user registration. service specific information…) [4] P-CSCF Proxy Call State Control Function (P-CSCF) performs the following functions: is the first contact point for UE within IM CN subsystem. perform number analysis.05 .Module 2 http://150. detect local service numbers) detects and forwards emergency calls to local S-CSCF generation of charging information maintains security association between itself and UE. i. accepts requests and services the internally or forwards them possibly after translation may behave also like a RFC 2543 [5] User agent i. and topology of the its network from the outside additional functions related to inter-operator security are for further study S-CSCF Serving Call State Control Function) (S-CSCF) performs the following functions: performs the session control services for the terminal. HSS will provide the following functions: user identification.html Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is a combination of the currently existing UMTS/GSM HLR and the needed register functions for IP Multimedia Subsystem. numbering and addressing information. it accepts Register requests and makes its information available through the location server (e. also provides security towards S-CSCF provides the policy control function (PCF) authorisation of bearer resources. etc. QoS management and Security issues are currently open in standardisation [4].e. capacity. It can be regarded as a kind of firewall between the external IMSS and the operator’s internal IMSS network. There may be multiple I-CSCFs within an operator’s network assigns a S-CSCF to a user performing SIP registration routes a SIP request received from another network towards the S-CSCF obtains from HSS the Address of the S-CSCF charging and resource utilisation in performing the above functions the operator may use I-CSCF to hide the configuration. forwards the registration to the I-CSCF to find the S-CSCF and after that forwards the SIP messages between UE and I-CSCF/S-CSCF behaves like a proxy in RFC 2543 [5].e.Train2Cert . and stores intersystem location information. different SCSCFs may have different functionality it maintains session state and has the session control for the registered endpoint's sessions acts like a Registrar defined in the RFC2543 [5]. user security information: Network access control information for authentication and authorisation user location information at inter-system level. the user profile (services.254.59:1280/file. Within an operator’s network. i.g.g.

php/5/module2/module2.1 Self-SIP in IMS SIP and SDP as a protocol has been selected to some and IPv6 as the only solution to all of the IP Multimedia Subsystem interfaces. otherwise the BGCF forward the invite information flow to the BGCF in the selected network.Course [NGN Protocols] .05 .1. possibly in conjunction with an application server.59:1280/file. As shown by the Figure 5 the basic SIP [1] has been selected as the main protocol on the following interfaces: Gm: P-CSCF – UE Mw: P-CSCF – S-CSCF and P-CSCF – I-CSCF Mm: S/I-CSCF . shall determine that the session should be forwarded to the PSTN. 3. The BGCF selects the network in which the interworking should occur based on local policy. The S-CSCF will forward the Invite information flow to the Breakout Gateway control function (BGCF) in the same network.Module 2 http://150. The MGCF will perform the interworking to the PSTN and control the MGW for the media conversions.html obtain the address of the destination I-CSCF based on the dialled number or SIP URL on behalf of a UE forward the SIP requests or responses to a P-CSCF or an I-CSCF if an I-CSCF is used in the path in the roaming case generates charging information security issues are currently open in standardisation [4] MGCF Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) Provides the following functions: protocol conversion between ISUP and SIP routes incoming calls to appropriate CSCF controls MGW resources [4] MGW Media Gateway (MGW) provides the following functions: Transcoding between PSTN and 3G voice codecs Termination of SCN bearer channels Termination of RTP streams [4] T-SGW Transport Signalling Gateway provides the following functions: maps call related signalling from/to PSTN/PLMN on an IP bearer provides PSTN/PLMN <-> IP transport level address mapping [4] MRF Multimedia Resource Function provides the following functions: Performs multiparty call and multimedia conferencing functions [4] BGCF The S-CSCF.254. If the BGCF determines that the interworking should occur in the same network.223. then the BGCF selects the MGCF which will perform the interworking.external IP networks & other IMS networks 10 di 19 15/04/2010 16.Train2Cert .

home and PSTN S-CSCF/MGCF – S-CSCF/MGCF. The S-CSCF 11 di 19 15/04/2010 16.Train2Cert .05 .59:1280/file.html Mg: S-CSCF – BCGF Mk: BCGF – external IP networks & other IMS networks Fig.223. home and PSTN Mobile termination.php/5/module2/module2. This implies that there is a difference in UNI and NNI interfaces [4]. roaming.1.2 SIP in Service SS The service subsystem and its connections to IM subsystem is shown in the Figure 6. 5: SIP protocol in IMS [4] Eventually there may be differences in the SIP procedures of Gm and Mw reference points. The following procedures have been defined for the 3GPP IM subsystem in [4]: Local P-CSCF discovery: Either using DHCP or carrying address in the PDP context S-CSCF assignment and cancel S-CSCF registration S-CSCF re-registration S-CSCF de-registration (UE or network initiated) Call establishment procedures separated for Mobile origination.Module 2 http://150. roaming. PSTN in the same and different network Routing information interrogation Session release Session hold and resume Anonymous session establishment Codec and media flow negotiation (Initial and changes) Called ID procedures Session redirect Session Transfer 3.254. between and within operators.Course [NGN Protocols] .

