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Vjetroelektrane

Elektrane FER 2009.

Elektrane

Energija vjetra – kinetička energija
Vjetar je masa zraka u pokretu: • uzrokuje ga razlika tlakova (rezultat razlike temperatura) • posljedica sunčeve energije (1 do 2 %) • značajan utjecaj rotacije Zemlje i konfiguracije tla •globalni i lokalni uvjeti

2008.

Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra

Energijske tehnologije 2

Prvi vjetroagregati - Europa i SAD (kraj 19. st.)

Novi početak – California 1985.
Boone, NC 2 MW Mod-1

SAD Charles Bush 1890

Altamonte Pass 4000 x 40 kW

Danska - La Cour’s testni vjetroagregat 1897

Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra

Energijske tehnologije 3

29. dubina vode 15 m 41x1 MW Mitsubishi MWT-1000A.5 m lopatice. 55 m stup. Combine Hills projekt u NE Oregon http://www.3 MW Bonus (Siemens) VA visina stupa 61 m.dk/windfarm/ Energijske tehnologije 4 .Danas – energija vjetra dio rješenja 10 x 2.samsohavvind.

Porast instalirane snage u vjetroelektranama u svijetu Energijske tehnologije 5 .

Instalirana godišnja snaga u vjetroelektranama po regijama Energijske tehnologije 6 .

862 MW 104.2% Energijske tehnologije 7 .754 MW 12.241 MW 3.736 MW 3.8% 19.645 MW 3.180 MW 2.8% 13.6% 2.9% 10.0% 3.903 MW 16.7% 2.4% 86.Instalirana snaga vjetroelektrana u 10 vodećih zemalja (kraj 2008) Country US Germany Spain China India Italy France UK Denmark Portugal Total top 10 MW Capacity 25.1% 8.404 MW 3.1% 2.170 MW 23.8% 2.104 MW % of Global Capacity 20.210 MW 9.

HEP 2008 Energijske tehnologije 8 .Vjetroelektrane • Najznačajniji obnovljivi izvor • Značajan udjel u instaliranim kapacitetima • Vjetroparkovi/vjetrofarme imaju neka od obilježja klasičnih elektrana • Jedini obnovljivi izvor koji ćemo razmatrati • Zbog načina proizvodnje električne energije u vjetroturbinama ove elektrane imaju i neke specifičnosti • Zanima nas i način rada na mreži i uvjeti za priključivanje vjetroelektrana • Dodatni tehnički uvjeti za priključak i pogon VE na prijenosnoj mreži.

brzina i vrijeme: m=ρAvt m ⋅ v2 Ek = 2 Ek = ρ ⋅ A ⋅ v3 2 • snaga vjetra: – derivacija energije po vremenu.3 kPa i 15 °C) – moguće je koristiti standardnu gustoću uz v korekciju faktorom odstupanja (prosjeka) stvarnog tlaka i temperature: p – unutar uobičajenih promjena temperature cH = 101. tlaku i vlažnosti – za standardne uvjete na moru ρ=1.225 kg/m3 (101. Energija vjetra cT = 288. dE/dt: ⋅t • gustoća zraka: Pvjetra = ρ ⋅ A ⋅ v3 2 – ovisi o temperaturi. površina kroz koju struji.3 i tlaka gustoća varira do 10% A d=vt • brzina zraka: – raste s visinom i vrlo promjenjiva 2008.Energija i snaga vjetra • energija mase zraka je kinetička: – masu zraka određuje gustoća.1 T Energijske tehnologije 9 .

Continuity Energijske 10 tehnologije .

Energija vjetra Energijske 11 tehnologije .3% .Betz=16/27=59. cp ima maksimalnu vrijednost cp.max : cp.Teorijski iskoristiva snaga vjetra Iskorištena snaga ovisi o brzini kojom vjetar dolazi (v) i brzini kojom odlazi (w): – posebno odvajamo masu jer ovisi o prosjeku brzina: – neka omjer brzina w/v bude x v w P= cp ρ ⋅ A (v + w) 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ v 2 − w2 ( ) P= P= ρ⋅A 2 ⋅ v3 ⋅ (1 + x) ⋅ 1− x2 2 ( ) ρ⋅A 2 cp = (1 + x) ⋅ 1− x2 2 ( ) ⋅ v3 ⋅ c p – za x= w/v=1/3 .stvarni stupanj djelovanja je uvijek manji od maksimalnog x 2008.

