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Air Quality & its Management in Pune City

1) INTRODUCTION SCIENCE

TO

ENVIRONMENTAL

ENVIRONMENT According to Etymology, Environment means the

conditions related to any particular place on the earth. Environment can be considered as all the surrounding conditions of the earth. It includes all living, non-living, natural or artificial things. Environmental science is the scientific study of the relation between different ecosystems. It is the study of the Environment and effect of the Environment on human beings. Environmental Education: It is an educational program whose objective is to develop awareness about the Environment among the students. It explains various components of Environment and the relation between them. It is the process of giving knowledge about the Environment to the students and to develop positive attitude for the conservation of Environment. It includes ecosystem,

T.K.I.E.T., Warananagar

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Air Quality & its Management in Pune City

physical and mental health, pollution and the factors affecting the living and non-living things. Reasons For Necessity Of Environmental Education:
1. Due to the population explosion, desertification, productivity of soil is decreasing. 2. Illiterate and even literate peoples are not aware about the Environment. 3. Limited nature of rules and acts about the environment. 4. Persons responsible for the pollution are not given any legal action. 5. Large numbers of factories are mainly responsible of water and air pollution. 6. There is no control on sound pollution. 7. Conservation of Environment is the social and international need.

Objectives of Environmental Education:
1. To give information about the concepts related to Environment. 2. To explain the various factors which are responsible for pollution of Environment. 3. To study effects of pollution on human life 4. To give information about the acts related to Environmental pollution. 5. To explain relationship between the Environment and population 6. To develop the positive attitude about the conservation of Environment 7. To explain role of individual in conservation of Environment

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Air Quality & its Management in Pune City

“A human being is part of a whole, called by us the Universe, a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings, as something separated from the rest a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circles of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty.”

Albert Einstein

“Whether or not life exists elsewhere in the universe, all we know now is that here on Earth, life is both utterly amazing and utterly endangered. That is why I believe that nobody is really more pro-life than an environmentalist. T. A. Barron

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Air Quality & its Management in Pune City

2) AIR POLLUTION CAUSES AND EFFECTS

History
Humans probably first experienced harm from air pollution when they built fires in poorly ventilated caves. Since then we have gone on to pollute more of the earth’s surface. Until recently, environmental pollution problems have been local and minor because of the Earth’s own ability to absorb and purify minor quantities of pollutants. The industrialization of society, the introduction of motorized vehicles, and the explosion of the population, are factors contributing toward the growing air pollution problem. At this time it is urgent that we find methods to clean up the air. The primary air pollutants found in most urban areas are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (both solid and liquid). These pollutants are dispersed throughout the world’s atmosphere in concentrations high enough to gradually cause serious health problems. Serious health problems can occur quickly when air pollutants are concentrated, such as when massive injections of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter are emitted by a large volcanic eruption.

Air Pollution in the Home

T.K.I.E.T., Warananagar

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cleaning fluids. naturally occurring radioactive gas produced by the radioactive decay of uranium-238. but the T.E. exposure to radon is second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer. odorless. In the hundred years and more since then. is assumed to have been about 290 parts per million (ppm). linoleum tile.S. electrical and telephone cables. “According to studies by the EPA and the National Research Council. and building materials and furniture that emit air pollutants such as formaldehyde. (Breuer 67) Industrial countries account for 65% of C02 emissions with the United States and Soviet Union responsible for 50%. are responsible for 35% of C02 emissions but may contribute 50% by 2020. mold and microbe-harboring air conditioning systems and ducts. (Miller 488) The health problems in these buildings are called “sick building syndrome”. (Miller 489) Radon enters through pores and cracks in concrete when indoor air pressure is less than the pressure of gasses in the soil. tasteless. fuel combustion in stationary sources is the dominant source of sulfur dioxide (S02). including residential. latex caulk and paint.K. Poor ventilation causes about half of the indoor air pollution problems. not even in your own home. Less developed countries (LDCs). vinyl molding. cigarette smoke. “An estimated one-fifth to one-third of all U. with 80% of the world’s people. a colorless. “Carbon dioxide emissions are increasing by 4% a year”. Indoor air will be healthier than outdoor air if you use an energy recovery ventilator to provide a consistent supply of fresh filtered air and then seal air leaks in the shell of your home Sources of Pollutant The two main sources of pollutants in urban areas are transportation (predominantly automobiles) and fuel combustion in stationary sources. “The concentrations of C02 in the air around 1 860 before the effects of industrialization were felt.I. 18 thousand million tons of carbon dioxide (equivalent to 5 thousand million tons of carbon) were released into the atmosphere. buildings are now considered “sick”.T. “In 1985 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that toxic chemicals found in the air of almost every American home are three times more likely to cause some type of cancer than outdoor air pollutants”. commercial.. Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (C02) is one of the major pollutants in the atmosphere. (Miller 450) In 1975. the concentration has increased by about 30 to 35 ppm that is by 10 percent”.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City You cannot escape air pollution. carpet. Warananagar 5 . Whereas. Motor vehicles produce high levels of carbon monoxides (CO) and a major source of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). (Miller 489) The EPA has found that the air in some office buildings is 100 times more polluted than the air outside. and industrial heating and cooling and coal-burning power plants. A major indoor air pollutant is radon-222. The rest come from specific sources such as copying machines. Major sources of C02 are fossil fuels burning and deforestation.

Air Quality & its Management in Pune City atmosphere showed an increase of only 8 billion tons (equivalent to 2. T. then the oceans would absorb more and more C02.2 billion tons of carbon’.I. its ability to absorb C02 is reduced. but partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space.K. C02 is a good transmitter of sunlight. then more C02 will remain into the atmosphere.E. (Breuer 70) The ocean waters contain about sixty times more C02 than the atmosphere. Warananagar 6 ..T. Increasing the amount of C02 in the atmosphere reinforces this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth’s surface. Nitrogen oxides contribute most of the atmospheric contaminants. This produces the so-called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night. As water warms. If the oceans can no longer keep pace. Currently carbon dioxide is responsible for 57% of the global warming trend. If the equilibrium is disturbed by externally increasing the concentration of C02 in the air.

