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Statistics is a mathematical science dealing with the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It provides a more accurate way of expressing data rather than mere observation. This experiment used the different statistical concepts such as the Q test, mean, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, range, relative range, and confidence limits or confidence intervals. The results generated from these tests are used as a basis to check whether the values obtained from weighing 10, 25 centavo coins using an analytical balance and which were grouped into two data sets, are acceptable or not. It can be seen that when the statistical concepts were applied to data set 1 and data set 2, the resulting values obtained do not greatly vary. However, it can’t be proven that the results do not differ significantly since there was no test performed to check this.

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**Institute of Biology, College of Science University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
**

Date Submitted: April 23, 2013

ABSTRACT

Statistics is a mathematical science dealing with the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It provides a more accurate way of expressing data rather than mere observation. This experiment used the different statistical concepts such as the Q test, mean, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, range, relative range, and confidence limits or confidence intervals. The results generated from these tests are used as a basis to check whether the values obtained from weighing 10, 25 centavo coins using an analytical balance and which were grouped into two data sets, are acceptable or not. It can be seen that when the statistical concepts were applied to data set 1 and data set 2, the resulting values obtained do not greatly vary. However, it can’t be proven that the results do not differ significantly since there was no test performed to check this.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Different weights were obtained from the 10- 25 centavo coins using the analytical balance. Each weight is considered as a single sample. The samples were grouped into two data sets. The first dataset contains six samples while the second data set contains 10 samples. The table below shows the two data sets with their corresponding samples. Table 1. Weight of samples grouped into two sets DATA SET 1 (g) 3.5348 3.556 3.5806 3.5902 3.6113 3.6484 DATA SET 2 (g) 3.5348 3.556 3.5875 3.5806 3.5851 3.5875 3.5902 3.6113 3.624

3.6484

The Q test was performed for each of the data sets. Other statistical parameters were also calculated. When one or more of the measured values obtained within a set is/are different from the rest, the Q test can be used to check if the suspected value or values should be retained or rejected (chem.uoa.gr). However this is only used for a small number of samples or replicates in a given set. Hence, this test is used in this experiment. Furthermore, the Q test is an example of a significance test. The outcome of this test is the acceptance or the rejection of the null hypothesis. For the purpose of this paper, the null hypothesis would be that, there is no significant difference between the suspected value or values from that of the rest of the values obtained. Equation 1 shows how Qexp was obtained where Xq is the suspected value, Xn is the value closest to the suspected value, and R is the range. Equation 1. Q test formula

standard deviation. random errors are errors that are due to unknown or unpredictable changes in the experiment (physics.04024 g 11. other statistical parameters were also calculated.5348 g H: 3. the mean value for dataset 1 and 2 are 3. Mean formula When Qtab<Qexp. there is no compelling evidence for this since the BSP website does not have any information as to when the coins weighing 3. relative standard deviation. These errors are beyond the control of the person taking the measurement. Obtained Qexp versus Qtab Data Set 1 2 Suspect Values H: 3. One possible reason that can account for the difference in weight between the weight values obtained from the experiment from that obtained from the BSP website.6484 g L: 3. the mean is defined as the sum of the values of the samples in a dataset divided by the number of samples in the dataset.466 0.org).0355 g 9..1136 g 31. “a measure of central tendency is a summary measure that attempts to describe a whole set of data with a single value that represents the middle or center of its distribution”.5869 ± 0.Q exp Xq Xn R Equation 2..ph). The mean is one of the three parameters under measures of central tendency. two mean values were obtained from the two datasets in the experiment. This also means that there is no significant difference between the suspected values from that of the rest of the values obtained. These include the mean.6484 g L: 3.625 0. relative range. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. On the other hand. However when Qtab>Qexp. (RSD) Range (R) Relative Range (RR) Confidence Limit (CL) Data Set 1 3.5879g. the standard deviation can be defined as the precision in a series of repetitive measurements around . systematic errors are errors that usually come from the instruments used in taking the measurement (citycollegiate. It could be that BSP created the coins used in the experiment in a different year and with a different per cent material composition thus it weighed less than that of the current and official weight of the 25 centavo coin.5879 g 0.5869g and 3.1866 Conclusion ACCEPT ACCEPT ACCEPT ACCEPT X X i 1 n i n X 1 X 2 X 3 . range.com).edu).S.67 ppt 3.466 Qexp 0. Table 3. the calculated Qexp value is accepted.umd. in this experiment. The official weight indicated in the BSP website is 3. respectively. (s) R.3266 0. and confidence limits (at 95% confidence level) The first of these other parameters being tested is the mean. is the year that the coins were manufactured and the percent material composition of the 25 centavo coin. By this. The second and third parameters are the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation.8 grams (bsp.02876 g Data Set 2 3.5348 g Qtab 0. Equation 2 shows how the mean is calculated.22 ppt 0. As mentioned.D. However.1136 g 31. As indicated in the table above.350 ppt 0.02398 g To discuss further.66 ppt 3.625 0. These two statistical parameters are under the measures of precision. these values are accepted. the calculated Qexp value is rejected. X n n As shown in table 3. the weight obtained from the experiment is less than that of the weight presented in the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) website.5879 ± 0.gov. Precision refers to how close the results obtained from the samples are to each other (fao. Furthermore. any discrepancies or differences are due to purely random and not systematic errors. When compared to the current and official weight of the 25 centavo coin.D. The results shown in the table below shows that the calculated Qexp values are less than their corresponding Qtab values at 95% confidence level. By this definition.8g were made or if it has a different per cent material composition from the previous coins manufactured. The values obtained for each parameter tested for the two data sets in this experiment Parameter Mean (x ˉ) S. Hence.1866 0.5869 g 0. Table 2.2148 0.