4 m/s (16 km/h) • Jednostavan model preko koeficijenta terena α: – mirna voda i glatko i tvrdo tlo: α=0. (B. 4.4 2.28 4.1 Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 12 tehnologije .16 3.2 α=0. temperaturi i tlaku – važno za procjenu brzine na raznim visinama jer određuje snagu i naprezanje VA Varijacija brzine vjetra [m/s] s visinom [m] ovisno o dobu dana i godišnjem dobu (siječanj – crno i srpanj – crveno).Brzina vjetra u ovisnosti o visini • Brzina se vjetra povećava s visinom – to ovisi o konfiguraciji tla. α 150 30 1.40 450 α=0.4 m/s ⎛ H ⎞ vH = v0 ⎜ ⎜H ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 0⎠ 2008.25 – grad sa velikim zgradama α=0.4 m/s Visina [m] 300 α=0.10 – visoka trava α=0.4 4. Sørensen: Renewable Energy).15 – šumovito α=0.

vertical axis wind turbines VAWT) • Jednu vjetroturbinu zovemo i vjetroagregat (VA) • Grupe vjetroturbina na jednoj lokaciji označavamo pojmom vjetrofarma ili vjetropark • Ovisno o priključku jedan ili više vjetroparkova označavamo kao vjetroelektranu (VE) Energijske 13 tehnologije .Tipovi vjetroturbina • Klasične vjetrenjače (nisu od interesa za proizvodnju električne energije) • Vjetroturbine s horizontalnom i vjetroturbine s vertikalnom osovinom (horizontal axis wind turbines – HAWT.

the only vertical axis machine with any commercial success • Wind hitting the vertical blades.Vertical Axis Wind Turbines • Darrieus rotor . called aerofoils. generates lift to create rotation • No yaw (rotation about vertical axis) • • control needed to keep them facing into the wind Heavy machinery in the nacelle is located on the ground Blades are closer to ground where windspeeds are lower Energijske 14 tehnologije .

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines • “Downwind” HAWT – a turbine with the blades behind (downwind from) the tower • No yaw control needed. the wind it encounters is briefly reduced and the blade flexes Energijske 15 tehnologije .they naturally orient themselves in line with the wind • Shadowing effect – when a blade swings behind the tower.

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines • “Upwind” HAWT – blades are in front of (upwind of) the tower • Most modern wind turbines are this type • Blades are “upwind” of the tower • Require somewhat complex yaw control to keep them facing into the wind • Operate more smoothly and deliver more power Energijske 16 tehnologije .

the turbulence caused by one blade impacts the other blades • Most modern wind turbines have two or three blades Energijske 17 tehnologije .as the speed increases.Number of Rotating Blades • Windmills have multiple blades – need to provide high starting torque to overcome weight of the pumping rod – must be able to operate at low windspeeds to provide nearly continuous water pumping – a larger area of the rotor faces the wind • Turbines with many blades operate at much lower rotational speeds .

brzinu vjetra v = 12 m/s.225 kg/m3. Snaga vjetroagregata Odrediti specifičnu i ukupnu električnu snagu vjetroagregata (VA) uz: gust.8 Rješenje: p = 0. odrediti P i p uz v= 9 m/s.: P9m/s= 280 kW. p9m/s= 143 W/m2 p9m/s.Zadatak 1.14/4 = 339 ⋅ 1963 = 665 [kW] Za vježbu: 1.4 ⋅ 1058 = 339 [W/m2] A = r2 ⋅ π = D2⋅π/4 [m2] P = p ⋅ A = 339 ⋅ 502 ⋅ 3. 2. Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 18 tehnologije .max= 265 W/m2 p12m/s.5 ⋅ 1.max= 520 kW.4 ⋅ 0.max= 628 W/m2 P9m/s. promjer lopatica D = 50 m. zraka ρ = 1.5⋅ρ⋅A⋅v3 [W] p = P/A = η ⋅ cp⋅0. P12m/s.max= 1232 kW.225 ⋅ 123 = 0. djelovanja η = 0. p P = η ⋅ cp⋅ 0.4 el. meh. odrediti maksimalnu snagu uz iste brzine (η=1 i cp=cpBetz) Rj. stup.8⋅0.5⋅ρ⋅v3 [W/m2] 2008. efikasnost cp = 0.8 ⋅ 0. P.

