Problems
S. Islam
1
, M.Naeem
2
,S. Inayat Ali Shah
2
,Gul Zaman
3
, M. Farooq
4*
1
Department of Mathematics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
2
Islami a college Peshawar (Public SectorUniversity), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar Pakistan
2
1
Department of Mathematics, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar Paki stan
4
Department of Mathematics, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan
Abstract
In this work,Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) is applied to solve higher order multipoint
boundary value problems. The suggested technique is capable of solving a wide variety of linear and
nonlinear boundary value problems effectively. The numerical results obtained by (OHAM)are compared
with exactsolutions and Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) so that the results reveal the
effectiveness of the suggested method and high accuracy.
Key words:OHAM, Higher multipoint boundary value problems
1. Introduction
Most of the real world problems are generally investigated by differential equations.The notion
of differential equations as mathematical models is often introduced.It is often desirable to describe the
behavior of real life system whether physical, sociological in mathematical terms. In this paper,we
investigate a well posed mth order problem of the type
( ) (1) ( 1)
( , ,... ) ( ), ,
m m
v v v v q c q d  u
÷
= + < <
with boundary conditions
( ) ( )
( ) , ( ) .
j j
i i
v c a v d b = = where j m < is a non –negative integer,
i
a and
i
b
are real known finite constants and ( ) q u is a continuous function on[c,d]. Problems of the above types
have been investigated by many authors[5,6]on account of being important in hydromagnetic and
hydrodynamic stability.Fifth order boundary value problems arise in the mathematical modeling of
viscoelastic flows.Eighth order differential equations govern physics of some hydrodynamic stability
problems.When an infinite horizontal layer of fluid is heated from below and is subjected to the action
of rotation instability sets in.When this instability sets in asover stability,it is modeled by an eighth order
ordinary differential equation.In literature many methods are used for the solutions of such type of
differential equations .Out of these some are given as Adomian decomposition method (ADM) [13],
Variational iteration method (VIM) [4],Homotopy perturbation method (HPM) [9,10],Homotopy analysis
method (HAM) [7].The HPM in which the homotopy and perturbation techniques are combined
overcome the restrictions of large and small parameters in the problems.It deals a vast variety of
nonlinear problems effectively.
Correspondence: farooq_nihal@hotmail.com (M. Farooq)
Recently Marincaand Herisanuet al.[1316] introduced (OHAM) for approximate solution of nonlinear
problems of thin film flows of a fourth grade fluid down a vertical cylinder.In their research work they
have used this technique to understand the behavior of nonlinear mechanical vibration of electrical
machine.They have also used this technique for the solution of nonlinear differential equations arising in
the steady state flow of a fourth grade fluid past a porous plate and for the solution of nonlinear
equations arising in the heat transfer.It provides a way to control the convergence of the series solution
and adjust the convergence region where it is needed.We use this technique for finding approximate
numerical solutions of some higher order boundary valueproblems. The results of OHAM are compared
with exact solutions.The errors are compared with the existing results.
2. Fundamentals of OHAM
We consider the following differential equation
( ( )) ( ) ( ( )) 0, , 0
dV
L V z f z N V z B V
d z
 
+ + = =

\ .
, (1)
where Lis a linear operator, z is independent variable, ( ) V z is an unknown function, ( ) f z is a known
function, ( ( )) N V z is a nonlinear operator and B is a boundaryoperator.According the OHAM
technique,we construct homotopy as follows:
( ( , ), ) : [0,1] H z p p R R ¢ × ÷
whichsatisfies
( , )
(1 )[ ( ( , )) ( )] ( )[ ( ( , )) ( ) ( ( , ))], ( , ), 0
z p
p L z p f z H p L z p f z N z p B z p
z
¢
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢
c  
÷ + = + + =

c
\ .
(2)
where , [0,1] z R p e e is an embedding parameter, ( ) H p is a nonzero auxiliary function for 0 p = ,
(0) 0 H = and ( , ) z p ¢ is an unknown function.Evidently,for 0 p = and 1 p = ,it holds that
0
( , 0) ( ) z V z ¢ = and ( ,1) ( ) z V z ¢ = accordingly.Thus as p varies from 0 to 1,the solution ( , ) z p ¢
approaches from
0
( ) V z to
1
( ) V z where
0
( ) V z is obtained from equation (2) for 0 p = and we have
0
0 0
( ( )) ( ) 0, , 0
dV
L V z f z B V
dz
 