This is known as acid deposition or acid rain. Canada. and biomass burning. accounting for 25% of global CFC use’. “Since 1978 the use of CFCs in aerosol cans has been banned in the United States. and the burning plastic foam products release the CFCs into the atmosphere. N20 . enabling the emissions to travel long distances”. Has a role in reducing stratospheric ozone. (Miller 494) As emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide from stationary sources are transported long distances by winds. Comes from the burning of biomass and fossil fuels. These chemicals descend to the earth’s surface in wet form as rain or snow and in dry form as a gases fog.nitrous oxide     Nature at component of the Earths atmosphere. they form secondary pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide. and causes nitrogen loading. dew.E. in the process of producing sulfuric acid and in metallurgical process involving ores that contain sulfur. 30 to 50 million tons per year from human activities. 70O (285 parts per billion). and nitrate salts. nitric acid vapor.. plants and materials. Warananagar 7 .T. and 19 million tons per year by nature. sulfur dioxide irritates the upper respiratory tract of human beings because potential effect of sulfur dioxide is to make breathing more difficult by causing the finer air tubes of the lung to constrict.I. and most Scandinavian countries. Sulfur and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Sulfur dioxide is produced by combustion of sulfur-containing fuels. 2030 (340 parts per billion). Human inputs 6 million tons per year. Sulfur oxides can injure man. “Power plants and factories emit 90% to 95% of the sulfur dioxide and 57% of the nitrogen oxides in the United States. such as coal and fuel oils. Chiorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCs are lowering the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. (Miller 448) Spray cans. ~lmportant in the greenhouse effect and causes nitrogen loading. Residence time in the atmosphere about 170 years. Average residence time in the atmosphere is days. Depending on the type. or solid particles. T. CFCs stay in the atmosphere from 22 to 111 years. At sufficiently high concentrations.nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02)       Natural component of the Earths atmosphere. deforestation. sulfate. and natural 10 to 20 million tons per year. lmportant in the formation of both acid precipitation and photochemical smog (ozone). Comes from nitrogen based fertilizers. Almost 60% of the S02 emissions are released by tall smoke stakes. 1990 (310 parts per billion).Air Quality & its Management in Pune City NOX . discarded or leaking refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. Also. and droplets containing solutions of sulfuric acid. Aerosols are still the largest use.K.

Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Chlorofluorocarbons move up to the stratosphere gradually over several decades.I. Warananagar 8 .E..T. T.K. Under high energy ultra violet (UV) radiation. which speed up the breakdown of ozone (03) into oxygen gas (02). they break down and release chlorine atoms.

are greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. During the course of one sunny day such a tree inhales 9. The products of photochemical reactions includes organic particles. Czechoslovakia.. and some other eastern European countries. organic acids. Trees play an important role in producing oxygen from carbon dioxide. photochemical smog has become predominant in many cities. Ozone is a gas created by nitrogen dioxide or nitric oxide when exposed to sunlight. This smog is common during the winter in cities such as London. still burn large quantities of coal without using adequate controls. usually from burning coal. “A 115 year old Beech tree exposes about 200. some countries such as China. peroxyacetyl nitrate. Poland.000 leaves with a total surface to 1200 square meters.T. With the introduction of petroleum to replace coal economies in countries. and damage to trees and crops. Smog’s unpleasant properties result from the irradiation by sunlight of hydrocarbons caused primarily by unburned gasoline emitted by automobiles and other combustion sources. aldehydes.400 liters of carbon dioxide to produce 12 kilograms of carbohydrate. ketones. Pollution Damage to Plants With the destruction and burning of the rain forests more and more C02 is being released into the atmosphere. warm. thus liberating 9. Photochemical air pollution is commonly referred to as “smog”. Another form of smog is called industrial smog. Chicago. and a variety of suspended solid particles. (Breuer 1) This process is called photosynthesis which all plants go though but some yield more and some less T. also known as Freons. and dry climates with many motor vehicles.I. Suspended droplets of sulfuric acid are formed from some of the sulfur dioxide. Smog Photochemical smog is also appearing in regions of the tropics and subtropics where savanna grasses are periodically burned. ozone. England. Through this mechanism about 45.. Pittsburgh. Warananagar 9 . has been caused throughout recorded history by water condensing on smoke particles. However.. impaired lung function. In 1952 London. Smog.000 people died as a result of this form of fog. 4.400 liters of oxygen.000 liters of air are regenerated which is sufficient for the respiration of 2 to 3 people”. Ozone causes eye irritation. large-scale problems were witnessed. which are located in sunny.E. etc. and other oxidants. a contraction of the words smoke and fog. When these cities burned large amounts of coal and heavy oil without control of the output. The worst episodes of photochemical smog tend to occur in summer. industrial plants. Today coal and heavy oil are burned only in large boilers and with reasonably good control or tall smokestacks so that industrial smog is less of a problem. The smog consists mostly of a mixture of sulfur dioxide and fog. This smog is created by burning coal and heavy oil that contain sulfur impurities in power plants.K.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Chlorofluorocarbons.

As long as no more wood is burnt than is reproduced by the forests. no change in atmospheric C02 concentration will result. Warananagar 10 . corn. nitrogen oxides. (Miller 498)Reducing PollutionWe can help to reduce global air pollution and climate change by driving a car that gets at least 35 miles a gallon. Chronic exposure of leaves and needles to air pollutants can also break down the waxy coating that helps prevent excessive water loss and damage from diseases. Earth is everybody’s home and nobody likes living in a dirty home. T.T. aluminum. Together. Plant trees and avoid purchasing products such as Styrofoam that contain CFCs.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City oxygen. and buy only energy efficient appliances. walking.K. we can make the earth a cleaner.I. Pollutants such as sulfur dioxide. make your home more energy efficient. Replace incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs. “In the midwestern United States crop losses of wheat. soybeans. drought and frost. Support much stricter clean air laws and enforcement of international treaties to reduce ozone depletion and slow global warming. ozone and peroxyacl nitrates (PANs). and using mass transit when possible. healthier and more pleasant place to live. pests. Recycle newspapers. and peanuts from damage by ozone and acid deposition amount to about $5 billion a year’.. and other materials.E. cause direct damage to leaves of crop plants and trees when they enter leaf pores (stomates). bicycling.

Pavana.68 Iakhs are men & 34.5 to 19. from the mean sea level. Pune City: Geographical Status: Pune city is located at 559 mtrs. Climatic Conditions: The temperature of city ranges between Minimum 12°C & Maximum 37°C. Shivganga etc. It is located between 18.cultivated area.I. Kukadi. The total geographical area of Pune district is 15642 Sq. About 12% area of the city is hilly area.56 Iakhs are women as per 2001 census. The average rainfall of district is 600 to 700 mms. There are about l4Talukas & 13 Panchayat Samitis in Pune district. Total road length of Pune district is 13. 11% is Industrial area. Pune city is located in the Deccan Plateau and is about 100 kms east from Konkan coast and at a distance of about 160 kms from Mumbai. Out of the total area. There is hilly area on western side of Pune and on south side Sin hagad.69 Sq. Pimpri Chinchwad is located at the West of Pune city & touching to Pune -Mumbai National highway. Wheat & Rice. The major crops in district are Jowar. 9. out of which 37. It is located at the confluence of Mula-Mutha river. Kms.11% is forest area.5% is defense area.642 kms. This is about 5% of the total area of Maharashtra State. by Satara district on South & by Raigad district on the West. The district is bounded on North & East by Ahmednagar district. The total geographical area of Pune is 450. Bhosary etc.70% is non. About 10. T. The major river of the district is Bhima and minor rivers are Karha.T. kms.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Pune district is located between 17.2° degrees North & 73.24 lakhs. Meena. In Pune district there are two municipal corporations. Out of the total geographical area.2° to 75. 7% is covered by grazing land. 1 . There are about 1866 villages in the district. It covers about 25 urban areas out of which there are 2 Municipal corporations. Total population of Pune district is 72. The maximum rainfall is observed in June to September months. 3 Cantonment boards & 11 Municipal councils.8% is commercial area. Chinchwad.1°East. namely Pune Municipal Corporation & Pimpri-Chinchawad Municipal Corporation. The average rainfall recorded is 600 to 700 mm.6% is residential area. Bajara. Pimpri.E.K.32° North and 73.51° East. The corporation covers the area of Akurdi. 74% is cultivated area which is about 1157506 ha. The said area is developed by MIDC as an industrial zone. Warananagar 11 .Katraj hilly area is observed.. 38. 9.7% is recreational area etc.

