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Human Resource planning can be defined as a process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and

kinds of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives or in other words HRP can be defined as planning for the future personnel needs of an organization, taking into account both internal activities and factors in the external environment.

Need and Importance of HRP Human resource Planning translates the organization objectives and plans into the number of workers needed to meet these objectives. The need and importance of HRP is as follows:  HRP helps in determining the future manpower requirements and avoids problems like over staffing or understaffing in the organization. HRP helps in tackling with the factors like competition, technology, government policies etc. that generates changes in the job content, skill requirements and number and types of personnel required. Now a days there is a demand of exceptional intellectual skills while the existing staff becomes redundant, the HR manager has to attract and retain qualified and skilled personnel and also required to deal with issues like career development, succession planning for which he takes the help of HRP. A proper and realistic human resource plan is needed to ensure equal employment and promotional appointments to the candidates for weaker sections, physically handicapped and socially and politically oppressed citizens. HRP provides valuable and timely information for various designing and execution of personnel functions like recruitment, selection, transfers, promotions, layoffs, training and development and performance appraisal. It helps the organization to anticipate imbalance in human resources, which in turn will facilitate reduction in personal costs. HRP facilitates planning for future needs which will help in better planning of assignments to develop managers and to ensure the organization has a steady supply of experienced and skilled employees.

Factors affecting Human Resource Planning HRP is a dynamic and ongoing process. The process of updating is not very simple, since HRP is influenced by many factors, which are as follows: The type of organization determines the production process and number and type of staff needed.  Organization operates under different political, social environment and has to carefully formulate the HR policies and so the HR manager has to evolve suitable mechanism to deal with uncertainties

through career developments, succession planning, retirement schemes etc. The human resource needs of an organization depend on the strategic plan adopted by it. For e.g. the growth of a business calls for hiring of additional labor, while mergers will need a plan for layoffs.  The type and quality of information used in making forecasting is an important factor influencing HRP. Accurate and timely human resource information system helps in getting better quality personnel. HRP also depends on the time periods and accordingly the short and long-term plans are adopted. And this time span is based on the degree of environmental uncertainties. HRP is required to ensure that suitable candidates should be appointed at the right kind of job. So these are some of the factors that affect the human resource planning.

Limitations of Human Resource Planning  It is very difficult to ascertain future manpower requirements of an organization, as future is always uncertain. It is more relevant to the countries that face the problem of scarcity of human resources. It is a time consuming and costlier process. It is beneficial in the organizations that adopt a professional approach and at the same time are conscious about the changing environment. HRP is beneficial where adequate skilled manpower is available. . HRP is also made difficult in the organizations that have a very high labour turnover.

MBA Knowledge Base > Human Resource Management > Process of Human Resource Planning Process of Human Resource Planning Human resource planning is the responsibility of all managers. It focuses on the demand and supply of labour and involves the acquisition, development and departure of people. This is recognised as a vital HR function as the success of an organisation depends on its employees.

The purpose of HR planning is to ensure that a predetermined number of persons with the correct skills are available at a specified time in the future. Thus, HR planning systematically identifies what must be done to guarantee the availability of the human resources needed by an organisation to meet its strategic business objectives. To achieve this HR planning cannot be undertaken in isolation. It must be linked to the organisation‟s overall business strategy, and concentrate on the organisation‟s long-range human resource requirements.

Read More: Introduction to Human Resource Planning

Process of Human Resource Planning

1. Analysing the Corporate Level Strategies: – Human Resource Planning should start with analysing corporate level strategies which include expansion, diversification, mergers, acquisitions, reduction in operations, technology to be used, method of production etc. Therefore Human Resource Planning should begin with analysing the corporate plans of the organisation before setting out on fulfilling its tasks.

Demand forecasting: – Forecasting the overall human resource requirement in accordance with the organisational plans is one of the key aspects of demand forecasting. Forecasting of quality of human resources like skills. Participative Approach: – Here the supervisors and the management sit together and projections are made after joint consultations. make necessary adjustments and finalise them. They adopt one of the three approaches mentioned below: - Bottom-Up approach: – Here the concerned supervisors send their proposals to the top officials who compare these with the organisational plans. values and capabilities needed in addition to quantity of human resources is done through the following methods: - a. Top-Down approach: – Here the management prepares the requirements and sends the information downwards to the supervisory –level who finalises the draft and approves it.2. Executive or Managerial Judgement: – Here the managers decide the number of employees in the future. knowledge. .

Work Study method: – This technique is suitable to study the correlation between volume of work and labour i. demand for human resources is estimated based on the workload. c. Delphi Technique: – „Delphi‟ Technique is named after the Greek Oracle at the city of Delphi. In this method. marketing department and workload level. d. etc ratios for manpower are estimated. Past values are plotted and extrapolated to get fairly accurate future projections.Drawbacks The chief drawback of these methods is that estimation of manpower is made using guesswork. the views of different experts related to the industry are taken into consideration and then a consensus about the Human Resource requirement is arrived at. . sales department. Ratio-Trend analysis: – In this method depending on the past data regarding number of employees in each department. Work study method is more appropriate for repetitive and manual jobs when it is possible to measure work and set standards.e. b. like production department. Statistical Techniques: – These methods use statistical methods and mathematical techniques to forecast and predict the supply and demand of Human Resources in the future.