+ = =

\ .
.(3)
We choose the auxiliary function ( ) H p in the form given below:
1
( )
m
i
i
i
H p p C
=
=
¿
, (4)
where
1 2
, ,... C C are constants to be determined latter. ( ) H p can be expressed in many forms as
investigated by Marinca et.al [1114].For getting approximate solution we can expand ( , , )
i
z p C ¢ inTaylor
,
s series about p in the following form:
0 1 2
1
( , , ) ( ) ( , , ,... )
m
i m m
m
z p C V z V z C C C p ¢
·
=
= +
¿
.(5)
We substitute equations (4) and (5) in equation (2) and comparing the coefficients oflike powers of p ,
we have the following linear equations which can be integrated directly.
Zeroth order problem is given by equation (3) and first and second order problems are given by
equations (6) and (7)
1
1 1 0 0 1
( ( )) ( ) ( ( )), , 0
dV
L V z f z C N V z B V
dz
 
+ = =

\ .
,(6)
2
2 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2
( ( )) ( ( )) ( ( )) [ ( ( )) ( ( ), ( ))], , 0
dV
L V z L V z C N V z C L V z N V z V z B V
dz
 
÷ = + + =

\ .
.(7)
The general governing equations for ( )
m
V z are given by
1 0 0
1
1 0 1 1
1
( ( )) ( ( )) ( ( ))
[ ( ( )) ( ( ), ( ),... ( ))], 2, 3,..., , 0
m m m
m
m
i m m i m m
i
L V z L V z C N V z
dV
C L V z N V z V z V z m B V
dz
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ = +
 
+ = =

\ .
¿
(8)
where
0 1 1
( ( ), ( ),... ( ))
m m
N V z V z V z
÷
is the coefficient of
m
p in the expansion of ( ( , )) N z p ¢ about p
0 0 0 1
1
( ( , , )) ( ( )) ( , ,... )
m
i m m
m
N z p C N V z N V V V p ¢
·
=
= +
¿
. (9)
It has been noted that the convergence of the series (5) depends on the auxiliary constants
1 2
, ,... C C
If it is convergent at 1 p = ,then we have
0 1 2
1
( , ) ( ) ( , , ,... )
i m m
m
z C V z V z C C C ¢
·
=
= +
¿
.(10)
The result of the mth order approximations are
1 2 0 1 2
1
( , , ,... ) ( ) ( , , ... )
m
m i k
i
V z C C C V z V z C C C
=
= +
¿
.(11)
Using equation (11) in equation (1) we get the residual
1 2 1 2 1 2
( , , ,... ) ( ( , , ,..., )) ( ) ( ( , , ,... ))
m m m
R z C C C L V z C C C f z N V z C C C = + +
.(12)
If 0 R = ,then V
be the exact solution.Generally it does happen especially in nonlinear problems. In order
to get the optimal values of
,
, 1, 2, 3...
i
C s i = we first construct the Functional by using least squares
method
2
1 2 1 2
( , ,..., ) ( , , ,..., )
d
m m
c
J C C C R z C C C dz =
}
,(13)
and then minimizing it we have
1 2
0, 0,... 0
m
J J J
C C C
c c c
= = =
c c c
,(14)
and by using Galerekin
,
s method we solve the following system.
1 2
0, 0,... 0
d d d
m c c c
V V V
R dz R dz R dz
C C C
c c c
= = =
c c c
} } }
.(15)
Knowing the constants
1 2
, ,...
m
C C C the approximate solution is determined.
3. Numerical examples
Example 1. (Fifth order linear differential equation)
Consider the following linear differential equation with 0,
2
z
t (
e
(
¸ ¸
(5)
( ) ( ) (cos sin ) 5cos 0, (0) 0, 0, (0) 1, , (0) 1
2 2 2
V z V z z z z z V V V V V
t t t   ( (
' ' '' ÷ + + ÷ = = = = = ÷ =

( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ \ .
(16)
The exact solution of the problem is
( ) cos V z z z =
(17)
Applying the technique, OHAM, of section 2,the zeroht order problem is
(5)
0 0 0 0 0 0
( ) 0, (0) 0, 0, (0) 1, , (0) 0
2 2 2
V z V V V V V
t t t   ( (
' ' '' = = = = = ÷ =

( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ \ .
(18)
Its solution is
( )
3 3 3
0 3
1
( ) 2 ( 6) 4 (4 ) V z z z z t t t t
t
= + ÷ + ÷ (19)
First order problem is
(5)
1 0 1 0 1 1 1
(5)
1 1
1 1
[ 5cos cos sin ( )] (1 ) ( ), (0) 0, 0, (0) 0,
2
( , )
0, (0) 0
2
C z z z z z V z C V z V V V
V z C
V V
t
t
  (
'
÷ + + ÷ + + = = =

(
¸ ¸

=

(
' ''
= =

(
¸ ¸ \ .
(20)
Its solution is
4 4 4 2 3 2 3
1
3 3 7 3 8 3 4 4 2 4
1 1
6 4 7 4 4 6 2 8 9 2 9
4
[ 2419200 483840 725760 77414400 21288960
1935360 100 8 116121600 34836480 967680
1
( , )
483840
330 21 672 864 144 512 128
2419200 cos
C z z z z
z z z z z z
V z C
z z z z c z z
t t t t t
t t t t t
t t t t t t
t
÷ + + + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ + + +
=
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + +
4 4
483840 cos 483840 sin ] z z z z z t t
 





÷ +
\ .
(21)
Now we use equations (19)and (21) for getting first order approximate solution by OHAM for 1 p = is
11
1 0 1 1
( , ) ( ) ( , ) ( ) V z C V z V z C O z = + +
(22)
Using the OHAM technique of section 2 on 0,
2
t (
(
¸ ¸
we use the residual
(5)
( ) ( ) (cos sin ) 5cos R V z V z z z z z = ÷ + + ÷ (23)
The value
1
C =1.001645071775649 is obtained. Using this value the approximate solution is
3 4 5 7
8 9 6 10 11
( ) 0.499959 0.000103261 0.0417352 0.00139117
0.0000118102 0.0000321785 1.38013 10 ( )
V z z z z z z
z z z O z
÷
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ × +
(24)
The following Table displays values of OHAM solution, exact solution and error.
Value of variable
z
Exact solution OHAM solution Error
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0995004 0.0995004 3.12 E11
0.2 0.196013 0.196013 1.83 E10
0.3 0.286601 0.286601 4.32 E10
0.4 0.368424 0.368425 6.64 E10
0.5 0.438791 0.438792 7.45 E10
0.6 0.495201 0.495202 5.77 E10
0.7 0.53539 0.53539 1.37 E10
0.8 0.557365 0.557365 5.11 E9
0.9 0.559449 0.559448 1.20 E9
1.0 0.540302 0.540301 1.86 E9
1.1 0.498956 0.898954 1.58 E9
1.2 0.434829 0.434829 3.83 E10
1.3 0.347748 0.347751 2.74 E9
1.4 0.237954 0.237963 9.19 E9
1.5 0.106106 0.106127 2.17 E8
Table 1
From table 1 we investigate that OHAM and exact solutions are in best agreement.
Figure 1
From figure1 we conclude that exact and OHAM solutions graphs are coincident, where solid line shows
the graph of exact solution and the dotted line shows the graph of the OHAM solution.
Example 2: (Eighth order linear differential equation)
For [0,1] z e we consider the following differential equation
(4) (6)
(8) 3
(4) (6)
(0) 0, (0) 0, (0) 8, (0) 24, (1) 0,
( ) ( ) (48 15 ) 0,
(1) 4 , (1) 16 , (1) 36
z
V V V V V
V z zV z z z e
V e V e V e
''   = = = ÷ = ÷ =
+ + + + =


'' = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
\ .
(25)
The exact solution of the problem is
( ) (1 )
z
V z z z e = ÷ (26)
We apply the technique OHAM mentioned in section 2,the Zeroth order problem is
(4) (6) (4)
(8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
(6)
0
(0) 0, (0) 0, (0) 8, (0) 24, (1) 0, (1) 4 , (1) 16 ,
( ) 0,
(1) 36
V V V V V V e V e
V z
V e
  '' ''
= = = ÷ = ÷ = = ÷ = ÷
 =