5⋅ρ⋅A⋅v3 [W] – uobičajeno je prikazivati cp u ovisnosti o tzv. Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 19 tehnologije . omjeru brzine vrha lopatice prema brzini vjetra (λ) – promjena cpe u ovisnosti o brzini okretanja rotora za različite brzine vjetra pokazuje pomicanje optimuma 2008.Snaga vjetroagregata za razne brzine Utjecaj brzine vjetra na snagu odražava cp: – cp =ηvjetrenjače⋅cp.Betz) ovisi o aerodinamici lopatica: brzina i položaj – često se uzima ukupna vrijednost koja u sebi sadrži i stupnjeve djelovanja mehaničke i električne pretvorbe: cpe =ηe⋅cp P = cpe⋅ 0.

Efficiency of power production Energijske 20 tehnologije .

the rotor spills high-speed winds and low-speed winds are too slow to overcome losses • Depends on rotor. gearbox. controls. generator.Estimates of Wind Turbine Energy • Not all of the power in the wind is retained . tower. and the wind P W Power in the Wind CP Rotor • Overall conversion efficiency (Cp·ηg) is around 30% Energijske 21 tehnologije Power Extracted by Blades PB ηg Gearbox & Generator Power to Electricity PE . terrain.

Tip-Speed Ratio (TSR) • Efficiency is a function of how fast the rotor turns • Tip-Speed Ratio (TSR) is the speed of the outer tip of the blade divided by windspeed Rotor tip speed rpm × π D Tip-Speed-Ratio (TSR) = = Wind speed 60v • D = rotor diameter (m) • v = upwind undisturbed windspeed (m/s) • rpm = rotor speed. (revolutions/min) Energijske 22 tehnologije .

Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 23 tehnologije .Koeficijent cp ovisi o izvedbi vjetroagregata Moderni VA sa tri lopatice 5/29/20092008.

3. 1. 4. 2. 2 4 va vb startna brzina efikasnost se mijenja maksimalna snaga generatora maksimalna brzina brzina vjetra Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 24 tehnologije .Električna snaga vjetroagregata Snaga vjetra proporcionalna je : • gustoći zraka • trećoj potenciji brzine vjetra Dobivena snaga iz vjetra određena je brzinom vjetra i karakteristikom vjetroagregata: el. snaga 3 Pb Pa 1 2008.

Energijske 25 tehnologije .

Ovisnost snage VA o brzini vjetra
• Svaki VA ima karakteristiku snage u ovisnosti o brzini vjetra • Karakteristika snage ovisi o tehničkoj izvedbi
– pasivna samoregulacija (stall) – aktivna regulacija (pitch)

2008.

Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra

Energijske 26 tehnologije

Wind Turbine as Electricity Generator

Energijske 27 tehnologije

Zadatak 2. Snaga vjetroagregata
Odrediti električnu snagu vjetroagregata (VA) za šest točaka iz krivulje snage:
nazivna snaga Pn = 2 MW brzina vjetra: 3, 10, 12, 15, 20 i 30 m/s postotak nazivne snage: 0, 50, 80, 100, 100 i 0 %

Rješenje: P3 = 0 ⋅ 2 = 0 P10 = 0,5 ⋅ 2 = 1,0 MW P12 = 0,8 ⋅ 2 = 1,6 MW P15 = 1 ⋅ 2 = 2,0 MW P20 = 1 ⋅ 2 = 2,0 MW P30 = 0 ⋅ 2 = 0

Pi Pi = ci.pns⋅ Pn

2008.

Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra

Energijske 28 tehnologije

od: • tla.): • more • padine planina Doprinos varijabilnosti Turbulencije.Spektar varijabilnost vjetra u vremenu Dnevno (često uzrokovano temp. 2008. prepreka • olujnih fronti Veliki vremenski sistemi • visoki/niski tlačni sistemi • sezonske varijacije “spektralni prekid” god. mjesec dan sat minuta sekunda Vremenska skala Energijske 29 tehnologije Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra .

Varijabilnost vjetra u prostoru Kratkotrajne varijacije brzine vjetra na dvije lokacije mogu biti korisne za smanjivanje ukupne varijabilnosti proizvedene energije. Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 30 tehnologije . Primjer za dvije lokacije udaljene 90 m: brzina [m/s] meteorologija ~ 100 km topografija vrsta tla ~ 1 km prepreke << 1 km ~ 10 km vrijeme [s] 2008.

How it Works – Pitch Control Power Output Windspeed Distribution Energy Output 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 m/s Energijske 31 tehnologije .

smjer i temperatura) mjerenja koreliranje s drugim lokacijama gdje je duže mjereno 2008.Kako dobiti statistiku vjetra za lokaciju? Problem: Rješenje: koreliranje (tlo. Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra . prepreke) podaci s ostalih lokacija ostale lokacije ne odgovaraju Korelacioni atlas vjetra dva pristupa “Predviđanje koreliranjem mjerenja” Energijske 32 tehnologije lokalna mjerenja kratko vrijeme (brzina.