5. Estimating manpower gaps: – Manpower gaps can be identified by comparing demand and supply forecasts. Plans to meet the surplus manpower . 3. 4. Such comparison will reveal either deficit or surplus of Human Resources in the future. In order to judge the internal supply of human resources in future human resource inventory or human resource audit is necessary. Human resource inventory helps in determining and evaluating the quantity of internal human resources available. Analysing Human Resource Supply: – Every organisation has two sources of supply of Human Resources: Internal & External. human resources can be obtained for certain posts through promotions and transfers. Action Planning: – Once the manpower gaps are identified.Delphi technique is used primarily to assess long-term needs of human resource. supply of external human resources is analysed. whereas surplus implies redundant employees to be re-deployed or terminated. Internally. Deficit suggests the number of persons to be recruited from outside. Employees estimated to be deficient can be trained while employees with higher. Once the future internal supply is estimated. better skills may be given more enriched jobs. plans are prepared to bridge these gaps.

Modify the Organisational plans: – If future supply of human resources form all the external sources is estimated to be inadequate or less than the requirement. 7. selection. the organisation has to plan for retaining of existing employees. transfer and promotion. People may be persuaded to quit voluntarily through a golden handshake. human resource structure and the processes should be controlled and reviewed with a view to keep them in accordance with action plans. In view of shortage of certain skilled employees. 6. Hence. the manpower planner has to suggest to the management regarding the alterations or modifications in the organisational plans.may be redeployment in other departments and retrenchment. 8 processes of human resource planning Posted on February 8. Deficit can be met through recruitment. Controlling and Review: – After the action plans are implemented. the organisation has to take care not only of recruitment but also retention of existing employees. 2013 by shma .

It is only after Human Resource Planning that the Human Resource department can initiate the recruitment and selection process. Procurement of right kind and right number of employees is the first operative function of Human Resource Management.Chennly. Before selecting the right man for the right job. 2. It involves forecasting the manpower needs for a future period so that adequate and timely provisions may be made to meet the needs. 4. Both Qualitative and Quantitative aspect: – Human Resource Planning considers both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of Human Resource Management. improvement and preservation of an organisation’s human resource” – Y.C. This is the primary function of Human Resource Planning. Integral part of Corporate Planning: – Manpower planning is an integral part of corporate planning because without a corporate plan there can be no manpower planning. Definition “Human Resource Planning is a strategy for the acquisition. it becomes necessary to determine the quality and quantity of people required in the organisation. Moushell “Human Resource Planning is a process of forecasting an organisation’s future demand for human resource and supply of right type of people in right numbers” – J. Human Resource Planning has to be reviewed according to the needs of the organisation and changing environment. 5. „Quantitative‟ meaning . 3. It is future oriented: – Human Resource Planning is forward-looking. Optimum utilisation of resources: – The basic purpose of Human Resource Planning is to make optimum utilisation of organisation‟s current and future human resources. It is also called manpower planning/ personnel planning/ employment planning.K Features of Human Resource Planning 1. Therefore Human Resource Planning is a sub-system of organisational planning.Human Resource Management is very important for the survival and prosperity of an organisation. utilisation. It is a continuous process: – Human Resource Planning is a continuous process because the demand and supply of Human Resource keeps fluctuating throughout the year. Human Resource Planning Human Resource Planning is the planning of Human Resources.

7. Need for Human Resource Planning 1. Nonavailability of skilled people when and where they are needed is an important factor which prompts sound Human Resource Planning. To ensure optimum contribution and satisfaction of the personnel with reasonable expenditure. 4. 2. Frequent Labour Turnover: – Human Resource Planning is essential because of frequent labour turnover which is unavoidable by all means. To control cost of Human Resources employed. Human Resource Planning keeps long-term goals and short-term goals in view while predicting and forecasting the demand and supply of Human Resource. Just like planning which is long-term and short-term depending on the need of the hour. 5. Labour turnover arises because of discharges. marriages. 6. To ensure that the organisation is well-equipped with the required Quantity and Quality of manpower on a sustained basis. 2. used and maintained in the organisation. promotion. To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and resources. Shortage of Skills: – These days we find shortage of skills in people. To recruit and retain human resource of required Quantity and Quality. Involves study of manpower requirement: – Human Resource Planning involves the study of manpower availability and the manpower requirement in the organisation. To provide a basis for management development programmes. To reduce imbalance in distribution and allocation of manpower in organisation for various activities. Objectives of Human Resource Planning 1. 6.the right number of people and „Qualitative‟ implying the right quality of manpower required in the organisation. Long term and Short term: – Human Resource Planning is both Long-term and short-term in nature. 3. Optimum utilisation of human resources currently employed in the organisation. transfer etc which causes a constant ebb and flow in the workforce in the organisation. 7. . 8. So it is necessary to plan for such skilled people much in advance than when we actually need them.