= ÷
\ .
(27)
Its solution is
( )
3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7
0
1
( ) 160 541 448 427 420 168 105 42 6 9
1260
V z z e z z e z z z e z z z e z = ÷ + + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
(28)
First order problem is
(4)
1 1 1
(8) 3 (8) (6)
1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1
(4) (6)
1 1
(0) 0, (0) 0, (0) 0,
( , ) [48 15 ( )] (1 ) ( ), (0) 0, (1) 0, (1) 0,
(1) 0, (1) 0
z z z
V V V
V z C C e z e z e zV z C V z V V V
V V
  ''
= = =

 ''
= + + + + + = = =

 = =
\ .
0.5 1.0 1.5
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
(29)
Its solution is
1
2
2 3 3
3
1 1
[517839049728000 517839049728000 598312919070126
355055838176229 151036389504000 123575227776000
15692092416000 45972012575896 26397432560014
1
( , ) 653837184000
653837184000
z
z z
z z
C e z
e z e z
z e z z e
V z C z
÷ ÷
+ + + ÷
÷ + +
=
4 5
5 6 7 7
10 10 12 12 13 14
14 15 16 16
3596104512000 730121207088
390501600762 5448643200 777768420 2857024170
45760 154726 11648 11102 4200 720
450 84 6 9 ]
z
e z z
z e z z z e
z z e z z e z z
z e z z z e
 





+ ÷ +

+ ÷ ÷ ÷


+ + ÷ ÷ + ÷


÷ + ÷
\ .
(30)
Now using equations (28) and (30) for getting first approximate solution by OHAM for 1 p = , we have
17
1 0 1 1
( , ) ( ) ( , ) ( ) V z C V z V z C O z = + +
.(31)
Using the OHAM technique of section 2 on [0,1] we use the residual
(8) 3
( ) ( ) (48 15 )
z
R V z zV z z z e = + + + + .(32)
The following value of
1
C is obtained
1
0.9999597600559361 C = ÷
Using this value the approximate solution is
3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 6 11 7 12
8 13 9 14 10 15 16
1 1
0.499999 0.125 0.00694443 0.00119043
3 30
( ) 0.000173604 0.0000220671 2.48006 10 2.47222 10
2.29635 10 2.18971 10 1.49114 10 ( )
z z z z z z z
V z z z z z
z z z o z
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
 
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷


= ÷ ÷ × ÷ × ÷


× ÷ × ÷ × +


\ .
(33)
The following table displays values of OHAM solution,exact solution and error.
Value of z Exact solution OHAM solution Error
0 0 0 0
0.1 0.0994654 0.0994653 4.92 E11
0.2 0.195424 0.195424 9.36 E11
0.3 0.28347 0.28247 1.29 E10
0.4 0.358038 0.358038 1.52 E10
0.5 0.41218 0.41218 1.60 E10
0.6 0.437309 0.437308 1.52 E10
0.7 0.422888 0.422888 1.30 E10
0.8 0.356087 0.356086 9.42 E11
0.9 0.221364 0.221384 4.95 E10
1.0 0
1.96115
12
10
÷
×
1.96 E15
Table 2
From table 2 we conclude that the exact and OHAM solutions are in best agreement .
Figure 2
From figure 2 we investigate that the graphs of the OHAM and exact solutions are coincident. The
dotted curve is the graph of OHAM solution where the solid curve represents exact solution.
Example 3
For [0,1] z e we consider the following linear differential equation of eighth order.
(8)
(0) 0, (1) 0, (0) 1, (1) , (0) 0, (1) 4 ,
( ) ( ) (48 16 ) 0,
(0) 3, (1) 9
z
V V V V e V V e
V z V z z e
V V e
' ' '' '' = = = = ÷ = = ÷  
÷ + + =