.Utjecaj VE u EE sistemu velika varijabilnost mala predvidljivost može se dijelom smanjiti uključivanjem VE na širokom području korištenje poboljšanih metoda predviđanja vremena (= vjetra) korištenje modernih VE s kontrolom nagiba lopatica i varijabilnom brzinom Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 33 tehnologije upravljivost 2008.

Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 34 tehnologije .Tehnologija: veličine male 1 ~ 100 kW srednje i velike 100 ~ 1500 kW (pučina ) > 1500 kW Daleka izolirana mjesta Raznolikost rješenja Na mreži Samostalne i u grupi 1000 kW posve komercijalne (velike serije) Na pučini (stotine MW) Razvija se Mikro Vrlo male Male Srednje Velike 1 10 100 750 [kW] 2008.

Tehnologija: osnovne komponente Lopatice rotora pozicioniranje (prijenos) generator kontrola kućište toranj HAWT temelji 2008. Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energija vjetra Energijske 35 tehnologije .

Different Wind Turbine Concepts Energijske 36 tehnologije .

Current situation Energijske 37 tehnologije .

no clear winner in the competition of concepts • 3-bladed turbines are the favourite solution • both fixed and variable speed machines. but majority uses glass fibre and epoxy resin Energijske 38 tehnologije .Current situation • at present. but more larger machines with pitch or active stall control • both gear box and direct drive • both glass fibre and wooden (composite) blades. but more new large designs chose variable speed • both stall and pitch controlled.

Fixed speed stall-controlled turbine Energijske 39 tehnologije .

Variable speed pitch-controlled turbine Energijske 40 tehnologije .

converter & transformer Energijske 41 tehnologije Blades 23% Electric & control system 19% .Anatomy of a Wind Turbine Hub 9% Gearbox 20% € Tower 16% Nacelle & yaw system 13% Blades Generator Gearbox Hub Yaw system Tower Control system.

6-107 Multibrid M5000 REpower 5M + Bard VM Tower Energijske 42 tehnologije .Anatomy of a Wind Turbine Nacelle 70T Rotor Mass Tower 200T Nacelle Rotor 40T Vestas V90-3MW 110T 220T 310T 440T Siemens SWT3.

Energijske 43 tehnologije .

Lift and Drag Forces Energijske 44 tehnologije .

How Rotor Blades Extract Energy from the Wind • Air is moving towards the wind turbine blade from the wind but also from the relative blade motion • The blade is much faster at the tip than at the hub. so the blade is twisted to keep the angles correct Energijske 45 tehnologije .

and Drag • Increasing angle of attack increases lift. but it also increases drag • If the angle of attack is too great. “stall” occurs where turbulence destroys the lift Energijske 46 tehnologije . Lift.Angle of Attack.

wind speed and rotor speed Energijske 47 tehnologije .Aerodynamic Control of Wind Turbine • Stall: – fixed blade pitch – passive power control by stall effect – control parameter: wind speed • Pitch: – blade pitch activated by WT control – active power control – control parameter: power output.

Stall control – stand still Energijske 48 tehnologije .

Stall control – start. slow speed Energijske 49 tehnologije .

Stall control – power generation Energijske 50 tehnologije .

Stall control – power limitation Energijske 51 tehnologije .

Pitch control – stand still Energijske 52 tehnologije .

Pitch control – start of operation Energijske 53 tehnologije .

Pitch control – power generation Energijske 54 tehnologije .

Pitch control – power limitation Energijske 55 tehnologije .

Main parts of wind turbine Energijske 56 tehnologije .

Energijske 57 tehnologije .

Pitch cylinder 3. Oil cooler 5. Top Controller 7. Blade 13. Blade bearing 12.Nacelle Components 5 10 17 1. Main shaft 4. Yaw gears 17. Machine foundation 16. Transformer 10. Gearbox 6. Hub controller 2. Meteorological gauges Energijske 58 tehnologije . Blade Hub 16 12 12 11. Parking Break 8. Service crane 9. Hydraulic unit 15. Generator 18. Ultra-sonic sensors 19. Rotor lock system 14.