or if there is a shortage new employees can be procured. If there is a surplus. Guidelines for making Human Resource Planning effective 1. Resistance by Employers: – Many employers resist Human Resource Planning as they think that it increases the cost of manpower for the management. seasonal unemployment. labour markets. Uncertainties: – Uncertainties are quite common in human resource practices in India due to absenteeism.3. It is the uncertainties that make Human Resource Planning less reliable. 2. Inadequacies in quality of information: – Reliable information about the economy. Changing needs of technology: – Due to changes in technology and new techniques of production. Problems with Human Resource Planning 1. employers feel that Human Resource Planning is not necessary as candidates will be available as and when required in the country due to the growing unemployment situation. it can be re-deployed. Resistance by Employees: – Employees resist Human Resource Planning as it increases the workload on the employees and prepares programmes for securing human resources mostly from outside. Further. 4. the uncertainties in the industrial scenario like technological changes and marketing conditions also cause imperfection in Human Resource Planning. existing employees need to be trained or new blood injected into an organisation. 4. 3. This leads to problems while planning for human resources in the organisation. labour turnover etc. . trends in human resources etc are not easily available. 5. Time and expense: – Human Resource Planning is a time-consuming and expensive exercise. So an adequate Human resource database should be maintained/developed for better coordinated and more accurate Human Resource Planning. A good deal of time and cost are involved in data collection and forecasting. other industries. Changes in organisation design and structure: – Due to changes in organisation structure and design we need to plan the required human resources right from the beginning. Further. 5. Adequate information system: – The main problem faced in Human Resource Planning is the lack of information. Identify areas of surplus or shortage of personnel: – Manpower planning is needed in order to identify areas with a surplus of personnel or areas in which there is a shortage of personnel.

Participation: – To be successful. Human Resource Planning should be balanced with corporate planning: – Human resource plans should be balanced with the corporate plans of the enterprise. They include:1. Adequate organisation: – Human Resource Planning should be properly organised. reduce resistance from the top management. The methods and techniques used should fit the objectives. Appropriate time horizon: – The period of manpower plans should be appropriate according to the needs and circumstances of the specific enterprise. Example: – Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided technology (CAT) also reduced the existing requirement of human resource. enterprise resource planning and Supply Chain Management. Factors affecting Human Resource Plans External factor: They are the factors which affect the Human Resource Planning externally. industrial policy. . 2.2. 4. The size and structure of the enterprise as well as the changing aspirations of the people should be taken into consideration. 5. 3. Human Resource Planning requires active participation and coordinated efforts on the part of operating executives. These changes brought unprecedented reduction in human resource and increase in software specialists. These shifts include business process reengineering. Level of economic development: – Level of economic development determines the level of human resource development in the country and thereby the supply of human resources in the future in the country. 3. Government policies: – Policies of the government like labour policy. a separate section or committee may be constituted within the human resource department to provide adequate focus and to coordinate the planning efforts at various levels. policy towards reserving certain jobs for different communities and sons-of-the-soil etc affect Human Resource Planning. strategies and environment of the particular organisation. Such participation will help to improve understanding of the process and thereby. Information Technology: – Information technology brought amazing shifts in the way business operates.

job analysis. determines the human resource demand in terms of Quantity and Quality 2. . Type and Quality of Information: – Any planning process needs qualitative and accurate information about the organisational structure. quality of working conditions etc. 5. compensation levels of employees etc. Company Strategies: – The organisation‟s policies and strategies relating to expansion. 3. Level of Technology: – Technology is the application of knowledge to practical tasks which lead to new inventions and discoveries. Human Resource policies: – Human Resource policies of the company regarding quality of human resources. Internal factors: 1. when there are many competitors entering business/ when there is rapid change in social and economic conditions of business/ if there is constant change in demand patterns/ when there exists poor management practice. compensation level. recruitment sources. Job analysis: – Job analysis means detailed study of the job including the skills needed for a particular job. Therefore. 6. then short term planning is adopted or vice-versa for long-term planning. Time Horizon: – Company‟s planning differs according to the competitive environment i. The invention of the latest technology determines the kind of human resources required.e. 5. retirement plans. companies with stable competitive environment can plan for the long run whereas firms without a stable environment can only plan for short term.4. diversification etc. capital budget. Business environmental factors influences the volume of mix of production and thereby the supply of human resources in the future in the country. Therefore Human Resource Planning is determined on the basis of the type and quality of information. influence Human Resource Planning. International factors: – International factors like the demand and supply of Human resources in various countries also affects Human Resource Planning . Business Environment: – Business environment means the internal and external factors influencing the business. Human Resource Planning is based on job analysis which determines the kind of employees to be procured. 4. level of technology being used. functional area objectives.