The analysis report is as follows. kms to 450. Due to hilly areas in city the climate of Pune city is good & cool. Solapur & Bangalore cities. Mumbal. oxides of nitrogen.92 Sq. Warananagar 12 . Pune city is well connected to Nashik.57 74. 57.21 From these results.K.68 49.32 222. I.33 49.. suspended particulate matter and respirable suspended particulate matter.79 173. it is seen that the RSPM. Mumbai-Pune Road T.E.51 19. Due to these nature gifts city has got the name Deccan Queen’. NOx values near Majur Adda are exceeding the prescribed limits which is mainly due to the dense vehicular traffic in that area.34 50. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board also carried out Ambient Air Quality monitoring at the following monitoring stations (3) to re-assess the RSPM values in Pune. The parameters that were measured for the above period include sulphur dioxide. Area of Pune Municipal Corporation has been increased from 145. of India.29 29. PMIO values at Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagriha were slightly higher and the NOx values are just touching the boundary limits.42 103.47 132.72 20.69 Sq. Pune.48 110.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Socio-Economic Status: In Pune there are two cantonment areas. Population of Pune city is around 31. kms due to the increase in number of villages joining Pune city. Near Majur Adda near Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagriha PM10 SPM NOx SO2 PM16 SPM NOx SO2 Maximum Minimum Average 169.I. Ambient air quality was monitored at two stations under NAAQAM and an additional station was also added in the MPCB program on Air Quality monitoring. at two locations viz.98 58. Air Quality of Pune City Ambient Air Quality monitoring results in Pune: The ambient air quality in Pune city was monitored from October 2001 to May 2002 under the National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program of Govt.05 96. 1) MajurAdda 2) Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagriha 3) Jog Centre Building.T.67 30.16 83.34 55. Ahamadnagar.000 as per 2001 census. Air quality Monitoring Stations: A part from the data gathered through the NAAQAM program in Pune city. These values are attributable to the vehicular movement in the area. Majur Adda and Yeshawantrao Chavan Natyagriha. The period of monitoring is from October 2001 to May 2002.27 78.36 137.19 40.

T.K..E.I. Warananagar 13 .Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Month-wise ambient air quality results are given below: T.

58 18.15 39.50 30.70 573.96 23.93 184. Pune-3.03 31.56 ---------271.E.96 90.No.49 61.20 194.41 82.10 30.23 17. Sr.66 25.14 194.43 30.63 28.73 16.29 16.50 35.97 30.65 88.48 2677 ---35.42 ---------- T.98 23.60 15.57 41.84 38.25 ‘17.31 14.T.79 ---23.50 99. Mumbai-Pune Road.50 9.40 149.K.55 ---------48.01 €60.. Warananagar 14 .60 8.26 21.17 202.50 14.73 29.08 21.I. Wakdewadi.95 NOx 35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Month Jan-02 Fe1-02 Mar-02 April-02 May-02 June-02 July-82 Aug-82 Sept-02 Oct-02 Nov-02 Dec-02 Jan-03 Feb-03 Mar-03 April-03 May-03 June-03 July-03 Auq-03 Sept-03 Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-83 Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04 April-04 S02 23.76 10.36 46.35 18.99 13.70 180.20 14124 135.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations in Pune: Month-wise Air Quality results at Majur Adda Month November 01 December 01 January 02 February 02 March 02 April 02 May 02 Average PM10 128 153 136 156 119 111 115 131 SPM 100 102 86 93 78 71 75 87 NOx 106 103 92 114 107 91 76 98 SO2 57 56 42 67 53 44 34 50 Month-wise Air Quality results at Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagriha Air pollution testing at Jog Centre Building.81 17.86 33 12 4470 2879 ---------6274 3427 2412 1858 3295 28.80 31.48 ---------68.54 228.08 SPM 280.

but SPM and RSPM levels have exceeded at Nal Stop and Swargate. it is seen that the S02 and NOx levels are within the prescribed limits. Warananagar 15 . The results obtained are as below: T. Month 502 NOx SPM 1 Sept-04 13.62 21.92 170.69 105.58 195. Nal Stop & Swargate stations under NAAQM program of CPCB for year 2003-2004.. This may be due to heavy vehicular traffic. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Pimprj-Chjnchwad Maharashtra Pollution Control Board has also carried out ambient air quality monitoring in Pimpri-Chinchwad area in the Industrial.00 21.60 From the above results.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City From the above results. The increased SPM values were probably due to heavy vehicular movement on National Highway No. The SPM levels at Majur Adda were maximum in December 2001 and minimum in April 2001.I. the maximum values of RSPM were observed in February and minimum in January. The maximum values of RSPM at Majur Adda were observed in February and minimum in April.17 Annual Average (µ g/M3) NOx SPM RSPM 36.80 107.58 71.33 34.34 3 Nov-04 18.75 36. it is seen that the S02 and NOx levels are within the prescribed limits. Mumbai Pune Road. Residential and Silence zones. The Ambient air quality is also monitored at Bhosary. No.58 From the above results.92 453.00 2 Oct-04 19. Commercial. Oxides of Nitrogen and sulfur dioxide.E.31 104. The ambient air quality parameters that were monitored in those zones include Suspended particulate matter.92 16015 88.13 25.00 384.T. Similarly near Yashwantrao chavan Natyagriha. The SPM levels were also found to be within prescribed limits. but SPM levels have exceeded and have reached up to 660. it is seen that the S02 and NOx levels are within the prescribed limits.08 65.K. Month-wise Air Quality results at Karve Road from Sept-2004 Sr.40 in March 2002 at Jog Center. The average results obtained are as below ( Source: Pune University) Monitoring Station Bhosar Nat Stop Swargate SQ2 31.4 as well as resuspension of the dust and construction activity in the area.