For the purpose of this paper. Equation 5 and 6 shows how the range and relative range are calculated.eu). the results are close to each other.chem. The range is easy and useful.04024g and 0. Confidence X ts n When the results of the parameters tested for dataset 1 and data set 2 are compared with each other. to easily compare the uncertainty between different measurements of varying absolute magnitude. Easton and McColl said that.edu).0355g.vt. Furthermore. Equation 4. Like the standard deviation and relative standard deviation. Equation 3 shows how standard deviation is calculated. Equation 7. Since standard deviation refers to how close the values of the sample in a data set are around the mean. A very wide interval may indicate that more data should be collected before anything very definite can be said about the parameter”. Hence. “the width of the confidence interval gives some idea about the uncertainty of the unknown parameter. The fourth and fifth parameters are the range and relative range. the resulting values obtained were close to the mean. However. R X highest X lowest Equation 6. relative range. Equation 7 shows how confidence limits or confidence intervals are calculated. the confidence interval is defined as the estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter (Easton and McColl). On the other hand. only the resulting values for the standard deviations of datasets 1 and 2. Equation 5. a high standard deviation value means that the value of each sample in a data set are widely scattered. From the results obtained from the Q-test up to the confidence limits or confidence intervals. while a low standard deviation value means that the value of each sample in a data set are close to the mean (fgse.the mean (files. just like relative standard deviation. Range formula Relative standard deviation on the other hand is used for convenience since large numerical values of the samples in a data set generate a large standard deviation value (fao.org). respectively.nova. relative standard deviation is used. standard deviation is the square root of variance. Standard deviation formula highest and lowest sample values in a data set and is the simplest measure of spread (Statistics. the mean) in a given set to the true value (eqavet. When the standard deviation value was applied to each value of a sample in the two data sets of the experiment. however its use is limited.edu). two standard deviation and relative standard deviation values for datasets 1 and 2 were obtained (refer to table 3). Relative standard deviation formula. the results from dataset 1 and 2 do not greatly vary. Equation 4 shows how relative standard deviation is calculated. Hence. It is expressed as parts per thousand. Confidence limits or confidence interval formula. Accuracy refers to the closeness of the values obtained (in most cases. which are 0. these two are under the measures of precision. there are no deviant values of the individual values of the samples of each data set. Furthermore. Relative range formula RR R x1000 ppt X Similar to the mean.laerd. The range is just the difference between the The last parameter is the confidence intervals or confidence limits. it can be seen that. By this. REFERENCES . is expressed in relative terms.com). Equation 3. It is under the measures of accuracy. the above statement is just based on observation since there is no test performed to check whether the resulting values from the test parameters obtained from dataset 1 and 2 differ or do not differ significantly with each other. will be interpreted since the standard deviation values generated are not that large.

com.gov. City Collegiate.files. fgse. Stats.Confidence Interval.Physics University of Maryland. Web 22 April Accuracy of Measurement.gov.ac. abs.au.laerd.Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. 21 April 2013 Easton. The Chemistry Hypermedia Project. Chem. J. Eqavet. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Web. Web. Web 22 April 2013 .J. 22 April 2013 Dixon's Q-test: Detection of a single outlier.org. Web.citycollegiate.uk.com. Web. and McColl. 6 Basic Statistical Tools. bsp. Statistics. 22 April 2013 Random vs Systematic Error.nova. Statistics Glossary.edu.H. gr. Nova Southeastern University.eqavet. umdphysics.edu. Web 21 April 2013 Measures of Spread.umd. Web. Web. V.chem. Web. uoa. 21 April 2013 The Standard Deviation and the Normal Curve.ph. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 21 April 2013 Measures of Precision. Web 22 April 2013 Measures of Central Tendency. 22 April 2013 Introduction to Fundamental Concepts of Chemistry.gla. University of Athens Department of Chemistry. 22 April 2013 Coin design and production. fao.edu.eu. Laerd Statistics.vt.

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