The human resource manager is required to revise the employment policies from time to time for achieving the best results. Similarly. Therefore influence of trade unions regarding the number of working hours per week. Company‟s production and operational policy: – Company‟s policies regarding how much to produce and how much to purchase from outside in order to manufacture the final product influences the number and kind of people required. Affect Human Resource Planning. Human resource (HR) planning or manpower planning is a continuous process. 8. recruitment sources etc. Organisational Growth Cycles: – At starting stage the organisation is small and the need of employees is usually smaller.6. 7. It should be concerned with filling future vacancies rather than matching existing personnel with existing jobs. Trade Unions: – If the unions declare that they will not work for more than 8 hours a day. it affects the Human Resource Planning. Objectives of human resource planning: human resource planning must be matched with overall organizational plans. . Human resource planning/ manpower planning process involve the following steps:- 1. in the declining/recession/downturn phase Human Resource Planning is done to re-trench the employees. but when the organisation enters the growth phase more young people need to be hired.

. Current manpower stock: Current manpower stock must be continuously maintained by every department. this record not only help in employee development but also in the finding out the surplus/ shortage of manpower.2. Manpower inventory must have the detailed bio data of each individual .

two-year so on. 5. For this purpose employment trends to show the number of employees on payroll during last say three years to show the trend. retirement or termination of the employees. Replacement needs arise due to the death. After the demand forecasting it is also important to check the supply of the different type of personnel for this purpose human resource audit. Determining net requirement: human resource manager must check the demand and supply of the manpower before deriving at any conclusion. replacement charts can be prepared. Demand/ supply forecasting: firstly the organization must check the demand of manpower after every one year. Growth and expansion helps in creating a number of positions at work place. 4.3. Redeployment and redundancy: in redeployment the surplus employees in one department can be transferred to another department .

selection. Training and development: it is very necessary for the employees to keep them updated in the job they are doing.where deficit of employees estimated and in case of redundancy where surplus employees cannot be redeployed them can be offered voluntary retirement scheme. Thus. the above mentioned steps are important steps for the process of human resource planning. Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Planning . Evaluation of Human resource planning: after doing all the above steps it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of human resource planning. 6. 7. 8. Employment programme: here it is required to prepare programmes of recruitment. transfer and promotion to achieve organization goal.

at the right time. It is a system of matching the supply of people with openings the organization experts over a given time frame. and experience HR constraints I achieving business plans and objectives. Consulting roles is vital in effective implementation of changes called for in HRP. Megginson:Human resource planning is “an integrated approach to performing the planning aspect of the personal function in order to have a sufficient supply of adequately developed and excepted people to perform the duties and task required to meet organizational objective and satisfy the individual needs and goals of organizational members”. come face-to-face with the application of employmentrelated laws.AS companies deal with changing social and individual values. depending on the tasks and organizational priorities. Emergence of human resource planning The emergence of hr Planning reflect a broadening of the mission of the personnel function. at the right places. According to Leon C. doing things for which they are economically mast useful”. “the process of determining manpower requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization. According to Bruce P. Geisler:Manpower planning is. New full time staff roles have been established in many companies to provide support to managerial practices HRP. HRP professionals fulfill various roles. According to Edwin B. HRM assumes an increased signification. Activity of human resource planning .Human resource planning or man power planning is essentially the process of getting the right of qualified people into the right job at the right time. “the process by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people. Coleman:Manpower Planning is.

development.The major activity of human resource planning include:Forecasting future manpower requirements. on the basis of the company’s goals. Characteristics of Human Resource Planning. both quantitatively and qualitatively. The thinking will have to be done in advance. updating technical expertise.and Panning necessary programmes of requirement. Anticipating manpower problem by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy. transfer. selection. in the organization. or in terms of judgmental estimates based upon the specific future plans of a company. promotion. Having Manpower Invantory: . career planning of individual executives and people. like developing human resource. Making an inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these recourses are employed optimally. utilization. human resource planning has its own objectives. ensuring better commitment of people and so on. Following are the feature of human resource planning:- Well Defind objectives: The objectives of the organization in stratergy planning and oprerating planning may from the objective of human resource planning. either in terms of mathematical projections of trends in the economic environment and development in industry. traninig. when they are needed. Basides. so that the persons are available at a time. Determine personal needs: Human resource planning is releted to the determination of personnel needs. motivation and copmansation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met. Human resource needs are planned.

for undertaking higher responsibilities in the near future. programmes and procedures for the acquisition. . manpower planning also ensures that proper working condition are created.It include the inventory of present manpower in the organization. The demand and supply of personal should be seen in advance. The manager should know the persons. Dynamic Activitity:Manpower planning is a continuous or never ending process because the demand and supply of manpower are subject to frequent change. It is dynamic activity. development. preservation and utilization of the organization’s human assets. who will be available to him.people should like to work in the organization and they should get proper job satisfaction. Developing polices:It result in the development ofpolicies. In case sufficient persons will not be available in future. Creating proper Work Environment:Basides estimating andemploying personnel. Adjusting Demand and supply. Objectives of Human Resource Planning. to start recruitment proccedd well in advance. Folowing are the objective of HRP:- Forecat human resource Requirements:Human Resource planning is essential to determine the future human resource needs in an organization. then efforts should be made. it would be difficult to have the service of the right kind of people at the time.Manpower requirements have to be planned well in advance as suitable personse are not immediately available.In the absence of such a plan.