Direktni pogon: sinkroni generator Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energija vjetra Energijske 59 tehnologije .Lopatice. prijenos. generator i kontrola Indirektni pogon: asinkroni generator 2008.

promjer 2008. Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske 60 tehnologije .Trendovi • Jedinice od 2 MW i više sve važnije od 2002. • Poboljšana efikasnost – Odabir lokacije – Bolja oprema – Porast efikasnosti 2-3% godišnje • Stalni pad cijene investicija φ .

1.5 MW wind turbine in comparison to a Boeing 747. Jumbo-Jet Energijske 61 tehnologije .

Development of HAWT SPEED HEIGHT [M] n 20 17 13 5 – 15 3 – 10 rpm Energijske 62 tehnologije .

Increasing rotor dia .advantages Energijske 63 tehnologije .

disadvantages Energijske 64 tehnologije .Increasing rotor dia .

Physical development limits of wind energy Energijske 65 tehnologije .

Proizvođači vjetroturbina i veličine
• • • • • • • Vergnet: 5, 10, 15, 20, 60, 250kW AOC: 10, 50kW Enercon: 330, 800, 2000, 4500kW Vestas: 850, 1650, 2000, 3000, 4500kW Bonus: 1000, 1300, 2000kW GE-Wind: 1500, 2000, 3600kW Nordex: 1300, 1500, 2500, 2300kW

Energijske 66 tehnologije

Wind Turbine Generators
• A key difference between wind turbines and convention generators is maximum power can be extracted from the wind when the turbines spin at varying speeds
– Conventional generators are fixed speed, which is ideal for the use of synchronous generators

• Several different technologies are used for wind turbine generators
– Variable frequency synchronous generators – Squirrel cage induction generators – Doubly fed induction generators

• Mechanical power control of the turbine blades is a key design consideration (either stall or pitch control) • Another important point is possibility of generator related speed control
Energijske 67 tehnologije

Wind energy conversion

Energijske 68 tehnologije

(active) stall controlled) – Type B – wound rotor induction generator with variable rotor resistance – Type C – doubly-fed induction generator (Variable speed. pitch controlled) Type A Type B Type C Type D Energijske 69 tehnologije . pitch controlled) – Type D – full converter interface (Variable speed.Proposed Standard Models • Based on characteristics of grid interface – Type A – conventional induction generator (Constant speed.

Comparison of Wind Turbine Types Energijske 70 tehnologije .

Grid Interaction of Wind Turbine Types Energijske 71 tehnologije .

Synchronous Machines • Spin at a rotational speed determined by the number of poles and by the frequency • The magnetic field is created on their rotors • Create the magnetic field by running DC through windings around the core • A gear box is needed between the blades and the generator • 2 complications – need to provide DC. need to have slip rings on the rotor shaft and brushes Energijske 72 tehnologije .

Asynchronous Induction Machines • Do not turn at a fixed speed • Acts as a motor during start up as well as a generator • Do not require exciter. brushes. require less maintanence • Most wind turbines are induction machines Energijske 73 tehnologije . and slip rings • The magnetic field is created on the stator instead of the rotor • Less expensive.

an induction machine as a motor always spins somewhat slower than synchronous speed Energijske 74 tehnologije . there would be no relative motion.The Inductance Machine as a Motor • The rotating magnetic field in the stator causes the rotor to spin in the same direction • As rotor approaches synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field. the relative motion becomes less and less • If the rotor could move at synchronous speed. no current. and no force to keep the rotor going • Thus.

Slip • The difference in speed between the stator and the rotor NS − NR NR s= = 1− (6.28) NS NS • s = rotor slip – positive for a motor. negative • • • • for a generator 120 f NS = no-load synchronous speed (rpm) NS = p f = frequency (Hz) p = number of poles NR = rotor speed (rpm) Energijske 75 tehnologije .

Figure 6.rotor is forced to operate in the opposite direction to the stator field Energijske 76 tehnologije .The Induction Machine as a Motor Torque. slip increases • “Breakdown torque” increasing slip no longer satisfies the load and rotor stops • Braking. rotor slows down • When rotor slows down.slip curve for an induction motor.17 • As load on motor increases.

18. Single-phase. self-excited.The Induction Machine as a Generator • The stator requires excitation current – from the grid if it is grid-connected or – by incorporating external capacitors Figure 6. induction generator • Windspeed forces generator shaft to exceed synchronous speed Energijske 77 tehnologije .

The Induction Machine as a Generator • Slip is negative because the rotor spins faster than synchronous speed • Slip is normally less than 1% for grid-connected • Typical rotor speed N R = (1 − s ) N S = [1 − (−0.01)] ⋅ 3600 = 3636 rpm Energijske 78 tehnologije .

direct coupled to the grid Energijske 79 tehnologije .Wind turbine with Induction Generator.