12 69 15 13 120 C. RESIDENTIAL ZONE: S. 58 62 66 59 1120 B.N. Warananagar 16 ..K.E.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City A.A. Place/Site 1 TELCO 2 3 4 5 Bhos&i Ruston Hornsby Garw&e Hindustan Antitiotics Permissible limits SPM 125 685 72 594 545 500 SO2 62 56 80 58 62 120 NOx Remarks SPM levels are 52 beyond permissible limits. Colony Pradhikaran Incliranagar Permissible limits 160 112 185 218 200 62 57 55 60 80 T.N. COMMERCIAL ZONE: S.T. INDUSTRIAL ZONE: S. Place/Site 1 TELCO Colony SPM 226 SO2 65 NOx Remarks 48 At lncliranagar and Telco Colony. Place/Site 1 Raka Gas SPM 535 SO2 55 NOx 2 3 4 5 PCMC Garware Nylon Kalewacli Dapodi Permissible limits 460 552 338 412 500 59 64 38 52 120 Remarks 52 At Raka Gas site & Garware Nylon site SPM levels are exceeding the permissible limits.N.I. 5PM levels are slightly exceeding the permissible limits. 49 60 59 70 80 2 3 4 5 Century Enka Colony H.

Efforts shall also be made to disseminate the gathered information on Ambient Air Quality to all concerned authorities so that effective steps can be taken by these authorities to reduce the air pollution in Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad municipal areas. This is because approximately 6. CO and S02. more particularly in the two wheelers. Absence of a ring road despite radial expansion of the city.N. The direct mal effect of this situation is the increased air pollution in the city. V. (Source — Environment Status Report — PMC).K. MPCB. III.800 new vehicles are introduced on Pune roads per month. Sources of air pollution in the City The major contributory sources of air pollution in Pune city are 1) Vehicular Pollution 2) Industrial Pollution 1) Vehicular Pollution: The observed ambient air quality trend in Pune is certainly very disturbing. SILENCE ZONE: S. The key traffic and transportation problems in Pune Municipal area and PCMC area can be broadly identified as under: I. The agencies viz. Crowded intersections leading to air and noise pollution.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City D. Pune Municipal Corporation. SPM.. University of Pune and PCMC. Place/Site 1 TELCO Colony 2 3 4 5 Lokmanya Hospital Talera Hospital Jijamata Hospital Mata Temples Permissible limits SPM 94 110 90 87 93 100 SO2 39 47 52 58 48 30 NOx Remarks 42 SO2 & NOx levels are beyond the permissible limits 52 55 49 43 30 Further monitoring of the Ambient Air Quality to measure performance efficiency can be undertaken once the action plan is approved. This is further compounded by acceleration and de-acceleration of the vehicles on the congested roads. A disprodtionate rise in the number of vehicle during last few years.E. which aggravates the situation.T. will be chosen in consultation with CPCB to intensify the ambient air quality monitoring activities. T. NOX.I. Heterogeous traffic conditions with limited road carriage capacities making segregation of traffic very difficult. The already existing large number of vehicles and a monthly addition of the high number of vehicles in Pune and adjoining areas result in slow traffic movement with speed of the vehicles between 15 km/hr to 35 km/hr. The parameters that will be monitored shall include PM1O. IV. II. Warananagar 17 . II. Infficient road capacities in the congested area.

E. Pune. Industrial Pollution Scenario In Pune In Pune there are 12 Nos.T. There are total 56 no.K. Pune-I) T. Warananagar 18 .Air Quality & its Management in Pune City VI. of Small scale Industries. is as follows 2. unautorized constructions particularly of religious nature etc.SRO. The total fuel consumption from these units is as below : (SourceMPCB. VIII.. The inadequacy of footpaths and their diversion to their uses and joy walking leads to obstruction of vehicular traffic. VII. of air polluting industries in Pune corporation area.I. in 2002. of Large and Medium scale industries and 876 Nos. There industries are not having high Air potential. Absence of parking facilities at important locations leading to street parking and road congestion. Inventory of emissions load from vehicles is done in Pune & PCMC by Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT). Various encumbrances on roads such as encroachments.

E.04 pg/Nm3.64 pg/Nm3. and RSPM concentration is 113. Sub-Regional office. There are total 67 air polluting industries in Pimpri-Chinchwad corporation area. The Board has taken the action on defaulting industries from time to time. Pimpri-Chinchwad has monitored ambient & stack air quality of the industries.. Two wheelers are covering about 80% of the road while public vehicles are T. Out of total 41 are large scale.68 µg/Nm3. 35 are medium scale & 629 are small-scale industries. The average concentration of S02 observed is 35. Ill Status of Public Health There has been no systemic survey conducted on the impacts of air and noise pollution on the health of population residing within Pune city limits by the Medical college or any other institutions in the city or NGOs and therefore no data is available to understand the ill effects of the SPM and RSPM levels that have been recorded in the city during the course of the Ambient Air Quality monitoring studies. Vehicles: The vehicular population in Pune city is rising tremendously. scrubbers etc. Warananagar 19 .Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Sub-Regional office. 51.I. Number of two wheelers increased from 1313 in 1960 to 7.361 lit/day. etc. The industries have installed the air pollution control devices like dust collectors.68 pg/Nm3. Total fuel consumption (FO/LDO/HSD) from these units is3.K. The Two wheeler vehicles are increasing rapidly in Pune. The ambient air quality in these industrial areas generally meets the standards as prescribed by MPCB except on one or two occasions. Bronchitis etc.T. IV Details with Regard to Different Sources of Pollution A. The pollution due to vehicles is creating bad impact on the public health. The vehicular pollution is giving rise to respiratory diseases like Asthma. 88. cyclones. which is creating serious problem in Pune.191 in 2003. SPM concentration is 102. Pune has monitored the major air polluting industries. In Pimpri-Chinchawad area there are total 705 industries. The industries have installed the air pollution control devices like dust collectors. NOx concentration is 43.

T.K.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City covering only 0.8% of the road. T. PMT buses are for public transportation.E. Warananagar 20 ..I.

The information provided by the RTO Pune is given in the table below showing the numbers of the different category of vehicles and their share in the total number of vehicles in Pune & Pimpri-Chinchwad area in the years 2000.T. 2002 and 2003 respectively.14.43% 1.82% 10.524 Cons umpti on/da y for bushe s only No.19.54% 5.. of passengers 5. Warananagar 21 .K. T.I.42% The two wheelers and the three wheelers have shown a steep rise in the last three years.141 per day May 2001 822 45.04. 2001.21% 12.355 4.603 98. Present status of vehicle emissions control programme underway : The National ambient air quality standards notified in June 1997 are reproduced below. Number & Percentage of Share of Vehicles : Pune city has a Regional transport Office which keeps record of the vehicles registration in the city.070 1.548 49.833 4.20% 8% PCMC 79.098 4. PCMC Types of Vehicles 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Two wheelers 164598 186514 211837 236301 Three Wheelers 4413 4816 5288 5415 Light Motor Vehicles 21011 24106 27883 30242 Heavy Vehicles 20543 22239 23577 25041 Total 210565 237760 268585 297499 from the above table it may be noticed that two wheelers are the main contributing category of vehicles for most of the air pollution in Pune and PCMC area.29. It is planned that the air quality targets will be maintained to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.466 4.881 48.71. the percentage contribution of pollution by different category of vehicles is shown below: Two wheelers Three Wheelers Light Motor Vehicles Heavy Vehicles PMC 74. 2.E.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Following chart indicates information about municipal transport Particular 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-2001 Total buses 799 779 750 824 Janata bushes Diesel 50.16% 8.