manpower planning is essential for economic development. These change call for continuous allocation or reallocation of skill and in the absence of planning there might be underutilization of human resources. and government regulations in an effective way. Need of human resource planning:Storage of employee and skill The storageof certain catagaries of employees and variety of skills despite the problem of unemplyement . Facilities Economic Development:At the national level.Proper planning is require to cope with changes in market conditions. Realizining organizational goal:In order to meet the needs of expansion programmes and growth streaergy of the organization planning is essential. which facilitates for decision making as to the promotional opportunities to be made available for the ofganization. technology products. Promoting Emplyees:The databased available provides a comprehensive skill repertoire. Helps fill the Gap:Manpower planning identified the gaps in existi ng manpower so that suitable training programmes may be developed for building specific skills. Effective Utiliation of human resource:This databased is also useful for identifying surplus abd unutilized human resources and resources. It is particularly helpful in the generation of employment in educational reforms and in geographical mobility of talent. required in future. In times of downsizing or in estimatind the cost benefit analysis of human resources would add value to the process.

Expansion plan:Whenever there is a plan to expand or diversify the concern then more persons will be required to take up new positions. For improving in Quality of life and quality of work:Asubstantial improvement in quality of life and qualiry of work life backed by total quality management. There will be a need to recruit new persons to take up the positions of those who have left the organization. Labour ternover:There are always labour turnover in every organization. etc. skills. Rplacement of personal:A large number of persons are to be replaced in the organization because of retirement.Change in tequnology The rapid change in technology. require systemantic human resource planning. Human resource audit:Capabilities. there will be a need to proper persons for taking up new position in such contingencies. old age. performance abilities and potentialities of each individual are evaluated in the human resource audit. marketing. both in qualitative . etc.hrp is essential under these situations. death. management. Periodical appraisal of performance. Proper evolutone:Human resource plenning must always be backed by proper evaluation and appraisal systems. and the consequent need for new skill and new categaries of employees. The degree of labour turnover may vary from concern but it cannot be eliminated altogather.

projected output etc. It forecast the output level of that particular industry.Manpower needs of a particular industry like cement. industry level. HRP at Different levels: Different institutions make hrp at different levels for their own purposes. are forecast. Job level:. Importance or advantages:Future personal needs:Planning is significant as it helps determine future personal needs. National Level: Genrally government at the center plan for human resources at the national level. Surplus or deficinency in staff strength is the result of the absence of or defective planning. unit level. as they never had any planning of their personal requirements. textile. departmental level and job level are important.and quantitative terms. chemical is predicted taking in to account the output level of that particular industry. Departmental level:This covers the manpower needs of a particular department in a company. Industry leval:. Unit level:.This covers the estimation of human resource needs of an organization or company based on its corporate plan. All public sector enterprices find themseleve overstaffed now. throwns light on actal performance as a result of planning. industrial sector or tertiary sector are projected based on the government policy. Coping with change:- .Manpower requirement for a particular sector like agricultural sector. of which national level.Manpower needs of a particular job family within department like Mechanical Engineer. Sectoral level:.

Such changes generate change in job content. Replacement of persons:A large number of persons are to be replaced in the organization because of retirement. There will be a need to proper persons for taking up new position in such contingences. Expansion plan:Whenever ther is a plan to expand or diversify the concern then more persons will be required to take up new positions. etc. Disadvantages of human resource planning:- .Human resource planning is essential under these situation. technology. death.skill. as opposed to physical assets. Human resource audit:Capabilites.performance abilities and potentialities of each individual are evaluated in the human resources audit. Labor Turnover:There is always labor turnover in every organization. There will be a need to recruit new persons to take up the positions of those who left the organization. skill demands and number and type of personel. The degree of labor turnover may vary from concern to concern but it cannot be eliminated altogather. Human assets. old age. markets. On many occasions. replacement charts or succession plans are kept so that potential executives are located for every position in the organization during the given future period. can increase in value.Hrp enables an enterprise to cope with change in competitive forces. Incresing Investments in Human Resource:Another compelling reson for HRP is the investment an organization makes in its Human resources. product and government requlations.

including age. Suport of top management:Manpower planning Require full and wholehearted support from the top management.Thus the effectiveness of planning depends upon the accuracy of forecasts. Demografical change. Becouse of this. Identity Crisis:Many human resource specialists and the managers do not understand the whole manpower planning process. Human resource planning procces:HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING MODEL Envirnment scanning such as:Economical factore Technological changes. Absenteeeism. . In the absence of this support and commitment. seasonal employment. which serve as constraints to manpower planning. to depend upon genral estimates of manpower. turnover. composition and literacy. including robotics and automation. it would not be possible. to ensure the necessary resources. Uncertainties:It is risky. felling tat it increasing the cost of manpower. co opration and support for the success of the manpower planning. Expensive and time consuming:It is expensive or more time consuming prosescc . technological changes and market fluctuations are the uncertainties. there is genrally an identity crisis. employee may resist manpower planng. in the face of rapid changes in the environment.Depending on forecast:Manpower planning involves forecasting the demand and supply of human resources.