SIP Application server S-CSCF.223.html interfaces the application development servers with SIP+ protocols.Module 2 http://150.Train2Cert . 6: Service Subsystem connections with IMS SIP is used to interface the Application servers on the following interfaces: S-CSCF. The OSA capability server and Camel refer to already standardised 3G and GSM based service generation elements. The SIP application server can reside either outside or within operator’s network [4].php/5/module2/module2.Camel Server S-CSCF-OSA Service Server 12 di 19 15/04/2010 16.59:1280/file.05 .Course [NGN Protocols] .254. Fig.

which is a basis for control and provision of the real-time conversation services (based on SIP protocol) [6]. such as xDSL. Fig. etc. the TISPAN NGN architecture can include other subsystems defined in TISPAN [6]. Interworking and interoperability with public networks (legacy networks).html 3. Co-ordination of various control subsystems via one transport network to control resources.Module 2 http://150.223.Course [NGN Protocols] . TISPAN architecture is extended mainly by: Access networks control (QoS. WLAN.php/5/module2/module2. For services on other than SIP basis. Independence of access technologies from the call control layer and the application layer.59:1280/file.254. 7: Architecture of a TISPAN NGN [6] 13 di 19 15/04/2010 16.Train2Cert . Separation of the application layer from the connection control layer and the transport layer.2 TISPAN The TISPAN network architecture is based on 3GPP IMS.05 . 3GPP IMS architecture is extended in TISPAN NGN to support various types of access networks. access control and authentication). Figure 7 illustrates the NGN components and functionalities.

configuration. Support for provisioning. Support for additional access signaling security and UE authentication mechanisms. Some of the PacketCable enhancements to the IMS include [7]: Support for Quality of Service (QoS) for IMS-based applications on DOCSIS access networks. Fig. activation. 8: Architecture of a PacketCable 2.59:1280/file.0 [7] 14 di 19 15/04/2010 16. as well as enhancements to capabilities provided by the IMS functional components.Module 2 http://150. but PacketCable initiative leaded by cable operators to enhance the IMS to support the unique technology requirements of the cable industry.254. An overview of the PacketCable architecture elements and functional groupings is illustrated in Figure 8.Course [NGN Protocols] .html 3. Support for regulatory requirements such as number portability.3 PacketCable The PacketCable architecture is based on the IMS architecture. preferred carrier and PacketCable lawful interception. Extensions include use of additional or alternate functional components compared with the IMS architecture. and management of UEs.223. leveraging the PacketCable Multimedia architecture.05 .Train2Cert . and also addresses cable operator business and operating requirements.php/5/module2/module2.

php/5/module2/module2.254.html 3G 3GPP AS ATM BGCF BICC BSF CCS7 CDF CDMA CGF CMS CMTS DHCP DNS DSL EMS ENUM FR GPRS GSM HLR HSS IBCF I–CSCF ID IMS IN IP ISUP LAN MG MGC MGCF MGCP MGW MRF NAT NMS NNI OSA OSI PAC Third Generation 3 Generation Partnership Project Application Server Asynchronous Transfer Mode Breakout Gateway Control Function Bearer Independent Call Control Bootstrapping Server Functionality Common Channel Signaling 7 Charging Data Function Code Division Multiple Access Charging Gateway Function Call Management Server Cable Modem Termination System Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Domain Name Server Digital Subscriber Line Element Management System Telephone E. Activation and Configuration 15 di 19 15/04/2010 16.05 .Course [NGN Protocols] .164 Number Mapping Frame Relay General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobility Home Location Register Home Subscriber Server Interconnection Border Control Function Interrogating Call State Control Function Identifier IP Multimedia Subsystem Intelligent Network Internet Protocol ISDN User Part Local Area Network Media Gateway Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Control Function Media Gateway Control Protocol Media Gateway Multimedia Resource Function Network Address Translation Network Management System Network Network Interface Open Services Architecture Open System Interconnection Provisioning.Module 2 http://150.Train2Cert .223.59:1280/file.