0 to 2. Various initiatives taken by the Pune Municipal Corporation to ease traffic congestion in the city area are primarily based on the following initiatives: 1. There is a lot of scope for improvement in the public transport system in Pune city. 4. Encourage public transport while discouraging the personalized modes. 2. Segregate directional traffic and vehicular and pedestrian movement.K. Provide parking facility to traffic. Due to largely unreliable frequency of PCMC and PMT buses. About 60% of roads in Pune Municipal Corporation area & Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation are congested whereas remaining 40% roads in the fringe area have relatively lower traffic volumes.E.. b) The background levels of pollution in Pune are already known.e. The year wise dwindling commuter support to Public transportation in T. two wheelers.I. a) Efforts shall be made to meet the air quality standards stipulated by CPCB in its National Ambient Air Quality Standards published in June. it is estimated that approximately 2.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City National Ambient Air Quality Standards. 3.5 Lakh commuters have switched over to personalized modes transportation i. Warananagar 22 . Decongest the city roads.T. since PMC and MPCB had undertaken sufficient measures/efforts in the past to assess those values through monitoring in the sensitive areas. 1997.

Presently. All intent letters for the rickshaw permits have been cancelled from 2904-1999. Table showing Number of Commuters who travelled by PMT by and PCMC Buses No. there are 99 nos. 15 nos. In Pune.E. Warananagar 23 . The remaining commuting needs are supplemented by the PCMC & Pune Municipal Transport services and the other public transportation modes. No diesel rickshaw is permitted as a replace vehicle to the existing one.. However. of PUC centers.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City PMC and PCMC is highlighted in the table below. Year PMC Commuters 1 1997-1998 470844 2 1998-1999 427955 3 1999-2000 385475 4 2000-2001 355557 5 2001-2002 343173 PMT PCMC 80352 80272 60893 60989 49590 However. In Pimpri-Chinchawad. Only petrol driven rickshaws are permitted within PMC area.K. No new rickshaw permits are being granted from 26-11-1997. For the reduction in vehicular pollution. for petrol & diesel. for diesel & 53 nos.) Switch over of two wheelers from 2 strokes to 4 strokes is being done in phases. Penal compounding fees are also recovered from such defaulting vehicles. the discussions with the municipal authorities reveal that the number of the commuters is steadily dwindling. Vehicles are checked regularly for PUC certificates and if found exceeding the emission limits. Periodical & surprised check of PUC center by Dept.        T. there are total 53 nos. the registration of such vehicle is suspended till satisfactory repairs are carried out. of PUC centers for Petrol. Around 50% vehicle comes for inspection & approximately 05% is failure rate. (As reported by Transport Dept.Wt 2S engines. The figures the number of commuters using the public transport for the years 2003 — 2004 are not readily available. in spite of overwhelming public support to use the public transport and best efforts on part of PMT. Grant of PUC Renewal certificate is considered only after observing satisfactory performance of the vehicle. it may still not be possible for the Pune Municipal Transport to substantially fulfill the entire public transportation requirements/demands of the city population in the near future.I.T. most of the transportation needs are fulfilled primarily by the people themselves through the privately owned vehicles. It is considered not to permit new two wheeler . steps like improvement in PUC system and compulsory I & M practices for on-road vehicles have been taken by the concerned authorities as mentioned below: RTO has banned six seater rickshaws within PMC area.

Principally the tax structure is based on the laden weight or unladen weight of the vehicle.E. Besides.suitable retail outlet sites and the demand for the auto LPG.K. IOCL has plans to set up three additional stations in Pune subject to availability of suitable sites with statutory approvals.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Institutional plans for implementation of gaseous fuel programme: There are 5 LPG outlets in Pune of which two are operated by BPCL. B) Industry: The Pune city is surrounded by 7 Nos. In case of lightweight motor vehicles one time tax has been made compulsory which is seven times more than the annual rate of the tax. which is 7% & is levied at the time of initial registration similarly for car it is 4% of the vehicle cost & levied at time of initial registration..497 11 6411 147 53. Avg. For the buses the tax is based on the sitting capacity & is levied annually.Avg) 1618 14606 6535 . Expected CNG will be available up to 2005. the actual implementation of the above planed LPG outlets would depend on the availability of the gas.060 - T. Vehicle Taxation in Pune: The vehicles in Maharashtra are taxed based on the provisions in the Bombay Motor Vehicle Tax Act 1958. HPCL also has similar plans to set up two more stations subject to above conditions.T. Avg.. However.) 152 (Min. which extends to whole of Maharashtra including Pune. which are used for carrying passengers. IOCL Pune is setting up one more auto LPG dispensing station and the work on it is in progress. of LSI/MSI 12 76 13 10 3 SO2 SPM (Kg/Day) (µ /Nm3) 9410 700 (Max. At present there is no CNG outlet in Pune. the tax is based on the carriage capacity & is levied annually. The industrial scenario and the pollution load is given below: (Source MPCB) Name of Area Pune City PCMC KhedTaluka Maval Tal:uka Junner & Arnbegaon Taluka ShimeTajuka Muishi & Haveli Total No. of Talukas including PimpriChinchwad Municipal Corporation area. Warananagar 24 . Two by HPCL and One by IOCL. Joint Venture is being formed with BPCL for supply of CNG in Pune.Avg) 19393 351 (Max.I. On the motorcycles the tax is based on the cost of the vehicle.) 57 (Min. For the small vehicles like auto rickshaws etc. 17 4.

G. All these stone crushers are in operation. MMV2000/326/221TB-3 dated 15-07-2000. The abstract of the restriction is as under T. The industries by far have taken measures for emissions control. Resolution No. More frequent power failures in recent years have given rise to higher use of alternative power supply like D. These industries are not having high air pollution potential (HAPPI). Warananagar 25 . The large and medium scale industries are very few. In the said area it has been observed that SPM levels are exceeding the prescribed limits. The Board has started action to shift the stone crushers of Chinchwad area. Accordingly the river catchments have been categorized in 4 categories. These conditions are specifically prescribing the stack height commensurate with installed KVA and barricading the noise generated by the D..G. It may thus be seen that a basic inventory of industries in Pune city and surroundings is already completed. which falls under Pimpri Chinchwad Corporation.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City The small-scale industries mainly belong to service category.E.T.sets The compliance is continuously verified through regular vigilance and the action taken against the defaulters. Continuous efforts are being made for installation and improvement of Pollution Control Systems to minimize the pollution load. sets. MPCB has adopted River Regulation Zone (RRZ) policy for sitting of industries as declared by Government of Maharashtra. vide Govt. MPCB has commenced imposing very elaborate conditions for controlling the pollution from the usage of D. The watch is kept on the pollution control activities in such industries.K. sets.I. In Pimpri Chinchwad there are two stone crushers & there are about 23 stone crushers in Muishi & Chowiasawadi area.G.