In practice.HR programming the third step in the planning process. HR Supply Forecast:Personnel demand anyalasis provide the manager with the means of estimating the number and kind of employees that wikk be required. The basis of the forecast must be the annual budget and long term corporate plan. HR Plan Imlimantation:Implimantation required converting an HR plan into action. the two must be reconciled or balanced in order that vacancies can be filled by the right employees at the right time. Social concern. this implies that objectives of the HR plan must be derived from organizational objectives. into activity level for each function and department. and educational facilities and priorities. Specific requirement in terms of number and charecteristics of employees should be derived from the organizational objectives. A series of action programmes are initiated part of HR plan implimantation.Political and legislative child care. Organizational Objective and policies:HR plans need to be based on organizational objectives. The next logical step for the management is to determine weather it will be able to procure the required nuber of personnel and the sources for such procurement. technology introduction and goal. HR programming:Once an organization personnel and supply are forecast. HR Demand Forecast:Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the future quantity and quality of people required. . and educational facilities and priorities.therefore assuming greater importance.traning and development and succession plan. selection placement .Some such programmes are recruitment. such as growth.This information is provides by supply forecasing. including child care.

These may simply report on the number employed against establishments and on the number recuited against the recruitment target. planning should have the full support of the top management. Moreover.Control and Evalution:This represent fifth and the final plan in HRP process. The needs must be determined in advance so as to permit adequate time for the training and development of required personnel. avoiding unpleasant consequences. Effective Human Resource Planning reduce the pressures on the management an employees. and establish reporting procedure. Summery:In sort Human resource planning is continues process and it is effective to organizational goal and object such as purpose. and trend in wastage and employement ratios. It should also clarify responsibilities for implimantation and control.The HR plan should include budget. span. as both employment and retrenchment would be well planned and phased out over a comfortable time. The man power planning must be done within the limit of a budget. The effective period of an effective manpower plan should be appropriate to the needs and circumstances of the particular organization. forecasting the organization’s human resources needs and matching the demand and supply of the human resources.HRP has to factore affected such as 1) internal 2) external factor. The organization must plan for attracting and retraining key personnel. In short human resource planning must be help full in taking batter decision for future planning . But they should be also report employment cost against budget. which will enable achievement to be monitored against the plan. There is no use formulating an excellent plan which cannote be implemented because of financial constraints. target and standard. The process of HRP involves three key steps – assessing and making an inventory of the current human resource.

com/essays/business/meaning-and-definition- of-human-resource-planning-business-essay. “Manpower planning is the process – includingforecasting.Read more: http://www. improvement and preservation of an enterprise‟s humanresources. developing and controlling by which a firm ensures that ithas- .According to Geisler .php#ixzz2Qc4rUTBO Coleman has defined HR/MP planning as “The Process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization.utilization.” Vetter opines that it is the process by which managementdetermines how the organization should move from its manpowerposition to its desired manpower position to carry out integrated plan of the organization.ukessays.” Stainer defines manpower planning as “Strategy for acquisition.

Meaning and Concept of Planning In simple words. Goetz." According to Koontz and O' Donnell. conscious determination of course of action. policies. When a manager plans. It is an attempt on the part of manager to anticipate the future in order to achieve better performance. • The right kind of people. the organized foresight. "Planning is the thinking process. doing work for which they are economicallymost useful” Definitions.• The right number of people." According to Theo Haimann. • At the right places. how and by whom it is to be done. Definitions of Planning Different authors have given different definitions of planning from time to time. when where. Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. facts and considered estimates. According to Billy E. procedures and programmes from among alternatives. It is an intellectual process characterized by thinking before doing. • At the right time."   . the basing of decision on purpose. A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a specified goal. "Planning is fundamentally choosing and a planning problem arises when an alternative course of action is discovered. Planning is the primary function of management. the vision based on fact and experience that is required for intelligent action. It includes the selection of objectives. "Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. he projects a course of action for further attempting to achieve a consistent co-ordinate structure of operations aimed at the desired results. "Planning is an intellectual process. The main definitions of planning are as follows:   According to Alford and Beatt. planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. Meaning & characteristics of Planning.