Wind turbine with asynchronous generator Energijske 80 tehnologije .

Because there is no external connection between the rotor and stator they can be extremely reliable • Losses in a traditional induction motor vary according to the slip • Torque-speed curves can be determined by solving the circuit for different assumed slip values Induction Machine Circuit Model Energijske 81 tehnologije .Squirrel Cage Induction Generators • Squirrel cage induction motors are the most widely used type of motor.

Induction generator for wind turbines Energijske 82 tehnologije .

Torque diagram – grid connected Energijske 83 tehnologije .

Squirrel Cage Induction Generators • Synchronous speed can be changed discretely by changing the number of poles (2=3600 rpm. medium. 8=900 rpm. but are usually only used for low power applications – They also can place high torques on the mechanical systems if the rotor torque-speed curve has a steep slope Energijske 84 tehnologije . 4=1800 rpm. 6=1200 rpm. pole switching can be used to change the synchronous speed (similar to what is done with low. high for an induction motor fan) • Squirrel cage induction generators have the advantage of no slip rings. but have the disadvantage that once they are constructed the rotor resistance can not be changed – They are cheap to make.

Wound Rotor Induction Generators • Wound rotor machines avoid the need for fixed Rrotor by replacing the squirrel cage rotor with a wound rotor that includes external resistors. which communicates with the rotor whenever it rotates past. The value of the rotor resistance can then be changed dynamically – Usually the external resistors are located off of the rotor. Control communication is via an optical fiber attached to the stator. – Suzlon uses their Flexi-slip control system Energijske 85 tehnologije . including the control. requiring slip rings and brushes. – Opti Slip (Vestas) solves the problem of needing slip rings and brushes by mounting everything on the rotor.

gr/site1/Articles/V47_US.creswindfarm.pdf Energijske 86 tehnologije .OptiSlip Example: Vestas V47 By increasing the slip the generator can run slightly faster during a gust allowing time for the pitch mechanism to respond Source: www.

Double fed induction generator variable speed with pulse width modulated inverter Energijske 87 tehnologije .

Control of wind turbine with DFIG Energijske 88 tehnologije .

Double fed induction generator Energijske 89 tehnologije .

Wind turbine with inverter system in the main power circuit (variable speed) Energijske 90 tehnologije .

Wind turbine with inverter system in the main power circuit (variable speed) Energijske 91 tehnologije .

“Doubly Fed Induction Generator Systems. However.Variable Frequency (Pulse-modulated) Synchronous Generators • Traditional. M. May/June 2002.W. they require a power converter (ac-dc-ac) rated for the full generator output. but variable frequency synchronous machines can be used. Deicke. R. grid-connected synchronous machines do not work because they are fixed speed. Figure 4 Energijske 92 tehnologije . Muller. which is expensive. DeDoncker.” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. Source: S.

gearless system (8-24 rpm) Energijske 93 tehnologije .Variable Frequency Synchronous Generators • Usually permanent magnet (multi-pole) synchronous generators are used since they avoid the need for an excitation system – Power converter provides control • Either low speed (gearless) or high speed systems can be used – Mitsubishi MWT-S2000 (2MW) is an example of a low speed.

• Advantages include – wide range variable speed operation.Variable Frequency Synchronous Generators. cont. allowing higher annual production – The ability to store wind gusts as rotational energy (changing rotor speed) reducing mechanical stresses – Power converter provides reactive power control • Disadvantages include – Costs associated with the power converter since full generator output must go through the converter – Losses and harmonic distortion caused by the converter – Potential loss of rotating inertia as seen by the grid Energijske 94 tehnologije .

Advantages of Variable-Speed Turbines Energijske 95 tehnologije .

Advantages of Variable-Speed Turbines Energijske 96 tehnologije .

Variable-Speed Turbines Energijske 97 tehnologije .

Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Energijske 98 tehnologije .

Full-Power AC-AC Converter Drive Energijske 99 tehnologije .

Complete variable-speed turbine Energijske tehnologije 100 .

Vjetroelektrana (VE) Energijske tehnologije 101 .