html PCF P–CSCF PDP PLMN POTS PSTN QoS RFC RTCP RTP SCN SCS S–CSCF SIP SLF SQ SS STUN TCP TDM TISPAN TrGW T–SGW UDP UE UMTS UNI URI VoATM VoFR VoIP VoP WAN WLAN Policy Control Function Proxy Call State Control Function Packet Data Protocol Public Land Mobile Network Plain Old Telephony Service Public Switched Telephone Network Quality of Service Request For Comments Real Time Control Protocol Real–time Transport Protocol Switched Circuit Network Service Capability Server Serving Call State Control Function Session Initiation Protocol Subscription Locator Function Signaling Gateway Service Subsystem Session Traversal Utilities for NAT Transport Control Protocol Time Division Multiplexing Telecommunications and Internet Converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks Transition Gateway Transport Signalling Gateway User Datagram Protocol User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunications System User Network Interface Uniform Resource Identifier Voice over ATM Voice over Frame Relay Voice over IP Voice over Packet Network Wide Area Network Wireless LAN SIGTRAN Signaling Transport Group 16 di 19 15/04/2010 16.Course [NGN Protocols] .59:1280/file.Train2Cert .223.php/5/module2/module2.05 .Module 2 http://150.254.

html [1] M. Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia call control protocol based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol (SDP). Rosenberg: “SIP: Session Initiation Protocol”.0 (2003-09).0 Architecture Framework Technical Report.59:1280/file. Network architecture. PKT-TR-ARCH-FRM-V03-070925. E. IETF RFC 2543.Train2Cert .php/5/module2/module2.12. Mar.223. and J.05 .htm [2] 3GPP TS 23. Schulzrinne. 2006 http://www. Stage 3 Radvision: "IMS SIP and Signalling. 1999 3GPP: TS 24. 2007 17 di 19 15/04/2010 16.Course [NGN Protocols] .228 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). (Release 5) [3] [4] 3GPP: TS 23.002 V5.Module 2 http://150. NGN Functional Architecture Release 1 [7] PacketCable™ 2. (TISPAN).254. Schooler. The Radvision Perspective .Technology overview". Stage 2 [5] [6] ETSI ES 282 001. H.

ATM. b.323 2. d.254.223. b. Adaptation of PCM and RTP/IP media transport Provide application logic for specific relation Control function for signalization between end-point users attended on relation Interaction between calling party and application using end-point device.323. transport. media gateway control (MGC) and application server (AS) media gateway (MG) and application server (AS) media gateway control (MGC) and media gateway (MG) media gateway (MG) and media server 3. d. For relation management in VoIP networks are used following signalization protocols a. relation control. Basic physical elements in distributed NGN architecture are: a. RTP. Reference point ISC uses following protocol: 18 di 19 15/04/2010 16.html 1. ATM SIP. Instant Messaging Subsystem Internet Media System IP Multimedia Subsystem IP Management System 6. c. Media gateway (MG) is responsible among others for a. H. Concept of IMS-3GPP system is based on layers: a. manages digital virtual circuits and main circuits of TDM works like an interface for wireless network provides data access to the IP network allows interaction between calling party and application using end-point device. media and access application. c. b. c. b. media and access application. RTP RTP. d. In the context of NGN architecture the IMS stands for a.59:1280/file. c. c. SIP. 4. H. d.Course [NGN Protocols] . transport and access application. b. c.php/5/module2/module2.Module 2 http://150. Trunking Gateway a. d.Train2Cert . transport and network 7. application. 5. H. b.05 . CCS7 SIP.323. d.

maps call related signalling from/to PSTN/PLMN on an IP bearer. b. 12. b. d. RTP H.Course [NGN Protocols] . Sh Cx Si Mr 9. routes a SIP request received from another network towards the S-CSCF. c. b.05 .59:1280/file. TISPAN architecture is extended mainly by integration of the application layer with the connection control layer and the transport layer. a. c. c.php/5/module2/module2. b. Correct: Wrong: Blank: 19 di 19 15/04/2010 16. Conceptual model of NGN defined in ETSI (TISPAN) a. It generates the charging information. Reference point between CSCF and HSS: a. provides transcoding between PSTN and 3G voice codecs. b. It detects and forwards emergency calls to local S-CSCF. b. Multimedia Resource Function a. d. d. is used only as a substitution for PSTN network and services is able to provide and control conversational services in real time defines storing of services and customer profiles for every application server separately d. doesn’t support various types of access networks 10. transport networks control. It provides the policy control function (PCF). d. It realizes protocol conversion between ISUP and SIP. c.254.Train2Cert .html a. performs multiparty call and multimedia conferencing functions.Module 2 http://150. What doesn’t Proxy Call State Control Function (P-CSCF) perform? a. interworking and interoperability with public networks (legacy networks). dependence of access technologies on the call control layer and the application layer. d. 11.223. c. c.248 Diameter SIP 8.