sound and effective planning process knows how and when to tackle a problem. A continuous Process Planning is a continuous process and a never ending activity of a manager in an enterprise based upon some assumptions which may or may not come true in the future. It is the function of every managerial personnel. Importance & Advantages of Planning An organisation without planning is like a sailboat minus its rudder. go in details of the pros and cons of every course of action and then finally decide what course of action may suit them best. supervision and control. Goetz. Terry." Nature / Characteristics of Planning The main characteristics or nature of planning is given below: Planning is an Intellectual Process Planning is an intellectual process of thinking in advance. But all functions are inter-connected. Since plans are there from the very first stage of operation. The character. No doubt. the enterprise must operate managerial planning seeks to achieve a consistent. According to Billy E. are subject to the winds of organizational change. Planning is a process where a number of steps are to be taken to decide the future course of action. It is mixed in all managerial functions but there too it gets precedence. "Planning is a continuous process and there is no end to it. It involves continuous collection. It is a process of deciding the future on the series of events to follow. nature and scope of planning may change fro personnel to personnel but the planning as an action remains intact. Significance. Plan try to set everything right. action must become merely activity producing nothing but chaos." Role. Planning is a Primary Function of Management Planning precedes other functions in the management process. Objectives thus are easily achieved. This leads to success. planning precedes other functions of management. Without plans. Planning is one of the most important and crucial functions of management. organisation. "Without planning business becomes random in nature and decisions become meaningless and adhoc choices. Without planning. direction. According to Koontz and O'Donnell. Certainly. Therefore. coordinated structure of operations focused on desired trends. According to George R. It is primary requisite before other managerial functions step in. Managers or executives have to consider various courses of action. A purposeful. Action is required. It thus gets primary everywhere. setting of goals to be achieved and lines of action to be followed precedes the organization. "Planning is . and scientific investigation and analysis of the possible alternative courses of action and the selection of the best alternative. According to Allen. "A plan is a trap laid to capture the future. evaluation and selection of data. the manager has to go on modifying revising and adjusting plans in the light of changing circumstances. achieve the desired goals. "Plans cannot make an enterprise successful." According to Geroge R. Planning Contributes to the Objectives Planning contributes positively in attaining the objectives of the business enterprise. the management is able to handle every problem successfully. Planning Pervades Managerial Activities From primary of planning follows pervasiveness of planning. Terry.

It creates a forward-looking attitude among the managers. Concentration on Objectives It is a basic characteristic of planning that it is related to the organizational objectives. Better Utilization of Resources An important advantage of planning is that it makes effective and proper utilization of enterprise resources. Makes Control Effective Planning and control are inseparable in the sense that unplanned action cannot be controlled because control involves keeping activities on the predetermined course by rectifying deviations from plans. Some of the uncertainties can be predicted by undertaking systematic. Reduces the Cost of Performance Planning assists in reducing the cost of performance.the foundation of most successful actions of any enterprise. eliminates false steps and protects against improper deviations. Thus. Planning helps control by furnishing standards of performance. Some of the uncertainties can be predicted by undertaking systematic forecasting. Various departments work in accordance with the overall plans of the organisation. Encouragement to Innovation Planning helps innovative and creative thinking among the managers because many new ideas come to the mind of a manager when he is planning. fashion and taste of people. Thus." Planning becomes necessary due to the following reasons: Reduction of Uncertainty Future is always full of uncertainties. A business organisation has to function in these uncertainties. It includes the selection of only one course of action amongst the different courses of action that would yield the best results at minimum cost. government rules and regulations. Increase in Competitive Strength . etc. It removes hesitancy. and duplication of efforts and conflict of jurisdiction are avoided. Increases Organizational Effectiveness Planning ensures organizational effectiveness. It requires the clear definition of objectives so that most appropriate alternative courses of action are chosen. It can operate successfully if it is able to predict the uncertainties. Helps in Co-ordination Good plans unify the interdepartmental activity and clearly lay down the area of freedom in the development of various sub-plans. Effectiveness ensures that the organisation is in a position to achieve its objective due to increased efficiency of the organisation. Planning facilitates the achievement of objectives by focusing attention on them. there is harmony in the organisation. It identifies all such available resources and makes optimum use of these resources. planning helps in foreseeing uncertainties which may be caused by changes in technology. All the operations are planned to achieve the organizational objectives. avoids crises and chaos.