Efekt sjene za jednu vjetroturbinu Energijske tehnologije 102 .

za manji (2x2) ili veći (10x10) broj VA u VE 2008. turbulencije • optimiranje pozicioniranja za snagu i trošenje (računalni programi za simulacije i mjerenje) • razmak u dominantnom smjeru od 4 do 9 promjera . Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energijske tehnologije 103 .gubitci od 5 do > 60%.Lokacije VE: efekt više VA u blizini reduciranje brzine Slabljenje vjetra turbine niz vjetar: • manje brzine: manje snage • veće turbulencije: više opterećenja • veći broj VA u VE povećava gubitke pov.

Wind Farms For closely spaced towers. efficiency of the entire array becomes worse as more wind turbines are added Figure 6.28 Energijske tehnologije 104 .

Shading effects in wind farms Energijske tehnologije 105 .

Wind Farms – Optimum Spacing Optimum spacing is estimated to be 3-5 rotor diameters between towers and 5-9 between rows Figure 6.29 3 D to 5D 5 D to 9D Energijske tehnologije 106 .

Shading intensity depends on: • • • • • Geometry Wind Direction Wind Speed Power Curve. Thrust Coefficient Curve Turbulence Intensity (depends on site and atmospheric stratification • Definition of Park Efficiency: Energijske tehnologije 107 .

Primjer razmještaja VA unutar vjetroparka Energijske tehnologije 108 .

Short circuit) and help restore the grid operation after the fault Energijske tehnologije 109 .g.Power Plant Functions • Power generation – Prime mover of conventional generation is controllable as opposed to the wind – Conventional generators are synchronous generators – Wind turbines use squirrel cage generators or variable speed generators with power electronic converters • • • • • Short term balancing Long term balancing Voltage control Fault current supply Ride-through capability: ability to operate through grid faults (e.

short term fluctuations even out Energijske tehnologije 110 . short term fluctuations are too small to effect system balance – With many wind turbines.Short term Balancing • Characteristics: – No storage capabilities – Power balance continuously required to stabilize frequency – Power plants maintain balance/frequency • Effects on short term balance normally limited: – With few wind turbines.

Long term Balancing • Effected by generation and load • Long term balancing complicated because: – Long term wind speed fluctuations can effect large regions – Remaining conventional generators face complicated demand pattern – Wind turbine availability depends on wind availability Energijske tehnologije 111 .

Voltage Control • Goal of grid voltage control • Keeping node voltages close to their nominal values in order to: – assure correct working of customer equipment – prevent equipment. from being damaged • Voltage control is necessary due to line impedances • Depends strongly on wind turbine type – Variable speed turbines can generate reactive power and contribute to voltage control if the converters are overdimensioned – Doubly fed induction generator: reactive power dependent on rotor current – Direct drive: reactive power dependent on converter grid current – In case of constant speed turbines extra equipment needed Energijske tehnologije 112 . both of the grid company and the customer.

Voltage Control Energijske tehnologije 113 .

faulted element is disconnected by switchgear • Switchgear must be able to interrupt fault current • Constant speed wind turbines supply fault current • Wind turbines with doubly fed induction generator are disconnected to protect the converter: no fault current • Wind turbines with direct drive generator are disconnected. but could feed nominal current into fault Energijske tehnologije 114 .Fault Current Supply • Power system protection protects equipment from damage caused by fault currents: • Current is monitored continuously • If large current is sensed.

Conclusions • Generators play important role in power system operation • Wind turbines differ much from conventional generators • This effects their capability to fulfill the functions of power plants • Exact capabilities vary between wind turbine types Energijske tehnologije 115 .

and perhaps dominant impact of grid operations • Wind power has impacts on power system operations ranging from that of transient stability (seconds) out to steady-state (power flow) • Local and global impact Energijske tehnologije 116 . so its impact of grid operations is small • But as wind power grows.Power Grid Integration of Wind Power • Currently wind power represents a minority of the generation in power system interconnects. in the not too distant future it will have a much larger.

.g. while excessive load decreases the system frequency • Generation shortfalls can suddenly occur because of the loss of a generator. a state) Energijske tehnologije 117 . utilities plan for this occurrence by maintaining sufficient reserves (generation that is on-line but not fully used) to account for the loss of the largest single generator in a region (e.Wind Power. Reserves and Regulation • A key constraint associated with power system operations is pretty much instantaneously the total power system generation must match the total load plus losses – Excessive generation increases the system frequency.