Air Quality & its Management in Pune City T..T. Warananagar 26 .E.K.I.

419 in 1951 (the first census of independent India).105 (1971).13% from 1991 census.351 (1981) a~d 15. It was then accordingly decided that No stone cnishers should be allowed within 500 mtrs. from National Highway. 12. it grew to 4. 40.sets established by the industries in Pune and PCMC area is about 120.sets. 1817. ODR or yR. While the city population was 1.72%. to set up power plant in Pune and PCMC area.227 in 1921. and M.E. The total number of D. the shop keepers and households are using small generators to meet their power requirement. 1981 and the conditions about the emission standards as per the EP Rules are imposed in the consents granted to the industries for establishing the D. D) Other Sources: 1. C) Power Plants: There are no thermal power plants within Pune city limits and therefore the pollution load contribution from this source is nil. 66. Since the first census of idependent India and then onwards up to 1991. 88. from human habitation shall be maintained.I.. Pune city was located on area of 5 sq. however Slowly the cityarea panded and according to 1997 figures. Scarcity of an affordable housing stock has resulted in growth ~ slums and shanties on unguarded lands all around the city.069 indicating record rise by 62.96 sq. However. The distance criteria of 500 mtrs. However. respectively.K. The chronology of the city expansion is given below:- T. 03. Warananagar 27 .651 in 1991.G. 06. sets to meet the power requirements of the respective industries particularly during the load shedding and weekly power holidays. 56.G. These are mostly Kerosene powered and hence are a non-point source of air emissions.Domestic Pollution: The population of Pune city is increasing day by day. The male to female percentage of the population is 52. 33. the census of 2001 reveals that the city population has reached phenomenal figure of 25. MPCB regularly monitors the emissions from this power generating source.E. 8. the industries in Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad have set up D.S. Because of the power shortage experienced in this region.sets is not available nor they are regulated by the MPCB.28% and 47.kms. Almost 40% of the city population resides in slums. The figures stood at 6.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Itil Sitting criteria for stone crusher: The Board has laid down the distance criteria for the existing and new stone crushers. The Gensets are regulated under the provisions of the Air (P and CP) Act.T.B.kms.777 (1961).G. from other Roads whether it is MDR. 200 mtrs from State Highway and 100 mtrs. the population of the city has shown a constant gradual increase ranging between 60 to 75%. The details on the number of small D. the city is occupying almost 243.G. There is no proposal under consideration of the State Govt.

Out of the recorded population.I..11 Formation of Pune Municipality 125. PMC & PCMC will be well advised to take precautions that no more slum ~r slum like structure gets created in the newly 38 merged villages. respectively.00 34. Since the first census of ndependent India and then onwards up to 1991. which becomes available to them such ~ wood. Pune Regional Emissions Inventory Study (US-EPA): Within Pune region. The smokeess chulha is a concept. Thefiguresstoodat83. It is indeed difficult to get accommodation to such high number of residents in decent and healthy houses. When the PM standards are exceeded.542(1971) 1. Scarcity of an affordable housing stock has resulted in growth of slums and shanties on unguarded Lands all around the city. However. The Pimpri.99% are male while 46. & undeclared 182324 Sq. people are exposed to levels of particulate matter that have been shown harmful to health. The area covered by the declared slums is around 294148 Sq.E.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City AERIAL EXPANSION .96 Merging of 38 fringe villages into Rune. The slum eradication is not possible and hence the slum improvement will have ~ be undertaken.Mtr.Mtr. Warananagar 28 . Vany of them are suspected to use any fuel. T. The organized housing sectors are found to rely on non-polluting équid fuel for cooking.06.15% of the city population resides in slums. the population of the Pimpri Chinchwad has shown a constant gradual increase ranging between 59. It is necessary to initiate study pertaining to survey of slums in the city. air quality monitoring shows that the national air quality standards for particulate matter (PM) are regularly exceeded.49.PUNE CITY AND PUNE URBAN AREAS YEAR 1817 1860 1950 1997 PUNE CITY Reason for Expansion AREA_(Sq.01% are female.T. sawdust.Mtrs) 5.24% compared to 1991 census. total 476472 Sq. which needs further study. the same cannot be said about the slum dwellers. 53.24 to 78%.364(1981)631875(1991) However. domestic fuel in slum areas is an area.Chinchwad Municipal Corporation reportedly proposes to Launch a massive programme for controlling the population under Integrated Population and Development Project. the census of 2001 reveals that the city population has reached phenomenal figure of 10. bagasse. Almost 11.Mtr. The rapid urbanization and industrialization with better job opportunities has attracted migrants from various parts of the country to Pimpri-Chinchwad resulting in expansion of the settlements in Pimpri-Chinchwad.75 Rune Muncipa1 Corporation 243.253 indicating a record rise by 159. Thus. waste paper/boards or any sundry waste. more ~curate quantification and a thrust for improvement offering acceptable option.K. which has not reached to the depth where it should have. in order to offer them basic civic amenities.

although ambient air quality is being monitored under the National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM Pune) programme. the team created an extensive rational database system to store. and will assist in prioritizing future PM emissions reduction and research efforts. T.S. query. a diverse team of 40 participants from several of India’s governmental and educational institutions such as NERI. The PM emissions estimates developed during the project provide a foundation for evaluating the sources of particulate matter air pollution within Pune.. the database system is sufficiently sophisticated to serve as a prototype for statewide and national emissions inventories. 4) AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND AIR QUALITY IN PUNE Pune city does not have its own air quality monitoring programme per se.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City To develop a PM emissions inventory for the Rune region.I. In addition. Warananagar 29 . MPCB and a U.K. In addition. The outstanding efforts by the dedicated participants and cooperating agencies provide a crucial foundation for further improving air quality and public health within Pune. the project team successfully developed the first ever comprehensive PM emissions estimates for the majority of the emissions sources in the Pune region. EPA representative came together in Rune during March 2004 Following seven days of intensive. and report the emissions inventory data.E.T. hands on effort.