government policies. Establishment of Planning Premises Planning premises are assumptions about the future understanding of the expected situations. However. it is imperative that alternative courses of action must be developed before deciding upon the exact plan. As one moves downward. because various factors that go into planning process may differ from organisation to organisation or from plan to plan. planning process for a large organisation may not be the same for a small organisation. for one alternative may appear to be most profitable involving heavy cash outlay whereas the other less profitable but involve least . where to place the initial emphasis and the things to be accomplished by the network of policies. planners are required to evaluate the alternatives giving due weight-age to various factors involved. This is because planning may involve expansion of capacity. in all enterprise. These are the conditions under which planning activities are to be undertaken. anticipation of tastes and fashions of people and technological changes etc. Steps involved in Planning Planning is a process which embraces a number of steps to be taken. the lack of which would invariably result in either faulty or ineffective planning. it requires courses of action. Planning is an intellectual exercise and a conscious determination of courses of action. As a matter of fact. It may be mentioned that there can hardly be any occasion when there are no alternatives. market conditions. needs be translated into derivative objective. These premises may be internal or external. For example. Because the major objective. changes in quality. Determining Alternative Courses The next logical step in planning is to determine and evaluate alternative courses of action. competitors' plans and actions. Internal premises are internal variables that affect the planning. The planning process is valid for one organisation and for one plan. accomplishment of enterprise objective needs a concrete endeavor of all the departments. procedures. internal premises gain importance. These include organizational polices. changes in work methods. External premises include all factors in task environment like political. At the top level mainly external premises are considered. It needs mentioning in this connection that objectives must be understandable and rational to make planning effective. Both internal factors should be considered in formulating plans. may not be valid for other organizations or for all types of plans. speak categorically about what is to be done.Effective planning gives a competitive edge to the enterprise over other enterprises that do not have planning or have ineffective planning. the major steps involved in the planning process of a major organisation or enterprise are as follows: Establishing objectives The first and primary step in planning process is the establishment of planning objectives or goals. Delegation is Facilitated A good plan always facilitates delegation of authority in a better way to subordinates. budgets and programmes. social technological. various resources and the ability of the organisation to withstand the environmental pressure. Therefore. in fact. Definite objectives. And it is most likely that alternatives properly assessed may prove worthy and meaningful. Evaluation of Alternatives Having sought out the available alternatives along with their strong and weak points.

a staffing plan. strategies envisaged in the plan. Evidently. plans do not accomplish themselves. it is the point of decision-making-deciding upon the plan to be adopted for accomplishing the enterprise objectives. the plan current plan has become outdated or inoperative it should be replaced by another plan. In fact.. Under sequence it should be decided as to who will don what and at what time. etc. the sequence of operation shaped be arranged carefully by giving priorities to some work in preference to others. The plan should be communicated to all persons concerned in the organisation. if Indian Airlines decide to run Jumbo Jets between Delhi an Patna. The starting and finishing times are fixed for each piece of work. They require to be broken down into supporting plans. a number of derivative plans have to be framed to support the decision. evaluation of alternative is a must to arrive at a decision. If conditions have changed. In other words. Feedback or Follow-up Action Formulating plans and chalking out of programmes are not sufficient. Formulating Derivative Plans To make any planning process complete the final step is to formulate derivative plans to give effect to and support the basic plan. Establishing Sequence of Activities Timing an sequence of activities are determined after formulating basic and derivative plans. Each manager and department of the organisation is to contribute to the accomplishment of the master plan on the basis of the derivative plans. . Bad timing of programmes results in their failure. A regular follow-up is necessary and desirable from effective implementation and accomplishment of tasks assigned. It is also required to see whether the plan is working well in the present situation. programmes. Likewise. It gives practical shape and concrete form to the programmes. e. operating plans for fuelling. For example. Otherwise. it would be difficult to choose the best course of action in the perspective of company needs and resources as well as objectives laid down. maintenance. To maintain a symmetry of performance and a smooth flow of work. obliviously. Selecting a Course of Action The fifth step in planning is selecting a course of action from among alternatives. so that plans may be put into action. Its objectives and course of action must be clearly defined leaving no ambiguity in the minds of those who are responsible for its execution. so as to indicate when the within what time that work is to be commenced and completed. policies. another course of action may be found contributing significantly to the company's longrange objectives although immediate expectations are likely to go unfulfilled. stores purchase. Planning is effective only when the persons involved work in a team spirit and all are committed to the objectives. Timing is an essential consideration in planning.g. unless follow-up action is provided to see that plans so prepared and programmes chalked out are being carried out in accordance with the plan and to see whether these are not kept in cold storage.risk.

. in countries where there is greater unemployment.Factors affecting Human Resource Planning in an organization Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. Technical changes in the society :Technology changes at a very fast speed and new people having the required knowledge are required for the company. there may be more pressure on the company. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. 1. company may retain existing employees and teach them the new technology and in some cases. In some cases. Employment :HRP is affected by the employment situation in the country i. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management. Similarly some company may force shortage of skilled labour and they may have to appoint people from other countries. 2.e. from government to appoint more people. the company have to remove existing people and appoint new.

the HRP will change constantly i. 6. A new batch of graduates with specialization turns out every year. 4. population. This can change the appointment or the removal in the company. Demographic changes :Demographic changes refer to things referring to age. Multicultural workforce :- . in such cases the HRP process i. This also affects the way HRP is implemented.e. appointing or removing people will change according to situation.e. Shortage of skill due to labour turnover :Industries having high labour turnover rate. the company diversify into new products or close down business in some areas etc.3. 5. Organizational changes :Changes take place within the organization from time to time i. A number of people retire every year. composition of work force etc.e. many new appointments will take place.

7. When a company plans it‟s HRP it needs to take into account this factor also. Pressure groups :Company has to keep in mind certain pleasure. Groups like human rights activist.Workers from different countries travel to other countries in search of job. appointment or retrenchment becomes difficult. when issues concerning these groups arise. . media etc. woman activist. as they are very capable for creating problems for the company.