''' ''' = ÷ = ÷
\ .
(34)
The exact solution is
( ) (1 )
z
V z z z e = ÷ .(35)
Applying the method of section 2, the Zeroth order problem is
( )
(8)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
( ) 0, (0) 0, (1) 0, (0) 1, (1) , (0) 0, (1) 4 , (0) 3, (1) 9 V z V V V V e V V e V V e
' ' '' '' ''' '''
= = = = = ÷ = = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
(36)
Its solution is
( )
3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7
0
1
( ) 2 36 13 84 31 68 25 19 7
2
V z z z z z e z z e z z e z z e = ÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ + + ÷ .(37)
First order problem is
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
( )
(8) 2 (8)
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 2 0 1 2 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
( , ) 48 16 48 16 ( ) ( ) (1 ) ( ),
(0) 0, (1) 0, (0) 0, (1) 0, (0) 0, (1) 0, (0) 0, (1) 0
z z z z
V z C e C e z C e z C e z C C V z z C V z C z C V z
V V V V V V V V
= + + + ÷ ÷ + + +
' '' '' ''' '''
' = = = = = = = =
(38)
Its solution is
1
2 3
4 4 5
5 6
1 1 2
[581188608000 581188608000 464950886400
116237721600 174356582400 38745907200
31539168490480 11604399193870 73462240172496
27025270227018 60191767016976
1
( , , )
7264857600
z
z
C e z
ze z z
z z e z
z e z
V z C C
÷ + +
+ + ÷
+ + ÷
÷ +
=
6
7 7 9 11 12
12 13 13 14 14 15 15
2
22143285900150
17009453367988 6257463988754 20020 546 6552
2366 5880 2170 2040 750 266 98 ]
[ 5579410636800 5579410636800 4068320256000
1511090380800 139
z
z
z e
z z e z z z
z e z z e z z e z z e
C e z
ze
+
÷ ÷ + +
÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ +
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷
2
2 3 4
4 5 5
6 6 7
7 10
4852659200
116237721600 290594304000 291756681204065
107345535904355 681385523972748 250666646654130
559103440831698 205682648399704 158141420204012
58176979672610 4004
z
z
z e z z
z e z z e
z z e z
z e z
+
÷ + ÷
÷ + +
÷ ÷ +
÷ +
12 13 13
14 14 15 15 16 16
182 2520 910
2520 930 952 350 133 49 ]
z z z e
z z e z z e z z e
 


















+ ÷ ÷


+ + ÷ ÷ +
\ .
(39)
Making use of equations (37),(39) and extending the problem up to second order, the
approximatesolutionby OHAM for 1 p = is
1 2 0 1 1 2 2 1 2
( , , ) ( ) ( , , ) ( , , ) (26) V z C C V z V z C C V z C C o = + + +
. (40)
Using the proposed method of section 2 onS[0,1] we use the residual
(8)
( ) ( ) (48 16 )
z
R V z V z z e = ÷ + + .(41)
The following values of
1
C and
2
C are obtained
1
0.9989388440694796 C = ÷ ,
2
0.001171571068830345 C = ÷
Using the above values the approximate solution is
3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 6 11 7 12
8 13 9 14 10 15 16
( ) 0.5 0.333333 0.125 0.0333333 0.00694445 0.00119047
0.000173611 0.0000220459 2.48016 10 2.5052 10
2.29645 10 1.92681 10 1.49216 10 ( )
V z z z z z z z z
z z z z
z z z o z
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ × ÷ × ÷
× ÷ × ÷ × +
(42)
The following table displays values of OHAM, exact solutions and their errors.
value of z Exact solution OHAM solution Error
0 0 0 0
0.1 0.0994654 0.0994654 3.96 E17
0.2 0.195424 0.195424 3.83 E16
0.3 0.28347 0.28347 1.10 E15
0.4 0.358038 0.358038 1.81 E15
0.5 0.41218 0.41218 2.03 E15
0.6 0.437309 0.437309 1.62 E15
0.7 0.422888 0.422888 8.37 E16
0.8 0.356087 0.356087 2.96 E16
0.9 0.221364 0.221364 1.50 E15
1.0 0
1.03539
11
10
÷
×
1.03 E13
Table 3
From table 3 we investigate that OHAM and exact solutions approximately reveal the same results.
Figure 3
In this work, we have used OHAM to find the approximate analytic solution for higher order
multipointBoundary value problems in the given finite domain. It is investigated that the technique is
explicit, reliable and easy to use. It gives us simple way to adjust the convergence of the series solution
by using theauxiliary constants.
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