monitoring is conducted under the NAAQM programme at three locations at P0MG. Understanding the influence of vehicular emissions seems to be the primary focus of several monitoring programmes conducted in the past in Pune. University gate and Nalstop junction. took over this monitoring activity during 1993-94. Also important are the emissions from domestic sources such as wood and fuel burning in low income residential areas or slums. The details of these locations are currently unavailable.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City The MPCB was monitoring ambient air quality in 1992-93 period. The EHD however changed the locations of some of the monitoring stations and monitoring was started at University main gate on top of the police chowky. security and nuisance to local residents. To avoid nuisance due to the high noise of the HVS units to the local residents. The location at Paud phata was changed 2-3 times due to problems of power. University of Pune. At least one station should be located to capture the emission profile from such areas. Monitoring locations could also be sited to capture background concentrations in conjunction with source oriented (near major junctions and congested roads) locations. Warananagar 30 .. Swargate junction ST stand on the 3rd noor and a building roof on Laxmi road. Later. it appears that most of the air quality monitoring in Pune has been oriented towards pedestrian exposure monitoring rather than ambient air quality monitoring. Considering the locations and placement of the monitoring sites of the NAAQM and EHD monitoring programmes.E. The EHD conducted monitoring till about three years. Personal exposure monitoring (using personal monitors) has not been conducted due to lack of adequate resources. latest low noise or noiseless HVS units could be used for T. viz. Mandai and Paud phata junction. At present. at three locations in Pune.K. the EHD. PCMC Death Registration building.I.T.

that will involve emission profiling or inventorization. Partculate pollution Results of particulate air pollution studies at six locations in the Pune city: The values of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Particulate Matter less than 10 micron size (PM1O) which constitute respirable particles. proper siting of monitoring stations. Gaseous Pollution A detailed study involving 24 hours monitoring. No information was available on use of the monitoring data in assisting decision making for the city of Pune.. formulation of monitoring objectives. These results are showing trends of particulate pollution at different locations in Pune city. twice a week for last two years is being carried out under the supervision of Dr. influence of industrial emissions is not a critical issue in Pune. traffic management etc. data analysis cell and AQI reporting and outreach for decision making on landuse. Alaka Gadgil for National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQAM) program funded by T.T.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City monitoring. A formal Air Quality Management Programme should be launched for Pune city. exceeded the Permissible Limits (PL) as given by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) which for SPM are 200 micrograms per cubic meter and for PM1O are 100 micrograms per cubic meter of air.I. Warananagar 31 . particularly from diesel vehicles.E. The measurements of SPM and PM1 0 were carried out using a standard method with a Respirable Dust Monitor APM 460 (CSIR NEERI Technology) run continuously for eight hours at those sites.K. The major contribution of PM1O in the ambient air is from vehicular exhaust. Several epidemiological studies have shown the correlation with increased mortality and morbidity due to cardio-respiratory disorders and the increased number of PM1O in the ambient air. in the Pinpri-Chinchwad areas. Since most of the industrial activities are based beyond the periphery of Pune. It can be seen from the results given in Figure 1 that all the sites except at the University. given here are averages of three readings taken at the respective locations during October to December 1997. PM1O consists mainly of ultra fine carbon particles which come out as black smoke and can have long term adverse effects on the exposed population. however meteorological conditions around Pune should be studied to understand the fate of the industrial pollutants.

it is not included in the NAAQM subject.K. Average levels in microgram per cubic meter for NOx while rickshaws On road is 140 aid Off road 95. In such situation NOx becomes the predominant pollutant over SOx.E. T. In the urban environment of Pune. Warananagar 32 . during and after the recent strike.I.. Although Carbon Monoxide (CO) is the major pollutant of two stroke engines.and not from the Industries. the major source of air pollution is automobiles on road. Results of this study carried out at the Swargate site during peak ours (59pm) iuthcate substantial decrease in NOx during the strike period. There is no much change in the levels of SOx which substantiates the fact that in Pune’s ambient air.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City CPCB. major pollution load in ambient air comes from automobiles on road -. and the average levels of SOx are 88 and 86 respectively. This expertise has been used to study the ambient air quality dung the recent three wheeler auto rickshaw alike. We have studied levels of NOx and SOx before.T.

K.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City T.T. Warananagar 33 .E.I..

I.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City By using aerosols as tracers. Appropriate Rural Technology institute (ARTI). for the first time. at Pune.E. The computer-controlled. The results of the experiments performed in the nocturnal boundary layer on the days with clear-sky conditions at Pune during June-July 1994 indicated significant day-to-day variation in the ventilation coefficient. during November 20-24. which is an index of air quality over a place. The conference brought together international biomass energy experts. 2000. on a single platform.T. in the last decade. India has been used to determine the ventilation. LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) or laser radar can be applied to study a variety of parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) that directly or indirectly effect the air quality. Low ventilation coefficients noticed during the observation period are considered to have negligible effect on air pollution due to the effects of cloud scavenging and rain washout. Leading Indian NGO in the field of rural development. Warananagar 34 . International Conference on Biomass-based Fuels and Cooking Systems A Report A lot of research and development work is going on all over the world on the use of biomass energy in the rural domestic energy sector in the developing countries. These variations are found to associate more closely with B in average wind than those in mixing depth. coefficient.K.. had organised the International Conference on Biomass-based Fuels and Cooking Systems (BFCS-2000). continuos wave Argon ion fidar system operating at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM). bistatic. Pune. T.

E.T..K.I. Warananagar 35 .Air Quality & its Management in Pune City T.

T. PMIO.I.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City 5) Analysis of Air pollution in different cities: 1) A study on the ambient air lead levels in Pune city.E. under the research programme of atmospheric chemistry at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM). a low . Paper present the experimental techniques developed and extensive studies that have been carried out.K. Nehru Marg1 T. Maharashtra. Pune. chemical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols. The lead in gasoline is emitted into the environment through the exhaust gases of automobiles.. Warananagar 36 . 2) Study of physico-chemical and optical properties of atmospheric constituents under different environmental and meteorological conditions in India Part I : aerosols. Pune is one of the fast developing cities in India with an increasing number of vehicles. 3) Measurement of N02 in ambient air-effect of bubbler t e and sam le flow rateinsocjjumarseflitemethd (National Environ Engng Res Inst. Paper focuses on physical.latitude urban station in India. TSPM and lead levels at selected sites in Pune city. Paper deals with the determination of SPM. so far.