Reserves and Regulation.” • Because wind turbine output can vary with the cube of the wind speed. cont. under certain conditions a modest drop in the wind speed over a region could result in a major loss of generation – Lack of other fossil-fuel reserves could exacerbate the situation Energijske tehnologije 118 . • A fundamental issue associated with “free fuel” systems like wind is that operating with a reserve margin requires leaving free energy “on the table.Wind Power.

power flow is a nonlinear analysis technique – power flow is a steady-state analysis tool – it can be used as a tool for planning the location of new generation.Wind Power and the Power Flow • The most common power system analysis tool is the power flow (also known sometimes as the load flow) – power flow determines how the power flows in a network – also used to determine all bus voltages and all currents – because of constant power models. including wind Energijske tehnologije 119 .

& development of the system • Grid Codes description and purpose in this context • Operate a wind farm/wind turbine like a power station/plant Energijske tehnologije 120 .Grid codes and integration of wind energy • Grid Code: Technical document containing the rules governing the operation. maintenance.

to stay connected during low voltage on the grid – Ramp rate • Communication /power dispatch – Reliable communication – Wind forecasting – Participate power market Energijske tehnologije 121 . harmonics • Transient /dynamic state – Fault ride through. flicker.Grid codes and integration of wind energy • Steady state – – – – Frequency /Power control Low/high frequency support Voltage support/reactive power compensation Power Quality.

Grid Integration Levels • • • • Large network Micro grid Stand alone system The main questions for system integration – Penetration of wind energy in the grid (Share of energy produced by WTGs to the energy supply in a grid) – Diversity of the total power generation – Structure and pattern of load Energijske tehnologije 122 .

Integration of wind energy into power system • Integration into: • large networks – national or continental interconnected systems – grid connection is only a question of available grid capacity or grid reinforcement • small grids – separate isolated distribution systems not connected to large networks – grid integration is a matter of adapting the wind farm size to the capacity of the existing power generation and consumption • stand-alone systems – no connection to a grid – most difficult case: production has to meet consumption at any time on a small scale Energijske tehnologije 123 .

Large network integration • In the large networks up to now the penetration is below 5-6%. • In regions or local areas in Europe the penetration is above 50 % in average • Grid integration at this stage is of no problem – Due to the network extension power generation of wind energy is more steady – Large diversity of power generation – Power quality at point of common coupling is the main concern – In future control energy will be a matter of discussion Energijske tehnologije 124 .

Structure of large network Energijske tehnologije 125 .

Connection to different voltage levels of the electrical network Energijske tehnologije 126 .

Grid connection of a single WT Energijske tehnologije 127 .

Grid connection of a wind farm in ring configuration

Energijske tehnologije 128

Example of grid connection of a wind farm in radial configuration

Energijske tehnologije 129

Priključak na mrežu i višak vjetra
• Odbacivanje energije iz vjetroelektrana za snagu koja prelazi opterećenje minus bazna proizvodnja • Provodi se na nivou regionalne interkonekcije • Promjenjivo za sve periode
3000 2500 2000 MW 1500 1000 500 0 0
2008.

Krivulja trajanja opterećenja

1000 MW nazivni kapacitet vjetra 36% faktor opterećenja

Iskoristiva energija vjetra

Višak vjetra

Elektrane koje moraju raditi cijelo 2000 4000

Konstantno opterećenje

6000 sati

8000

10000
Energijske tehnologije 130

Energijske tehnologije: Energija vjetra Energija vjetra

• harmonics (Integer harmonics and interharmonics) Energijske tehnologije 131 . – The origin of the term is the effect of the voltage fluctuations on the brightness of incandescent lights and the subsequent annoyance to people. instantaneous) switching operations (current spike factor) flicker and voltage fluctuations – Voltage flicker describes dynamic variations in the network voltage which may be caused by wind turbines or by varying load.Power Quality and Wind Turbines • • • • power factor (reactive power) power variations (10min.1min.

Basic control of active and reactive power in a wind turbine (DFIG and PMG) Energijske tehnologije 132 .

Micro grid and stand-alone • In principle Micro grid and stand-alone are quite similar • The main question is the amount of renewable energy in a system. the penetration • An often economic viable solution for existing diesel supply is the extension to a wind-dieselsystem • The most simple systems for stand alone operation is the fuel saver Energijske tehnologije 133 .

if controllable turbines with grid supporting characteristics are installed and a common control for the diesel generators is possible • For higher penetration energy storage systems and load management strategies have to be implemented Energijske tehnologije 134 .Micro grid and stand-alone • Due to the limited grid extension and low diversity of power generation wind energy integration is more difficult • An integration of 10 to 15% wind energy share to installed capacity is unproblematic • Further wind energy share to installed capacity up to 30 or 40% is possible.

Wind-Diesel-System with short and medium term storage and control Energijske tehnologije 135 .