and recommends that a correction factor should be applied according to the sampling device. Bhubaneswar 751012). T. 26 and 36°C temperatures Shows maximum absorption efficiency (average) of 87.2 1pm and 24 hr sampling duration. Results from a year long programme of measuring ground-level concentration of NOx at 19 important traffic intersection points within the city of Calcutta have been presented Results indicate that the NOx concentration level has a seasonal variation Maximum average concentration of 222 pg m-3 was observed during winter and minimum average concentration of 55 pg m-3 was observed during peak monsoon. it is found considerably less 5) Dispersion of coke oven emissions. The ambient air quality was monitored at 11 monitoring stations in and around Koraput district at monthly intervals Air quality index and standard deviation at different sampling points were calculated. The study identifies the potential sources for effective pollution control measures to improve the air quality in Koraput district in future. Nehru Marg. A good agreement between the predicted and observed puff trajectory and temperature was obtained when the optimized’ values of these coefficients were used in the calculations. has been developed to simulate the behaviour of coke oven emissions under unsteady and non uniform atmospheric conditions. At lower and higher temperatures. The effect of temperature on absorption efficiency of N02 is studied employing four impinger tubes in series to collect the maximum N02 generated in the gas stream The study conducted at 16. 7 Ground level concentration of nitro en oxides NOx at some traffic intersection points in Calcutta. The study concludes that the absorption efficiency of N02 is greatly influenced by the sample flow rate. Warananagar 37 . Orissa Polin Contl Bd A/118 Nilkantha Nagar.. in case the sampling train consists only one bubbler (nozzle type) for a sample flow rate of 0. 4) Effect of temperature on absorption of NO2 in arsentite method (NatlEnviron Engng Res Inst. Each emission from the coke pushing process is treated as a single puff.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City The sodium arsenite method gives a sampling efficiency of 82% in the concentration range 40 to 750 mg/m3. (New Delhi 110016) A puff dispersion model that includes wind shear and dynamic puff rise. 6 Ambient air ualit status in Kora ut. Nagpur 440020).8% at 26°C in 1st impinger tube.T.E. The results show a comparative study of the air quality in different areas of Koraput.K.I.

The general features of the air quality index are described and then a case study of Paradip area is considered to illustrate the computation of an air quality index for that locality. Belpahar 768218.E.5 ppmv exhibiting wide temporal and seasonal variation. This black soot creates eye irritation. The results show that the amount of NMVOC in the ambient environment of Delhi varied between 1 . 10) Air quality index and its variations in Paradip area. Jharsuqudal lb valley area is situated in the south west part of river lb in Jharsuguda districts of Orissa. Paper deals with the estimation of total NMVOC at 13 sites in the urban environment of Delhi. They are the main source of visible pollution because they emit a lot of black soot from the exhaust. NMVOC levels mostly peaked at 0900. Scient Ser Div. The study was initiated to monitor air quality status of different sites in Lucknow city. Paper assess the air pollution levels due to industrial and mining activity of lb valley area. more specifically non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) play a critical role in the atmospheric chemistry. breathing trouble and is deposited on clothes.I. (Tata Refractories Ltd.K. The annual average of the indices for Paradip area indicates a clear increasing trend in the values which reflects the detenoration of the air quality in the area over the years.T. which coincide with peak traffic hour. 9) Status of ambient air quality in LucknoW citi The Lucknow city has witnessed a tremendous increase in two wheeler and three wheeler populations. post-rainy and winter are presented. Warananagar 38 . (Vani Vihar..3 and 32. 11) Study of air quality of industrial area surrounded by coalmines. T.~ BhubaneshWar 751004]. Volatile organic compounds (VOC).Air Quality & its Management in Pune City 8)Total non-methane volatile organic compounds (TNMVOC) in the atmosphere of Delhi. 12)A study on phylloplane micro flora under air pollution stress. The details of ambient air quality of three seasons that is summer.

16)Pesticides in the ambient air of the Kolleru lake. Pesticides.E.2. south west of Chennai generates dust pollution in and around the crushers. 14) Air quality prediction and model performance evaluation. Paper attempts to look at the spatial patterns of air pollution in Delhi.I. oxides of nitrogen.T. 17)Spatial patterns of air pollution in Delhi.4.. 15)Size and distribution of dust particles: stone crushing industry.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Paper deals with the effect of air pollution stress on phylloplane mycoflora of few tropical tree species around Nagda Industrial area. and lead. nitric oxide and sulphur dioxide were measured to assess the ambient air quality to Kolleru Lake.7 mg/m3. A well designed ambient air quality network was operated to minitor S02 concentration continuously. Jamshedpur city located in the eastern part of India is severely affected by increasing air pollution levels as a result of concentrated industrial activities and rapid urbanization.BHC and endosulfan were 3. for sulphur dioxide (S02). The maximum levels of suspended particulate matter. The SPM levels at a few places in Delhi often exceed national ambient air quality standards with the highest average values of SPM concentrations in various seasons in Delhi were always above 380 pg/m3. indicating its potential to affect human health.7 and 6. Warananagar 39 . The primary source of these pollutants is vehicular emission. oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The maximum average concentrations of a. g.BHC.6 and 2. A cluster of 48 stone crushers woricing at Pammal area.K. with respect to their occurrence and frequency. and suspended particulate matter (SPM). The fine inhalable particulate matter concentration was found high in ambient air. Laser diffraction technique was employed to analyse the size and distribution of dust particles in the air.7 mg/m3 respectively. An air quality management programme based on reducing stationary source and mobile source emissions will help to mitigate the air pollution and improve the quality of life. nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide were 291. 4. These data were used in the Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST) dispersion model to predict S02 concentration profile over space and time. 62. Calcutta is one of the large cities in India known to have severe air pollution problems with respect to suspended particulate matter. 13) Air pollution management programme of Calcutta. T. A significant decrease was observed in phylloplane mycoflora population on all the tree species studied. carbon monoxide. sulphur dioxide. suspended particulate matter. At polluted site some fungal species were completely eliminated from the leaf surface while few species could thrive well in the stressed atmosphere.

com 2) www. 5. An attempt has been made to correlate the occurrence of different microbes with the PM1O concentrations.e.E. Sources of Air pollution and its effect on human health. Hero Honda was found to have the lowest concentration of SPM.Air Quality & its Management in Pune City Some strategies to reduce air pollution in the city of Delhi have been suggested. Warananagar 40 . 6)CONCLUSION: This project tells the information about the Air pollution of environment.gooqle.03 pgIL of exhaust gas.I. The study indicated definite positive correlations in all the areas during all the periods of the day. the controls of Air pollution are stated. 19) Emissions of SPM. REFERENCES: Internet sources: 1) www.K.com 4) www. Exhaust emission from petrol driven vehicles were collected using portable Air quality sampler Envirotech APM 414 of all 100 CC mobikes.2 and 93. respectively. 18) Diurnal variation of air microbes with respect to respirable particulate matter (PMIO) in Chennai City. The mean emission of SPM.altavista.cieocities.. N02 and particulate lead from petrol driven autorickshaws were found to be 788. In this project. In this project.khoI. S02.com T. this project is based on analyzing air quality of pune city and control measures for it. The lowest concentration of SPM and S02 were found in exhaust emission of Kinetic Honda among all two wheelers.niscair.com 3) www. i. 16 4. Studies were carried out at Chennai on ambient air with respect to respirable particulate matter (PM1O) below 10 microns in size and the microbesbacteria.com 5) www.. N02 and particulate lead from petrol driven 2 and 3-wheelers.T. fungi and actinomycetes. S02. N02 and particulate lead. Air quality management of pune city is given for making safe city.